How to use Tariff in a sentence
The company began with a tariff of 4d.
For instance, in the county of London, the telephone tariff is £5 per annum plus id.
As regards the tariff he advocated, as a temporary stop-gap, the passing of the emergency tariff, which had been vetoed by President Wilson, but which with slight alteration was approved by Mr. Harding on May 27 1921.
He voted for the tariff of 1824, then gradually abandoned the protectionist position.
It left the government free either to apply to foreign countries the general tariff or to enter into negotiations with them for the application, under certain conditions, of a minimum tariff.Advertisement
The money from the tariff goes into a fund to pay artists.
Before the tariff reform of 1887 manufactured articles, alimentary products and raw materials for manufacture held the principal places in the imports.
The object in both cases was to break down tariff barriers between the United States and Canada, even though that should be at the expense of discrimination against Great Britain.
A few evenings ago we were discussing the tariff.
Sir John Macdonald, then in opposition, had committed his party to a protectionist policy, and Laurier, notwithstanding that the Liberal party stood for a low tariff, avowed himself to be "a moderate protectionist."Advertisement
But the Liberal government, to which Laurier was admitted as minister of inland revenue in 1877, made only a slight increase in duties, raising the general tariff from 15% to 171%; and against the political judgment of Alexander Mackenzie, Sir Richard Cartwright, George Brown, Laurier and other of the more influential leaders of the party, it adhered to a low tariff platform.
He was associated with Blake in his sustained opposition to high tariff, and to the Conservative plan for the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, and was a conspicuous figure in the long struggle between Sir John Macdonald and the leaders of the Liberal party to settle the territorial limits of the province of Ontario and the legislative rights of the provinces under the constitution.
Five years later, with unrestricted reciprocity relegated to the background, and with a platform which demanded tariff revision so adjusted as not to endanger established interests, and which opposed the federal measure designed to restore in Manitoba the separate or Roman Catholic schools which the provincial government had abolished, Laurier carried the country, and in July 1896 he was called by Lord Aberdeen, then governor-general, to form a government.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
But Mr Chamberlain's new programme for a general tariff, with new taxes on food arranged so as to give a preference to colonial products, involved a radical alteration of the established fiscal system, and such out-and-out Unionist free-traders in the cabinet as Mr Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, and outside it, like Lord Hugh Cecil and Mr Arthur Elliot (secretary to the treasury), were entirely opposed to this.Advertisement
The correspondence between Mr Chamberlain and Mr Balfour (September 9th and 16th) was published, and presented the latter in the light of a sympathizer with some form of fiscal union with the colonies, if practicable, and in favour of retaliatory duties, but unable to believe that the country was yet ready to agree to the taxation of food required for a preferential tariff, and therefore unwilling to support that scheme; at the same time he encouraged Mr Chamberlain to test the feeling of the public and to convert them by his missionary efforts outside the government.
The free-trade Unionists, with the duke of Devonshire, Lord Goschen, Lord James and Lord Hugh Cecil, as their chief representatives, started a Free Food league in opposition to Mr Chamberlain's Tariff Reform league; and at a great meeting at Queen's Hall, London, on the 24th of November their attitude was made plain.
Finally in December came the appointment of Mr Chamberlain's Tariff Commission.
The opposition were determined to raise debates in the House of Commons on the fiscal question, and Mr Balfour was no less determined not to be caught in their trap. These tactics of avoidance reached their culminating point when on one occasion Mr Balfour and his supporters left the House and allowed a motion hostile to tariff reform to be passed nem.
The new compact was indicated in Mr Balfour's letter, in which he declared that "fiscal reform is, and must remain, the first constructive work of the Unionist party; its objects are to secure more equal terms of competition for British trade and closer commercial union with the colonies; and while it is at present unnecessary to prescribe the exact methods by which these objects are to be attained, and inexpedient to permit differences of opinion as to these methods to divide the party, though other means are possible, the establishment of a moderate general tariff on manufactured goods, not imposed for the purpose of raising prices, or giving artificial protection against legitimate competition, and the imposition of a small duty on foreign corn, are not in principle objectionable, and should be adopted if shown to be necessary for the attainment of the ends in view or for purposes of revenue."Advertisement
A Republican in politics, and a firm believer in the doctrines of strict construction and state sovereignty which Thomas Jefferson had been principally instrumental in formulating, he opposed consistently the demand for internal improvements and increased tariff duties, and declined to follow Henry Clay in the proposed recognition of the independence of the Spanish colonies in South America and in the Missouri Compromise legislation.
The sphere of the state authority embraced most of the powers of government, except, for instance, those relating to foreign affairs, army and navy, inter-state commerce, coinage a.nd the tariff; the powers of the central government were specified in the fundamental law.
Here he was conspicuous as an ardent free-trader and an uncompromising advocate of "States Rights," opposed the protectionist tariff bills of 1824 and 1828, and consistently upheld the doctrine that slavery was a domestic institution and should be dealt with only by the individual states.
At the end of 1902 the Hungarian premier, Szell, concluded with the Austrian premier, Kdrber, a new customs and trade alliance comprising a joint Austro-Hungarian tariff as a basis for the negotiation of new commercial treaties with Germany, Italy and other states.
During the deadlock (June 2, 1905) Kossuth had obtained the adoption of a motion to authorize the compilation of an autonomous Hungarian tariff, and on the 28th of May 1906, the Coalition cabinet was authorized by the crown to present the Szell-Korber tariff to the Chamber in the form of a Hungarian autonomous tariff distinct from but identical with the Austrian tariff.Advertisement
The "Walker Tariff" of 1846 was based upon its principles and was in fact largely the secretary's own work.
This loyal attitude, no doubt, was one of the reasons, and his strong Tariff Reform programme was another, which recommended him to his party as Mr. Balfour's successor in the leadership when the claims of Mr. Austen Chamberlain and Mr. (afterwards Lord) Long appeared to divide the Unionists pretty evenly.
But the present differences were not on the old lines, but on the extent to which the policy of Tariff Reform should be carried.
He refused altogether to haul down the flag of Tariff Reform; it was his policy to give British workmen a preference, both in the home and in the colonial market; but he said that a Unionist Government did not intend themselves to impose food duties.
If I buy a bundled tariff, can I change the bundle size?
The Lord Chief Justice recommended a tariff of 14 years.
In addition Members have access to all properties within the collection of hotels - all at a preferential tariff.
Textile quotas are to be abolished by 2005, but tariff barriers remain high.
Eligible students may choose to receive the tariff reduction instead of the Scholarship.
In the Federal Congress (1789-1793) he favoured the assumption of the state debts, the establishment of a national bank and the adoption of a protective tariff policy.
Russia, by a prohibitive tariff on manufactured silks of other countries, has since 1890 developed and fostered a trade which consumes annually about 3 million lb of raw material for its home industry.
The American spinning industry shows little signs of expansion in spite of a protective tariff of some 35%.
To obviate them statesmen have been led to adopt the principle of the " most-favoured-nation-clause " - that is to say, a clause providing that if any reductions of tariff or other advantages are granted by either contracting state to any third state, the others.
In Europe this clause has been uniformly treated as applying to all reductions of tariff without distinction.
Mr Ritchie's remission of the shilling import-duty on corn led to Mr Chamberlain's crusade in favour of tariff reform and colonial preference, and as the session proceeded the rift grew in the Unionist ranks.
The Unionists went to the polls with divided counsels, and sustained a crushing defeat, remarkable nevertheless for the comparative success of the tariff reformers.
His speech at Birmingham (November 14, 1907), fully accepting the principles of Mr Chamberlain's fiscal policy, proved epoch-making in consolidating the Unionist party - except for a small number of free-traders, like Lord Robert Cecil, who continued to hold out - in favour of tariff reform; and during 1908 the process of recuperation went on, the by-elections showing toamarked degree the increased popular support given to the Unionist candidates.
The general export of yarn varies according to influences such as tariff charges, spinning and manufacturing development in the importing countries and the price of cotton.
His tariff and antislavery views, moreover, carried him more and more away from the Democratic party and toward the Whigs.
Believing protective tariff duties to be unconstitutional, he voted against the "tariff of abominations" in 1828, and also against the tariff of 1832, since the latter measure, though reducing duties, showed no abandonment of the protective principle.
The compromise tariff of 1833, made necessary by the hostile attitude of South Carolina, owed its inception largely to him, but he voted against the "force bill," an act for enforcing the collection of duties, being the only senator whose vote was so recorded.
For instance, the tariff on animals exposed for sale includes a charge of 5% ad valorem on slave girls, besides a charge of I rupee per head.
With the disappearance of the Reconstruction questions and the emergence of the tariff issue, however, his influence began to wane.
He vigorously opposed the tariff of 1832, was a member of the South Carolina Nullification Convention of November 1832, and reported the ordinance of nullification passed by that body on the 24th of November.
To prevent abuses, a minute tariff of expenses was drawn up during the pontificate of Leo XIII.
In this year, however, a rigid protective system was introduced by the Zolltarifgesetz, since modified by the commercial treaties between Germany and Austria-Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and Belgium, of the 1st of February 1892, and by a customs tariff law of the 25th of December 1902.
The foreign commercial relations of Germany were again altered by the general and conventional customs tariff, which came into force on the 1st of March 1906.
Exempt from duty were now only refuse, raw products, scientific instruments, ships and literary and artistic objects; forty-four articles notably beer, vinegar, sugar, herrings, cocoa, salt, fish oils, ether, alum and sodawere unaffected by the change, while duties were henceforth levied upon a large number of articles which had previously been admitted dtity free, such as pig iron, machines and locomotives, grain, building timber, tallow; horses, cattle and sheep; and, again, the tariff law further increased the duties leviable upon numerous other articles.
Table A following shows the classification of goods adoptec before the tariff revision of 1906.
From the 1st of May 1907 the following tariff came into force.
A reform prussian of the tariff conditions in the new Prussian monarchy Zoli- had been from the first a matter of urgent necessity, vercia.
Moreover, the long and broken line of the Prussian frontier, together with the numerous enclaves, made the effective enforcement of a high tariff impossible.
Under the new tariff laws light transit dues were imposed on goods passing through Prussia; and it was easy to bring pressure to bear on states completely surrounded by Prussian territory by increasing these dues or, if need were, by forbidding the transit altogether.
Meanwhile, alarmed at this tendency, and hopeless of obtaining any general system from the federal diet, the middle states had drawn together; by a treaty signed on the 18th of January 1828 Wurttemberg and Bavaria formed a tariff union, which was joined in the following year by the Hohenzollern principalities; and on the 24th of September 1828 was formed the so-called Middle German Commercial Union (Handelsverein) between Hanover, HesseCassel, the Saxon duchies, Brunswick, Nassau, the principalities of Reuss and Schwarzburg, and the free cities of Frankfort and Bremen, the object of which was to prevent the extension of the Prussian system and, above all, any union of the northern Zollverein with that of Bavaria and WUrttemberg.
Finally, on the 22nd of March 1833, the northern and southern unions were amalgamated; Saxony and the Thuringian states attached themselves to this union in the same year; and on the 1st of January 1834 the German Customs- and Commercial-Union (Deutscher Zoll- und Handelsverein) came into existence, which included for tariff purposes within a single frontier the greater part of Germany.
The principle of protection was thus definitely adopted, though considerable alterations have been made from time to time in the tariff.
The Conservative Agrarians were conciliated by a series of tariff acts placing heavy duties on the importation of agricultural produce and exempting from duty agricultural implements.
Their part henceforth was to vote blindly with the Conservative groups, in a common fear of the Social Democracy, or to indulge in protests, futile because backed by no power inside or outside the parliament; their impotence was equally revealed when in December 1902 they voted with the Agrarians for the tariff, and in May 1909 when they withdrew in dudgeon from the new tariff committee, and allowed the reactionary elements a free hand.
Lowell worked hard to secure a protective tariff on cotton goods.
Owing to tariff restrictions, the United States' market is being more and more abandoned, and improvements in cold storage are making it possible to export to Great Britain increasing quantities of butter and cheese.
At first the customs tariff in Austria-Hungary, as in most other countries, was based on a number of commercial treaties with Germany, France, Italy, Great Britain, &c., each of which specified the maximum duties that could be levied on certain articles, and all of which contained a " most favoured nation " clause.
The practical result was a system very nearly approaching to the absence of any customs duties, and for the period for which these treaties lasted a revision of the tariff could not be carried out by means of legislation.
The tariff treaties with Great Britain and France were not renewed, and all attempts to come to some agreement with Germany broke down, owing to the change of policy which Bismarck was adopting at this period.
The result was that the system of commercial treaties ceased, and Austria-Hungary was free to introduce a fresh tariff depending simply on legislation, an " autonomous tariff " as it is called.
During 1881-1882 Hungary, desiring means of retaliation against the duties on corn and the impediments to the importation of cattle recently introduced into Germany, withdrew her opposition to protective duties; the tariff was completely revised, protective duties were introduced on all articles of home production, and high finance duties on other articles such as coffee and petroleum.
Two years later Austria-Hungary also arranged with Russia a treaty similar to that already made between Russia and Germany; the reductions in the tariff secured in these treaties were applicable also to Great Britain, with which there still was a most favoured nation treaty.
In 1887 things went better; there was some difficulty about the tariff, especially about the tax on petroleum, but Count Taaffe had a stronger position than the Austrian ministers of 1877.
If this were done, then the tariff would be revised before any fresh commercial treaties were made.
The Recruits bill and the estimates were adopted, the Delegations were enabled to meet at Budapest - where they voted £2 2,000,000 as extraordinary estimates for the army and navy and especially for the renewal of the field artillery - and the negotiations for new commercial treaties with Germany and Italy were sanctioned, although parliament had never been able to ratify the Szell-Korber compact with the tariff on the basis of which the negotiations would have to be conducted.
On the 25th of January, the day before his defeat, Count Tisza had signed on behalf of Hungary the new commercial treaties concluded by the Austro-Hungarian foreign office with Germany and Italy on the basis of the Szell-Korber tariff.
Parliamentary activity was at once resumed; the AustroHungarian tariff contained in the Szell-Korber compact was adopted, the estimates were discussed and the commercial treaty with Germany ratified.
Baron Gautsch fell in April over a difference with the Poles, and his successor, Prince Konrad zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfiirst, who had taken over the reform bills, resigned also, Baron six weeks later, as a protest against the action of the crown in consenting to the enactment of a customs tariff in Hungary distinct from, though identical with, the joint Austro-Hungarian tariff comprised hi the Szell-Kdrber compact and enacted as a joint tariff by the Reichsrath.
During the 19th century, however, several commercial treaties were concluded between Denmark and the other powers of Europe, which made the Danish tariff more regular and liberal.
Gratz Brown governor; and in 1872 he presided over the Liberal Republican convention which nominated Horace Greeley for the presidency (Schurz's own choice was Charles Francis Adams or Lyman Trumbull) and which did not in its platform represent Schurz's views on the tariff, but Greeley's.
When Mr Chamberlain started his new fiscal programme, combining Tariff Reform with Colonial Preference, Lord Rosebery at first seemed inclined to treat it as non-political, and on the 19th of May 1903 he declared in an address to the Burnley Chamber of Commerce that he was not one of those who regarded Free Trade as part of the Sermon on the Mount.
This utterance led to an idea that he was inclined to consider favourably the proposal for a preferential tariff, his earlier enthusiasm for Imperial Federation making his support an interesting political possibility.
Since the Cromwellian occupation the interest of Scottish men had slowly shifted from religion to commerce; but a tariff war between England and Scotland had checked manufacturing and other enterprises.
During this long period of legislative activity he served in the House on the committees on elections, ways and means, and appropriations, took a prominent part in the anti-slavery and reconstruction measures during and after the Civil War, in tariff legislation, and in the establishment of a fish commission and the inauguration of daily weather reports.
Economic depression gave the Granger Movement considerable popularity, and an outgrowth of the Granger organization was the Independent Reform Party, of 1874, which advocated retrenchment of expenses, the state regulation of railways and a tariff for revenue only.
He soon took a prominent place among the Conservatives of Liverpool as a decided Tariff Reformer, and was returned for the Walton division in Jan.
When he entered the House of Commons, he found himself a member of a small and discouraged minority, who had been soundly beaten at the general election, mainly on the issues of tariff reform, Chinese labour in the Transvaal, and religious education.
Soon after entering Congress he became the acknowledged leader of the protectionists, and at the request of John Sherman, then chairman of the ways and means committee, he prepared a new tariff bill, which was introduced in the house in March 1860.
When Chamberlain resigned in 1903 in order to carry on his Tariff Reform campaign unhampered by office, Lyttelton was selected by Mr. Balfour, after Lord Milner's refusal, for the vacant secretaryship for the Colonies.
An agreement with France at the beginning of the decade secured to Indian produce imported into that country the benefits of the minimum tariff, thus protecting the coffee industry from taxation in French ports on a scale which would have seriously hampered the trade.
In 1832, when the state of South Carolina attempted to "nullify" the tariff laws, Jackson at once took steps to enforce the authority of the federal government, ordering two war vessels to Charleston and placing troops within convenient distance.
It was an industrial and commercial class greatly interested in the tariff, and deeply interested also in the then current forms of issue banking.
He drafted a Tariff Bill giving certain notable advantages to nations with which the United States had commercial treaties, hoping to force Great Britain into a similar treaty; but his policy of discrimination against England was rejected by Congress.
On the same constitutional grounds Madison objected to the carrying out of the recommendations in Hamilton's famous report on manufactures (Dec. 5, 1791), which favoured a protective tariff.
The jurisdiction of the consular courts was abolished but Japan guaranteed the continuance of the existing Korean tariff for ten years.
In 1878 he took part in the debates over the Wood Tariff Bill, proposing lower import duties; and in the same year he voted for the Bland-Allison Silver Bill.
He was prominent in the debate which resulted in the defeat of the Democratic Morrison Tariff Bill in 1884, and, as minority leader of the Ways and Means committee, in the defeat of the Mills Bill for the revision of the tariff in 1887-1888.
On the 16th of April 1890 he introduced from the Ways and Means committee the tariff measure known commonly as the McKinley Bill, which passed the House on the 21st of May, passed the Senate (in an amended form, with a reciprocity clause, which McKinley had not been able to get through the House) on the 10th of September, was passed as amended, by the House, and was approved by the president on the 1st of October 1890.
In the United States the McKinley Tariff Bill was one of the main causes of the Democratic victory in the Congressional elections of 1890, in which McKinley himself was defeated by an extraordinary Democratic gerrymander of his Congressional district.
McKinley had been prominent in national politics even before the passage of the tariff measure bearing his name.
The convention adopted a tariff plank drafted by McKinley, and, of far greater immediate importance, a plank, which declared that the Republican party was "opposed to the free coinage of silver, except by international agreement with the leading commercial nations of the world, which we pledge ourselves to promote, and until such agreement can be obtained the existing gold standard must be preserved."
In this re-alignment of parties McKinley, who had expected to make the campaign on the issue of a high protective tariff, was diverted to the defence of the gold standard as the main issue.
The Democratic tariff in 1893 had been enacted as part of the general revenue measure, which included an income-tax.
McKinley's message to the new Congress dwelt upon the necessity of an immediate revision of the tariff and revenue system of the country, and the so-called Dingley Tariff Bill was accordingly passed through both houses, and was approved by the president on the 24th of July.
It declared that henceforth the progress of the nations must be through harmony and co-operation, in view of the fast-changing conditions of communication and trade, and it maintained that the time had come for widereaching modifications in the tariff policy of the United States, the method preferred by McKinley being that of commercial reciprocity arrangements with various nations.
Calhoun, believing that there was a natural tendency in the United States towards the development of manufactures, supported the Tariff Bill of 1816, which laid on certain foreign commodities duties higher than were necessary for the purposes of revenue.
In 1828 a still higher tariff act, the so-called "Bill of Abominations," was passed, avowedly for the purpose of protection.
They felt that the great burden of this increased tariff fell on them, as they consumed, but did not produce, manufactured articles.
The North was outstripping the South in population and wealth, and already by the tariff acts was, as he believed, selfishly levying taxes for its sole benefit.
The failure of the Jackson administration to reduce the Tariff of 1828 drew from Calhoun his "Address to the People of South Carolina" in 1831, in which he elaborated his views of the nature of the Union as given in the "Exposition."
In 1832 a new tariff act was passed, which removed the "abominations" of 1828 but left the principle of protection intact.
The practical result of the conflict over the tariff was a compromise.
The four chief events of President Polk's administration were the final establishment of the independent treasury system, the reduction of the tariff by the Walker Bill of 1846, the adjustment.
Briefly summarized, this letter approves of a tariff for revenue with incidental protection, whereas the annual message of the 2nd of December 1845 criticizes the whole theory of protection and urges the adoption of a revenue tariff just sufficient to meet the needs of the government conducted on an economical basis.
In 1816 he advocated the Dallas tariff, in which the duties ranged up to 35% on articles of home production, the supply of which could satisfy the home demand; the avowed purpose being to build up certain industries for safety in time of war.
In spite of the opposition of Webster and other prominent statesmen, Clay succeeded in enacting a tariff which the people of the Southern states denounced as a "tariff of abominations."
As it overswelled the revenue, in 1832 he vigorously favoured reducing tariff rates on all articles not competing with American products.
His speech in behalf of the measure was for years a protection text-book; but the measure itself reduced the revenue so little and provoked such serious threats of nullification and secession in South Carolina, that, to prevent bloodshed and to forestall a free trade measure from the next Congress, Clay brought forward in 1833 a compromise gradually reducing the tariff rates to an average of 20%.
As, however, the discontent with the tariff in the South was only a symptom of the real trouble there - the sensitiveness of the slave-power, - Clay subsequently confessed his serious doubts of the policy of his interference.
Shaping the tariff legislation for this policy, Blaine negotiated a large number of reciprocity treaties which augmented the commerce of his country.
Private railways are controlled by the regulations of the board, while a joint traffic union has as its object the provision of uniformity of administration, tariff, &c. The government has made grants towards the construction of some of the private lines, and has in a few cases taken over such lines.
The tariff is nominally ad valorem, but as the rates are imposed on fixed official valuations it is essentially specific. The duties on imports in 1905 amounted to 91,321,860 pesos, and in 1906 to 10 3,5 0 7,55 6 pesos.
The manufacturing interests of Chile have become influential enough to force a high tariff policy upon the country.
To provide a market for the leather produced, factories have been established for the manufacture of boots and shoes, harness and saddles, and under the protection of a high tariff are doing well.
In October 1901 a treaty fixing a tariff and reserving the most favored nation treatment for the countries already enjoying it was concluded between Persia and Russia.
The commercial treaty with Great Britain, concluded in 4857, provided for the most favored nation treatment, but nevertheless a new treaty under which the duties levied on British imports would be the same as on Russian imports was made with Great Britain a few days before the new tariff came into force and was ratified in May.
After November, 1903 the expenditure was reduced, and the new customs tariff which, came into force on the 14th of February 1903 increased the revenue by nearly 200,000 per annum; it was thought that the expenditure would not exceed the receipts, even if the shah undertook a third voyage in Europe (which he did in 1905).
Each island retains its own institutions, and they have neither legislature, laws, revenue nor tariff in common.
The customs tariff in the Portuguese possessions is of a highly protective nature; goods coming from Portugal pay one-tenth of the dues levied on foreign goods.
In March 1906 the customs convention was provisionally renewed (on a strongly protective basis, and with preference for British goods) but there was a distinct prospect of a tariff war when the convention expired in 1908.
The adjustment of tariff and railway rates gave little trouble when once it was agreed to consider the country as a unit.
He was a strong controversialist and a prolific writer on such economic subjects as banking, railways, cotton manufacture, the tariff and free trade, and the money question.
And as on the river itself, so there shall be collected on these roads, railways, and canals only tolls calculated on the cost of construction, maintenance, and management, and on the profits due to the promoters"; while as regards the tariff of these tolls, strangers and natives of the respective territories were to be treated "on a footing of perfect equality."
By agreement with France and Portugal, a common tariff (6% on most goods imported, to% on the export of ivory and india-rubber, 5% on other exports) was adopted by these powers and the Congo Free State.
The new customs tariff, which came into force at the same time, was an increase of 70% on the rates of 1904, and provided that the duties should be paid in gold, or in paper at the current rate of exchange.
The tariff, revised in 1906, is protective with a general ad valorem rate of 15% on goods not specifically enumerated.
In 1887 a conference was held in London for " promoting a closer union between the various parts of the British empire by means of an imperial tariff of customs."
The speech so much impressed Mr. Balfour that he introduced Mr. Law into his Government as Parliamentary Secretary of the Board of Trade; and Mr. Joseph Chamberlain's Tariff Reform movement, which was started in the following year, showed how right Mr. Law was in his diagnosis of the future.
As the movement proceeded, Mr. Law was regarded as, along with Mr. Austen Chamberlain, the most decided Tariff Reformer left in the Ministry after Mr. Chamberlain's resignation.
There is no doubt that he chafed, in these years, at the slow rate at which his chief, Mr. Balfour, moved in the direction of Tariff Reform; but, though he would have preferred a more whole-hearted acceptance of Mr. Chamberlain's programme, he remained loyal to the Prime Minister.
The withdrawal of Mr. Chamberlain from active work in Parliament, owing to ill-health, left the stalwart Tariff Reform Ministry without a leader; his son, Mr. Austen Chamberlain, was his natural representative; but Mr. Law, by a series of fighting speeches both in the House and in the country, made himself particularly congenial to the more prominent members of that section.
He entered politics as a Democrat, served in the National House of Representatives from 1845 to 1851, and although he favoured the Walker Tariff, the Mexican War and other party measures, opposed the extension of slavery.
Sir Robert used the surplus to reform the whole customs tariff.
Instead of allowing the income tax to expire, he induced parliament to continue it for a further period, and with the resources which were thus placed at his disposal he purged the tariff of various small duties which produced little revenue, and had been imposed for purposes of protection.
The Unionist party in the country had, meanwhile, been recovering from the Tariff Reform divisions of 1903, and was once more solid under Mr Balfour in favor of its new and imperial policy; but the campaign against the House of Lords started by Mr Lloyd George and the Liberal leaders, who put in the forefront the necessity of obtaining statutory guarantees for the passing into law of measures deliberately adopted by the elected Chamber, resulted in the return of Mr Asquiths government to office at the election of January 1910.
His administration as finance minister of Canada was important, since in 1897 he introduced a new tariff, granting to the manufactures of Great Britain a preference, subsequently increased; and later he imposed a special surtax on German imports owing to unfriendly tariff legislation by that country.
Meanwhile (12th of February 1816) Dallas, in a notable report, recommended a protective tariff, which was enacted late in April, largely in accordance with his recommendation.
His career in Congress was marked by a notable speech in defence of a protective tariff.
In the Senate he made a series of brilliant speeches on the tariff, the Oregon boundary, in favour of the Fiscal Bank Act, and in opposition to the annexation of Texas.
The tariff war with Austria-Hungary was at the same time renewed.
President Jackson was ready to use force against the state; and the tariff, over which the whole disagreement had arisen, was changed in such a way as to effect a compromise with the state.
In July 1897 the French tariff was applied and increased rates levied on foreign goods, notably cottons.
In 1897 the British imports were valued at £179,000; the next year, with the new tariff in force, they had dropped to £42,000.
Manufactures have been developed to a limited extent only, though protective tariff laws have been adopted for their encouragement.
Another feature of the period of reconstruction was the formation of numerous trusts or combinations of producing companies designed to take advantage of the high tariff, and to restrict competition, lower expenses an d raise prices.
After the restoration of the Bourbons in 1875, the first cabinet of Aiphonso XII.s reign stopped the operation of the tariff law of the Revelution and reverted to protection.
In 1890 the Conservative cabinet of Seor Canovas raised the duties on agricultural products, in 1891 it denounced all the treaties of commerce that included most-favored-nation treatment clauses, and in 1892 a new tariff law established considerably higher duties than those of I 882in fact, duties ranging from 40% to 300%.
The stibsequent revision of the tariff, completed in 1906, involved no serious departure from the economic policy adopted in 1890.
Marshal Campos, who very soon succeeded Jovellar as governor-general of Cuba, for the first time held out to the loyalists of the island the prospect of reforms, fairer treatment at the hands of the mother country, a more liberal tariff to promote their trade, and self-government as the crowning stage of the new policy.
They reformed the tariff in harmony with the treaties, and with a view to the reduction of the import duties by quinquennial stages to a fiscal maximum of 15% ad valorem.
Some commercial treaties and agreements were made, including one with Great Britain, which proved highly beneficial to home trade, and the tariff was altered, in spite of much resistance on the part of the Protectionists.
Then, in 1891, they denounced all the treaties of commerce which contained clauses stipulating mostfavoured-nation treatment, and they prepared and put in force in February 1892 a protectionist tariff which completely reversed the moderate free-trade policy which had been so beneficial to the foreign commerce of Spain from 1868 to 1892.
The first public intimation of his views was given in a speech to his constituents at Birmingham (May 15, 1903), when he outlined a plan for raising more money by a rearranged tariff, partly to obtain a preferential system for the empire and partly to produce funds for social reform at home.
The Tariff Reform League was founded in order to further Mr Chamberlain's policy, holding its inaugural meeting on July 21st; and it began to take an active part in issuing leaflets and in work at by-elections.
It is sufficient to say that while Mr Balfour's sympathetic "send off" appeared to indicate his inclination towards Mr Chamberlain's programme, if only further support could be gained for it, his endeavour to keep the party together, and the violent opposition which gathered against Mr Chamberlain's scheme, combined to make his real attitude during the next two years decidedly obscure, both sections of the party - free-traders and tariff reformers - being induced from time to time to regard him as on their side.
A further increase of £26,000,000 a year in the trade with the colonies might be obtained by a preferential tariff, and this meant additional employment at home for 166,000 workmen, or subsistence for a population of a far larger number.
Mr Chamberlain had relied on his personal influence, which from 1895 to 1902 had been supreme; but his own resignation, and the course of events, had since 1903 made his personality less authoritative, and new interests - such as the opposition to the Education Act, to the heavy taxation, and to Chinese labour in the Transvaal, and indignation over the revelations concerned with the war - were monopolizing attention, to the weakening of his hold on the public. The revival in trade, and the production of new statistics which appeared to stultify Mr Chamberlain's prophecies of progressive decline, enabled the free-trade champions to reassure their audiences as to the very foundation of his case, and to represent the whole tariff reform movement as no less unnecessary than risky.
From the end of Mr Chamberlain's series of expository speeches on his scheme of tariff reform, onwards during the various fiscal debates and discussions of 1904, it is unnecessary to follow events in detail.
In January some correspondence was published between Mr Chamberlain and the duke of Devonshire, dating from the previous October, as to difficulties arising from the central Liberal-Unionist organization subsidizing local associations which had adopted the programme of tariff reform.
During the spring and summer of 1905 Mr Chamberlain's more active supporters were in favour of forcing a dissolution by leaving the government in a minority, but he himself preferred to leave matters to take their course, so long as the prime minister was content to be publicly identified with the policy of eventually fighting on tariff reform lines.
Amid the wreck of the party - Mr Balfour and several of his colleagues themselves losing their seats - he had the consolation of knowing that the tariff reformers won the only conspicuous successes of the election.
But he remained in the background as the inspirer and adviser of the Tariff Reformers.
The cause made continuous headway at by-elections, and though the general election of January 1910 gave the Unionists no majority it saw them returned in much increased strength, which was chiefly due to the support obtained for tariff reform principles.
In his criticism on Adam Smith, and his arguments for a system of moderate protective duties associated with the deliberate policy of promoting national interests, his work was the inspiration of Friedrich List, and so the foundation of the economic system of Germany in a later day, and again, still later, of the policy of Tariff Reform and Colonial Preference in England, as advocated by Mr Chamberlain and his supporters.
In 1890 Canovas took office under the queen regent, and one of his first acts was to reverse the tariff policy of the Liberals, denouncing all the treaties of commerce, and passing in 1892 a highly protectionist tariff.
Indeed, studies reveal no systematic relationship between a country's average level of tariff and non-tariff barriers and its subsequent economic growth rate.
That trend to world markets is irreversible unless the major economic powers set up trade and tariff barriers.
If I buy a bundled tariff, can I change the bundled tariff, can I change the bundle size?
In December, Brian Mickelthwaite said the sector demonstrated the futility of trying to build an internationally competitive industry behind high tariff barriers.
We have been urging for a long time that suppliers should consider the possibility of a social tariff to help vulnerable consumers.
The only real quibble is the somewhat convoluted dealing tariff.
Nearly all the products are in the drug tariff and nurse prescriber formulary.
As that country had been a major customer, the Tariff soon became the harbinger of doom for much of the South Wales industry.
Past sessions have covered the Drug Tariff, health & safety, first aid, measuring and fitting hosiery and professional practice issues.
The EU tariff reforms might perpetuate trade injustice and industrial monocultures that harm workers and the environment.
It also argued that circumstances had altered materially since it gave its agreement to the revised tariff formula for the second quinquennium.
Second is that there is no universal unmetered tariff from BT.
Switching to a new, greener tariff is easy.
Hill View House operates a reduced nightly tariff for short breaks taken during both the high and low season.
Such transactions are made easy by the foreign banks established in all the large cities of the republic. The conversion law of 1899, which gave a fixed gold value to the currency (44 centavos gold for each 100 centavos paper), has had beneficial influence on commercial transactions, through the elimination of daily fluctuations in the value of the currency, and the commercial and financial situation has been steadily improved, notwithstanding heavy taxation and tariff restrictions.
To meet these expenditures there are a high tariff on imported merchandise, and excise and stamp taxes of a far-reaching and often vexatious character.
Almost all other countries, moreover, share in the benefit of the minimum tariff, and profit by the modifications it may successively undergo.
To the ministry appertains the duty of fixing the duties on foreign produce in those colonies which have not been,,by law,, subjected to the same tariff as in France.
After the establishment of responsible government the main questions at issue were the secular as opposed to the religious system of public instruction, protection as opposed to a revenue tariff, vote by ballot, adult suffrage, abolition of transportation and assignment of convicts, and free selection of lands before survey; these, and indeed all.
An additional duty was thrown on the Federal arbitration court by the Customs and Excise Tariff Acts of 1906, in which were embodied the principles known as the " New Protection."
An important work of the Commonwealth parliament was the passing of a uniform tariff to supersede the six separate tariffs in force at the establishment of the Commonwealth, Tariff but many other important measures were considered and some passed into law.
At the Imperial Conference in London in 1907 Mr Deakin, the Commonwealth premier, was the leading advocate of colonial preference with a view to imperial commercial union; and though no reciprocal arrangement was favoured by the Liberal cabinet, who temporarily spoke for the United Kingdom, the colonial representatives were all agreed in urging such a policy, and found the Opposition (the Unionist party) in England prepared to adopt it as part of Mr Chamberlain's tariff reform movement.
The commercial treaty was, however, rejected by the French Chamber in June 1878, a circumstance necessitating the application of the Italian general tariff, which implied a 10 to 20% increase in the duties on the principal French exports.
A zone tariff was introduced on the Russian railways in 1894, and the cost of long journeys was considerably reduced; a journey of 623 m.
In his inaugural address (4th March 1909) President Taft announced himself as favouring the maintenance and enforcement of the reforms initiated by President Roosevelt (including a strict enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, an effective measure for railway rate regulation, and the policy of conservation of natural resources); the revision of the tariff on the basis of affording protection to American manufactures equal to the difference between home and foreign cost of production; a graduated inheritance tax; a strong navy as the best guarantee of peace; postal savings banks; free trade with the Philippine Islands; and mail subsidies for American ships.
Webster's support of President Jackson in the South Carolina trouble helped to drive Calhoun into an alliance with Clay; and Clay, whose plan of preserving the Union was by compromise, came forward with a bill for greatly reducing the tariff.
To this day there are many Arabic words in the vocabulary of the languages of western Europe which are a standing witness of the Crusades - words relating to trade and seafaring, like tariff and corvette, or words for musical instruments, like lute or the Elizabethan word "naker."
To obtain money he debased the coinage, and then endeavoured to prevent a rise in prices by an arbitrary tariff.
His declarations during the campaign were vague regarding the tariff and unfavourable to the United States Bank and to nullification, but he had already somewhat placated the South by denying the right of Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia without the consent of the slave states.
The tariff reform movement in England started by Mr Chamberlain had the result of giving new boldness to the opponents of Manchesterism, and the whole subject once more became controversial (see Free Trade; Corn Laws; Protection; Tariff; Economics).
A new Small Holdings Act (1907) for England was passed; the Trades Disputes Act (1906) removed the position of trades unions from the controversy excited over the Taff Vale decision; Mr LloydGeorge's Patents Act (1907) and Merchant Shipping Act (1906) were welcomed by the tariff reformers as embodying their own policy; a long-standing debate was closed by the passing of the Deceased Wife's Sister Act (1907); and acts for establishing a public trustee, a court of criminal appeal, a system of probation for juvenile offenders, and a census of production, were passed in 1907.
The extent of the burden was greatly exaggerated by the leaders of the South, especially in the heat of partisan controversy; and the subject was closely connected with the controversy as to the rights of the states, and the endeavour of South Carolina, under the influence of Calhoun, to nullify the Tariff Act of 1832.
The most important events of his administration were the passage of the Tariff Act of 1883 and of the "Edmunds Law" prohibiting polygamy in the territories, and the completion of three great trans-continental railways - the Southern Pacific, the Northern Pacific, and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe.
The legal piastre is called the piastre tariff (P.T.), to distinguish it from the 1/2 piastre, which in local usage in Cairo and Alexandria is called a piastre.
Within a week of the opening of Parliament he bounded into fame by a sparkling maiden speech in a Tariff Reform debate - a speech conceived in a confident fighting spirit, calculated to cheer dejected partisans, and full of wit and epigram.
In 1832 South Carolina, acting in substantial accordance with Calhoun's theories, "nullified" the tariff acts passed by Congress in 1828 and 1832 (see Nullification; South Carolina; and United States).
By treaties with Russia and Great Britain, concluded in 1901 and 1903 respectively, the 5% duty fixed by the Turkmanchai treaty was abolished, and an equitable tariff was established.
A fresh convention was drafted at this time, and under it " a uniform tariff on all imported goods consumed within such union, and an equitable distribution of the duties collected on such goods amongst the parties to such union, and free trade between the colonies and state in respect of all South African products," was arranged.
In the same year he secured the negotiation of the Gadsden Treaty (see Gadsden, James), by which the boundary dispute between Mexico and the United States was adjusted and a large area was added to the Federal domain; and in June 1854 he concluded with Lord Elgin, governor-general of Canada, acting for the British Government, a treaty designed to settle the fisheries question and providing for tariff reciprocity (as regards certain enumerated commodities) between Canada and the United States.
The tariff reform movement itself was now, however, outside the purely official programme, and Mr Chamberlain (backed by a majority of the Unionist members) threw himself with impetuous ardour into a crusade on its behalf, while at the same time supporting Mr Balfour in parliament, and leaving it to him to decide as to the policy of going to the country when the time should be ripe.
It may be left to future historians to attempt a considered judgment on the English tariff reform movement, and on Mr Chamberlain's responsibility for the Unionist debacle of 1906.
With such followers he made the constitution of 1876 and all the laws of the monarchy, putting a limited franchise in the place of universal suffrage, curtailing liberty of conscience, rights of association and of meeting, liberty of the press, checking democracy, obliging the military to abstain from politics, conciliating the Carlists and Catholics by his advances to the Vatican, the Church and the religious orders, pandering to the protectionists by his tariff policy, and courting abroad the friendship of Germany and Austria after contributing to the marriage of his king to an Austrian princess.
Custody safekeeping and transaction tariff Please refer to the current published custody safekeeping and transaction tariffs applicable to Spanish securities.
They support development, but then deter countries from processing their own products by tariff escalation.
Canada has imposed a tariff on MP3 players, much like the record companies did on blank tapes.
By arrangement with the Chinese government a branch of the Imperial maritime customs has been established there for the collection of duties upon goods coming from or going to the interior, in accordance with the general treaty tariff.
Under the then existing telegraphic tariff the charge in Great Britain was a shilling for a twenty-word message over a distance not exceeding ioo miles; is.
The state helps to improve the breeds by placing choice stallions at the disposal of private breeders at a low tariff.
Though the cabinet had no stable majority, it induced the Chamber to sanction a commercial treaty which had been negotiated with France and a general autonomous customs tariff.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
On the 24th of June 1887, in view of a possible rupttire of commercial relations with France, the Depretis-Crispi cabinet introduced a new general tariff.
For each of these classes a rate-sheet gives the actual ratecharge per unit of weight between the various stations covered by the tariff.
He was nominated by his party in 1892 for re-election, but was defeated by Cleveland, this result being due, at least in part, to the labour strikes which occurred during the presidential campaign and arrayed the labour unions against the tariff party.
In accordance with his pre-election pledge, Congress was called to meet in extra session on the 15th of March to revise the tariff.
In 1829 the hand of its leaders was shown, when, in addition to its antagonism to the Masons, it became a champion of internal improvements and of the protective tariff.
The factories are widely distributed, and some are favoured by state legislation in addition to the national tariff.
He was, moreover, assailed with great violence by a powerful section of the English press, while the large number of minute details with which he had to deal in connexion with proposed changes in the French tariff, involved a tax on his patience and industry which would have daunted a less resolute man But there was one source of embarrassment greater than all the rest.
The centenary of his birth in 1904 was celebrated by a flood of articles in the newspapers and magazines, naturally coloured by the new controversy in England over the Tariff Reform movement.
The so-called zone tariff, adopted for the first time in Europe by the Hungarian state railways, was inaugurated in 1889 for passengers and in 1891 for goods.
The zone tariff has given a great impetus both to passenger and goods traffic in Hungary, and has been adopted on some of the Austrian railways.
As a result of this compromise the budget of 1899 was passedlin little more than a month, and the commercial and tariff treaty with Austria were renewed till 1903.2 But the government had to pay for this complacency with a so-called " pactum," which bound its hands in several directions, much to the profit of the opposition during the " pure " elections of 1901.
In 1877 he participated in the commercial negotiations with France, in 1878 compiled the Italian customs tariff, and subsequently took a leading part in the negotiations of all the commercial treaties between Italy and other countries.
The Delagoa Bay railway being at length completed to Pretoria and Johannesburg, Kruger determined to take steps to bring the Rand traffic over The Netherlands railway Drifts began by putting a prohibitive tariff on goods from the Vaal river.
The commerce of these ports, both in the foreign and domestic trade, is small, tariff regulations being onerous, and the people too impoverished to be consumers of much beyond the barest necessaries of life.
In T831, on the separation of Holland and Belgium, the former had become more amenable to reason; and a system was agreed upon which practically gave free navigation to the vessels of the riverine states, while imposing a moderate tariff upon foreign ships.
From a party-political point of view the period of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's premiership was chiefly marked by the continued controversies remaining from the general election of 1906, - tariff reform and free trade, the South African question and the allied Liberal policy for abolishing Chinese labour, the administration of Ireland, and the amendment of the Education Act of 1902 so as to remove its supposed denominational character.
Meanwhile, though the Colonial Conference (re-named Imperial) of 1907 showed that there was a wide difference of opinion on the tariff question between the free-trade government and the colonial premiers, in one part of the empire the ministry took a decided step - in the establishment of a self-governing constitution for the Transvaal and Orange River colonies - which, for good or ill, would make the period memorable.
The result of the two years was undoubtedly to revive the confidence of the Opposition, who found that they had outlived the criticisms of the general election, and both on the question of tariff reform and on matters of general politics were again holding their own.
He published The Political and Financial Opinions of Peter Cooper, with an Autobiography of his Early Life (1877), and Ideas for a Science of Good Government, in Addresses, Letters and Articles on a Strictly National Currency, Tariff and Civil Service (1883).
A very great variety of patterns was produced; a tariff of the year 1800 contains an enumeration of 562 species and a vast number of sub-species.
Practically the entire code of 7Ethelberht, for instance, is a tariff of fines for crimes, and the same subject continues to occupy a great place in the laws of Hlothhere and Eadric, Ine and Alfred, whereas it appears only occasionally in the treaties with the Danes, the laws of Withraed, Edward the Elder, lEthelstan, Edgar, Edmund and Ethelred.
In 1867 he became the first president of the chancery of the North German Confederation, and represented Bismarck on the federal tariff council (Zollbundesrath), a position of political as well as fiscal importance owing to the presence in the council of representatives of the southern states.
In 1879 he opposed in the Reichstag the new protectionist tariff, and on the failure of his efforts retired definitely from public life.
He made the tariff his special study, and was long recognized as the leading authority in Congress.
The tariff thus became the chief issue in the presidential campaign of 1888.
He became, however, chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, and was instrumental in the enactment of the Morrill Tariff Act of 1860.
In 1842 he had a principal hand in the preparation of the revised tariff, by which duties were abolished or sensibly diminished in the case of 1200 duty-paying articles.
Before he resigned he completed a second revised tariff, carrying considerably further the principles on which he had acted in the earlier revision of 1842.
He was an active opponent of the Payne-Aldrich tariff measure.
He never held office again, but he was very active in support of the causes which he had at heart, such as tariff reform, and woman suffrage; he was a keen critic of Lord Haldane's army reforms, and threw himself vigorously into the " die-hard " campaign of 1911.
He is credited with having brought about a reduction of the quantity of silver in the smaller coins; he was the author of the Tariff Act of 1857 and of the bonded-warehouse system, and was one of the first to advocate civil service reform.
He served in this body from 1835 until 1843, and here the marked inconsistency which characterized his public life became manifest; for when John Tyler had become president, had been "read out" of the Whig party, and had vetoed Whig measures (including a tariff bill), for which Cushing had voted, Cushing first defended the vetoes and then voted again for the bills.
Nevertheless there has always been a strong sentiment in the state urging, that corporations be held more in check, and its industries are not such as to receive a large benefit directly from tariff legislation.
As a consequence there has been a tendency towards the formation of two opposing elements within the dominant party; the more radical seeking the promotion of what since 1902 has been known as the "Iowa Idea," which in substance is to further the expansion of the trade of the United States with the rest of the world through the more extended application of tariff reciprocity, and at the same time to revise the tariff so as to prevent it from "affording a shelter to monopoly."
A protective tariff was imposed in early colonial times and protection was generally approved in the state until toward the close of the 19th century, when a strong demand became apparent for reciprocity with Canada and for tariff reductions on the raw materials (notably hides) of Massachusetts manufactures.
Against a strong opposition he carried an appropriation of $30,000 to Morse's telegraph, and reported from his committee the Tariff Bill of 1842.
The campaign turned on the tariff issue, and Harrison was elected, receiving 233 electoral votes to 168 for Cleveland, who however received a popular plurality of more than 100,000.
Cleveland's independence was nowhere more strikingly shown during his second term than in his action in regard to the tariff legislation of his party in Congress.
A tariff bill introduced in the House by William Lyne Wilson (1843-1900), of West Virginia, chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means, was so amended in the Senate, through the instrumentality of Senator Arthur Pue Gorman and a coterie of anti-administration democratic senators, that when the bill eventually came before him, although unwilling to veto it, the president signified his dissatisfaction with its too high rates by allowing it to become a law without his signature.
Thanks to the tariff of the United States the balance of trade with North America is heavily against New Zealand.
Protected by a tariff wall which was repeatedly heightened between 1879 and 1907, manufactures made considerable progress.
Taxation, direct and indirect, had to be further increased, and as a means of gaining support for this in 1888 Sir Harry Atkinson, who was responsible for the budget, gave the customs tariff a distinctly protectionist complexion.
The government of Alexander Mackenzie refused to consider a protection policy, and determined to adhere to Free Trade, with a tariff for revenue only.
The circulation of The Daily Tribune was never proportionately great - its advocacy of a protective tariff, prohibitory liquor legislation and other peculiarities, repelling a large support which it might otherwise have commanded in New York.
From boyhood he had believed in a protective tariff, and throughout his active life he was its most trenchant advocate and propagandist.
His position in the Blaine campaign, his attitude in tariff discussions and legislation, his relations with United States senators, congressional representatives, and other party leaders, his methods in making official appointments, were entirely consistent with his constantly reiterated conviction that in politics permanent good is achieved not by guerilla warfare, but by working through and within the party.
The department also edits the Board of Trade Journal (started in 1886), giving items of commercial information, trade and tariff notices and various periodical returns.
The Hungarian Government could claim the right to take independent economic measures for her own territory in war-time; a joint arrangement was only possible for the territories of the Dual Monarchy - which were united for tariff purposes - by agreements between the Austrian and Hungarian Governments; and since neither Government was exclusively concerned to carry out an adjustment of economic conditions solely in accordance with what was necessary for waging war and holding out with the supplies at their disposal, but each had also to champion the interests of one half of the monarchy against the other, the negotiations between the two Governments were often attended with the greatest difficulties, and constantly ended unsatisfactorily.
The price of tobacco and the tariff of the State railways were considerably increased, special war increases were introduced in the direct taxes, and in April 1916 an entirely new tax was imposed - the " war profits tax," the name of which was subsequently altered to " war tax."
Both their continued maintenance and their final sudden abolition are in some respects divergent from the general course of British tariff history.
The remodelling of the tariff system in the direction of free trade went on, little retarded by the maintenance of the Corn Laws and not much accelerated by their abolition.
Two general features should be noted in regard to the tariff history of Great Britain.
The second feature to be noted is the simplification which resulted in the administrative features of the English tariff.
A great number of articles had been enumerated in the earlier tariff acts, each of which was imported in very small quantity and yielded an insignificant revenue.
Since that date the English customs tariff has been simplicity itself.
In this year began the " Tariff Reform " movement initiated by Mr Joseph Chamberlain, but Free Trade retained a strong hold on the British electorate, and the return of the overwhelming Radical majority to parliament in 1906 involved its retention under the fiscal policy of that party.
In January 1910 the Liberal government was again returned to power; but the Unionist party was now committed to Tariff Reform, which had made great strides in obtaining popular support.
The treaty thus made a radical change, revolutionizing the tariff system of France.
All these countries made reductions of duty on French products, while France admitted other products at the rates of the British treaty tariff.
The first important step was taken in 1881, when a new general tariff was established, in which specific duties replaced the ad valorem duties chiefly applied in the treaty tariffs of 1860-66.
As a rule the minimum tariff has been applied, after negotiation, and thus is the tariff in practical effect; yet its rates are still high, and, most significant of all, agricultural products are granted no reductions whatever as compared with the maximum tariff, there being heavy and unrelaxed duties upon grain, animals, meats and the like.
The tariff history of Germany, up to the foundation of the German Empire, is the history of the Zollverein or German customs union; and this in turn is closely connected with the tariff history of Prussia.
In 1818 The Z.oll- Prussia adopted a tariff with much reduced duties, p ?
The excitement and opposition in Germany to the Prussian tariff led to customs legislation by the other German states, some smaller states joining Prussia, while the southern states endeavoured to form independent customs unions.
The tariff of the Zollverein was, in essentials, the Prussian tariff of 1818, and was moderate as compared with most of the separate tariffs previously existing.
The trend of the tariff policy of the Zollverein for some time after 1834 was towards protection; partly because the specific duties of 1818 became proportionately heavier as manufactured commodities fell in price, partly because some actual changes in rates were made in response to the demands of the Protectionist states.
The second alternative was accepted, largely and low because Austria did not vigorously support the South tariff, German states, and in 1865 the Zollverein as a whole 186x' concluded a commercial treaty with France, bringing about important reductions of duty.
After the foundation of the German Empire, the duties of the Zollverein became those of Germany, and for a time the liberal regime was maintained and extended, with respect to the tariff as with respect to other matters.
The tariff system of Germany, however, at the beginning of the 10th century, remained definitely Protectionist.
The tariff history of the United States, like that of European countries, divides itself into two great periods, before and after the year 1860.
But the pressure from the representatives of some of the states, notably Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, compelled him to incorporate in the Tariff Act certain specific duties borrowed from the Tariff Acts then in force in these states, which had a distinctly protective aim.
Some disposition in this direction showed itself as early as 1816, when tariff duties were raised.
The tariff of 1828 was affected by some political manipulation, which caused it to contain objectionable provisions, and to be dubbed " the tariff of abominations."
The goal of the discussion was to nullify the Tariff Act of 1832.
The second great period in the tariff history of the United States opens with the Civil War.
In the session of 1860-61, immediately preceding the outbreak of the conflict, the Morrill Tariff Act was passed by the Republican party, then in control because the defection of Southern members of Congress had already begun.
The main features of the tariff history of the United States since the Civil War have been that the internal taxes have been almost entirely swept away, the import duties on purely revenue articles similarly abolished, while those import duties that operated to protect domestic industries have been maintained, and indeed in many cases increased.
The tariff system as revised and codified in 1883 would probably have remained unchanged for many years had it not been for the turn taken by political and financial history.
In the next ensuing session of Congress, in 1889-90, the Republicans passed a new tariff act, known as the McKinley Tariff Act, because Mr McKinley was then chairman of McKffinl o fey the House Committee in charge of the bill.
Accordingly in the first ensuing session of the Congress elected in 1892 the tariff act of 1894 was passed, known as the Wilson Tariff, bringing about considerable reductions of duty.
Some of the Democratic senators were lukewarm in their support of the party policy of tariff reduction, and joined with the Re- publicans in mitigating the changes.
Changes, but of less importance, were made on other The War tariff, 1862-64.
At the same time the differential duty on refined sugar, which operated as protection to the sugar trust, was not abolished, as the ardent tariff reformers had proposed, but kept in substance not greatly changed.
This circumstance, as well as the failure to make other desired reductions, caused the ardent tariff reformers to be greatly disappointed with the act of 1894 as finally passed, and led President Cleveland to permit it to become law without its endorsement by his signature.
At the extra session which President McKinley called in 1897, almost the sole measure considered was the tariff act, known (again from the name of the chairman of the House Committee) as the Dingley Act.
This reimposed the Dingley duties upon wool, on most qualities at the precise rates tariff of 1897 .
The tariff system of the United States at the beginning of the 20th century thus remained rigidly and unqualifiedly protective, with rates higher than those of even the most restrictive tariffs of the countries of the European continent.
In the summer of 1827, through the persistent efforts of persons most interested in the woollen manufactures of Massachusetts and other New England states to secure legislative aid for that industry, a convention of about loo delegates - manufacturers, newspaper men and politicians - was held in Harrisburg, and the programme adopted by the convention did much to bring about the passage of the famous high tariff act of 1828.
After the increase, in 1892, of the French minimum tariff, which applied to Algeria also, foreign trade greatly diminished.
The industry is protected by a high tariff, as is also the production of raw cotton, and further encouragement is offered through a remission of internal revenue taxes where Mexican fabrics are exported for foreign consumption.
In 1891 the tariff was made more protectionist.
From 1885 to 1891 he was a representative in Congress, and, as a member of the Ways and Means Committee, helped to draft the McKinley Tariff bill.
Neither does it proceed on estimates of the sums needed to maintain the public service, for, in the first place, it does not know what appropriations will be proposed by the spending committees; and in the second place, a primary object of the customs duties has been for many years past, not the raising of revenue, but the protection of American industries by subjecting foreign imports to a very high tariff.
A tariff commission was, however, created by statute in 1909, the reports of which may have some influence on the framing of tariffs in future.
A customs court of five judges was created by an act of 1909 for the hearing of cases relating to the tariff.
They have, however, never been a stable source of revenue, even during periods when the tariff was constant; and compared with th steady returns shown by the selected articles of the British tariff list this instability has been most extraordinary.
The tariff, though moderate as compared with that of the United States, amounted in 1907 to about 28% on dutiable imports and to about 16% on total imports.
Before the adoption of the McKinley tariff about nine million bushels of barley were exported annually, involving the loss of immense stores of plant food.
In 1868 a militia system for the whole Dominion was organized, the tariff altered and systematized, and a Civil Service Act passed.
Mr Mackenzie and his chief followers, whose inclinations were towards free trade, pinned their political fortunes to the maintenance of a tariff for revenue only.
The new system was laid before parliament in 1879 by the finance minister, Sir Leonard Tilley; and the tariff then agreed upon, although it received considerable modification from time to time, remained, under both Conservative and Liberal administrations, the basis of Canadian finance, and, as Canadians generally believed, the bulwark of their industry.
The Conservative party took the position that commercial union, involving as it would a common protective tariff against all other countries, including the motherland, with a new company to complete the Canadian Pacific railway within ten years, on condition of receiving a Pacific grant of $25,000,000 and 25,000,000 acres of land, would inevitably lead to political unification with the United States.
In bringing about a system of penny postage throughout the empire; in forwarding the construction of the Pacific cable to secure close and safe imperial telegraphic connexion; in creating rapid and efficient lines of steamship communication with the motherland and all the colonies; in granting tariff preference to British goods and in striving for preferential treatment of inter-imperial trade; in assuming responsibility for imperial defence at the two important stations of Halifax and Esquimalt, - Canada, under the guidance of Sir Wilfrid Laurier and his party, took a leading part and showed a truly national spirit.
His hostility to a high tariff policy, however, did not prevent him from condemning the South Carolina ordinance of nullification; and in the presidential election of 1832 he supported Andrew Jackson, to whose political principles and methods, as to those of his advisers, he was invincibly opposed, as the "least objectionable" of the various candidates..