" Thomson and Tait," as it is familiarly called ("T and T" was the authors' own formula), was planned soon after Lord Kelvin became acquainted with Tait, on the latter's appointment to his professorship in Edinburgh, and it was intended to be an all-comprehensive treatise on physical science, the foundations being laid in kinematics and dynamics, and the structure completed with the properties of matter, heat, light, electricity and magnetism.
The friendship, however, endured for the twenty-three years which yet remained of Tait's life.
Tait collaborated with Balfour Stewart in the Unseen Universe, which was followed by Paradoxical Philosophy.
He had ceased to write for the Westminster in 1828; but during the years 1832 and 1833 he contributed many essays to Tait's Magazine, the Jurist, and the Monthly Repository.
He took orders in 1874 and held a curacy at Dartford, in Kent, till 1877, when he became resident chaplain and private secretary to Dr Tait, archbishop of Canterbury, a position which he occupied till Dr Tait's death, and retained for a short time (1882-1883) under his successor Dr Benson.
He married in 1878 Edith, the second daughter of Archbishop Tait, whose Life he eventually wrote (1891).
Analytically thus (Thomson and Tait, Nat.
On the death of Dr Tait, Benson was nominated to the see of Canterbury and was enthroned on the 29th of March 1883.
But above all else he was a great ecclesiastic. He paid less attention to secular politics than Archbishop Tait; but if a man is to be judged by the effect of his work, it is Benson and not Tait who should be described as a great statesman.
In this position his moderate orthodoxy led him to join Archbishop Tait in supporting the Public Worship Regulation Act, and, as president of the northern convocation, he came frequently into sharp collision with the lower house of that body.
This Anglican mission was promoted by Archbishop Tait, and finally established by Archbishop Benson in 1886.
Tait and A.
He contributed verses from time to time to Tait's Magazine and to the Sheffield and Rotherham Independent.
The queen wrote to Archbishop Tait that the subject of the Irish Church " made her very anxious," but that Mr Gladstone " showed the most conciliatory disposition."
His most important intervention in the debates of 1874 was when he opposed Archbishop Tait's Public Worship Bill.
The regular price of these magazines was half a crown; the first of the cheaper ones was Tait's Edinburgh Magazine (1832-1861) at a shilling.
See Thomson and Tait, Treatise on Natural Philosophy, § 519.
For fuller details and explanations of the elements of the subject, the reader must be referred to general treatises such as Baynes's Thermodynamics (Oxford), Tait's Thermodynamics (Edinburgh), Maxwell's Theory of Heat (London), Parker's Thermodynamics (Cambridge), Clausius's Mechanical Theory of Heat (translated by Browne, London), and Preston's Theory of Heat (London).
Tait and Dewar, as a consequence of the kinetic theory of the constitution of gaseous media.
At Rugby Dr Arnold had died in 1842 and had been`succeeded by Dr Tait, who again was followed by Dr Goulburn.
The capital, Tidore, on the east coast, is a walled town and the seat of a sultan tributary to the Dutch 2 Thomson and Tait's Nat.
In 1861 Bishop Tait set apart Miss Elizabeth Ferard as a deaconess by the laying on of hands, and she became the first president of the London Deaconess Institution.
Tait in an article on "Energy," published in Good Words in 1862, which gave rise to a long but lively discussion.
Some of the simpler facts of the case are summarized by Tait in the Phil.
Tait repeated Forbes's experiments, using one of the same iron bars, and endeavoured to correct his results for the variation of the specific heat c. J.
C. Mitchell, under Tait's direction, repeated the experiments with the same bar nickel-plated, correcting the thermometers for stem-exposure, and also varying the conditions by cooling one end, so as to obtain a steeper gradient.
The results of Forbes, Tait and Mitchell, on the same bar, and Mitchell's two results with the end of the bar " free " and " cooled," have been quoted as if they referred to different metals.
Tait gives different figures.
Certain gods were purely par ctional, that is to say, they appeared at special times to and khonit, the goddess who attended every child-bed; Tait, the less of weaving.
C. Tait, his former tutor.
ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL TAIT (1811-1882), Anglican divine, archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Edinburgh on the 21st of December 1811.
Tait had all Blomfield's earnestness and his powers of work, with far wider interests.
Blomfield had given himself zealously to the work of churchbuilding; Tait followed in his steps by inaugurating (1863) the Bishop of London's Fund.
W.) was brought into closer relations with the colonial churches than Tait was; but the healthy development of the Lambeth Conferences on the lines of mutual counsel rather than of a hasty quasi-synodic action was largely due to him.
On the other hand, Tait was not successful in dealing with matters which called for the higher gifts of a ruler, and especially in his relations with (a) the liberal trend in modern thought, and (b) the Catholic revival.
(b) As regards the second point, Tait was concerned with it during the whole of his episcopate, and above all on the side of ritual, on which it naturally came into most direct conflict with the recognized ecclesiastical practice of the day.
In fact, if others were inclined to ignore it altogether, Tait could hardly realize anything but the connexion between the English Church and the State.
For this Tait was by no means responsible as a whole: some of the provisions which proved most irksome were the result of amendments by Lord Shaftesbury which the bishops were unable to resist; and it must be borne in mind that the most disastrous results of the measure were not contemplated by those who were instrumental in passing it.
Tait was a Churchman by conviction; but although the work of his life was all done in England, he remained a Scotsman to the end.
But Tait had none of Tillotson's gentleness, and he rode roughshod over the obstacles in his way.
Benham, Life of Archbishop Tait, 2 vols.
C. Tait, Catharine and Craufurd Tait (1880).
Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait >>
He had been brought up in the strictest principles of the Evangelical school, but at Rugby he fell under the influence of Arnold and Tait, and his acquaintance with Maurice and Kingsley finally gave his opinions a direction towards Liberalism.
This product is interpreted as another directed line, forming the fourth term of a proportion, of which the first 1 Strictly speaking, this illustration of Tait's is in error by unity because in our calendar there is no year denominated zero.
Tait, who was Hamilton's pupil and after him the leading exponent of the subject) is a brief resume of this first, and by far the most important and most difficult, of the three stages.
Tait himself may be regarded as the chief contributor to this stage.
Tait's Elementary Treatise on Quaternions appeared (Cambridge).
Tait that a similar representation of the type (30) is obtained if we replace the circle by an equiangular spiral described, with a constant angular velocity about the pole, in the direction of diminishing radius vector.
Tait, Natural Philosophy (2nd ed., Cambridge, I8791883); E.
Tait he wrote The Unseen Universe, at first published anonymously, which was intended to combat the common notion of the incompatibility of science and religion.
Drawings of the different forms of the curve may be found in Thomson and Tait's Natural Philosophy, vol.
Stonehouse, close by, now a preparatory school for boys, was the residence of Archbishop Tait, whose wife established the orphanage here.
Archibald Campbell Tait >>
Lord Penzance received in 1878 a supplemental patent as dean from Archbishop Tait, but did not otherwise fulfil the conditions observed on the appointment of his predecessors.
Tait and others, but the theory has not as yet been fully developed.
Tait and J.
(Avenarius, 1863.) (General type.) (Becquerel, 1863.) (Tait, 1870.) (Barus, 1889.) (Holborn and Wien, 1892.) (Paschen, 3893.) (Steele, 1894.) (Holman, 3896.) (Stanfield, 1898.) (Holborn and Day, 1899.) See sec. 15.) For moderate ranges of temperature the binomial formula of M.
Before the time of Tait's researches such data were of little interest or value, on account of insufficient care in securing the purity of the materials tested; but increased facilities in this respect, combined with great improvements in electrical measurements, have put the question on a different footing.
At the time of Tait's work in 1873 it was difficult, if not impossible, in many cases to secure pure materials.
Methods of Observation.-In Tait's observations the E.M.F.
Edin., 1867-68), Tait was led to the conclusion that " the thermal and electric conductivities of metals varied inversely as the absolute temperature, and that the specific heat of electricity was directly proportional to the same."
This is the equation to a parabola, and is equivalent to the empirical formula of Avenarius, with this difference, that in Tait's formula the constants have all a simple and direct interpretation in relation to the theory.
Tait's theory and formula were subsequently assimilated by Avenarius (Pogg.
Difference from Tait's Formula.
The diagram constructed by Tait on this principle is fully explained and illustrated in many text-books, and has been generally adopted as embodying in a simple form the fundamental phenomena of thermoelectricity.
- Tait's verification of this hypothesis consisted in showing that the experimental curves of E.M.F.
It should be observed that these deviations are continuous, and differ in character from the abrupt changes observed by Tait in special cases.
These formulae are not so simple and convenient as Tait's, though apparently founded on a more simple assumption, but they frequently represent the observations more closely.
Pt.-Pt.- couple, if we calculate three formulae of the above types to satisfy the same pair of observations at ° -445° and 0°-z000° C., we shall find that the formula s =constant lies midway between that of Tait and that of Stansfield, but the difference between the formulae is of the same order as that between different observers.
Akad., 1899) have gone back to Tait's method at high temperatures, employing arcs of parabolas for limited ranges.
- Another method of verifying Tait's hypothesis, of greater difficulty but of considerable interest, is to measure the absolute value of the heat absorbed by the Thomson effect, and to observe whether or not it varies with the temperature.
The general results of the work appeared to support Tait's hypothesis that the effect was proportional to the absolute temperature, but direct thermoelectric tests do not appear to have been made on the specimens employed, which would have afforded a valuable confirmation by the comparison of the values of d 2 E/dT 2, as in Jahn's experiments.
These measurements, though subject to some uncertainty on account of the great experimental difficulties, are a very valuable confirmation of the accuracy of Thomson's theory, because they show that the magnitude of the effect is of the required order, but they cannot be said to be strongly in support of Tait's hypothesis.
Harviestoun Castle, about midway between Dollar and Tillicoultry, once belonged to the Tait family, and here Archibald Campbell Tait, archbishop of Canterbury, spent some of his boyhood.
C. Tait, Sermon in Memory of H.
C. Tait, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury), with three other senior tutors, denounced it as "suggesting and opening a way by which men might violate their solemn engagements to the university."
Tait a standard but unfinished Treatise on Natural Philosophy (1867).
Earlier in the day Gregor Tait won Scotland's third gold medal in the 200m backstroke.
Britain's Gregor Tait celebrated his 25th birthday in style on 20 April by winning gold in the men's 100m backstroke.
Second Conference (July 2 -27, 1878), convened and presided over by Archbishop Tait.
Tait that Newton had divined the principle of the conservation of energy, so far as it belongs purely to mechanics.
Pt.-Pt.- couple, if we calculate three formulae of the above types to satisfy the same pair of observations at Ã‚° -445Ã‚° and 0Ã‚°-z000Ã‚° C., we shall find that the formula s =constant lies midway between that of Tait and that of Stansfield, but the difference between the formulae is of the same order as that between different observers.
PETER GUTHRIE TAIT (1831-1901), Scottish physicist, was born at Dalkeith on the 28th of April 1831.
The first scientific paper that appears under Tait's name only was published in 1860.
As early as 1839 Stanley had joined with Tait, the future archbishop, in advocating certain university reforms. From 1846 onwards Jowett threw himself into this movement, which in 1848 became general amongst the younger and more thoughtful fellows, until it took effect in the commission of 1850 and the act of 1854.
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