Beech, black walnut, butternut, chestnut, catalpa, hemlock and tamarack trees are also common.
In the northern part of the state the great pine belt stretches from the head of Lake Superior westward to the confines of the Red River Valley, while along the north border and in the north-east the forest growth is almost exclusively tamarack and dwarf pine.
3 shaft of the Tamarack mine in Houghton county, Michigan, which has reached a vertical depth of about 5200 ft.
Three other shafts of the Tamarack Company, and three of the neighbouring Calumet and Hecla mine, have depths of between 4000 and 5000 ft.
Slope of the Cascades the red fir ceases to be the dominant tree, and between this elevation and the region of perpetual snow, on a few of the highest peaks, rise a succession of forest zones containing principally: (1) yellow pine, red and yellow fir, white fir and cedar; (2) lodgepole pine, white pine, Engelmann spruce and yew; (3) subalpine fir, lovely fir, noble fir, Mertens hemlock, Alaska cedar and tamarack; (4) white-bark pine, Patton hemlock, alpine larch and creeeping juniper.
Slope of the Cascades and most of the Okanogan Highlands are clothed with light forests consisting chiefly of yellow pine, but containing also Douglas fir, cedar, larch, tamarack and a very small amount of oak.
Some species characteristic of the more northerly regions - for example, the mountain ash, balsam fir, tamarack and black and white spruce - find here their southern or south-western limits.
Plantations have been made in America with an economic view, the tree growing much faster, and producing good timber at an earlier age than the native hackmatack (or tamarack), while the wood is less ponderous, and therefore more generally applicable.
And the tamarack only in the N.
Above the firs come the tamarack, constituting the bulk of the lower Alpine forest; the hardy long-lived mountain pine; the red cedar or juniper, growing even on the baldest rocks; the beautiful hemlock spruce; the still higher white pine, nut pine, needle pine; and finally, at io,000 to 12,000 ft., the dwarf pine, which grows in a tangle on the earth over which one walks, and may not show for a century's growth more than a foot of height or an inch of girth.
The tamarack and cedar swamps now have a growth, especially on their edges, of spruce, balsam, white pine, soft maple, ash and aspens.
Maine was formerly covered with forests, principally of white pine and spruce, but mixed with these were some hemlock, tamarack, cedar, and, on the south slope, birch, poplar, oak, maple and beech.
About 60% (both in quantity and value) of the lumber sawed in 1905 was white pine; next in importance were hemlock (more than one-fourth in quantity), basswood (nearly 4%) and, in smaller quantities, birch, oak, elm, maple, ash, tamarack, Norway pine, cedar and spruce.
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