Even imitation of the style of the Talmud has also been accounted sacrilege.
The Talmud shows the influence of that law in many points, and may justly be compared to it as a monument of codification based on great principles.
of the Talmud he is even now indispensable.
The Talmud itself says that the judgment of capital cases was taken away from Israel forty years before the destruction of the Temple.
The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
1344), called Ralbag, the great commentator on the Bible and Talmud, in philosophy a follower of Aristotle and Averroes, known to Christians as Leo Hebraeus, wrote also many works on halakhah, mathematics and astronomy.
As being a constant object of study numerous commentaries have been written on the Talmud from the earliest times till the present.
As the haggada is the poetic, so the halakha is the legal element of the Talmud (q.v.), and arose out of the faction between the Sadducees, who disputed the traditions, and the Pharisees, who strove to prove their derivation from scripture.
1034), was a voluminous writer on law, translated the Pentateuch into Arabic, commented on much of the Bible, and composed an Arabic introduction to the Talmud, of which the existing Hebrew introduction (by Samuel the Nagid) is perhaps a translation.
But this is the only passage; the Talmud has no fixed doctrine on the point.
1050) wrote a commentary on (probably all) the Talmud, and one now lost on the Pentateuch.
That one of the earlier dates is correct seems probable from the fact that the Falashas know nothing of either the Babylonian or Jerusalem Talmud, make no use of phylacteries (tefillin), and observe neither the feast of Purim nor the dedication of the temple.
In the Babylonian Talmud (Babhli) there is no gemara to the smaller tractates of Order r, and to parts of ii., iv., v., vi.
Some of his poems are extant, and an Introduction to the Talmud mentioned above.
He commented on all the Bible and on nearly all the Talmud, has been himself the text of several super-commentaries, and has exercised great influence on Christian exegesis.
Though he failed to rise to real distinction he earned a place by his criticism of the Talmud among those who prepared the way for the new learning in Judaism.
Babhli is not only greater in bulk than Yerushalmi, but has also received far greater attention, so that the name Talmud alone is often used for it.
In order to facilitate the practical study of the Talmud, it was natural that abridgements of it should be made.
Maimonides also wrote an Arabic commentary on the Mishnah, soon afterwards translated into Hebrew, commentaries on parts of the Talmud (now lost), and a treatise on Logic. His breadth of view anti- and his Aristotelianism were a stumbling-block to the orthodox, and subsequent teachers may be mostly classified as Maimonists or anti-Maimonists.
The legal reforms which they introduced tended for the most part to mercy, but the Talmud refers to one case which is an exception: false witnesses were condemned to suffer the penalty due to their victim, even if he escaped.
The Palestinian Talmud was completed in the 4th century, but the better known and more influential version was compiled in Babylonia about 500.
Jewish tradition had reason to remember these formidable Palmyrenes in the Roman armies; according to the Talmud 80,000 of them assisted at the destruction of the first temple, 8000 at that of the second !
Since the introduction of printing, the Talmud is always cited by the number of the leaf in the first edition (Venice, 1520, &c.), to which all subsequent editions conform.
In October 1867 his article on "The Talmud," published in the Quarterly Review, made him known.
In the Talmud they appear as K7nnl 'ml'.
Streane (Jesus Christ in the Talmud, 1893).
That it was proper to wear special garments (or at least to rearrange one's weekday clothes) on the Jewish sabbath was recognized in the Talmud, and Mahommedans, after discussing at length the most suitable raiment for prayer, favoured the use of a single simple garment (Bukhari, viii.).
These conclusions were hotly contested by Johannes Buxtorf, being in conflict with the views of his father, Johannes Buxtorf senior, notwithstanding the fact that Elias Levita had already disputed the antiquity of the vowel points and that neither Jerome nor the Talmud shows any acquaintance with them.
The latter, besides teaching him the Bible and Talmud, introduced to him the philosophy of Maimonides.
According to the Talmud, he warned her " to fear neither the Pharisees nor their opponents but the hypocrites who do the deed of Zimri and claim the reward of Phinehas: " the warning indicates his justification of his policy in the matter of the crucifixions.
There is a story of a priest named Onias preserved both by Josephus and in the Talmud, which throws some light upon the indecision of the religious in the period just reviewed.
In 553 he interdicted the use of the Talmud (which had then not long been completed), and the Byzantine emperors of the 8th and 9th centuries passed even more intolerant regulations.
It has " had a greater influence on the development of the Jewish mind than almost any other book after the completion of the Talmud " (ibid.).
In the Palestinian Talmud (Yerushalmi) the gemara of the 5th order (Qodashim) and of nearly all the 6th (Tohoroth) is missing, besides smaller parts.
There is a tradition in the Talmud which illustrates his popularity.
French Judaism was thus in a sense more human if less humane than the Spanish variety; the latter produced thinkers, statesmen, poets and scientists; the former, men with whom the Talmud was a passion, men of robuster because of more naïve and concentrated piety.
1 They speak the languages of the localities in which they are settled (Arabic or Persian), but the language of their sacred books is an Aramaic dialect, which has its closest affinities with that of the Babylonian Talmud, written in a peculiar character suggestive of the old Palmyrene.
For other references to Palmyra (called Tarmod) in the Talmud see Neubauer Geogr.
xii., xiii., 5; Talmud, Sukkah, 48 b).
This figure, corresponding to the four hundred years of Egyptian bondage, occurs also in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 99a).
References in the Jewish Talmud show that this city still continued to exist at and after the commencement of our era; but according to Arabian writers, at the time when the Arab city of Bagdad was founded by the caliph Mansur, there was nothing on that site except an old convent.
As a teacher he was one of the first to discriminate between the various strata in rabbinic records; to him was due the revival of interest in the older Midrash and in the Palestinian Talmud, interest in which had been weak for some centuries before his time.
He worked intensely on the Talmud and contributed no less than 190 papers to Chambers's Encyclopaedia, in addition to essays in Kitto's and Smith's Biblical Dictionaries, and articles in periodicals.
His Literary Remains, edited by Lady Strangford, were published in 1874, consisting of nineteen papers on such subjects as "The Talmud," "Islam," "Semitic Culture," "Egypt, Ancient and Modern," "Semitic Languages," "The Targums," "The Samaritan Pentateuch," and "Arabic Poetry."
Though indeed we might look nearer home than the Talmud for similar absurdities; most Puritan communities could furnish strange freaks of Sabbatarian casuistry.
Even in the time of the later Amoraim there is no mention of a written Palestinian Targum, though the official Babylonian Targum is repeatedly referred to in the Babylonian Talmud, in the Midrashim, and at times also by Palestinian Amoraim.
So also the Talmud (in Baba bathra, 14.2), nor can it be supposed that Josephus in his enumeration (c. i.
The material thus accumulated, both halakhic and agadic, forming a commentary on and amplification of the Mishnah, was eventually written down under the name of Gemara (from gemar, to learn completely), the two together forming the Talmud (properly "instruction").
HALAKHA, or HALACHA (literally "rule of conduct"), the rabbinical development of the Mosaic law; with the haggada it makes up the Talmud and Midrash.
21 seq.) were finally transferred to the priests (so in the Talmud: see Yebamoth, fol.
Cp. the discussion in Talmud Yoma, fol.
With the Talmud, the anonymous period of Hebrew literature may be considered to end.
65 we find them at Hebron, and this is one of the first indications that we discover of the cis-Jordanic Idumaea of Josephus and the Talmud.
Meanwhile, if agadic exegesis was popular in the centuries following the redaction of the Mishna, the study of halakhah Talmud.
1141 at Lucena), a friend of Judah Ha-levi and of Moses ben Ezra, wrote Responsa and IIiddushin (annotations) on parts of the Talmud.
There is also an unmistakable development in the laws; and the priestly legislation, though ahead of both Ezekiel and Deuteronomy, not to mention still earlier usage, not only continues to undergo continual internal modification, but finds a further distinct development, in the way of definition and interpretation, outside the Old Testament - in the Talmud.
They were a unique product of rabbinism; and the authors of the system were also the compilers of its literary expression, the Talmud.
On reaching his sixteenth year he began his studies at the university of Berlin, paying special attention to theology and the Talmud.
All the passages referring to Jesus in the Talmud are given by Laible, Jesus Christus im Talmud, with an appendix, ” Die talmudischen Texte," by G.
Two forms of Western Aramaic survive: the Jerusalem form of the dialect, in the Aramaic portions of Daniel and Ezra; and the Galilean, in isolated expressions in the Talmud (3rd century), and in a fragmentary 5th century translation of the Bible.
From the prominence of the lights the festival is also known as the "Festival of Lights" or "Illumination" (Talmud).
The descendant of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides as well as with the Talmud.
is the only Jewish scribe whose name is mentioned in the New Testament he became a subject of Christian legend, and a monk of the 12th century (Hermann the Premonstratensian) relates how he met Jews in Worms studying Gamaliel's commentary on the Old Testament, thereby most probably meaning the Talmud.
He was famous as a collector of traditional lore, and is very often cited in the Talmud.
Both major and minor kinds of excommunication are recognized by the Talmud.
ISAIAH BERLIN (1725-1799), an eminent rabbi of Breslau; he was the author of acute notes on the Talmud which had their influence in advancing the critical study of that work.
Gray on Numbers xxii.-xxiv.; and the articles on "Balaam" (Bileam) in Hamburger's Realencyclopddie fiir Bibel and Talmud, Hastings' Bible Diet., Black and Cheyne's Encyclopaedia Biblica, Herozog-Hauck's Realencyklopddie.
The Talmud has also the singular form - Nathin.
The above explanation of the special degradation of the Nethinim, though they were connected with the Temple service, seems to be the only way of explaining the Talmudic reference to their tabooed position, and is an interesting example of the light that can be reflected on Biblical research by the Talmud.
'ABBA 'ARIKA, the name of the Babylonian amora of the 3rd century, who established at Sura the systematic study of the Rabbinic traditions which, using the Mishnah as text, led to the compilation of the Talmud.
(2nd ed., p. 269 ff.), the legend - for it is nothing better - grew, until finally, in the hands of Elias Levita (1538), and especially of Johannes Buxtorf (1665), it assumed the form that the " men of the Great Synagogue," - a body the real existence of which is itself very doubtful, but which is affirmed in the Talmud to have " written " (!) the books of Ezekiel, the Minor Prophets, Daniel and Esther - with Ezra as president, first collected the books of the Old Testament into a single volume, restored the text, where necessary, from the best MSS., and divided the collection into three parts, the Law, the Prophets and the " Writings " (the Hagiographa).
The threefold division of the canon just given is recognized in the Talmud, and followed in all Hebrew MSS., the only difference being that the books included in the Latter Prophets and in the Hagiographa are not always arranged in the same order.
The tripartite division of the Hebrew canon thus recognized by Jewish tradition can, however, be traced back far beyond the Talmud.
It must suffice, therefore, to deal rather broadly with the subject, and to refer for fuller details to the special encyclopaedias, viz.: Hamburger's RealEncyc. fiir Bibel and Talmud, and the very elaborate articles in the Jewish Encyclopedia.
(See further Talmud, § 5.) 4.
Strack, Einleitung in den Talmud (Leipzig, 1908), pp. 119-131.
The Talmud Mo'ed Qatan, 7a, and New Testament (1 Cor.
2 However this may be, the independent Halakoth (where the oral decisions are interpreted or discussed on the basis of the Old Testament) were gradually collected and arranged according to their subject in the Mishnah and Tosephta (Talmud, § 1), while in the halakic Midrashim (where the decisions are given in connection with the biblical passage from which they were derived) they follow the sequence of the text of the Old Testament.
(h) Ebah (" how ") Rabbathi, a compilation of about the 7th century on Lamentations, from sources cited also in the Palestinian Talmud.
(See further TALMUD.) (S.
He also published a slight sketch of Jewish history,, and especially of the growth of the Talmud, entitled the Genius of Judaism (1833).
Rashbam's notes on the Bible are remarkable for brevity, but when he comments on the Talmud - he wrote explanations on several tracts - he is equally noted for prolixity.
It is not mentioned in the Bible, but its culture is alluded to in the Talmud.
In the Talmud the voice from heaven, called Bath Kol, attested Rabbi Hillel, as he walked in Jericho, to be worthy of the holy spirit's descent and in-dwelling.
in the Babylonian, Western in the Jerusalem Talmud), as was also that of the earlier commentators.
M., 1897); Kohut, Aruch completum (Vienna, 1878-1890) (in Hebrew) is valuable for the language of the Talmud.
This custom, which is still observed among the Jews of Caucasia (Tchorni, Sepher ha-Masaoth, pp. 191-192), is very ancient, as it is mentioned in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 64).
The earliest mention, however, of this burning of Haman in effigy cannot be traced back earlier than the Talmud in the 5th century.
It is remarkable that the memra (= Logos or "Word") of the Targums almost entirely disappears in the Midrashic literature and the Talmud, its place being taken by Shekinah.
Matthews, Berlin, 1887), Joseph Kimhi attacks the philological work of the greatest French Talmud scholar of that day, R.
text), the Book (Talmud), the Proverbs (Jerome), or the Wisdom of the son of Sira (or Sirach).
This position corresponds to the Jewish practice of reading the book at the feast of Pentecost; Spanish MSS., however, place it at the head of the Megilloth; and the Talmud (Baba Bathra, 14b) gives it the first place among all the Hagiographa.
The large number of Greek words, however, in the language of the Mishnah and the Talmud is a significant phenomenon.
Lehnworter im Talmud (1898); Jewish Encyclopedia, art.
Otherwise we might even conclude that Mahomet had studied the Talmud; e.g.
It maybe described as the poetical and ethical element as contrasted with the legal element in the Talmud, but the two elements are always closely connected.
The haggadic passages of the Talmud were collected in the Eye of Jacob, a very popular compilation completed by Jakob ibn Habib in the 16th century.
The decision between Philo and the Talmud must turn on two questions.
But even in the Talmud the reign of Alexandra is described in apocalyptic language such as is commonly applied to the future age, and if allowance be made for the symbolism proper to revelations it is clear that essentially the scribe and the seer have the same purpose and even the same doctrines.
Moreover it is clear that our Lord denounced not all the Pharisees but the hypocrites only, as did the rabbis whose sayings are reported in the Talmud and other Jewish books.
In the post-Talmudic age the Qaraites, who rejected the tradition of the Talmud, designated the Jews who adhered to that tradition as Rabbanites.
to the compilers of the Talmud.
And this becomes more instructive when comparison is made between cuneiform or Egyptian sources extending over many centuries and particular groups of evidence (Amarna letters, Canaanite and Aramaean inscriptions, the Old Testament and later Jewish literature to the Talmud), and pursued to the customs and beliefs of the same area to-day.
In general the pentateuchal legislation as a whole presupposes an undeveloped state of society, and would have been inadequate if not partly obsolete or unintelligible during the monarchies.5 But more elaborate legal usages had long been known outside Palestine, and, to judge from the Talmud and the Syrian lawcode (c. 5th century A.D.), long prevailed.
The antiquity of certain principles and details is undeniable - as also in the Talmud - but since one must start from the organic connexions of the composite sources, the problems necessitate proper attention to the relation between the stages in the literary growth (working backwards) and the vicissitudes which culminate in the postexilic age.
On the later history of the canonical law (Mishnah, Gemara, &c.) see Talmud.
The Talmud embodies law, which is related to the Babylonian code not only in content but also sometimes in spirit; see L.
Neubauer, La geographic du Talmud (1868); P. de Lagarde, Onomastica sacra (1870); E.
It is probable that she treated the Jews in Palmyra with favour; she is referred to in the Talmud, as protecting Jewish rabbis (Talm.
It is recorded in the Talmud that Rabbis communicated the true pronunciation to their disciples once in seven years (Qiddushin, 71a).
Fischer, Chaldeiische Grammatik fiir Bibel and Talmud, 1882; Eng.
That he refused to accept the current rabbinical views is certain, though the Talmud cites his legal decisions.
His disciple, the famous Pharisee 11vleir, remained his steadfast friend, and his efforts to reclaim his former master are among the most pathetic incidents in the Talmud.
Without much appropriateness Elisha has been sometimes described as the "Faust of the Talmud."
- The Talmud (Hebrew " teaching, learning ") consists of the Mishnah (Heb.
These and the terms Gemara, Talmud, &c., are more fully explained in H.
Strack's invaluable Einleitung in den Talmud (Leipzig, 1908), Pp. 2 sqq.
the Babylonian recension of the Talmud adds seven treatises, which are of later origin and are regarded as more or less extra-canonical.
In the Old Testament many laws in the Mosaic legislation are certainly post-Mosaic and the value of not a few narratives lies, not in their historical or biographical information, but in their treatment of law, ritual, custom, belief, &c. Later developments are exemplified in the pseudepigraphical literature, notably in the Book of Jubilees, and when we reach the Mishnah and Talmud, we have only the first of a new series of stages which, it may be said, culminate in the 16th-century Shulhan `Aruk, the great compendium of the then existing written and oral law.
Judah, above), and were famed for their knowledge of law; so numerous were their points of difference that the Talmud will emphasize certain decisions by the statement that the two were agreed.
venerated, on the authority of Maimonides, as the editor of the Palestinian Talmud; but the presence of later material and of later names, e.g.
Meanwhile the persecutions of Constantine and Constantius brought about the decay of the Palestinian schools, and, probably in the 5th century, their recension of the Talmud was essentially complete.
- The Palestinian recension of the Mishnah and Gemara is called " the Talmud of the Land of Israel," or " T.
of the West "; a popular but misleading name is " the Jerusalem Talmud."
Talmud did not attain the eminence of the sister recension, and survives in a very incomplete form, although it was perhaps once fuller.
7.5 The Babylonian Talmud (or Tal.
The Palestinian Talmud, although used by the Qaraites in their controversies, fell into neglect, and the Babylonian recension became, what it has since been, the authoritative guide.
The Geonim in their " Responses " or " Questions and Answers " supplied authoritative interpretations of the Old Testament or of the Talmud, and regulated the application of the teaching of the past to the changed conditions under which their brethren now lived.
However, the fortunes of the Talmud in a hostile world now become part of the history of the Jews, and the many interesting vicissitudes cannot be recapitulated here.
Talmud by the Qaraites in their controversies with the Rabbis we owe the preservation of this recension, incomplete though it is.
At the same time, the polemics had useful results since the literary controversy in the 16th century (when Johann Reuchlin took the part of the Jews) led to the editio princeps of the Babylonian Talmud (Vienna, 1520-23).
Owing to the nature of its contents the Talmud stood sorely in need of aids and guides, and a vast amount of labour (of varying value) has been devoted to it by Jewish scholars.
To Rashi's disciples are due the Tosaphoth " additions," which, with the commentary of " the Commentator," as he was styled, are often reproduced in printed editions of the Talmud.
2 On the censorship and burning of the Talmud, see Jew.
Systematic abstracts of the legal parts of the Talmud were made by Isaac Alfazi (or " Riph," 1013-1103), and by Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, otherwise called Sepher haYad or Yad ha-Hazakah).
The lengthy history of the written and oral law thus reached its last stage in a work which grew out of the Talmud but had its roots in a more distant past.
It was at the dawn of a period when the ancient codes which had been continuously reinterpreted or readjusted were to be re-examined under the influence of newer ideas and methods of study.3 The haggadic portions of the Talmud were collected: (a) from the Bab.
The text of the Talmud has been badly preserved; much useful critical work has been done by R.
- Although the Midrashim do not hold the authoritative position which the Talmud enjoys, the two groups cannot be kept apart in any consideration of the interesting or valuable features of the old Rabbinical writings.
Prose mingles with poetry, wit with wisdom, the good with the bad, and as one thing goes on to suggest another, it makes the Talmud a somewhat rambling compilation.
Myers, Gems from the Talmud; S.
Montague, Tales from the Talmud.
of Talmud (New York, 2903), vol.
Ordinary estimates of the Talmud are often influenced by the attitude of Christianity to Judaism and Jewish legalism, and by the preponderating interest which has been taken in the religious-legal side of the Rabbinical writings.
The excessive legalism which pervades the Talmud was the scholarship of the age, and the Talmud suffers to a certain extent because accepted opinions and isolated views are commingled.
In any case, the Talmud must be judged, like other authoritative religious literature, by its place in history and by its survival.
From age to age groups of laws were codified and expanded - the Priestly law of the Old Testament, the Mishnah, the complete Talmud, the subsequent codifications of Alfazi, Maimonides, and finally Joseph Caro.
Thus, the Talmud occupies an intermediate place between the older sources and its later developments.
The Talmud discusses and formulates rules upon points which other religions leave to the individual; it inculcates both ceremonial and spiritual ideas, and often sets up most lofty ethical standards.
The bonds, rigorous and strange as they often appear to others, were a sacrament enshrined in the imagination of the lowliest follower of the Talmud.
the Babylonian Rab) are famous for their ethical teaching, and for their share in popular exposition; one of the best ethical systems of medieval Judaism (by Bahya ibn Pekuda) is founded upon the Talmud; the last exponent of Rabbinical legalism, Joseph Caro, was at the same time a mystic and a pietist; and the combination of the poetical with the legal temperament is frequent.
The Talmud outlived the reactionary tendencies of the Qaraites (q.v.) and of the Kabbalah, and fortunately, since these movements, important though they undoubtedly were for the evolution of thought, had not within them the power to be of lasting benefit to the rank and file of the community.
Finally, no religion has been without exhibitions of fanaticism and excess on the part of its followers, and if the Old Testament itself was the authority for witch-burning among Christians, it is no longer profitable to ask whether the Talmud was responsible for offences committed by or alleged against those whose lives were regulated by it.
On the other hand, Judaism has never been without its heroes, martyrs or saints, and the fact that it still lives is sufficient to prove that the mechanical legalism of the Talmud has not hindered the growth of Jewish religion.
Apart from the general interest of the literature for history and of its contents for various departments of research, the exegetical methods of the Talmud are especially instructive.
This feature naturally complicates all questions affecting origin and originality, and cannot be ignored in any study of the Talmud in its bearing upon the New Testament.'.
Similar or related forms of interpretation and teaching are found in the Talmud, in Hellenistic Judaism, in the New Testament, in early Church Fathers and in Syriac writers.
The Talmud also makes " credible details which many Christian expositors have been rather inclined to dispute.
But it is uncertain how far the doctrines of Judaism were influenced by Christianity, and it is even disputed whether the Talmud and Midrashim may be used to estimate Jewish thought 1 There are many details in the Talmud which cannot be dated; if some are obviously contemporary, others find parallels in Ancient Babylonia, for example in the code of Hammurabi.
They touch, on the one hand, the absolute originality of Christianity and its attitude to Jewish legalism, and, on the other, the true place of the pseudepigrapha in Jewish thought and the antiquity of the Judaism which dominates the Talmud.
See further, for the Talmud and Midrashim in relation to the New Testament generally, the literature in Strack, pp. 165 sqq.; also A.
Laible, Jesus Christus im Talmud (Berlin, 1891); R.
Herford, Christianity in Talmud and Midrash (London, 1903; with W.
The Talmud itself is still the authoritative and practical guide of the great mass of the Jews, and is too closely connected with contemporary and earlier Palestinian history to of be neglected by Christians.
61i), and to the Midrash Siphre, which frequently differs from that as known to the Talmud (ib., xi.
Finally, the Talmud comes at the end of a very lengthy development of Palestinian thought (see Palestine: History).
As an oriental work among an oriental people the moral and spiritual influence of the Talmud has rested upon its connexion with a history which appealed to the imagination and the feelings, upon its heterogeneity of contents suitable for all moods and minds, and upon the unifying and regulative effects of its legalism.
In the weakening of that authority which had been ascribed almost unanimously to the Talmud, and invariably to the Old Testament, a new and greater strain has been laid upon Judaism to reinterpret its spirit once more to answer the diverse wants of its adherents.
Deutsch's article on the Talmud in the Quarterly Review, Oct.
Schiller-Szinessy, articles " Midrash," " Mishnah," and " Talmud," in Ency.
Bacher, " Talmud " in the Jew.
Schechter, " Talmud," in Hastings' Diet.
to the Talmud (Cincinnati, 1894), M.
Rodkinson, History of the Talmud (New York, 1903), and especially H.
Strack, Einleitung in den Talmud (Leipzig, 1908, very concise, but replete with bibliographical and other information).
17), which is, in fact, the name in the Talmud (Baba Bathra 15a) and other Jewish writings; and it was known as such to the Fathers (Jerome, Cinoth).
Under these teachers he became familiar with the Talmud and, what was probably more important for his own development, with the philosophical writings of Ibn Ezra and Maimonides, Levi ben Gerson, Hasdai Crescas, and other representatives of Jewish medieval thought, who aim at combining the traditional theology with ideas got from Aristotle and his Neoplatonic commentators.
In the Avesta all these recur ad nauseam, so much so that the primitive spirit of the religion is stifled beneath them, as the doctrine of the ancient prophets was stifled in Judaism and the Talmud.
The fact that its legendary material is drawn from Arabic sources, as well as from Talmud, Midrash and later Jewish works, would seem to show that the writer lived in Spain, or, according to others, in south Italy.
By the Jews the book is called Wayyikra (rtrir.) from the first word of the Hebrew text, but it is also referred to (in the Talmud and Massorah) as Torath kohanim (ow5 min, law of the priests), Sepher kohanim ("2 i o, book of the priests), and Sepher korbanim (ow,p, vn, book of offerings).
Here lived Rabbi Judah ha k-I adosh, editor of the Mishnah; here was edited the Jerusalem Talmud, and here are the tombs of Rabbi Aqiba and Maimonides.
BORSIPPA (Barsip in the Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions; Borsif in the Talmud; mod.
Urtext in das Hebrc ische iibersetzt, and aus Talmud and Midrasch erlc utert (1870); with which may be classed the earlier works of Reiche (Versuch einer ausf ahrl.
and 52 printed editions of the Bible were either wholly or partially collated, and use was also made (but often very perfunctorily) of the quotations in the Talmud.
This fourth volume (the first to be published) dealt with the Talmud.
The Talmud states that many rabbis were born in the place.
SADDUCEES, a sect or party of the Jews mentioned in the historical books of the New Testament (with the exception of the fourth Gospel), by Josephus, and in the Talmud.
As the Pharisees accumulated the oral tradition which was afterwards codified and elaborated or preserved by fragments, which served some useful purpose, in the Talmud and other Rabbinic writings, the Sadducees acquired concrete regulations to oppose so long as they dared.
The Talmud reports ancient controversies on points of law; and gives the Sadducees a founder, Zadok the disciple of Antigonus the man of Soco who prohibited the hope of reward for service done to God.
The Talmud owes much to this rabbi.
21-32 and found in the Talmud and Midrash - of two elders Ahab and Zedekiah, who in the Captivity led certain women astray under the delusion that they should thereby become the mother of the Messiah.
Thus the proselyte is said in the Talmud to resemble a child and must bathe in the name of God.
The Asheri family suffered great privations but remained faithful in their devotion to the Talmud.
In the Talmud he plays a great part in the legends concerning Solomon.
" The real and only Pharisee," says the Talmud, " is he who does the will of his Father because he loves Him."
10; in Josephus and the Talmud) prove that no real tradition survived on the subject.
These were the commentaries on the whole of the Hebrew Bible and on about thirty treatises of the Talmud.
Even more important was Rashi's commentary on the Talmud, which became so acknowledged as the definitive interpretation that Rashi is cited simply under the epithet of "the Commentator."
It is no exaggeration to assert that the modern world owes its power to understand the Talmud to Rashi.
He practically edited the text of the Talmud besides explaining it, and the Talmud is never printed without Rashi's commentary on the margin.
Weiss added much in his (Hebrew) biography (in Bet Talmud ii., Nos.
He wrote glosses to the Talmud (tosaphot) and many Responsa of the utmost value for historical research.
Funk finds it so named in the Talmud (Bab.
Neubauer, La Geographie du Talmud (1868); E.
The dispute between Reuchlin and Pfefferkorn relative to the Talmud and other Jewish books was referred to the pope in September 1513.
The order of the Amoraim, which ended with the close of the Talmud (A.D.
In a different department there is the first Talmud lexicon (`Arukh) now lost, by Zemah ben Paltoi, Gaon of Pumbeditha in the 9th century.
Hananeel's contemporary Nissim ben Jacob, of Kairawan, who corresponded with Hai Gaon of Pumbeditha as well as with Samuel the Nagid in Spain, likewise wrote on the Talmud, and is probably the author of a collection of Ma`asiyyoth or edifying stories, besides works now lost.
French Judaism was thus in a sense more human if less humane than the Spanish variety; the latter produced thinkers, statesmen, poets and scientists; the former, men with whom the Talmud was a passion, men of robuster because of more naÃ¯ve and concentrated piety.
Meyer, entitled Jesus, Jesu Jiinger and das Evangelium im Talmud and verwandten jiidischen Schriften, to which also a good bibliography of the subject is prefixed.
28) is mentioned with disapproval in the Jerusalem Talmud, 5 though it has been preserved in the Targum PseudoJonathan ad loc.Ã‚° A definite rule for guidance in translating is apparently preserved in the Tosefta, 7 where it is stated that " he who translates quite literally is a liar, while he who adds anything is a blasphemer," Exod.
Targums On The Pentateuch (t) The so-called Targum of Onkelos admittedly owes its name to a mistaken reference in the Babylonian Talmud."
In its original context, that of the Jerusalem Talmud, 12 the passage refers to the Greek translation of Aquila.
With the exception of this one reference, the Targum is always introduced in the Babylonian Talmud by the phrase " as we translate " (irn:inr_-r7), or " our Targum " (p' 1 ?urn): it is probable, therefore, that the name of the author, or authors, was unknown to the Babylonian Jews.
This impression is fully confirmed by (a) a comparison of the Talmud and later Midrashic works with which it has obvious points of contact, and (b) the historical allusions, such as the mention of Constantinople (Num.
As in the Talmud and the Jerusalem Targum, the serpent has even become the devil, i.e.
Apart from the popular paraphrastic translations of the Old Testament (see Targum), the great mass of orthodox Rabbinical literature consists of (1) the independent Midrashim, and (2) the Mishna which, with its supplement the Gemara, constitutes the Talmud.
The traditional or oral law was codified in the Mishna (see Talmud, § i seq.), the Canon was 1 E.g.
- The Talmud poetically describes Midrash as a hammer which wakes to shining light the sparks which slumber in the rock; and the simile is a happy one when one considers the exegetical implements, the workmen and their workmanship. For the expository or interpretative Midrash was bound up with rules and methods which often appear crude and arbitrary, they are nevertheless those of the age and they helped to build up lasting monuments.
Moreover, not only are passages thus taken out of their context, but they are combined, especially when they contain the same words or phrases, or appear to have the same or similar thoughts or aims. The Talmud, with a reference to Prov.
Apart from medieval and other very uncertain data, such as the Sabbath day's journey being 2000 middling paces for 2000 cubits, it appears that Josephus, using the Greek or Roman cubit, gives half as many more to each dimension of the temple than does the Talmud; this shows the cubit used in the Talmud for temple measures to be certainly not under 25 in.
In the Talmud (Sanhedrin 100 b) Rabbi Joseph says that it is forbidden to read (i.e.
This feature recurs in later Palestinian literature (see Midrash, Talmud) where there are later forms of thought and tradition, some elements of which although often of older origin, are almost or entirely wanting in the Old Testament.
No historical use can be made of the artificial story, in Sanhedrin 43a, that Matthew was condemned to death by a Jewish court (see Laible, Christ in the Talmud, 71 seq.).
TALMUD, the great Rabbinical thesaurus which grew up during the first four or six centuries of the Christian Era, and, with the Old Testament, became the " Bible " of the Jews, and the chief subject of their subsequent literary activity.
Solomon Izhaki of Troyes (see RAsHI); his knowledge of contemporary tradition and his valuable notes make it a new starting point in the interpretation of the Talmud.
As regards the Talmud, neither the Mishnah nor the subsequent Gemara aimed at presenting a digested corpus of law.
Here the effort was made to substantiate a practice, but the tradition was not unanimous; and it often happens that the Talmud preserves different traditions regarding the same teaching, different versions of it, or it is ascribed to different authorities (see Jew.
With closer contact to the un-oriental West and with the inevitable tendencies of modern western scholarship the Talmud has entered upon a new period, one which, though it may be said to date from the time of Moses Mendelssohn (see Jews, § 48), has reached a more distinctive stage at the present day.
The Talmud expounds some of the most virulent racism, as these extracts plainly show.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.