Systems Sentence Examples

systems
  • All systems read normal.

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  • There are many different systems of heating by hot water circulating in pipes.

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  • It looks like he was attempting to arm the remaining weapons systems in the East.

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  • He could only steer them towards the Underground Railroad, the secretive systems of bunkers and tunnels running beneath major cities that were developed by the PMF during the ten-year war.

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  • But I am concerned about any other systems he decided to disable.

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  • The interior of the command hub was darkened, aside from the light of systems and screens on all the walls.

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  • She checked the status of the systems from her micro and downed dehydrated meal bars and anti-sleepers.

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  • She locked down all the systems and routed all the controls to her micro.

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  • We can maintain the systems from here, but almost everyone has fled west.

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  • Check all the systems and find that damn battalion we were expecting today!

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  • He traveled for a day and slid beneath the radars of Qatwal easily, having stolen the codes needed to jam their tracking systems during one of his scuffles with Kisolm.

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  • Lana moved away from the commo computer and started systems checks on the others.

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  • Reason is in his idea not the individual reason, but the fountain of natural truth, whose chief channels are the various systems of heathen philosophy, and more especially the thoughts of Plato and the methods of Aristotle.

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  • In earlier life he had been a zealous student of Kant and Hegel, and to the end he never ceased to cultivate the philosophic spirit; but he had little confidence in metaphysical systems, and sought rather to translate philosophy into the wisdom of life.

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  • The land mass of Australia rises to a mean height much less than that of any other continent; and the chief mountain systems are parallel to, and not far from, the coast-line.

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  • In most mechanical systems the working stresses acting between the parts can be determined when the relative positions of all the parts are known; and the energy which a system possesses in virtue of the relative positions of its parts, or its configuration, is classified as "potential energy," to distinguish it from energy of motion which we shall presently consider.

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  • The two classes obviously represent respectively systems of polar and rectangular coordinates.

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  • It is true that I was familiar with all literary braille in common use in this country--English, American, and New York Point; but the various signs and symbols in geometry and algebra in the three systems are very different, and I had used only the English braille in my algebra.

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  • Belleville is served by the Illinois Central, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Southern railways, also by extensive interurban electric systems; and a belt line to O'Fallon, Illinois, connects Belleville with the Baltimore & Ohio South Western railway.

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  • It is provided with a jetty, is the sea terminus of the railway systems, the residence of the governor, and has churches, schools, hospitals and large business houses.

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  • Then the man asked, "What systems?"

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  • There are several different systems of heating by steam - low pressure, high pressure and minus pressure.

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  • It is then used for one of the systems described above.

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  • This gives me confidence that, in the wisdom-seeking systems of the future, people will be willing to share data to make the algorithms better.

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  • As we move out from that defined center, we come to disorders and disabilities—impairments of bodily systems that are brought about by injury, disease, or genetics.

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  • As technology improves, all these processes and systems will improve and also fall in price.

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  • They were a soft, sable brown with specs of black that seemed to swirl in motion around her pupils like two tiny solar systems.

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  • Assess what damage you can and rebuild the critical infrastructure systems.

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  • She crossed to the communication master workstation and checked the systems.

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  • All of the weapons controllers had been taken from their positions all over the world and placed here, disguised as lesser systems.

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  • I had to get her training in hacking fed systems.

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  • Hence it will be seen that the difference between various forms of the so-called spark systems of wireless telegraphy is not very great.

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  • At the receiving station the differences in these systems depend chiefly upon variations in the actual form of the oscillation detector used, whether it be a loose contact or a thermal, electrolytic or magnetic detector.

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  • In France the scientific study of the subject was advanced by the work of Blondel, Tissot, Ducretet and others, and systems called the Ducretet and Rochefort set in operation.

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  • Each subscriber was given the exclusive use of a circuit as in other systems, and shared a call-wire with a number of other subscribers.

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  • After the withdrawal of the restriction against the companies erecting trunk wires it became evident that the development of the telephone services throughout the country would be facilitated by complete intercommunication and uniformity of systems, and that economies could be effected by concentration of management.

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  • The licence of the National Telephone Company was extended so as to be co-extensive with that of a competitive licence for any locality on condition that the company should afford intercommunication with the telephone systems of the new licensees.

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  • The Telegraph Act 1899, while providing for intercommunication between the telephone systems of the local authorities and the company, did not give the Post Office the right to demand intercommunication between its exchanges and those of the company.

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  • Hull and Portsmouth were the only municipal telephone systems working in 1907.

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  • The telephone system is considerably developed; in 1904, 92 urban and 66 inter - urban systems existed.

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  • Their generals substituted heavy-armed cavalry for the old militia, and introduced systems of campaigning which reduced the art of war to a game of skill.

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  • So far as a coherent body of theistic doctrine exists, it did not grow out of the great systems, but out of the lesser men who stood nearer to the apprehension of practical citizens.

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  • As in the Gymnoblastea, the difficulty of uniting the hydroid and medusan systems into one scheme of classification is very great in the present state of our knowledge.

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  • Yet since in these systems inquiries into the esse and fieri of the world are rarely distinguished with any precision, it will be necessary to indicate very briefly the general outlines of the system so far as they are necessary for understanding their bearing on the problems of evolution.

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  • Yet the first indistinct germ of such an idea appears to emerge in combination with that of creation in some of the ancient systems of theogony.

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  • Passing from mythology to speculation properly so called, we find in the early systems of philosophy of India theories of emanation which approach in some respects the idea of evolution.

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  • The worlds, or systems of worlds, which fill infinite space are continually being formed and destroyed.

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  • It is the same thought which collected in the cosmic space the divided masses into spheres, and combined these to solar systems; the same which caused the weather-beaten dust on the surface of our metallic planet to spring forth into living forms."

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  • The conception of evolution is being applied more rigidly to the comparative anatomy of organs and systems of organs.

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  • From the primitive uniform Systems. mass of undifferentiated assimilating cells, which we may conceive of as the starting-point of differentiation, though such an undifferentiated body is only actually realized in the thallus of the lower Algae, there is, (1) on the one hand, a specialization of a surface layer regulating the immediate relations of the plant with its surroundings.

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  • At the least there should be some consideration of four separate systems of discovery - the Eastern, in which Chinese and Japanese explorers acquired knowledge of the geography of Asia, and felt their way towards Europe and America; the Western, in which the dominant races of the Mexican and South American plateaus extended their knowledge of the American continent before Columbus; the Polynesian, in which the conquering races of the Pacific Islands found their way from group to group; and the Mediterranean.

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  • Lofty lines of fold mountains form the " backbones " of North America in the Rocky of Mountains and the west coast systems, of South America in the Cordillera of the Andes, of Europe in the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians and Caucasus, and of Asia in the mountains of Asia Minor, converging on the Pamirs and diverging thence in the Himalaya and the vast mountain systems of central and eastern Asia.

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  • Thus, for example, in a mountain range at right angles to a prevailing sea-wind, it is the land forms which determine that one side of the range shall be richly watered and deeply dissected by a complete system of valleys, while the other side is dry, indefinite in its valley systems, and sends none of its scanty drainage to the sea.

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  • In the south Semiryechensk embraces the intricate systems of the Ala-tau and the Tian-shan.

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  • Hanoi resembles a European city in the possession of wide well-paved streets and promenades, systems of electric light and drainage and a good water-supply.

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  • Although the northern and southern extremities of Goyaz lie within two great river systems - the Tocantins and Parana - the upper courses of which are navigable, both of them are obstructed by falls.

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  • The attempt to work out either of the reactions against Thomism in new theological systems is pretty much confined to Germany.

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  • If, in the Gnostic systems, these become daemonic or semi-daemonic forces, this points to the fact that a stronger monotheistic religion (the Iranian) had gained the upper hand over the Babylonian, and had degraded its gods to daemons.

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  • The water supply and drainage systems were introduced by the United States government, which controls the sanitation of the city, but has no other jurisdiction over it.

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  • The Ordovician and Silurian systems are widely developed, and it is most probable that, with the exception of the Archean continents of Finland and the S, the sea covered the whole of Russia.

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  • Owing to the orographical structure of the East-European plains, the river systems have become more than usually prominent and.

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  • These two systems of constructing railways - the plate-rail and the edge-rail - continued to exist side by side until well on in the 19th century.

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  • The relative merit of the two systems depends upon the question how we can secure the best efficiency and equity in the application of the principles thus far laid down.

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  • As railway building increased in response to traffic needs, and as the consolidation of short lines into continuous systems proceeded, legislation applicable to railways became somewhat broader in scope and more intelligent.

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  • Power was also given to prescribe uniform systems of accounts for all classes of carriers, and to employ special examiners to inspect the books and accounts.

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  • In most of the systems that have been proposed this result is attained by electrical regulation; in one, however, a mechanical method is adopted, the dynamo being so' hung that it allows the driving belt to slip when the speed of the axle exceeds a certain limit, the armature thus being rotated at an approximately constant speed.

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  • Holland, Hungary and Switzerland were all early in the field; and Belgium has succeeded, through the instrumentality of the semi-official Societe Nationale de Chemins de Fer Vicinaux, started in 1885, in developing one of the most complete systems of rural railway transport in the world.

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  • In the east Syrian, the Armenian and the Georgian churches, respectively Nestorian, Monophysite and Greek Orthodox in their tenets, the agape was from the first a survival, under Christian and Jewish forms, of the old sacrificial systems of a pre-Christian age.

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  • He soon learned to call to his aid the subsidiary sciences of geography and chronology, and before he was quite capable of reading them had already attempted to weigh in his childish balance the competing systems of Scaliger and Petavius, of Marsham and Newton.

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  • The state is crossed from east and west by three main lines of railway, parts of the great transcontinental systems, the Southern Pacific and the Western Pacific in the northern part of the state and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake in the southern.

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  • It is served by the Southern Pacific and the Santa Fe railway systems, both transcontinental; and is connected by electric lines (and ferry) with San Francisco, and by five electric lines with Oakland.

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  • For three hours the professional regiments of all sorts in the French lines rivalled one another in enduring the fire unmoved, the forerunners of the military systems of to-day, landsknechts, Picardie and Piedmont, showing the feudal gendarmerie that they too were men of honour.

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  • Should any one be sceptical as to the sufficiency of these laws to account for the present state of things, science can furnish no evidence strong enough to overthrow his doubts until the sun shall be found growing smaller by actual measurement, or the nebulae be actually seen to condense into stars and systems."

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  • The total thermal effect, too, which is associated with the transformation, must be the same, whether the transformation is conducted directly or indirectly (Hess's Law of Constant Heat Sums), since the thermal effect depends only on the intrinsic energies of the initial and final systems.

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  • Since the intrinsic energy of a substance varies with the conditions under which the substance exists, it is necessary, before proceeding to the practical application of any of the laws mentioned above, accurately to specify the conditions of the initial and final systems, or at least to secure that they shall not vary in the operations considered.

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  • In the above instance the sulphur is supposed to be in the solid rhombic modification, the oxygen and sulphur dioxide being in the gaseous state, and the initial and final systems being at the ordinary temperature.

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  • The later beds of the island belong to the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary systems. At the western foot of the Ida massif calcareous beds with corals, brachiopods (Rhvnchonella inconstans, &c.) have been found, the fossils indicating the horizon of the Kimmeridge clay.

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  • In general the Cretan constitution is characterized by a conservative spirit, and contrasts with the ultra-democratic systems. established in Greece and the Balkan States.

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  • In 1646 the king joined the Scottish army; and, after retiring with them to Newcastle, he sent for Henderson, and discussed with him the two systems of church government in a number of papers.

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  • The principal systems of railways are the Southern, the Atlantic Coast Line, the Norfolk & Southern and the Seaboard Air Line.

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  • But about the time when it began to be supplanted by Arabic, two systems of vowel-signs were invented, one for the West Syrians, who borrowed the forms of Greek vowels, and the other more elaborate for the East Syrians, who used combinations of dots.

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  • In the East, mysticism is not so much a specific phenomenon as a natural deduction from the dominant philosophic systems, and the normal expression of religious feeling in the lands in which it appears.

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  • St Petersburg, again, is connected with Greenwich by European systems of triangulation; and the Greenwich meridian is adopted by Russia as the zero for all her longitude values.

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  • Further geodetic connexion with the European systems remains to be accomplished.

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  • In connexion with the Indian triangulation minor extensions carried out on systems involving more or less irregularity have been pushed outwards on all sides.

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  • Egyptian influence within the Aegean area seems certain, and the theory that Greek writing and systems for reckoning time are Babylonian in origin has not been disproved, though the history of the alphabet is more complex than was supposed.

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  • Such systems have been elaborated chiefly by modern thinkers, but the germs of the ideas are found widely spread in the older Oriental philosophies and in pre-Christian European thought.

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  • Generally speaking, pessimism may be found in all pantheistic and materialistic systems. It is important, however, to point out an essential distinction.

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  • Through the Tuburi marshes there is a water connexion between the Benue (Niger) and Shari (Lake Chad) systems.

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  • After discussing the evolution of the different systems of cultivation, the nature of exchange and barter, money, and the functions of capital, he sets forth the theory of the impotunique, i.e.

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  • So, again, it is impossible to make a useful comparative estimate of the advantages and disadvantages of the transport systems of England, the United States and Germany, unless we keep constantly in view the very different geographical, military and political conditions which these systems have to satisfy.

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  • In times past, and to a less extent in our own day, philosophical conceptions have formed the basis of great systems of politics and economics.

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  • This is equally true both of the pictographic and the linear Aegean systems. Its nearest affinities are with the "Asianic" scripts, preserved to us by Hittite, Cypriote and south-west Anatolian (Pamphylian, Lycian and Carian) inscriptions.

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  • If British civil and parliamentary systems were to be brought to the challenge of force, he could only say " Let us go forward together and put these grave matters to the proof."

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  • Ac. Sc. Turin, ideas in this are said to have been taken from Illiger; but the two systems seem to be wholly distinct.

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  • To enable the reader to compare the several groups of Nitzsch with the families of L'Herminier, the numbers applied by the latter to his families are suffixed in square brackets to the names of the former; and, disregarding the order of sequence, which is here immaterial, the essential correspondence of the two systems is worthy of all attention, for it obviously means that these two investigators, starting from different points, must have been on the right track, when they so often coincided as to the limits of what they considered to be, and what we are now almost justified in calling, natural groups.'

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  • These three systems are essentially identical; but, plausible as they may be at the first aspect, they have been found to be practically useless, though such of their characters as their upholders have advanced with truth deserve attention.

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  • Along the coast-line, roughly speaking between the Apennines at Rimini and the Carnic Alps at Trieste, three main systems of lagoons were thus created, the lagoon of Grado or Marano to the east, the lagoon of Venice in the middle, and the lagoon of Comacchio to the south-west (for plan, see Harbour).

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  • As the building of steam railways lessened, the building of suburban and interurban electric railways was begun, and systems of these railways have been rapidly extended until all the more populous districts are connected by them.

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  • The scientific training which Bacon had received, mainly from the study of the Arab writers, showed him the manifold defects in the systems reared by these doctors.

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  • Boston is the terminus of the Boston & Albany (New York Central), the Old Colony system of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, and the Boston & Maine railway systems, each of which controls several minor roads once in dependent.

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  • The two huge steam-railway stations of the Boston & Maine and the Boston & Albany systems also deserve mention.

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  • Theological systems were largely concerned.

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  • It is impossible here to deal with the systems of land tenure in force in other countries.

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  • In conclusion it may be stated that the two systems of drilling for petroleum with which by far the largest amount of work has been, and is being done, are the American or rope Comparison system, and the Canadian or rod system.

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  • The former of Systems. is not only employed in the United States, but is in use in Upper Burma, Java, Rumania and elsewhere.

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  • With the exception of the extreme north (Commagene), which is shut off by a barrier of hills and belongs to foreign hydrographic systems, the whole country is roughly a gable-shaped plateau, falling north and south from a medial ridge, which crosses Syria at about its central point.

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  • Between these systems run the main rivers; and these naturally rise near the medial ridge, in the lacustrine district of el-Buka`a, or Coelesyria, and flow in opposite directions.

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  • The springs often merge into lakes, and lake systems are usually the sources of the rivers, Lake George being the principal source of the St Johns, and Lake Kissimmee of the Kissimmee, while a number of smaller lakes are the source of the Oklawaha, one of the most beautiful of the Floridian rivers.

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  • There are no specialized sense-organs or vascular or respiratory systems. There is a wide body-cavity, but as this has no connexion with the renal or reproductive organs it cannot be regarded as a coelom, but probably is a blood-space or haemocoel.

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  • Similar systems of symbols, but elaborated to include compounds, appear in Greek MSS.

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  • After careful study of playground systems a bond issue of $800,000 was voted (1919) to initiate a constructive development of parks and playgrounds at public expense.

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  • There also exists an extensive class of compounds termed the " heterocyclic series " - these compounds are derived from ring systems containing atoms other than carbon; this class is more generally allied to the aromatic series than to the aliphatic.

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  • Most of the simple ring systems which contain two adjacent carbon atoms may suffer fusion with any other ring (also containing two adjacent carbon atoms) with the production of nuclei of greater complexity.

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  • Systems which are generally unsaturated compounds, often of considerable stability, and behave as nuclei; these compounds constitute a well-individualized class exhibiting closer affinities to benzenoid substances than to the open-chain series.

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  • True ring systems, which possess the characters of organic nuclei, do not come into existence in threeand four-membered rings, their first appearance being in penta-atomic rings.

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  • Six-membered ring systems can be referred back, in a manner similar to the above, to pyrone, penthiophene and pyridine, the substances containing a ring of five carbon atoms, and an oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen atom respectively.

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  • If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.

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  • Between these two systems of hills lies the fertile undulating tract known as the Wetterau, watered by the Wetter, a tributary of the Main.

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  • An elaborate universal alphabet, abounding in diacritical marks, has been devised for the purpose by Professor Lepsius, and various other systems have been adopted for Oriental languages, and by certain missionary societies, adapted to the languages in which they teach.

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  • His encyclical issued at Easter 1902, and described by himself as a kind of will, was mainly a reiteration of earlier condemnations of the Reformation, and of modern philosophical systems, which for their atheism and materialism he makes responsible for all existing moral and political disorders.

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  • Blair, in comparing the Greek and Roman systems of slavery, points with justice to the greater facility and frequency of emancipation as the great superiority of the latter.

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  • Three of the most important slave systems still remained in which no steps towards emancipation had been taken - those of the Southern United States, of Cuba and of Brazil.

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  • The practical result of his work was the virtual revolutionizing of the common school system of Massachusetts, and indirectly of the common school systems of other states.

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  • For some the influence of this association was of a general nature, merely modifying their conception of the moral life; others adopted to a greater or less extent some of the peculiar ideas of the current systems of philosophy.

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  • That they did not found a universal religion was due, in part at least, to the fact that the time was not ripe for such a faith; but they left material that was taken up into later systems.

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  • Levee systems on some of the interior or tributary rivers, aggregating some 602 m., are exclusively built and maintained by the state.

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  • In 1902 nearly one-eighth of the acreage irrigated was by systems supplied from wells.

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  • The problem of inland waterways has always been a most important one in northern, eastern and southern Louisiana, where there are systems of improved bayous, lakes and canals which, with the levees, make this region something like Holland, on a greater scale.

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  • This evolution was little marked, so similar in large parts were the systems of France and Spain (although in other parts, due to the Gothic element in the Spanish, they were very different) - a similarity which explains the facility with which O'Reilly and his successors introduced the Spanish laws after 1769.

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  • The introduction of English law, and the changes made in the judicial and legal systems of Louisiana after 1804 have already been described.

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  • The three main systems are known in Cuba as the occidental, central and oriental.

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  • In extent, in altitude, in mass, in complexity and in geological interest, it is much the most important of the three systems. Almost all the mountains are very bold.

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  • The region between the lines of the two coastal systems is a much dissected plateau, imperfectly explored.

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  • The telegraph and telephone systems are owned by the government.

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  • These three systems seem once to have formed a continuous series; the menhirs, many of which have been broken up for road-mending and other purposes, have diminished in number by some thousands in modern times.

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  • The systems, both of assessment and collection, were equitable and far from oppressive in theory.

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  • The systems of guarantee above described are clearly faulty, since theoretically the railway company which ran no trains at all would, up to the limit of its guarantee, make the largest profits.

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  • Equally minute is his knowledge of the systems of the Christian heretics.

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  • An extensive water-parting in the north central part of the state, an elevation whose inclination is almost imperceptible, determines the course of three great continental river systems. From this central elevation the land slopes off in all directions, rising again in the extreme north-east corner, where the rugged granite uplift in Cook county, known as the Misquah Hills, reaches an altitude of 2230 ft., the highest point in the state; and in the south-west corner, where an altitude of 1800 ft.

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  • In 1883-1886 Bateson showed by his embryological researches that the Enteropneusta exhibit chordate (vertebrate) affinities in respect of the coelomic, skeletal and nervous systems as well as in regard to the respiratory system, and, further, that the gill-slits are formed upon a plan similar to that of the gillslits of Amphioxus, being subdivided by tongue-bars which depend from the dorsal borders of the slits.

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  • Although rocks wholly or in large part vitreous are known from very ancient geological systems, such as the Devonian, they are certainly most frequent in recent volcanic countries.

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  • Considered thermodynamically, voltaic cells must be divided into reversible and non-reversible systems. If the slow processes of diffusion be ignored, the Daniell cell already described may be taken as a type of a reversible cell.

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  • The cell, together with this balancing electromotive force, is thus a reversible system in true equilibrium, and the thermodynamical reasoning applicable to such systems can be used to examine its properties.

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  • Other_ systems are the herring-bone plan of a vertical channel with lateral connecting channels about i ft.

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  • They all crystallize in the monoclinic system, often, however, in forms closely resembling those of the rhombohedral or orthorhombic systems. Crystals have usually the form of hexagonal or rhomb-shaped scales, plates or prisms, with plane FIG.

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  • Hence in all there are mn such systems. If, therefore, we have a third equation, and we substitute each system of values in it successively and form the product of the mn expressions thus formed, we obtain a function which vanishes if any one system of values, common to the first two equations, also satisfies the third.

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  • Taking the systems of quantities to be / al, a2, a3,...

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  • The analogous formula appertaining to n systems of quantities which Vienna Transactions, t.

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  • The similar theorem for n systems of quantities can be at once written down.

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  • This fact is of extreme importance in the theory of algebraic forms, and is easily representable whatever be the number of the systems of quantities.

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  • He successfully considers the systems of two and three simultaneous ternary quadratics.

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  • Remark, too, that we are in association with non-unitary symmetric functions of two systems of quantities which will be denoted by partitions in brackets ()a, ()b respectively.

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  • Their respective followers, and more especially cultured laymen, lacking the capacity for original work, seeking for a solution in some kind of compromise, and possibly failing to grasp the essentials of the controversy, take refuge in a combination of those elements in the opposing systems which seem to afford a sound practical theory.

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  • Thus men came to adopt from all systems the doctrines which best pleased them.

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  • This assumes that every philosophical truth is already contained somewhere in the existing systems. If, however, as it would surely be rash to deny, there still remains philosophical truth undiscovered, but discoverable by human intelligence, it is evident that eclecticism is not the only philosophy.

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  • In this narrower sense the word has played a great part in ethical systems, which have spoken of the social or parental "affections" as in some sense a part of moral obligation.

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  • The central nervous systems of Limulus and of Scorpio present closer agreement in structure than can be found when a Crustacean is compared with either.

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  • They are figured and their importance for the first time recognized in the memoir on the muscular and skeletal systems of Limulus and Scorpio by Lankester, Beck and Bourne (4).

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  • In this part of its course the river receives from the south the streams, often intermittent, which rise on the northern slopes of the Stormberg, Zuurberg and Sneeuwberg ranges - the mountain chain which forms the water-parting between the coast and inland drainage systems of South Africa.

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  • In this region,` nevertheless, skeleton river systems cover the country north and south.

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  • Outside the two great river systems of the Amazon and river Plate (Rio de la Plata), which are treated under their respective titles, the rivers of Brazil are limited to the numerous small streams and three or four large rivers which flow eastward from the plateau regions directly into the Atlantic. The Amazon system covers the entire north-western part of the republic, the state of Amazonas, nearly the whole of Para and the greater part of Matto Grosso being drained by this great river and its tributaries.

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  • This is one of the most important fluvial systems of Brazil, but its economic value is impaired by the great waterfalls of Guayra, or Sete Quedas, and Uribu-punga, and by the rapids and waterfalls in the majority of its affluents near their junction with the main stream.

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  • The crystalline rocks are succeeded by beds which have been referred to the Cambrian and Silurian systems. In the valley of the Trombetas, one of the northern tributaries of the Amazon, fossils have been found which indicate either the top of the Ordovician or the bottom of the Silurian.

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  • Elsewhere the identification of the Silurian and older systems does not rest on palaeontological evidence.

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  • A great part of the river systems of the country with their flooded areas are highly favourable to the development of reptilian life.

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  • The government lines extend from Para to the Argentine and Uruguayan frontiers, where they connect with the telegraph systems of those republics, and from Rio de Janeiro westward across country, in great part unsettled, to the capitals of Goyaz and Matto Grosso.

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  • National and international money order systems are also in operation.

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  • The military organization is provided with an elaborate code and systems of military courts, which culminate in a supreme military tribunal composed of 15 judges holding office for life, of which 8 are general army officers, 4 general naval officers and 3 civil judges.

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  • From the first day that he assumed office, President Moraes showed that he intended to suppress praetorian systems and reduce militarism to a minimum.

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  • The North British station is Waverley, to which the trains of the Great Northern, North Eastern and the Midland systems run from England.

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  • Nevertheless it retained a separate administration for more than two centuries, until the general reforms of the grand-duke Pietro Leopoldo, the French domination, and finally the restoration swept away all differences between the Sienese and Florentine systems of government.

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  • Later, in the systems of the great Schoolmen, the rights of reason are fully established and acknowledged.

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  • The scholastic systems are not the free products of speculation; in the main they are summae theologiae, or they are modified versions of Aristotle.

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  • The two systems were nothing more as yet than two different ways of interpreting a phrase of Porphyry, and they remained unnoticed in the for nearly two centuries not so much for its dialectics S' and philosophy as for its humanistic culture.

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  • The views which he expressed in his commentary on the pseudo-Boetian treatise, De Trinitate, are certainly much more important than the mediatizing systems already referred to.

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  • But the difficulties which embarrassed a former age in trying to conceive the mode in which the universal exists in the individual reappear in the systems of the present period as the problem of the principium individuationis.

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  • There are also notices of the leading systems in Milman's History of Latin Christianity; and the same writers are considered from the theological side in many works devoted to theology, and the history of dogma.

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  • Its commanding position at the head of the Gulf of Quarnero, and spacious new harbour works, as also its immediate connexions with both the Austrian and Hungarian railway systems, render it specially advantageous as a commercial port.

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  • Another useful set of graphs comprises those which give the relation between the expressions of a length, volume, &c., on different systems of measurement.

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  • Kuhn (1750-1751) and Jean Robert Argand (1806) were completed by Karl Friedrich Gauss, and the formulation of various systems of vector analysis by Sir William Rowan Hamilton, Hermann Grassmann and others, followed.

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  • Systems Of Classification Morphography includes the systematic exploration and tabulation of the facts involved in the recognition of all the recent and extinct kinds of animals and their distribution in space and time.

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  • All such single-fact systems have proved to be departures from the true line of o€ growth of the zoological system which was shaping itself year by year - unknown to those who so shaped it - as a genealogical tree.

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  • The only assumption here involved is the evidently legitimate one that, when two systems of variously distributed motion at the lamina are superposed, the corresponding motions in front are superposed also.

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  • Each of these systems is separated from the other by a strong unconformity.

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  • This was first suggested by Thomas Young, who showed that the rays producing the bows consisted of two systems, which, although emerging in parallel directions, traversed different paths in the drop. Destructive interference between these superposed rays will therefore occur, and, instead of a continuous maximum illumination in the direction of minimum deviation, we should expect to find alternations of brightness and darkness.

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  • These ranges appear to belong to two systems. The Cordillera of Merida is one of the branches of the Andes, and the strike of the folds which compose it is usually from south-west to north-east.

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  • The two systems of folds meet about Barquisimeto, where the structure becomes very complex and is not thoroughly understood.

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  • There is considerable difference of opinion as to the chronology of the succeeding beds, and the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary systems is drawn at various horizons by different observers.

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  • But the improved organization, better communications and supplies, superior moral, and once again the breech-loader versus a standing target, which caused the Prussian successes, at least give us an opportunity of comparing the old and the new systems under similar conditions, and even thus the principle of the "armed nation" achieved the decision in a period of time which, for the old armies, was wholly insufficient.

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  • The two systems appear to have existed side by side, but to have been distinct, and if they were ever united it must have been before the times of which we have any record.

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  • He found the medical profession of his time split up into a number of sects, medical science confounded under a multitude of dogmatic systems, the social status and moral integrity of physicians degraded.

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  • The nature of the struggle between the rival systems may be well illustrated by a formidable controversy about the rules for bleeding in acute diseases.

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  • The movement led rather to the formation of schools or systems of thought, which under various names lasted on into the 18th century, while the belief in the utility or necessity of schools and systems lasted much longer.

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  • Still less was his mind warped by either of the two great systems, the classical and the chemical, which then divided the medical world.

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  • The medicine of the i 8th century is notable, like that of the latter part of the 17th, for the striving after complete theoretical systems. The influence of the iatro-physical school was by no means exhausted; and in England, especially through the indirect influence of Sir Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) great astronomical generalizations, it took on a mathematical aspect, and is sometimes known as iatro-mathematical.

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  • George Ernest Stahl (1660-1734) was for more than twenty years professor of medicine at Halle, and thus a colleague of Hoffmann, whom he resembled in constructing a complete theoretical system, though their systems had little or nothing in common.

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  • From the subtleties of rival systems it is a satisfaction to turn to two movements in the medicine of the 18th century which, though they did not extinguish the spirit of system-making, opened up paths of investigation by which the systems were ultimately superseded.

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  • The same academical influences as surrounded the Dutch and German founders of systems were doubtless partly concerned in leading him to form the plan of a comprehensive system of medicine.

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  • From a theoretical point of view Hahnemann's is one of the abstract systems, pretending to universality, which modern medicine neither accepts nor finds it worth while to controvert.

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  • Laennec, it is hardly too much to say that this simple and purely mechanical invention has had more influence on the development of modern medicine than all the "systems" evolved by the most brilliant intellects of the 18th century.

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  • The rise of speculative philosophy in Greece was coincident with the beginning of prose composition, and many of the earliest philosophers wrote in the prose of the Ionic dialect; others, however, and especially the writers of the Greek colonies in Italy and Sicily, expounded their systems in continuous poems composed in the epic hexameter.

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  • As representative of Japan at the Paris Exhibition of 1878, he took the opportunity afforded by his mission to study the financial systems of the great European powers.

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  • He was good-natured when not crossed, generous to dependents who made themselves useful to him, and indefatigable in defending the cause of those who were oppressed by the systems with which he was at war.

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  • The Great Northern, Midland and London & North-Western systems have adjacent termini, namely King's Cross, St Pancras and Euston, in Euston Road, St Pancras.

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  • These lines, especially the southern lines, the Great Eastern, Great Northern and South-Western carry a very heavy suburban traffic. Systems of joint lines and running powers are maintained to afford communication between the main lines.

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  • Thus the West London Extension line carries local traffic between the North Western and Great Western and the Brighton and South-Western systems, while the Metropolitan Extension through the City connects the Midland and Great Northern with the South-Eastern & Chatham lines.

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  • The railways whose systems are mainly or wholly confined within the metropolitan area are as follows.

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  • The Metropolitan and the District lines within London are for the most part underground (this feature supplying the title of " the Underground " familiarly applied to both systems); the tunnels being constructed of brick.

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  • The Post Office thereupon instituted a separate system of exchanges and lines, intercommunication between the two systems being arranged.

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  • There are actually two distinct systems, north and south of the Thames, having separate outfall works on the north and south banks of the river, at Barking and Crossness.

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  • During these periods other companies had a surplus of water, and in 1899 an act was passed providing for the interconnexion of systems. The Thames and Lea are the principal sources of supply, but the Kent and (partially) the New River Company draw supplies from springs.

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  • The systems of filtration employed by the different companies varied in efficacy, but both the Royal Commissions decided that water as supplied to the consumer was generally of a very high standard of purity.

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  • In the working of thick deposits the block of ground between two levels is divided into horizontal sections or floors which are worked either from above downward or from of Thick the bottom upward; in the first case the separate floors are worked by one of the caving systems; in the second, generally with the aid of filling.

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  • This is the cheapest of the three caving systems, but is applicable only when the deposit lies between walls of very solid rock, as otherwise wall rock is liable to cave with and become mixed with ore, which adds greatly to the expense of handling.

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  • In the endless-rope systems cars run singly or in short trains, curves are disadvantageous, unless of long radius, speed is relatively slow, and branch roads not so easily operated as with tail-rope.

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  • The tail-rope plant is the more expensive, but for similar conditions the cost of working the two systems is nearly the same.

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  • The terrible effects of fire-damp have led to the adoption of elaborate systems of ventilation, as the most effective safeguard against these explosions is the dilution and removal of the fire-damp as promptly and completely as possible.

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  • From a little ice-bound lake called Gaz Kul, or Karambar, which lies on the crest of the Hindu Kush near its northern origin at the head of the Taghdumbash Pamir, two very important river systems (those of Chitral and Hunza) are believed to originate.

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  • At the time of the British annexation of Burma there were some old irrigation systems in the Kyaukse and Minbu districts, which had been allowed to fall into disrepair, and these have now been renewed and extended.

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  • There are two systems of annealing.

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  • The old and the new systems of making a wine-glass illustrate almost all the ordinary processes of glass working.

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  • By this principle Ferguson endeavours to reconcile all moral systems. With Hobbes and Hume he admits the power of self-interest or utility, and makes it enter into morals as the law of self-preservation.

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  • For the views of other writers on the chronology, see § viii., Chronological Systems. The Babylonian Dynasties from cir.

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  • Thus all historians are agreed with regard to the Babylonian chronology back to the year 747 B.C., and with regard to that of Assyria back to the year 911 B.C. It is in respect of the periods anterior to these two dates that different writers have propounded differing systems of chronology, and, as might be imagined, the earlier the period we examine the greater becomes the discrepancy between the systems proposed.

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  • The systems with the highest dates are placed first in the list; where a writer has produced more than one system, these are grouped together, the highest dates proposed by him determining his place in the series.

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  • Omitting that of Oppert, which to some extent stands in a category by itself, the systems fall into three groups.

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  • But there is no evidence for his "cyclic date" of 2517 B.C., on which his system depended, and there is little doubt that the beginning of the historical period of Berossus is to be set, not in 2506 B.C., but in 2232 B.C. The two systems of Sayce,' that of Rogers,' the three systems of Winckler, 5 both those of Delitzsch, 6 and that of Maspero, 7 may be grouped together, for they are based on the same principle.

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  • A second group of systems may be said to consist of those proposed by Lehmann-Haupt, Marquart, Peiser, and Rost, for these writers attempted to get over the discrepancies in the data by emending some of the figures furnished by the inscriptions.

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  • A third group of systems comprises those proposed by Hommel and Niebuhr, for their reductions in the date assigned to Dynasty I.

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  • In his second and third systems (1895 and 1898),' and in his second alternative scheme of 1901 (see below), he abandoned this proposal and adopted a suggestion of Halevy that Dynasty III.

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  • Messerschmidt, editor of the best collection of Hittite texts up to date, made a tabula rasa of all systems of decipherment, asserting that only one sign out of two hundred the bisected oval, determinative of divinity - had been interpreted with any certainty; and in view of this opinion, coupled with the steady refusal of historians to apply the results of any Hittite decipherment, and the obvious lack of satisfactory verification, without which the piling of hypothesis on hypothesis may only lead further from probability, there is no choice but to suspend judgment for some time longer as to the inscriptions and all deductions drawn from them.

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  • The old systems of raising revenue no longer corresponded to the needs of the republic, and as early as 1336 the various loans made to the state were consolidated into one national debt (monte).

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  • There are three principal systems of pruning vines, termed the long-rod, the short-rod and the spur systems, and good crops have been obtained by each of them.

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  • There are various systems of purging refined, or socalled refined, sugar in centrifugals, all designed with a view of obtaining the sugar in lumps or tablets, so as to appear as if it had been turned out from moulds and not from centrifugals, and great ingenuity and large sums of money have been spent in perfecting these different systems, with more or less happy results.

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  • As in the beetroot factories, these machines work on different systems, but nearly all are arranged to turn out sugar in lumps or tablets presenting an appearance similar to that of loaf sugar made in moulds, as this kind of sugar meets with the greatest demand.

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  • While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.

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  • They drew from it their titles and ranks and many of their regulative ideas, though these were formed into more definite and regular systems than ever existed in feudalism proper.

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  • Along the centre lies the watershed between the basins of the Main and the Saale, belonging to the systems of the Rhine and Elbe respectively.

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  • The third book, De Falsa Sapientia, describes and criticizes the various systems of prevalent philosophy.

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  • In spite of strong prejudice, he shows remarkable breadth of view and appreciation of merit in systems the most hostile to his own.

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  • A, Fasciola hepatica, from the ventral surface (X 2); the alimentary and nervous systems only shown on the left side of the figure, the excretory only on the right; a, right main branch of the intestine; c, a diverticulum; g, lateral ganglion; n, lateral nerve; o, mouth; p, pharynx; s, ventral sucker; cs, cirrus sac; d, left anterior dorsal excretory vessel; m, main vessel; v, left anterior ventral trunk; x, excretory pore.

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  • Comte is in no true sense a follower of Saint-Simon, but it was undoubtedly Saint-Simon who launched him, to take Comte's own word, by suggesting the two starting-points of what grew into the Comtist system - first, that political phenomena are as capable of being grouped under laws as other phenomena; and second, that the true destination of philosophy must be social, and the true object of the thinker must be the reorganization of the moral, religious and political systems. We can readily see what an impulse these far-reaching conceptions would give to Comte's meditations.

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  • The exaltation of Humanity into the throne occupied by the Supreme Being under monotheistic systems made all the rest of Comte's construction easy enough.

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  • The total value 1 of all the mineral products of the state in 1907 was $937,3 8 4, and in 1908, $708,694, and of these totals granite systems, causing the formation of numerous lakes and of the waterfalls which determined the situation of many of the manufacturing cities of the state.

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  • Commercial interests have been almost entirely destroyed, partly because of the abolition of the slave trade and partly because of the embargo and the war of 1812, but mainly because the cities of the state are unfavourably situated to be the termini of interstate railway systems. Providence, owing to its superior water-power facilities, has therefore become one of the leading manufacturing centres of New England, whereas Newport is now known only as a fashionable summer resort.

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  • With this plan in view he began (1769) a tour through France, England, Holland, &c., for the purpose of collecting information respecting their systems of education.

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  • In his eyes, institutions, customs, systems, so long as they had not become actively mischievous, were good because they were old.

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  • It appears in various forms in Indian philosophy, and is the characteristically oriental element in syncretic systems like Neoplatonism and Gnosticism.

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  • In the first of these books his nomenclature is unfortunate; his division of ethical theories into the " unpsychological," " idiopsychological," and the " hetero-psychological," is incapable of historical justification; his exposition of single ethical systems is, though always interesting and suggestive, often arbitrary and inadequate, being governed by dialectical exigencies rather than historical order and perspective.

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  • Greenough, employs two systems for setting up the image, in order to avoid the pseudoscopic effect.

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  • There are two systems of water-works, one being owned by the village.

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  • The Pythagorean and Eleatic systems of philosophy had their chief seat in Magna Graecia.

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  • The UPPER GANGES CANAL and the LOWER GANGES CANAL are the two principal systems of perennial irrigation in the United Provinces.

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  • As a preacher, his message was apparently simple; his two great convictions were the fatherhood of God, and that all religious systems which had any stability lasted because of a portion of truth which had to be disentangled from the error differentiating them from.

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  • The task of the chronologer was thus simplified and reduced to a study and comparison of dates in a few leading systems.

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  • The most important of these systems in what we call ancient times were the Babylonian, the Greek and the Roman.

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  • The right wing of the German Seventeenth Army had been forced to fall back some 12 m., abandoning in succession a series of strong and well-fortified defensive systems, the loss of which had an instant effect on the situation to the south.

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  • On the south of the plateau we find a similar succession of narrow valleys dividing parallel flexures, or anticlinals, formed under similar geological conditions to those which appear to be universally applicable to the Himalaya, the Hindu Kush, and the Indus frontier mountain systems. From one of these long lateral valleys the Hari Rud receives its principal tributary, which joins the main river below Obeh, 180 m.

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  • The Brenner, too, being on the main watershed of the Alps, separates the two main river systems of which Tirol is composed.

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  • A remarkable feature of the solar system, which distinguishes it from all other known systems in the universe, is the symmetry of arrangement and motion of its greater bodies.

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  • The religious views of Servetus, marked by strong individuality, are not easily described in terms of current systems. His denial of the tripersonality of the Godhead and the eternity of the Son, along with his anabaptism, made his system abhorrent to Catholics and Protestants alike, in spite of his intense Biblicism, his passionate devotion to the person of Christ, and his Christocentric scheme of the universe.

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  • Geologists are agreed that littoral and hemipelagic deposits similar to those now forming are to be found in all geological systems, but the existence in the rocks of eupelagic deposits and especially of the abysmal red clay, though viewed by some as probable, is totally denied by others.

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  • He had read widely and deeply, and in his own writings we come across many expressions familiar to us in earlier systems. Yet his philosophy is no eclecticism.

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  • In Oxford he was allowed to hold a disputation with some learned doctors on the rival merits of the Copernican and so-called Aristotelian systems of the universe, and, according to his own report, had an easy victory.

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  • This is actually the case; the Carboniferous, Cretaceous and Jurassic systems (qq.v.) contain coal-bearing strata though in unequal degrees,- the first being known as the Coal Measures proper, while the others are of small economic value in Great Britain, though more productive in workable coals on the continent of Europe.

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  • These may, however, all be considered as modifications of two systems, viz.

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  • The great increase in the size of the pillars in the best modern collieries worked upon this principle has, however, done much to approximate the two systems to an equality in other respects.

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  • It is the centre of the whole northern and eastern canal systems, and by means of the short canal, the Willemsvaart, which joins the Zwarte Water and the Ysel, has regular steamboat communication with Kampen and Amsterdam.

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  • The principal railway systems are the Southern Pacific, the Santa Fe, the Texas & Pacific and the Colorado & Southern.

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  • No other system of atoms can occupy the same region of space at the same time, because before it could do so the mutual action of the atoms would have caused a repulsion between the two systems insuperable by any force which we can command.

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  • More than a century was required to invent methods of investigating the conditions of the motion of systems of bodies such as Descartes imagined.

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  • Let us suppose that an infinite number of exactly similar systems start simultaneously from all possible values of pi, q1,

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  • Thus after a time dt the values of the coordinates and momenta of the small group of systems under consideration will lie within a range such that pi is between pi +pidt and pi +dp,+(pi+ap?dpi) dt „ qi +gidt „ qi+dqi+ (qi +agLdgi) dt, Thus the extension of the range after the interval dt is dp i (i +aidt) dq i (I +?gidt).

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  • This result at once disposes of the possibility of all the systems acquiring any common characteristic in the course of their motion through a tendency for their co-ordinates or momenta to concentrate about any particular set, or series of sets, of values.

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  • Let us imagine that the systems had the initial values of their co-ordinates and momenta so arranged that the number of systems for which the co-ordinates and momenta were within a given range was proportional simply to the extension of the range.

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  • Then the result proves that the values of the coordinates and momenta remain distributed in this way throughout the whole motion of the systems. Thus, if there is any characteristic which is common to all the systems after the motion has been in progress for any interval of time, this same characteristic must equally have been common to all the systems initially.

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  • It must, in fact, be a characteristic of all possible states of the systems.

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  • It is accordingly clear that there can be no property common to all systems, but it can be shown that when the system contains a gas (or any other aggregation of similar molecules) as part of it there are properties which are common to all possible states, except for a number which form an insignificant fraction of the whole.

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  • Speaking loosely, we may say that there is a probability P/(P+p), amounting to certainty in the limit, that one of these systems, selected at random, will be in the normal state after a sufficient time has elapsed.

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  • Of inland river systems there are four - one draining to Victoria Nyanza, another to Tanganyika, third to Nyasa and a fourth to Rukwa.

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  • Before entering on his new duties he travelled through the greater part of Germany, studying the systems of education which were in use, and visiting the seminaries of the Jesuits as well as those of the Lutheran and Reformed churches.

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  • In some cases they introduced new systems of ecclesiastical organization, and in all they sought to justify their innovations by an appeal from the Church's tradition to the Scriptures.

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  • There is, however, a radical difference between the two systems. The standpoint of the Aristotelian classification is the predication of one universal concerning another.

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  • It was, however, Berkeley who first sought to utilize the conclusions that were implicit in Locke's starting-point to disprove " the systems of impious and profane persons which exclude all freeedom, intelligence, and design from the formation of things, and instead thereof make a selfexistent, stupid, unthinking substance the root and origin of all beings."

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  • There seems to be, however, not a unity but a duality in its plan of construction, for the two parts, North and South America, resemble each other not only in outline but, roughly speaking, in geological evolution also; and the resemblances thus discovered are the more remarkable when it is considered how extremely small is the probability that among all the possible combinations of ancient mountain systems, modern mountain systems and plains, two continents out of five should present so many points of correspondence.

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  • Here, as usual, the British systems of measures produce a difficulty which would not arise under the metric system.

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  • The desire to learn what the future has in store is nearly as old as the sense of responsibility in mankind, and has been the parent of many empirical systems of fortune-telling, which profess to afford positive knowledge whereby the affairs of life may be regulated, and the dangers of failure foretold.

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  • Most of these systems come into the category of occult pursuits, as they are the interpretations of phenomena on the ground of fanciful presumptions, by an appeal to unreal or at least unverifiable influences and relations.

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  • One of the oldest of this large family of predictive systems is that of palmistry, whereby the various irregularities and flexion-folds of the skin of the hand are interpreted as being associated with mental or moral dispositions and powers, as well as with the current of future events in the life of the individual.

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  • Some of the older writers appealed to Scripture as supporting their systems, especially the texts Exod.

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  • While its principle of congregational autonomy has been gaining ground in the more centralized systems, Another disability, acutely felt by all Nonconformists, created by the act of 1662, viz.

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  • But Professor Park has obtained Jurassic fossils in the Maitai series; so that it will probably be ultimately divided between the Carboniferous and Jurassic. The two systems should, however, be separable by an unconformity, unless the Maitai series also includes representatives of the Kaihiku series (the New Zealand Permian), and of the Wairoa series, which is Triassic.

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  • New Zealand includes representatives of all the three Mesozoic systems. The Hokanui group comprises the Triassic Wairoa .and Otapira beds, and the Jurassic Mataura beds.

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  • Undoubtedly also commercial confidence was restored by the reconstruction in 1895 of the Bank of New Zealand, and activity has been stimulated by large public loans, while more cautious banking and the systems of taxation and rating on land values, adopted in 1891 and 1896, have done something to check land speculation.

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  • La Cote d'Ivoire by Michellet and Clement describes the administrative and land systems, &c. Another volume also called La Cote d'Ivoire (Paris, 1908) is an official monograph on the colony.

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  • Later Jewish and Christian speculation followed on the lines of the angelology of the earlier apocalypses; and angels play an important part in Gnostic systems and in the Jewish Midrashim and the Kabbala.

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  • In many vibrating systems this does not hold, and then Fourier's theorem is no longer an appropriate resolution.

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  • The direct and reflected systems are practically equal, and by suitably timing the vibrations of the hand for each case the rope may be made to vibrate as a whole, as two halves, as three-thirds and so on.

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  • They may be divided into two systems, (I) those connecting the province with the Cape and the Transvaal, and (2) those linking it with Natal.

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  • The two systems, it will be seen, are doubly connected, namely at Bloemfontein and at Kroonstad, and the lines running east from those towns afford the quickest connexion between Cape Town and Durban.

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  • In view of the dissolution of the intercolonial council a convention was signed at Pretoria on the 29th of May which made provision for the division of the common property, rights and liabilities of the Orange Colony and the Transvaal in respect to the railways and constabulary, and established for four years a joint board to continue the administration of the railway systems of the two colonies.

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  • The postal and telegraph systems were also placed under the control of Prussia, and the representation of the Saxon crown at foreign courts was merged in that of the Confederation.

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  • Systems of spheres have characters analogous to those of systems of circles.

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  • This function is named the "power" of the two spheres, and it is important in the investigation of systems of spheres.

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  • Such a composite structure is, however, fundamentally defective, the distribution of loading to the two independent systems being indeterminate.

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  • This bridge, connecting very important railway systems, was designed to carry two lines of rails, a highway and electric railway on each side, all between the main trusses.

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  • Its object was to exhibit by means of certain formulas the way in which the products of agriculture, which is the only source of wealth, would in a state of perfect liberty be distributed among the several classes of the community (namely, the productive classes of the proprietors and cultivators of land, and the unproductive class composed of manufacturers and merchants), and to represent by other formulas the modes of distribution which take place under systems of Governmental restraint and regulation, with the evil results arising to the whole society from different degrees of such violations of the natural order.

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  • The "Drincipal systems are the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Great Northern and the North-western.

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  • The struggle between these two systems continued well into the 10th century; and, though episcopalism was not infrequently proscribed by the curia, it still survived, and till the year 1870 could boast that no ecumenical council had ventured to condemn it.

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  • These institutions were managed by the clergy, and throughout the dark and middle ages the hospital and nursing systems were connected with religious bodies.

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  • The master streams of the present have inherited their channels from the drainage systems of the Cretaceous lowland, and though raised athwart the courses of the lowland trunk streams the great arch was developed so slowly that these channels could be maintained through pari passu deepening.

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  • By the operation of the Judicature Act one supreme court with several divisions was constituted; each division could administer the whole law; the conflict of divergent systems of law was largely overcome by declaring that when they were at variance, the principles of equity should prevail over the doctrines of the common law.

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  • To the student of the natural history of jurisprudence the fusion of the two systems of law and equity may well recall a similar result brought about in Imperial Rome; to the student of British institution, the supreme court, for once presided.

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  • During his brief reign at Naples, Joseph effected many improvements; he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, reorganized the judicial, financial and educational systems, and initiated several public works.

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  • Both of these systems have numerous branch lines.

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  • But no uniform system of selection was pursued; or rather perhaps the results of several systems, adopted at various epochs, and under the influence of varying currents of ideas, became amalgamated in the final series.

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  • The struggle of rival systems of nomenclature, from which our zodiacal series resulted, is plainly visible in their alternations; and the claims of the competing signs were long sought to be conciliated by representing the Balance as held between the claws of the €corpion.

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  • Acquaintance with foreign systems of twenty-eight lunar divisions tended doubtless to fix its position, which remained, nevertheless, always equivocal.

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  • Here the " signs " and the " constellations " of the lunar zodiac form two essentially distinct systems. The ecliptic is divided into twenty-seven equal parts, called bhogas or arcs, of Boo' each.

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  • The resemblance between the three systems is indeed so close that it has been assumed, almost as axiomatic, that they must have been framed from a single model.

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  • It is now also used for various systems of writing in which figures of objects take the place of conventional signs.

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  • The least satisfactory part of all these systems was that concerned with the lower plants or Cryptogams as contrasted with the higher or flowering plants (Phanerogams).

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  • This culture-system worked fairly during Van den Bosch's tenure of office, but gave rise to many abuses between 1833 and 1844, involving, as it did, a combination of the metayer and corvee systems.

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  • Although these several ranges, or systems of ranges, differ considerably in their orographical characteristics, the following description will apply generally to the entire region from the Astin-tagh southwards to the Arka-tagh.

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  • The fundamental character of energy in material systems here comes into view; if there were any other independent scalar entity, besides mass and energy, that pervaded them with relations of equivalence, we should expect the existence of yet another set of qualities analogous to those connected with temperature.

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  • But this general unity became official, and expressed itself in organization, only with the rise of the conciliar and metropolitan systems. Already before the end of the and century local synods were held in Asia Minor to deal with Montanism, and in the 3rd century provincial synods became common, and by the council of Nicaea (canon 5) it was decreed that they should be held twice every year in every province.

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  • But before we proceed to this it may be well to note one or two things that come out by comparison of the systems already before us.

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