Eastward from this the ranges of low bare hills called the Murgie of Gravina and Altamura gradually sink into the still more moderate level of those which constitute the peninsular tract between Brindisi and Taranto as far as the Cape of Sta Maria di Leuca, the south-east extremity of Italy.
This projecting tract, which may be termed the "heel" or "spur" of Southern Italy, in conjunction with the great promontory of Calabria, forms the deep Gulf of Taranto, about 70 m.
Below this the watershed of the Apennines is too near to the sea on that side to allow the formation of any large streams. Hence the rivers that flow in the opposite direction into the Adriatic and the Gulf of Taranto have much longer courses, though all partake of the character of mountain torrents, rushing down with great violence in winter and after storms, but dwindling in the summer into scanty streams, which hold a winding and sluggish course through the great plains of Apulia.
(5) The Bradano, which rises near Venosa, almost at the foot of Monte Volture, flows towards the south-east into the Gulf of Taranto, as do the Basento, the Agri and the Sinni, all of which descend from the central chain of the Apennines south of Potenza.
The lagoon fisheries are also of great importance, more especially those of Comacchio, the lagoon of Orbetello and the Mare Piccolo at Taranto &c The deep-sea fishing boats in 1902 numbered 1368, with a total tonnage of 16,149; 100 of these were coral-fishing boats and 111 sponge-fishing boats.
Taranto Castellaneta, Onia.
The fortresses in the basin of the Po chiefly belong to the era of divided Italy and are now out of date; the chief coast fortresses are Vado, Genoa, Spezia, Monte Argentaro, Gacta, Straits of Messina, Taranto, Maddalena.
For purposes of naval organization the Italian coast is divided into three maritime departments, with headquarters at Spezia, Naples and Venice; and into two comandi militari, with headquarters at Taranto and at the island of Maddalena.
Of the surplus 1,000,000 was allocated to the improvement of posts, telegraphs and telephones; 1,000,000 to public works (~72o,ooo for harbour improvement and 280,000 for internal navigation); 200,000 to the navy (~I32,ooo for a second dry dock at Taranto and 68,000 for coal purchase); and 200,000 as a nucleus of a fund for the purchase of valuable works of art which are in danger of exportation.
When Robert of Anjou died in 1343, he was succeeded by his grand-daughter Joan, the childless wife of four successive husbands, Andrew of Hungary, Louis of Taranto, Th ~James of Aragon and Otto of Brunswick.
King Ferdinand also had to accept a French garrison at Taranto, and other points in the south.
It is Adriatic well marked throughout southern Italy from Taranto and to Naples.
She further agreed to evacuate the papal states, Taranto and other towns in the Mediterranean coasts which she had occupied.
Disregarding the neutrality of the Germanic System, Napoleon sent a strong French corps to overrun Hanover, while he despatched General Gouvion St Cyr to occupy Taranto and other dominating positions in the south-east of the kingdom of Naples.
Of Aragon, was unable to conquer the island, and his son the prince of Taranto was taken prisoner at thebattle of La Falconara in 1299.
Of Taranto, 460 ft.
And a small harbour, which eveniin ancient times was not good, but important as the only one between Taranto and Reggio.
TARANTO (anc. Tarentum, q.v.), a seaport of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Lecce, 50 m.
This island separates the Gulf of Taranto from the deep inlet of the Mare Piccolo, and is sheltered by two other flat islands, San Pietro and San Paolo; the latter is occupied by a lighthouse.
The chief industry is the cultivation of oysters in four large beds in the Mare Piccolo; besides oysters, Taranto carries on a large trade in cozze, a species of large black mussel, which is packed in barrels with a special sauce.
The ebb and flow of the tide is distinctly visible here, Taranto being one of the few places in the Mediterranean where it is perceptible.
In 1861 the strategic importance of Taranto was recognized by the Italian government, and in 1864 a Naval Commission designated it as third maritime arsenal after Spezia and Venice.
In 927 Taranto was entirely destroyed by the Saracens, but rebuilt in 967 by Nicephorus Phocas, to whom is due the construction of the bridge over the channel to the N.W.
The Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Arica, or such caldron-depressions as the Gulfs of Genoa and Taranto, or rift-depressions like the Gulfs of Aden and Akaba.
Internal disorders broke out, and Gian Antonio Orsini, prince of Taranto, led a revolt against Joanna in Apulia; Louis of Anjou died while conducting a campaign against the rebels (1434), and Joanna herself died on the 11th of February 1435, after having appointed his son Rene her successor.
She then married Prince Louis of Taranto, and strong in the double support of the papal court at Avignon and of the Venetian republic (both of whom were opposed to Magyar aggrandisement in Italy) questioned the right of Louis to the two Sicilies, which he claimed as the next heir of his murdered brother.
Succeeded to the empire, while to his illegitimate son Manfred he left the principality of Taranto and the regency of the southern kingdom, to be held in Conrad's name.
With the help of some of the barons he drove Joanna and her second husband, Louis of Taranto, from the kingdom, and murdered Charles of Durazzo; but as Pope Clement refused to recognize his claims he went back to Hungary in 1348, and the fickle barons recalled Joanna, who returned and carried on desultory warfare with the partisans of Louis of Hungary.
Louis of Taranto and Joanna were crowned at Naples by the pope's legate in 1352, but Niccolo Acciaiuoli, the seneschal, became the real master of the kingdom.
By the Gulf of Taranto (for a distance of 24 m.), S.
By the railway from Naples to Taranto and Brindisi, which passes through Potenza and reaches at Metaponto the line along the E.
Coast from Taranto to Reggio di Calabria.
The mountains are still to some extent clothed with forests; in places the soil is fertile, especially along the Gulf of Taranto, though here malaria is the cause of inefficient cultivation.
TARANTULA, strictly speaking, a large spider (Lycosa tarantula), which takes its name from the town of Taranto, (Tarentum) in Apulia, near which it occurs and where it was formerly believed to be the cause of the malady known as "tarantism."
Early in the 14th century the inner port was blocked by Giovanni Orsini, prince of Taranto; the town was devastated by pestilence in 1348, and was plundered in 1352 and 1383; but even greater damage was done by the earthquake of 1456.
Antonio, the junction for Foggia, Spinazzola (for Barletta, Bari, and Taranto) and Potenza.
Roman roads followed the same lines as the railways: the Via Appia ran from Capua to Benevento, whence the older road went to Venosa and Taranto and so to Brindisi, while the Via Traiana ran nearly to Foggia and thence to Bari.