Systematic Review Of The Hydromedusae Order I.
In consequence the army organized a systematic opposition, and elected representatives styled Agitators or Agents to urge their claims.
The characteristics of camels and their systematic position are discussed under the headings Tylopoda and Artiodactyla.
A few instances will illustrate Ritschl's positive systematic theology.
For another systematic grouping, see A.
It is not even possible in all cases to be certain that the polyp-group corresponds exactly to the medusagroup, especially in minor systematic categories, such as families.
Thus the essence of Ritschl's work is systematic theology.
It is vain, therefore, to look for clearly defined and systematic presentations of the idea among ancient writers.
M'Cosh, in his Intuitions of the Mind, attempts a more systematic study.
The Coleoptera have been probably more assiduously studied by systematic naturalists than any other order of insects.
Livy regards him as a less trustworthy authority than Fabius Pictor, and Niebuhr considers him the first to introduce systematic forgeries into Roman history.
He also gives us " natural law " 2 - a Stoic inheritance, preserving the form of an idealist appeal to systematic requirements of reason, while practically limiting its assumptions to those of intuitionalism.
the Code ") has, however, made a more systematic study possible than could have resulted from the classification and interpretation of the other material.
Only two systematic treatises on mathematical subjects were completed by Boole during his lifetime.
The chief blot on his reign was the systematic and authorized persecution of the Christians, which had for its object the restoration of the religion and institutions of ancient Rome.
The prestige of the empire~ based upon Roman law and feudal tradition, attracts imaginatiw patriots and systematic thinkers.
Radlkofer (1883) was the first to call attention to the great importance of this method in systematic botany, as providing fresh characters on which to base a natural classification.
Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Mill and Herbert Spencer are not systematic materialists, but show tendencies towards materialism.
Wagner's year-book, Geographische Jahrbuch, published at Gotha, is the best systematic record of the progress of geography in all departments; and Haack's Geografihen Kalender, also published annually at Gotha, gives complete lists of the geographical societies and geographers of the world.
Excavations on the site of Ostia were only begun towards the close of the 18th century, and no systematic work was done until 1854, when under Pius IX.
Scientific exploration began in 1849, and systematic geological investigation about 1875.
In 1882 Pritchard commenced a systematic study of stellar photometry.
Immured in his castle at Pavia, accumulating wealth by systematic taxation and methodical economy, he organized the mercenary troops who eagerly took service under so good a paymaster; and, by directing their operations from his cabinet, he threatened the whole of Italy with conquest.
The evidence against this view may be classed under two heads: first, comparative evidence; hydroids very different in their structural characters and widely separate in the systematic classification of these organisms may produce medusae very similar, at least so far as the essential features of medusan organization are concerned; on the other hydroids closely allied, perhaps almost indistinguishable, may produce gonophores in the one case, medusae in the other; for example, Hydractinia (gonophores) and Podocoryne (medusae), Tubularia (gonophores) and Ectopleura (medusae), Coryne (gonophores) and Syncoryne (medusae),-and so on.
Until October, 1889, I had not deemed it best to confine Helen to any regular and systematic course of study.
The Christians suffered from systematic persecution, and many historians, with a strange lack of historical insight, have poured denunciation upon him for an attitude which was the natural outcome of his convictions.
Cellulose, the material of which vegetable cell-walls are almost universally composed, at any rate in their early condition, is known to occur, though only seldom, among animal organisms. Such forms as Volvox and the group of the Myxomycetes have been continually referred to both kingdoms, and their true systematic position is still a subject of controversy.
In 1901 Professor Furtwangler began a more systematic excavation of the site, and the new discoveries he then made, together with a fresh and complete study of the figures and fragments in Munich, have led to a rearrangement of the whole, which, if not certain in all details, may be regarded as approaching finality.
It is hard to be certain that any systematic grouping will anticipate all the suggestions that may occur to a restlessly and recklessly inquiring age.
A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
Meditating, it is probable, emigration upon his release, he turned his attention while in prison to colonial subjects, and acutely detected the main causes of the slow progress of the Australian colonies in the enormous size of the landed estates, the reckless manner in which land was given away, the absence of all systematic effort at colonization, and the consequent discouragement of immigration and dearth of labour.
Macleay's classification (1825), which rested principally on the characters of the larvae, is almost forgotten nowadays, but it is certain that in any systematic arrangement which claims to be natural the early stages in the life-history must receive due attention.
But it was only during the last decade of his life that he ventured, with much hesitation, to present his ideas in a systematic and final form.
With Descartes the use of exponents as now employed for denoting the powers of a quantity becomes systematic; and without some such step by which the homogeneity of successive powers is at once recognized, the binomial theorem could scarcely have been detected.
Hence the systematic arrangement that follows must be considered purely provisional.
As one is exhausted another is in full bearing, so that by a systematic arrangement a single proprietor will send to the surface from 300 lb to 3000 lb of mushrooms per day.
But when this happened, Cartesianism was no longer either interesting or dangerous; its theories, taught as ascertained and verified truths, were as worthless as the systematic verbiage which preceded them.
It was believed that its object was the introduction of the dreaded form of the Inquisition established in Spain, and in any case more systematic and stringent measures for the stamping out of heresy.
trans., Systematic Anatomy of Dicotyledons, Oxford, 1908), brings together so many of the facts as are at present known in an orderly arrangement.
It is a plain, straightforward description of the globe, and of the various phenomena of the surface, dealing only with definitely ascertained facts in the natural order of their relationships, but avoiding any systematic classification or even definitions of terms.
His Pensees, published posthumously, seems to have been meant for a systematic treatise, but it has come to us in fragments.
GIRAFFE, a corruption of Zarafah, the Arabic name for the tallest of all mammals, and the typical representative of the family Giraffidae, the distinctive characters of which are given in the article Pecora, where the systematic position of the group is indicated.
These investigators regarded yeast as a plant, and Meyer gave to the germs the systematic name of "Saccharomyces" (sugar fungus).
Many descriptions of gems and gem stones have been discovered in various parts of the Australian states, but systematic search has been made principally for the diamond and the noble opal.
In his work, however, there is little that can be called systematic treatment.
It now behoves us to turn to general and particularly systematic works in which plates, if they exist at all, form but an accessory to the text.
It is, however, only noticed here on account of the numerous references made to it by succeeding writers, for neither in this nor in the author's second volume (not published until 1814) did he propound any systematic arrangement of the Class.
The development of the art of war, and the growth of a systematic taxation, are two debts which medieval Europe also owed to the Crusades.
The exit of these organs takes many shapes, of value in systematic work.
Alchemy in this sense is merely an early phase of the development of systematic chemistry; in Liebig's words, it was " never at any time anything different from chemistry."
A systematic account of the minerals has been published by A.
Although bitterly opposed by the partisans of scholastic routine, Genovesi found influential patrons, amongst them Bartolomeo Intieri, a Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian or European chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on condition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's professorial labours was the Lezioni di Commercio, the first complete and systematic work in Italian on economics.
In systematic chemistry, sodium hyposulphite is a salt of hyposulphurous acid, to which Schutzenberger gave the formula H 2 S0 2, but which Bernthsen showed to be H 2 S 2 0 4.
Blith's book is the first systematic work in which there are some traces of alternate husbandry or the practice of interposing clover and turnip between culmiferous crops.
The next writer of note is John Mortimer, whose Whole Art of Husbandry, a regular, systematic work of considerable merit, was published in 1707.
In 1901 the formation of the Agricultural Organization Society marked the first systematic attempt to organize co-operation among the farmers of Great Britain.
The attempt of Merrem must be regarded as the virtual starting-point of the latest efforts in Systematic Ornithology, and in that view its proposals deserve to be stated at length.
Fuller knowledge has shown that Macgillivray was ill-advised in laying stress on the systematic value of adaptive characters, but his contributions to anatomy were valuable, and later investigators, in particular H.
Jacob Joseph Winterl, in 1788, appears to have been the first to examine petroleum chemically, but the earliest systematic investigation was that carried out by Professor B.
His Utilitarianism (published in Fraser's in 1861) was a closely-reasoned systematic attempt to answer objections to his ethical theory and remove misconceptions of it.
Sometimes he speaks of political economy as a department "carved out of the general body of the science of society;" whilst on the other hand the title of his systematic work implies a doubt whether political economy is a part of "social philosophy" at all, and not rather a study preparatory and auxiliary to it.
There would probably have been no controversy at all on this subject but for the fact that economics was elaborated into systematic form, and made the basis of practical measures of the greatest importance, long before the remarkable development in the 19th century of historical research, experimental science and biology.
Of special importance in the history of systematic entomology was the scheme of F.
He was assistant librarian of Harvard University from 1856 to 1872, and planned and perfected an alphabetical card catalogue, combining many of the advantages of the ordinary dictionary catalogues with the grouping of the minor topics under more general heads, which is characteristic of a systematic catalogue.
Nevertheless he makes some attempt at a systematic arrangement of birds, which, according to his lights, is far from despicable.
His attempt at classification was certainly better than that of Linnaeus; and it is rather curious that the researches of the latest ornithologists point to results in some degree comparable with Brisson's systematic arrangement, for they refuse to keep the birds-of-prey at the head of the Class A y es, and they require the establishment of a much larger number of " Orders " than for a long while was thought advisable.
The first volume contains the " Colibris, Oiseaux-mouches, Jacamars et Promerops," the second the " Grimpereaux " and " Oiseaux de Paradis " - associations which set all the laws of systematic method at defiance.
entrusted to Vieillot, who, proceeding on a systematic plan, performed his task very creditably, completing the work, which forms two quarto volumes, in 1825, the original text and fifty-seven plates being relegated to the end of the second volume as a supplement.
were not here made of the Conspectus generum avium, begun in 1850 by the naturalist last named, with the help of Schlegel, and unfortunately interrupted by its author's death six years later.s The systematic publications of George Robert Gray, so long in charge of the ornithological collection of the G.
Gadow and P. Chalmers Mitchell, have shown that useful systematic information can be obtained from the study of the alimentary canal.
The combination of these three facts will of itself explain some defects, or even retrogressions, observable in Nitzsch's later systematic work when compared with that which he had formerly done.
Macgillivray did not, however, assign to this essential difference any systematic value.
Bonaparte, in his Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, published at Rome, and in 1837 communicated to the Linnean 'Society of London, " A new Systematic Arrangement of Vertebrated Animals," which was subsequently printed in that Society's Transactions (xviii.
Among his chief systematic determinations we may mention that he refers the tinamous to the rails, because apparently of their deep " notches," but otherwise takes a view of that group more correct according to modern notions than did most of his contemporaries.
Owen's researches of its ornithic affinity saw that it must belong to a type of birds wholly unknown before, and one that in any future for the arrangement of the class must have a special rank reserved for it.2 It behoves us next to mention the " Outlines of a Systematic Review of the Class of Birds," communicated by W.
Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.
From what has before been said of his works it may be gathered that, while professedly basing his systematic arrangement of the groups of birds on their external features, he had hitherto striven to make his schemes harmonize if possible with the dictates of internal structure as evinced by the science of anatomy, though he uniformly and persistently protested against the inside being better than the outside.
During the pre-Linnaean period, the beauty of insects - especially the Lepidoptera - had attracted a number of collectors; and these "Aurelians" - regarded as harmless lunatics by most of their friends - were the forerunners of the systematic students of later times.
Flinders Petrie began the systematic exploration of the ruins of Bedreshen, and in three seasons cleared up much of the topography of the ancient city, identifying the mound of the citadel and palace, a foreign quarter, &c. Among his finds not the least interesting is a large series of terra-cotta heads representing the characteristic features of the foreigners who thronged the bazaars of Memphis.
Although used in the early days to a limited extent as a food for milch cows and other stock, and to a larger extent as a manure, no systematic efforts were made anywhere in the South to manufacture the seed until the later 'fifties, when the first cotton seed mills were established.
Much of what he wrote then was subsequently incorporated in his systematic works: some of his essays were reprinted in his first two volumes of Dissertations and Discussions (1859).
That originality and independence became more conspicuous when he reached his second stage as a political economist, struggling forward towards the standpoint from which his systematic work was written.
While his great systematic works were in progress, Mill wrote very little on events or books of the day.
Besides contributing to the Globe newspaper, he made appeals to the people by systematic preaching, and organized centres of action in some of the principal cities of France.
With the Cape micrometer a systematic difference has been found in the coincidence point for head above and head below amounting to o"-14.
His thoughts represent a transitional movement, and it is difficult to discover in them anything like a systematic philosophy.
Among the large number of systematic writers on the order generally, or on special families, may be mentioned D.
The roadway, tracks and rolling stock are so well maintained that those causes which lead to the worst derailments have been eliminated almost completely, and the record of serious collisions has been reduced nearly to zero by the universal use of the block system and by systematic precautions at junctions.
He studied theology at Erlangen and Berlin, and in 1856 became professor ordinarius of systematic theology and New Testament exegesis at Leipzig.
With the systematic study of the Latin, and to a slight extent also of the Greek classics, he conjoined that of logic in the prolix system of Crousaz; and he further invigorated his reasoning powers, as well as enlarged his knowledge of metaphysics and jurisprudence, by the perusal of Locke, Grotius and Montesquieu.
Perhaps Erysichthon may be explained as the personification of the labourer, who by the systematic cultivation and tilling of the soil endeavours to force the crops, instead of allowing them to mature unmolested as in the good old times.
Fustel de Coulanges was the most conscientious of men, the most systematic and uncompromising of historians.
Then a certain amount of immunity may be acquired by the systematic use of quinine.
A systematic campaign for the destruction of breedingplaces has been inaugurated in the British West African colonies, with encouraging results.
At the end of 1909 was held the first conference of Jewish ministers in London, and from this is expected some more systematic organization of scattered communities.
The systematic theosophy of Plotinus and his successors does not belong to the present article, except so far as it is the presupposition of their mysticism; but, inasmuch as the mysticism of the medieval Church is directly derived from Neoplatonism through the speculations of the pseudo-Dionysius, Neoplatonic mysticism fills an important section in any historical review of the subject.
But in that case it might be difficult to find a systematic philosopher who would escape the charge of mysticism; and it is better to remain by long-established and serviceable distinctions.
The Afghan war of 1878-80; the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-1885; the occupation of Gilgit and Chitral; the extension of boundaries east and north of Afghanistan, and again, between Baluchistan and Persia - these, added to the opportunities afforded by the systematic survey of Baluchistan which has been steadily progressing since 1880 - combined to produce a series of geographical maps which extend from the Oxus to the Indus, and from the Indus to the Euphrates.
As an appendix to the Oligochaeta, and possibly referable to that group, though their systematic position cannot at present be determined with certainty, are to be placed the Bdellodrilidae (Discodrilidae auct.), which are small parasites upon crayfish.
The only " systematic " work he published was A Defence of Infant Baptism, against John Tombes (London, 1646).
They were followed by treatises of a different character, clearer in matter, more systematic in arrangement, and reflecting the methods of the scholastic logic; these are farther from the Greek tradition, for although they contain sufficient traces of their ultimate Greek ancestry, their authors do not know the Greeks as masters and cite no Greek names.
Armed with it he passed safely into heathen Germany and began a systematic crusade, baptizing, overturning idols, founding churches and monasteries, and calling from England a band of missionary helpers, monks and nuns, some of whom have become famous: St Lull, his successor in the see at Mainz; St Burchard, bishop of Wurzburg; St Gregory, abbot at Utrecht; Willibald, his biographer; St Lioba, St Walburge, St Thecla.
It was fortunate for Becket's reputation that Henry punished him for his change of front by a systematic persecution in the forms of law.
The systematic study of Athenian topography was begun in the 17th century by French residents at Athens, the consuls Giraud and Chataignier and the Capuchin monks.
The museums, enriched by a constant inflow of works of art and inscriptions, have been carefully and scientifically arranged, and afford opportunities for systematic study denied to scholars of the past generation.
This work, composed at one time and arranged on a systematic plan, is very remarkable.
He entered upon his great work by a systematic publication of pamphlets and articles in journals and magazines in behalf of his reform, but for some years he met with a discouraging lack of interest.
In 1857 Field became chairman of a state commission for the reduction into a written and systematic code of the whole body of law of the state, excepting those portions already reported upon by the Commissioners of Practice and Pleadings.
Systematic, 1901, and he edited a series of "Textbooks of Physical Chemistry."
It is remarkable that systematic instruction in the theory and practice of chemistry only received earnest attention in our academic institutions during the opening decades of the 19th century.
But the real founder of systematic instruction in our science was Justus von Liebig, who, having accepted the professorship at Giessen in 1824, made his chemical laboratory and course of instruction the model of all others.
Its systematic name is formed by replacing the last syllable of the electro-negative element by ide and prefixing the name of the other element.
The importance of ascertaining the proximate composition of bodies was clearly realized by Otto Tachenius; but the first systematic investigator was Robert Boyle, to whom we owe the introduction of the term analysis.
Bergman laid the foundations of systematic qualitative analysis, and devised methods by which the metals may be separated into groups according to their behaviour with certain reagents.
Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results (Phil.
The limits of space prevent any systematic account of the separation of the rare metals, the alkaloids, and other classes of organic compounds, but sources where these matters may be found are given in the list of references.
Sutton, Systematic Handbook of Volumetric Analysis (1904); F.
Interesting conclusions as to the early ethnology of Egypt have been derived from the systematic examination of the necropolises of Nubia, necessitated by the heightening of the Aswan dam, as a consequence of which the northern portion of the valley S.
Till recently the rabbit has generally been known scientifically as Lepus cuniculus, but it is now frequently regarded, at least by systematic naturalists, as the representative of a genus by itself, under the The Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
began a systematic persecution of the Christians, which led to a war with the Roman empire.
Besides the sale of slaves which took place as a result of the capture of cities or other military operations, there was a systematic slave trade.
Though the Roman slaves were not, like the Spartan Helots, kept obedient by systematic terrorism, their large numbers were a constant source of danger.
Its systematic effort is, in his own words, " pro libertate, quam et fovere et tueri Romanis legibus et praecipue nostro numini peculiare est."
In common with an allied ruminant from the same district, previously described as Euceratherium, it seems probable that Preptoceras is related on the one hand to the musk-ox, and on the other to the Asiatic takin, while it is also supposed to have affinities with the sheep. If these extinct forms really serve to connect the takin with the musk-ox, their systematic importance will be very great.
The past and present directors of the museum have been enabled from time to time to carry out systematic excavations when opportunity offered; Mr D.
The Berlin herbarium is especially rich in more recent collections, and other national herbaria sufficiently extensive to subserve the requirements of the systematic botanist exist at St Petersburg, Vienna, Leiden, Stockholm, Upsala, Copenhagen and Florence.
The systematic arrangement varies in different herbaria.
The ordinary systematic arrangement possesses the great advantage, in the case of large genera, of readily indicating the affinities of any particular specimen with the forms most nearly allied to it.
Though the early Hebrews (of the time before the 5th century B.C.) must have reflected on life, there is no trace of such reflection, of a systematic sort, in their extant literature.
Lassalle did not lay claim to any special originality as a socialistic thinker, nor did he publish any systematic statement of his views.
But although oranges, pine-apples and some other fruits form important articles of commerce, it is only rarely that systematic and thorough methods of cultivation are prosecuted.
While Miinnich conducted a systematic devastation of the peninsula, forces were detached under his lieutenants Leontiev and Lascy to attack Kinburn (Kilburun) and Azov.
He does not attain to a systematic exhibition of Christian doctrine, but he paves the way for it, and lays the first stones of the foundation.
But these interesting phenomena have not hitherto been subject to systematic observation, and our knowledge of them is therefore uncertain.
and began a systematic massacre of the white settlers.
The lack of early systematic theological training certainly had a momentous effect upon his development.
His philosophy, consequently, is neither systematic in itself nor expounded in systematic form.
The theory brought forward has not yet found a place in any systematic treatise in any language, so that it has been judged proper to give a fairly complete account of it.'
Although the Thames, as one of the "great rivers of England," was always a navigable river, that is to say, one over which the public had the right of navigation, it was not until the last quarter of the 18th century that any systematic regulation of its flow in the upper reaches was attempted.
Whether systematic training can do anything to make the attainment of this balance easier is a question that has lately engaged the attention of many educational reformers; and whatever future casuistry may still have before it would seem to lie along the lines indicated by them.
Though not a profound and systematic philosophical thinker, Thomasius prepared the way for great reforms in philosophy, and, above all, in law, literature, social life and theology.
The most careful determinations are affected by systematic errors arising from those diurnal and annual changes of temperature, the effect of which cannot be wholly eliminated in astronomical observation; and the recently discovered variation of latitude has introduced a new element of uncertainty into the determination.
Leaving that question for consideration in connexion with the systematic statement of the characters of the various groups of Arachnida which follows on p. 475, it is well now to consider the following question, viz., seeing that Limulus and Scorpio are such highly developed and specialized forms, and that they seem to constitute as it were the first and second steps in the series of recognized Arachnida - what do we know, or what are we led to suppose with regard to the more primitive Arachnida from which the Eurypterines and Limulus and Scorpio have sprung ?
References to systematic works will also be found at the end of this article (33).
In 1843 he established at Boussac (Creuse) a printing association organized according to his systematic ideas, and founded the Revue sociale.
He was the propagandist of sentiments and aspirations rather than the expounder of a systematic theory.
In 1904 the British Archaeological school at Athens undertook a systematic investigation of the ancient and medieval remains in Laconia.
Abelard's discussion of the problem (which it is right to say is on the whole incidental rather than systematic) is thus marked by an eclecticism which was perhaps the source at once of its strength and its weakness.
Albert was " the first Scholastic who reproduced the whole philosophy of Aristotle in systematic order with constant reference to the Arabic commentators, and who remodelled it to meet the requirements of ecclesiastical dogma " (Ueberweg, i.
Lambert's most important work, Pyrometrie (Berlin, 1779), is a systematic treatise on heat, containing the records and full discussion of many of his own experiments.
He regulated and simplified the whole system of taxation, encouraged agriculture by differential duties in favour of the farmers, and promoted trade by a systematic improvement of the ways of communication.
On subjects of politics, amongst the more important works are the various monographs of Gustavus Beksics on the Dualism of AustriaHungary, on the " New Foundations of Magyar Politics " (A magyar politika uj alapjai, 1899), on the Rumanian question, &c.; the writings of Emericus Balint, Akos Beothy, Victor Concha (systematic politics), L.
Ecsery, Geza Ferdinandy (historical and systematic politics), Arpad Zigany, Bela Foldes (political economy), Julius Mandello (political economy), Alexander Matlekovics (Hungary's administrative service; Allamhdztartds, 3 vols.), J.
In it he mentions many earlier writers from whom he had learnt the science, and although it contains very little that cannot be found in Leonardo's work, yet it is especially noteworthy for the systematic employment of symbols, and the manner in which it reflects the state of mathematics in Europe during this period.
Systems Of Classification Morphography includes the systematic exploration and tabulation of the facts involved in the recognition of all the recent and extinct kinds of animals and their distribution in space and time.
The Swiss professor, Konrad Gesner (1516-1565), is the most voluminous and instructive of these earliest writers on systematic zoology, and was so highly esteemed that his Historia animalium was republished a hundred Gesner.
The commencement of anatomical investigations deserves notice here as influencing the general accuracy and minuteness with which zoological work was prosecuted, but it was not until a late date that their full influence was brought to bear upon systematic zoology by Georges Cuvier (1769-1832).
The most prominent name between that of Gesner and Linnaeus in the history of systematic zoology is that of John Ray (1628-1705).
Apart from his special discoveries in the anatomy of plants and animals, and his descriptions of new species, the great merit of Linnaeus was his introduction of a method of enumeration and classification which may be said to have created systematic zoology and botany in their present form, and establishes his name for ever as the great organizer, the man who recognized a great practical want in the use of language and supplied it.
We have mentioned Lamarck before his great contemporary Cuvier because, in spite of his valuable philosophical doctrine of development, he was, as compared with Cuvier and estimated as a systematic zoologist, a mere enlargement and logical outcome of Linnaeus.
The real centre of progress of systematic zoology was no longer in France nor with the disciples of Cuvier in England, but after his death moved to Germany.
But systematic zoology is now entirely free from any such prejudices, and the Linnaean taint which is apparent even in Haeckel and Gegenbaur may be considered as finally expunged.
Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.
There are certain errors of a systematic character which demand special consideration.
Although saline springs are mentioned here as early as the 13th century, the first attempt to bore for salt was not made until 1839, while the systematic exploitation of the salt-beds, to which the town is indebted for its prosperity, dates only from 1856.
He soon began to prove himself possessed of that systematic spirit of conduct and effort which appeared so much ink his life and character.
The long dry season of the llanos and surrounding slopes, which have not as yet been devoted to cultivation, will require a different system of agriculture with systematic irrigation.
Whether these observations were systematic or individual, and how they were recorded, are points of which we are quite ignorant, as the theory that the votive tablets in the temples supplied such materials must be abandoned.
The greatest service rendered to medicine was undoubtedly the systematic study of anatomy.
The work by which he is chiefly known, the celebrated "canon," is an encyclopaedia of medical and surgical knowledge, founded upon Galen, Aristotle, the later Greek physicians, and the earlier Arabian writers, singularly complete and systematic, but is thought not to show the practical experience of its author.
For some time the Salernitan medicine held its ground, and it was not till the conquest of Toledo by Alphonso of Castile that any large number of Western scholars came in contact with the learning of the Spanish Moors, and systematic efforts were made to translate their philosophical and medical works.
Their English contemporaries and successors, John Freind, William Cole, and Richard Mead, leaned also to mechanical explanations, but with a distrust of systematic theoretical completeness, which was perhaps partly a national characteristic, partly the result of the teaching of Sydenham and Locke.
We have now to speak of two writers in whom the systematic tendency of the 18th century showed itself most completely.
In England the first important name in this field is at the same time that of the first writer of a systematic work in any language on morbid anatomy, Matthew Baillie (1761-1823), a nephew of John and William Hunter, who published his treatise in 1795.
It remains to speak of two systematic writers on medicine in the 18th century, whose great reputation prevents them from being passed over, though their real contribution to the progress of medicine was not great - Cullen and Brown.
His systematic doctrines founded the so-called "natural history school"; but his real merit was that of the founder or introducer of a method.
In place of it, systematic clinical classes have become part of the scheme of every efficient school of medicine.
In spite of the best advice, however, the jealousies of the citizens prevented any systematic design from being carried out, and in consequence the old lines were in almost every case retained.
The son worked on his father's farm, and, though he received no systematic education, devoted much time to study and reading.
In the early history of mining there was but little attempt at systematic development and working, and the mines were often irregular and tortuous.
In the systematic mining of larger deposits, the simplest plan consists in mining large areas by means of numerous working-places under the protection of pillars of mineral left for the purpose, and later mining these pillars systematically, allowing the overlying rock beds to fall and fill the abandoned workings.
As a hanger-on in great houses he had little time for systematic work, and he wrote the "Lives" in the early morning while his hosts were sleeping off the effects of the dissipation of the night before.
An account of these translations will be found in The Principles of Buddhist Law by Chan Toon (Rangoon, 1894), which is the first attempt to present those principles in something approaching to a systematic form.
In the arrangements of the commonwealth the clauses treating of royal privileges are more or less evenly distributed over all reigns, but the systematic development of police functions, especially in regard to responsibility for crimes, the catching of thieves, the suppression of lawlessness, is mainly the object of 10th and 11th century legislation.
But it was only in the last quarter of the 19th century that anything like systematic exploration was attempted.
But its views were not systematic and comprehensive in regard to the nations in general, while as regards the individual it held that God's service here was its own and adequate reward, and saw no need of postulating another world to set right the evils of this.
It was Christianity that preserved Jewish apocalyptic, when it was abandoned by Judaism as it sank into Rabbinism, and gave it a Christian character either by a forcible exegesis or by a systematic process of interpolation.
831; new ed., with an epistle to Charles the Bald, 844), which was not only the first systematic and thorough treatise on the sacrament of the eucharist, but is the first clear dogmatic statement of transubstantiation, and as such opened an unending controversy.
- Systematic feeding for the vacuum pan and systematic washing of the massecuite have been recently introduced not only into refineries, but also into sugar houses or factories on plantations of both cane and beetroot, and great advantages have resulted from their employment.
The systematic washing of the massecuite is the reverse of this process.
On this theory he prepared artificial manures containing the essential mineral substances together with a small quantity of ammoniacal salts, because he held that the air does not supply ammonia fast enough in certain cases, and carried out systematic experiments on ten acres of poor sandy land which he obtained from thr town of Giessen in 1845.
We use the term "feudal system" for convenience sake, but with a degree of impropriety if it conveys the meaning "systematic."
Feudalism in its most flourishing age was anything but systematic. It was confusion roughly organized.
Manzoni in 1887 have led to a fairly complete knowledge of all that part of the province west of the capital Sana; while in 1902-1904 the operations of the Anglo-Turkish boundary commission permitted the execution of a systematic topographical survey of the British protectorate from the Red Sea to the Wadi Bana, 30 m.
The difficulties in the way of travelling in Arabia with a view to scientific investigation are such that little or nothing is being done, and the systematic work which has given such good results in Egypt, Palestine and Babylonia-Assyria is unknown in Arabia.
The Arabs from early times have always been proud of their language, but its systematic study seems to have arisen from contact with Persian and from the respect for the language of the Koran.
It was the brilliant exhibition in November 1833 that, in modern times particularly, attracted earnest students to investigate the subject of meteors generally, and to make systematic observations of their apparitions on ordinary nights of the year.
His works are very clear in style, though aphoristic rather than systematic in the treatment of subjects.
In 1884 the firm became bankrupt, and it was discovered that two of the partners had been perpetrating systematic and gigantic frauds.
The avicularia and vibracula give valuable aid to the systematic study of the Cheilostomata.
Even if there were no such unmistakable expressions as these, the most cursory glance into Saint-Simon's writings is enough to reveal the thread of connexion between the ingenious visionary and the systematic thinker.
Dorr (1805-1854), a young lawyer of Providence, began a systematic campaign for an extension of the suffrage, a reapportionment of representation and the establishment of an independent judiciary.
Shortly afterwards (1860) he sent out the prospectus of a systematic exposition of his Synthetic Philosophy, of which the first volume, First Principles, appeared in 1862.
When it suited his interests he sanctioned the systematic corruption of members of parliament, and he condoned massacres like those at the Hague or in Glencoe.
Some of the usual characters employed for systematic purposes, for the making of convenient keys, are the following: The number of rows of scales across the body and in a longitudinal direction; shape and structure of scales, whether smooth or with a longitudinal keel; arrangement of the shields on the head; shape of the contracted pupil.
Through his industry and vigorous understanding he gave a great impulse to the creation of Roman oratory, history and systematic didactic writing.
most systematic exposition.
At the same time no systematic constructive attempt at a renewal of empire can as yet be detected.
The systematic clearing of the site began in the spring of 1892, and it was rapidly cleared of earth by means of a light railway.
His pacific tendencies were shown by his systematic opposition to all bellicose excitement, by his maintaining M.
The systematic and scientific exploration of the Carpathians dates only from the beginning of the 19th century.
The system of pluralities carried with it, as a necessary consequence, systematic non-residence on the part of many incumbents, and delegation of their spiritual duties in respect of their cures of souls to assistant curates.
Of the more formal historical writings in which the first ineffectual attempts were made in the direction of systematic chronology we have no knowledge at first-hand.
After a short pastorate at Brandon, Vermont, he was successively professor of English literature in the University of Vermont (1845-1852), professor of sacred rhetoric in Auburn Theological Seminary (1852-1854), professor of church history in Andover Theological Seminary (1854-1862), and, after one year (1862-1863) as associate pastor of the Brick Church of New York City, of sacred literature (1863-1874) and of systematic theology (1874-1890) in Union Theological Seminary.
Dr Shedd was a high Calvinist and was one of the greatest systematic theologians of the American Presbyterian church.
The only certainly genuine work of Hecataeus was the FuenNo-yiac or `IcrTopiat, a systematic account of the traditions and mythology of the Greeks.
It is matter for regret to the student that Adamson's active labours in the lecture room precluded him from systematic production.
It is almost certain that the distal of these two segments really belongs to the thigh, but the ordinary nomenclature will be used in the present article, as this character is of great importance in discriminating families, and the two segments in question are referred to the trochanter by most systematic writers.
The systematic student of Hymenoptera is greatly helped by C. G.
Exhaustive references to general systematic works will be found in de Dalla Torre's Catalogue mentioned above.
Among general systematic works on Heteroptera may be mentioned J.
This construction would give all the advantage of the younger Dollond's object-glass micrometer, and more than its sharpness of definition, without liability to the systematic errors which may be due to want of homogeneity of the object-glass; for the lenses will not be turned with respect to each other, but, in measurement, will always have the same relation in position angle to the line joining the objects under observation.
While the sailors' logs supply the greater part of the scientific evidence available for the study of the surface phenomena of the ocean, they have been supplemented by the records of numerous scientific expeditions and latterly by publications embodying systematic observations on a permanent basis.
Equivalent terms, which are not necessarily identical or literal translations, were adopted for the English, French and German languages, the equivalence being closest and most systematic between the English and German terms.
In May 1876, he was appointed joint professor of systematic theology and apologetics with James Harper, principal of the United Presbyterian Theological College, whom he succeeded as principal in 1879.
Meyer at the Shamrock colliery in Westphalia, where a body of men are kept in systematic training for its use at a special rescue station.
Systematic detailed descriptions of the French coalfields appear from time to time under the title of Etudes sur les gites mineraux de la France from the ministry of public works in Paris.
A considerable part of the province is forested and the state requires systematic replanting.
Only in the sphere of practical reason, where the intelligible nature prescribed to itself its own laws, was there the possibility of systematic deduction from a single principle.
Philosophy is to him the rethinking of actual cognition, the theory of knowledge, the complete, systematic exposition of the principles which lie at the basis of;all reasoned cognition.
There is a systematic enumeration of the group by A.
Systematic quarrying of siliceous crystalline rocks in New England began at Quincy in about 1820.
In Some Dogmas of Religion (1906), he uses " dogma " of affirmations, whether supported by reasoning or merely asserted, if they claim " metaphysical " value, metaphysics being defined as " the systematic study of the ultimate nature of reality."
In export trade Mariupol ranks next to Taganrog among the ports of the Sea of Azov; but its harbour is open to the south-east and shallow, though it is being gradually deepened by systematic dredging.
From 1721, what are known as revisions of the population were periodically carried out, for military, fiscal and police purposes; but these were conducted by local officials, without central direction or systematic organization.
In 1847-1850 he was professor of moral philosophy and metaphysics at Amherst; and in 1850-1854 was Washburn professor of Church history, and in 1854-1874 Roosevelt professor of systematic theology, at Union Theological Seminary.
1860) was pastor of the Freehold (New Jersey) Presbyterian Church in 1886-1896, and from 1897 to 1903 was professor of systematic theology in Lane Theological Seminary.
In ethics Gioja follows Bentham generally, and his large treatise Del merito e delle recompense (1818) is a clear and systematic view of social ethics from the utilitarian principle.
Sorn's Der Sprachgebrauch des Historikers Eutropius (1892) contains a systematic account of the grammar and style of the author.
In this work he for the first time showed the connexion between the internal and external history of France; he was also the first, by a systematic study of the records, to check and correct the traditional account of many episodes in the internal history.
For the history of German thought it was of the greatest importance that a Liberal from the Rhine, by a systematic history of the Revolution, attempted to overthrow the influence which the revolutionary legend, as expounded by French writers, had acquired over the German mind; and the book was an essential part of the influences which led to the formation of a National Liberal school of thought.
The systematic development of the colony, the opening up of the hinterland and the exploitation of its economic resources date from the appointment of Captain Binger as governor, a post he held for over three years.
Joannis Apostoli indole et origine (1820), the first systematic assault on the traditional attribution, remains unrefuted in its main contention.
xiii., differing as it does both in its greater length and in its systematic structure from other discourses recorded by him, must have come to his hands in a written form.
For the sake of systematic completeness the book begins with.
Whatever may be the truth as to this, the modern theory is first clearly stated in Jean Bodin's book On the Commonwealth (French ed., 1576; Latin version, 1586), which, was the first systematic study of sovereignty.
Its distinctive feature was the systematic training of nurses for their vocation.
It remained for the third influence to complete the work begun and to develop systematic nursing to its present dimensions.
In Great Britain nearly all the general and special hospitals and many of the poor-law infirmaries offer systematic professional training to nurses.
Systematic instruction in these subjects is given at some fifty lying-in institutions in different parts of the kingdom.
Meanwhile Sultan Mahmud, now wide awake to the danger, had been preparing for a systematic effort to suppress the rising.
Finally, after months of inaction, Ibrahim began once more his systematic devastation of the country.
Plants which were strikingly alike were placed together, but there was at first little attempt at systematic classification.
About the year 1670 Dr Robert Morison 1 (1620-1683), the first professor of botany at Oxford, published a systematic arrangement of plants, largely on the lines previously suggested by Caesalpinus.
In arranging plants according to a natural method, we require to have a thorough knowledge of structural and morphological botany, and hence we find that the advances made in these departments have materially aided the efforts of systematic botanists.
From the year 1832 up to 1859 great advances were made in systematic botany, both in Britain and on the continent of Europe.
Lindley became the guides in systematic botany, according to the natural system.
Not till 1085, however, was Roger able to undertake a systematic crusade.
No systematic effort was made by the imperial authorities to put an end to the movement until the reign of Decius (250-251), whose policy of suppression was followed by Diocletian (303 ff.) and continued for some years after his abdication.
Well-organized continuation schools and systematic courses of lectures aim at providing the young soldier with a complete adult education.
The first systematic Corn Laws imposing duties on grain had been passed in 1 773.
The class is divisible into two main divisions or sub-classes, Hydromedusae and Scyphornedusae, of which definitions and detailed systematic accounts will be found under these headings.
As Luther was a much greater preacher than a systematic thinker, it was not easy to say exactly what this deposit was, and controversies resulted among the Lutheran theologians of the 16th century.
Sceptical reflection rather than systematic scepticism is what meets us in Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592), though the elaborate presentation of sceptical and relativistic arguments in his " Apologie de Raimond-Sebond " (Essais, ii.
The systematic treatment of this very natural group of birds has long been a subject of much difficulty.
A systematic exercise is given here of the compilation.
He is the founder of the systematic and encyclopaedic type of scholarship embodied in the comprehensive term Altertumswissenschaft, or " a scientific knowledge of the old classical world."
'ABBA 'ARIKA, the name of the Babylonian amora of the 3rd century, who established at Sura the systematic study of the Rabbinic traditions which, using the Mishnah as text, led to the compilation of the Talmud.
The textual criticism of the classical literatures made way before the textual criticism of the Old Testament: Bentley's Phalaris (1699) preceded any thorough or systematic application of Higher Criticism to any part of the Old Testament; Niebuhr's History of Rome (181i) preceded Ewald's History of Israel (1843-1859).
Cornill's Das Buck des Propheten Ezechiel (1886): outstanding examples of important systematic critical notes are J.
Father Simon in his Histoire critique du Vieux Testament (1682) also argues that the Pentateuch is the work of more than one author, and makes an important advance towards a systematic analysis of the separate elements by observing that the style varies, being sometimes very curt and sometimes very copious " although the variety of the matter does not require it."
In 1891 Dr Driver published his Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament (6th ed., 1897); less popular in form than Smith's lectures, it was a more systematic and comprehensive survey of the whole field of the literary criticism of the Old Testament.
More especially since the middle of the 19th century the decipherment of Egyptian and Assyrian inscriptions and systematic excavation in Palestine and other parts of the East have supplied a multitude of new facts bearing more or less directly on the Old Testament.
There was no idea of constructing a systematic theology; Christ was still the Jewish Messiah, and His Coming was conceived of as the Jews conceived of the coming of the Messiah, as a great supernatural event transforming the face of things and inaugurating the reign of God.
The systematic Introduction is a characteristic production of Germany and has done excellent service in its day, though there are signs that the analytic method hitherto mainly practised is beginning to give place to something more synthetic or constructive.
The Diatessaron appears to have been the usual form in which the gospels were read until the beginning of the 5th century, when the Peshito was put in its place, and a systematic destruction of copies of the Diatessaron was undertaken.
Spener, he founded the Collegium Philobiblicum, at which a number of graduates were accustomed to meet for the systematic study of the Bible, philologically and practically.
The Reformation quickened men's interest in the Scriptures to an extraordinary degree, so that, notwithstanding the adverse attitude adopted by the Roman Church at and after the council of Trent, the translation and circulation of the Bible were taken in hand with fresh zeal, and continued in more systematic fashion.
The study had even indisputably assumed a systematic character, and, from being an assemblage of fragmentary disquisitions on particular questions of national interest, had taken the form, notably in Turgot's Reflexions, of an organized body of doctrine.
The book, it is true, is not framed on a rigid mould, nor is there any parade of systematic divisions and subdivisions.
Following Cuvier's Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, the rich succession of Tertiary mammalian life was gradually revealed to France through the explorations and descriptions of such authors as Croizet, Jobert, de Christol, Eymar, Pomel and Lartet, during a period of rather dry, systematic work, which included, however, the broader generalizations of Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1778-1850), and culminated in the comprehensive treatises on Tertiary palaeontology of Paul Gervais (1816-1879).
On the whole, as in the case of vertebrate palaeontology, the pre-Darwinian period of invertebrate palaeontology was one of rather dry systematic description, in which, however, the applications of the science gradually extended to many regions of the world and to all divisions of the kingdom of invertebrates.
Even when seen in minute features only he recognized them as constant progressive characters or " chronologic varieties " in 3b --i C D E F G H I -14-21 -I-31 1 - I - 41 contrast with contemporaneous or " geographic varieties," which he considered inconstant and of slight systematic value.
V.-Relations Of Palaeontology To Other Zoological Methods Systematic Zoology.
From the stomach, canals arise termed the radial canals (r.c.); typically four in number, they run in a radial direction to the edge 2 For other variations of the medusa, often of importance for systematic classification, see Hydromedusae and Scyphomedusae.
But how widespread was the idea of seven powers, who created this lower material world and rule over it, has been clearly proved, especially by the systematic examination of the subject by Anz (Ursprung des Gnosticismus).
Mexican education, at any rate that of the upper class, was a systematic discipline much under the control of religion, which here presents itself under a more favourable light.
This method was employed by Sir Isaac Newton, whose experiments constitute the earliest systematic investigation of the phenomenon.
The arrival of David Livingstone in 1841 marked the beginning of the systematic exploration of the northern regions.
There are, in addition, other forms, which are probably to be placed in this family, but which are not yet sufficiently well known for their systematic position to be settled.
If, however, we abandon intuitional ethics, it is reasonable to argue that the term summum bonum ceases to have any real significance inasmuch as actions are not intrinsically good or bad, while the complete sceptic strives after no systematic ideal.
The many topographical details furnished by exploration when compared with the building inscriptions and the indications given by deeds of sale will doubtless enable us ultimately to map out the principal features of the ancient city, but much more systematic exploration is needed, as well as further publication of existing documents.
The development of the coal and iron interests, and the increasing importance of the gold product of the Appalachian auriferous belt, and also of the lead product of the Mississippi Valley, led to a more general and decided interest in geology and mining; and about 1830 geological surveys of several of the Atlantic states were begun, and more systematic explorations for the ores of the metals, as well as for coal, were carried on over all parts of the country then open to settlement.
Of recent years there has been a great revival of interest in the improvement of inland waterways upon systematic plans, which promises better than an earlier period of internal improvements in the first half of the 19th century, the results of which were more or less disastrous for the state and local governments that undertook them, and only less so for the national government.
The work of the live-stock branch is directed towards the improvement of the stock-raising industry, and is carried on through the agencies of expert teachers and stock judges, the systematic distribution of pure-bred breeding stock, the yearly testing of pure-bred dairy herds, the supervision of the accuracy of the registration of pure-bred animals and the nationalization of live-stock records.
At certain epochs in the transmission of literature systematic efforts have been made to improve the transmitted texts, and these efforts have naturally been accompanied by a good deal of emendation both successful and unsuccessful.
in the Metaphysics, where a systematic theory of being running through several books (B, E, Z, H, 0) is preceded, interrupted and followed by other discussions of the subject.
The probability is that the Nicomachean Ethics is a collection of separate discourses worked up into a tolerably systematic treatise; and the interesting point is that these discourses correspond to separate titles in the list of Diogenes Laertius (7rep1 KaXou, irepi Sucalcwv, irepi q5tXias, 7repi )Sovfjs, and 7repi ijlovwv).
How otherwise, we wonder, could one man writing alone and with so few predecessors compose the first systematic treatises on the psychology of the mental powers and on the logic of reasoning, the first natural history of animals, and the first civil history of one hundred and fifty-eight constitutions, in addition to authoritative treatises on metaphysics, biology, ethics, politics, rhetoric and poetry; in all penetrating to the very essence of the subject, and, what is most wonderful, describing more facts than any other man has ever done on so many subjects ?
all speculative, practical and productive thinking of a systematic kind.
The blowpipe has been in common use from the earliest times for soldering metals and working glass, but its introduction into systematic chemical analysis is to be ascribed to A.
He studied assiduously The Sacred Books of the East, and earnestly contended that no systematic view of Christianity could afford to ignore the philosophy of other religions.
He lacked the finish of systematic education.
In England, Owen's anatomy of the pearly nautilus,14 Huxley's discussion of the general morphology of the Mollusca,17 and Lankester's embryological investigations, 19 have aided in advancing our knowledge of the group. Two remarkable works of a systematic character dealing with the Mollusca deserve mention here - the Manual of the Mollusca, by Dr S.
P. Woodward, a model of clear systematic exposition, and the exhaustive treatise on the Malacozoa or Weichthiere by Professor Keferstein of Gottingen, published as part of Bronn's Klassen and Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs.
His youth was largely passed in systematic travelling in search of everything beautiful in nature or in art.
In childhood also he began a systematic practice of composition, both in prose and verse.
He was reared on a farm, receiving little systematic education, and in 1821 he removed with his family to Andover, in the Western Reserve of Ohio.
A systematic study of the distribution of frequencies in these bands was first made by H.
Very valuable are the systematic introductions to the various books which set forth clearly in outline the contents and the general scope of the subjects to be treated.
He is not a systematic thinker, but is too much affected by the eclectic notion of reconciling all philosophies.
Herein the systematic place of the species, as akin to the 1 Cuvier in the second edition of his Regne Animal only referred to it in a footnote (i.
Casual excavations were made here in 1744 and 1833; more systematic ones intermittently between 1864 and 1884 by the Rev. J.
Among the more stable governments of Europe reaction in favour of conservatism and religion after 1848 was used by clerical parties to obtain concordats more systematic and thoroughgoing than had been concluded even after 1814.
The earliest recorded systematic experiments as to the motion of falling bodies were made by Galileo at Pisa in the latter years of the 16th century.
The first to make systematic experiments on the free diffusion of dissolved substances with no separating membrane was Thomas Graham (1804-1869), who immersed in a large volume of water a wide-mouthed bottle containing a solution, and after some time measured the quantity of substance which had diffused into the water.
In the 9th century, however, the systematic conquest of the west began.
Having a happy knack of estimating character, especially when acquainted with the histories of the persons in question, the good pastor contrived to write a graphic and readable book, but one much inferior to Porta's or Aristotle's as a systematic treatise.
On the Continent the systematic employment of mercenaries was both an early and a common practice.
Not at all systematic, it is occasional, practical, poetical and dominantly evangelical, laying stress on the hope of the righteous rather than the doom of the wicked.
In 1878 a map of the park based upon triangulation was drawn up by the Hayden survey, and in 1883-85 a more detailed map was made by the United States Geological Survey, and a systematic study of its geological phenomena was instituted.
and his wife Mary of Lorraine, was born in December 1542, a few days before the death of her father, heart-broken by the disgrace of his arms at Solway Moss, where the disaffected nobles had declined to encounter an enemy of inferior force in the cause of a king whose systematic policy had been directed against the privileges of their order, and whose representative on the occasion was an unpopular favourite appointed general in defiance of their ill-will.
von Helmholtz; and he intended to publish a systematic exposition of his geometrical investigations, in conjunction with Dr G.
Many garden plants have originated solely by selection; and much has been done to improve our breeds of vegetables, flowers and fruit by systematic selection.
A systematic mineralogical survey has been undertaken in central Sumatra.
His teaching, indeed, is neither philosophical, systematic nor truly original.
The following summary of some of the principal characteristics of half-a-dozen species will serve to show how such peculiarities can be utilized for systematic purposes: and others have shown that a ferment (zymase) can be extracted from yeast-cells which causes sugar to break up into carbon dioxide and alcohol.
The cost of iron ore is likely to rise much less rapidly than that of coal, because the additions to our known supply are likely to be very much greater in the case of ore than in that of coal, for the reason that, while rich and great iron ore beds may exist anywhere, those of coal are confined chiefly to the Carboniferous formation, a fact which has led to the systematic survey and measurement of this formation in most countries.
His health seems to have been perfectly restored, and during the three years of his stay in France his speculations were worked into systematic form in the Treatise of Human Nature.
In the Treatise of Human Nature, which is in every respect the most complete exposition of Hume's philosophical conception, we have the first thorough-going attempt to apply the fundamental principles of Locke's empirical psychology to the construction of a theory of knowledge, and, as a natural consequence, the first systematic criticism of the chief metaphysical notions from this point of view.
This connexion of isomerism with resistant linking, and of this with high valency, explains, in considerable measure, why inorganic compounds afforded, as a rule, no phenomena of this kind until the systematic investigation of metallic compounds by Werner brought to light many instances of isomerism in inorganic compounds.
Linnaeus' invention of binomial nomenclature for designating species served systematic biology admirably, but at the same time, by attaching preponderating importance to a particular grade in classification, crystallized the doctrine of fixity.
According to another point of view, an arboretum should be constructed with regard to picturesque beauty rather than systematically, although it is admitted that for scientific purposes a systematic arrangement is a sine qua non.
It was not till 1763 that systematic: excavations were begun; and, though they were carried on during the rest of the 18th century, it was only in the beginning of the 19th that they assumed a regular character; the work, which had received a vigorous stimulus during the period of the French government (1806-1814), was prosecuted, though in a less methodical manner, under the rule of the Bourbon kings (1815-1861).
His scheme was first to work out, in a separate treatise De corpore, a systematic doctrine of Body, showing how physical phenomena were universally explicable in terms of motion, as motion or mechanical action was then (through Galileo and others) understood - the theory of motion being applied in the light of mathematical science, after quantity, the subject-matter of mathematics, had been duly considered in its place among the fundamental conceptions of philosophy, and a clear indication had been given, at first starting, of the logical ground and method of all philosophical inquiry.
In Ceylon, and to some extent in India, the careful and systematic application of chemical manures, compounded on scientific lines, has been found to increase largely the yield of leaf, and much interplanting of nitrogen-producing growths has been done with a view to restoring to the soil the most necessary constituents.
Andrae began systematic excavations, which have led to important results.
In this aversion to a purely or mainly intellectual training may be traced a recoil from the systematic metaphysics of Plato and Aristotle, whose tendency was to subordinate the practical man to the philosopher.
But experience showed that systematic knowledge of truth is not synonymous with right action.
The idea of a systematic enchainment of phenomena, in which each is conditioned by every other, and none can be taken in isolation and explained apart from the rest, was foreign to his mind.
Before the systematic conversion of a tract into water-meadows can be safely determined on, care must be taken to have good drainage, natural or artificial, a sufficient supply of water, and water of good quality.
united to them, Louis began a series of systematic robberies of German towns and territories.
After the elections of 1881 a protest was raised against the systematic influence exercised by Prussian officials.
At St Andrews, where he held also the post of professor of systematic theology and apologetics, his work as a teacher was distinguished by several features which at that time were new.
The wars of Rome, and the systematic piracy ranean lands with slaves of all nations.
From this tour Ray and Willughby returned laden with collections, on which they meant to base complete systematic descriptions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Willughby undertook the former part, but, dying in 1672, left only an ornithology and ichthyology, in themselves vast, for Ray to edit; while the latter used the botanical collections for the groundwork of his Methodus plantarum nova (1682), and his great Historia generalis plantarum (3 vols., 1686, 1688, _1704).
Here we have the first attempt at a systematic comparison of ancient religions.
We must bear in mind that he was no cold systematic thinker, but an Oriental visionary, brought up in crass superstition, and without intellectual discipline; a man whose nervous temperament had been powerfully worked on by ascetic austerities, and who was all the more irritated by the opposition he encountered, because he had little of the heroic in his nature.
Indeed, systematic principles of this kind were altogether disregarded at that period.
Arrangements were made in 1902 for the systematic repair and preservation of Coptic monuments.
The recruiting superintending committee, travelling through districts, supervise every ballot, and work under stringent rules which render systematic bribery difficult.
As to manners and customs, although we possess no systematic descriptions of them from a native source-, the native artists and scribes have presented us with exceptionally rich materials in the painted and sculptured scenes of the tombs from the Old and Middle Kingdoms and the New Empire.
Very probably the Egyptians never constructed a really systematic list of hieroglyphs.
During the period that elapsed between the Moslem conquest and the end of the Omayyad dynasty the nature of the Arab occupation had changed from what had originally been intended, the establishment of garrisons, to systematic colonization.
It put a period to a question which had long embittered the relations between England and France, and locally it caused the cessation of the systematic opposition of the French agents in Cairo to everything tending to strengthen the British positionhowever beneficial to Egypt the particular scheme opposed might be.
In many places the sea has encroached; even in the 19th century entire villages were destroyed, but during the last twenty years of the century systematic efforts were made to secure the coast by groynes and embankments.
Among prose writers should be mentioned the grammarian Peder Syv,5 (1631-1702); Bishop Erik Pontoppidan (1616-1678), whose Grammatica Danica, published in 1668, is the first systematic analysis of the language; Birgitta Thott (1610-1662), a lady who translated Seneca (1658); and Leonora Christina Ulfeld, daughter of Christian IV., who has left a touching account of her long imprisonment in her Jammersminde.
Jackson, with the object of establishing a permanent base from which systematic exploration should be carried on for successive years and, if practicable, a journey should be made to the Pole.
Dr Engler is the principal editor of a large series of volumes which, under the title Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, is a systematic account of all the known genera of plants and represents the work of many botanists.
The "psychologicm" thus introduced into logic amounts to a systematic protest against the notion of a dehumanized thought and the study of logic in abstraction from actual psychic process.
A systematic policy of detraction was pursued by the small section of the Radical party who objected to a peer premier as such, and a great deal of adverse criticism was also aroused by a speech in which the prime minister, taunted for not again bringing forward a Home Rule measure, insisted upon the truism that the conversion of England, the "predominant partner," was a necessary condition of success.
He is an acute thinker and observer, misled by his systematic misanthropy and by his fantastic literary theories.
A multitude of varieties of cultivated plants and domesticated animals existed, and these differed amongst themselves and from their nearest wild allies to an extent that, but for the fact of their domestication, would entitle them to the systematic rank of species.
His death on the 13th of February 1907 not only prevented the publication in systematic form of his own important researches, but also delayed the appearance of much that had been left in MS. by H.
The wonderful progress of Budapest is undoubtedly due to the revival of the Hungarian national spirit in the first half of the 19th century, and to the energetic and systematic efforts of the government and people of Hungary since the restoration of the constitution.
The others were the State Psychopathic Institute at Kankakee (established in 1907 as part of the insane service) for systematic study of mental and nervous diseases; one at Lincoln having charge of feebleminded children; two institutions for the blind - a school at Jacksonville and an industrial home at Marshall Boulevard and 19th Street, Chicago; a home for soldiers and sailors (Quincy), one for soldiers' orphans (Normal), and one for soldiers' widows (Wilmington); a school for the deaf (Jacksonville), and an eye and ear infirmary (Chicago).
examen, the tongue of a balance) is used in the following article to denote a systematic test of knowledge, and of either special or general capacity or fitness, carried out under the authority of some public body.
His philosophical position with regard to his contemporaries he had already made clear in the critical work Reinhold, Fichte and Schelling (1803; reprinted in 1824 as Polemische Schriften), and in the more systematic treatises System der Philosophie als evidente Wissenschaft (1804), Wissen, Glaube and Ahnung (1805, new ed.
The body is covered by a cuticle which is sculptured and the various markings are of systematic importance: it is secreted by a hypodermis which also includes nerve-cells and some gland-cells.
He compiled a systematic account of the fiscal system of the canton Bern, but the main factor in his mental growth came from his study of Christianity.
Here, as in contemporaneous criticisms of Kant's ethical writings, Hegel aims at correcting the abstract discussion of a topic by treating it in its systematic interconnexions.
On the other hand he criticized the school of Schleiermacher, who elevated feeling to a place in religion above systematic theology.
This is not because he is an original thinker but because he compiled into systematic form the scattered teaching of his theological predecessors.
There has been no systematic survey of Eastern Palestine such as was carried out in Western Palestine between 1875 and 1880 by the officers of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
His energetic and at the same time systematic tactics inaugurated a new era of mountain warfare.
Among the other works of Griesbach (which are comparatively unimportant) may be mentioned his university thesis De codicibus quatuor evangelistarum Origenianis (Halle, 1771) and a work upon systematic theology (Anleitung zur Kenntniss der popularen Dogmatik, Jena, 1779).
Systematic conservancy of the Indian forests received a great impetus from the passing of the Forest Law in 1878, which gave to the government powers of dealing with private rights in the forests of which the chief proprietary right is vested in the state.
It is to be hoped that steps will shortly be taken to arrange articles of costume now displayed at the Indian Section, Victoria and Albert Museum, in some systematic order so as to assist students in arriving at a scientific knowledge of the subject.
Such studies, however, were pursued without any definite aim or systematic arrangement, and consequently were productive of nothing.
But Petau's eminence chiefly rests on his vast, but unfinished, De theologicis dogmatibus, the first systematic attempt ever made to treat the development of Christian doctrine from the historical point of view.
The systematic search made at Harvard Observatory is responsible for a large proportion of the recent discoveries.
Systematic study of red stars dates from the publication in 1866 of Schjellerup's Catalogue, containing a list of 280 of them.
When the proper motions of a considerable number of stars are collected and examined, a general systematic tendency is noticed.
The systematic tendency of the proper motions is so marked that the motions of a very few stars are quite sufficient to fix roughly the position of the solar apex; but attempts to fix its position to within a few degrees have failed, notwithstanding the many thousands of determined proper motions now available.
There is a close interdependence between the constant of procession and Lhe solar motion; the two determinations must generally be made simultaneously, and both depend very considerably on the systematic corrections required by the catalogues compared.
The large differences between these results, derived from the same material, depend mainly on the different systematic corrections applied by each astronomer to the declinations of Bradley.
Having regard to the special precautions taken to eliminate systematic error, and to the fact that the stars used were distributed nearly equally over both hemispheres, it is fair to conclude that this is the most accurate determination yet made.
The university of Pennsylvania began systematic excavations in 1889 under the directorship of Dr John P. Peters.
Thenceforward he devoted his whole time to a systematic examination of the French caves, his first publication on the subject being The Antiquity of Man in Western Europe (1860), followed in 1861 by New Researches on the Coexistence of Man and of the Great Fossil Mammifers characteristic of the Last Geological Period.
In ancient times, and especially in Egypt, Babylon and Greece, he went on to develop reason into science or the systematic investigation of definite subjects, e.g.
We need then to develop the alternative, and to pass from the external aspect of all-ness to the intrinsic ground of it in the universal Kau' auTO Kai n ai)TO, which, whatsoever the assistance it receives from induction in some sense of the word, in the course of its development for the individual mind, is secured against dependence on instances by the decisive fiat or guarantee of vas, insight into the systematic nexus of things.
It takes form as a body of doctrine drawing its premises from authority, sometimes in secular matters from that of Aristotle, but normally from that of the documents and traditions of systematic theology, while its method it draws from Aristotle, as known in the Latin versions,' mainly by Boethius, of some few treatises of the Organon together with the Isagoge of Porphyry.
Wolff found a sufficient reason for everything and embodied the results of his inquiries in systematic treatises, sometimes in the vernacular.
We are concerned in logic solely with the systematic 3 See Sir William Hamilton: The Philosophy of Perception, by J.
The detail, too, of the whole discussion is rich in suggestion, and subsequent logiciansUeberweg himself perhaps, Lotze certainly in his genetic scale of types of judgment and inference, Professor Bosanquet notably in his systematic development of " the morphology of knowledge," and others - have with reason exploited it.
It is to Lotze, however, that he owes most in the characteristic feature of his logic, viz., the systematic development of the types of judgment, and inference from less adequate to more adequate forms. His fundamental continuity with Bradley may be illustrated by his definition of inference.
The controversy did not cease, and in 1845 a systematic attempt was made anonymously by F.
The main objects of the society were thus set out: (1) To establish a nucleus of the universal brotherhood of humanity; (2) to promote the study of comparative religion and philosophy; (3) to make a systematic investigation into the mystic potencies of life and matter, or what is usually termed "occultism."
But his name is chiefly perpetuated through his investigation of the motions of sun-spots, by which he determined the elements of the sun's rotation and made the important discovery of a systematic drift of the photosphere, causing the rotation-periods of spots to lengthen with increase of solar latitude.
From all these efforts to reconstruct systematic theology with its appropriations of philosophy and science, groups of Christians turn to the inner life and seek in its realities to find the confirmation of their faith.
trans., 1816); Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology (3 vols., 1872); Ernst Troeltsch, Die Absolutheit des Christentums and die Religionsgeschichte (1902); First Principles of the Reformation, or the Ninety-five Theses and the Three Primary Works, trans.
The obvious importance, especially to scattered villages or tribes, of systematic joint action in the face of a common danger makes it reasonable to infer that federation in its elementary forms was a widespread device.
Both belong to a period in Greek history when the great city states had exhausted themselves in the futile struggle against Macedon and Rome, and both represent a conscious popular determination in the direction of systematic government.
The climate is varied, but systematic observations are wanting.
Carapanos made a systematic excavation of the whole site to a considerable depth.
He lectured on Clarke, Butler and Locke, and also delivered a systematic course on moral philosophy, which subsequently formed the basis of his well-known treatise.
In the dedication just referred to, Paley claims a systematic unity for his works.
The first systematic classification of elementary combinations in mechanism was that founded by Monge, and fully developed by Lanz and Btancourt, which has been generally received, and has been adopted in most treatises on applied mechanics.
Throughout the whole, the researches made since 1860 have not only added a great throng of new species, genera and families, but have thrown a flood of light upon questions of their phylogeny, systematic arrangement, horizontal and bathymetric distribution, organization, habits of life and economic importance.
Schott, C. Schaffer and others, have published many systematic papers on Collembola, as has F.
Mabillon and his Benedictines of SaintMaur paved the way for the systematic investigation of historical records.
be orderly and systematic; and the Modernists accordingly show little sympathy with Protestantism.
About the same time, and partly stimulated by Keble's sermon, some leading spirits in Oxford and elsewhere began a concerted and systematic course of action to revive High Church principles and the ancient patristic theology, and by these means both to defend the church against the assaults of its enemies, and also to raise to a higher tone the standard of Christian life in England.
Many remedies for this disease have been suggested, including total submersion of the vineyards, the use of carbon bisulphide for spraying, and of copper salts, but there appears to be little doubt that a really serious epidemic can only be dealt with by systematic destruction of the vines, followed by replanting with resistant varieties.
The most famous of the systematic exponents of evolutional utilitarianism is, of course, Herbert Spencer, in whose Data of Ethics (1819) the facts of morality are viewed in relation with his vast conception of the total process of cosmic evolution.
The Moderate party, which maintained its ascendancy till the beginning of the 19th century, sought to make the working of the church in its different parts as systematic and regular as possible, to make the assembly supreme, to enforce on presbyteries respect for its decisions, and to render the judicial procedure of the church as exact and formal as that of the civil courts.
Gilbert was the first to conduct systematic scientific experiments on electrical phenomena.
He proved by systematic experiments that the electromotive forces set up in conductors by their motions in magnetic fields or by the induction of other currents in the field were due to the secondary conductor cutting lines of magnetic force.
But with the systematic development of the vast mineral resources of the South Wales coalfield, the population of Glamorganshire has increased at a more rapid rate than that of any other county of the United Kingdom, so that at present this county contains about half the population of all Wales.
" [oral] repetition, teaching "), a systematic collection of religious-legal decisions developing the laws of the Old Testament, and the Gemara, (Aramaic " completion, decision," or perhaps also " teaching "), supplementary material, legal and otherwise.'
Systematic abstracts of the legal parts of the Talmud were made by Isaac Alfazi (or " Riph," 1013-1103), and by Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, otherwise called Sepher haYad or Yad ha-Hazakah).
The Baptists were the first denomination of British Christians to undertake in a systematic way that work of missions to the heathen, which became so prominent a feature in the religious activity of the 19th century.
But in looking through the long series of volumes of Reports published by this society, there is no sign that any systematic attempt at acclimatization has even once been made.
A number of foreign animals have been introduced, and more or less domesticated, and some useful exotics have been cultivated for the purpose of testing their applicability to French agriculture or horticulture; but neither in the case of animals nor of plants has there been any systematic effort to modify the constitution of the species, by breeding largely and selecting the favourable variations that appeared.
But no precautions such as those above indicated appear to have been taken in any of these experiments; and we have no intimation that either the society or any of its members are making systematic efforts to acclimatize the tree.
Originally meeting in all probability for more thoroughgoing study of the Cartesian philosophy, they looked naturally to Spinoza for guidance, and by and by we find him communicating systematic drafts of his own views to the little band of friends and students.
It is at least certain, from a reference in Spinoza's first letter to Oldenburg, that such a systematic exposition was in existence before September 1661.1 There are two dialogues somewhat loosely incorporated with the work which probably belong to a still earlier period.
Although the systematic framework of the thought and the terminology used are both derived from the Cartesian philosophy, the intellectual milieu of the time, the early work enables us, better than the Ethics to realize that the inspiration and starting-point of his thinking is to be found in the religious speculations of his Jewish predecessors.
taneously, a systematic attack was made upon the religious houses, beginning with the sequestration of the monastery of Gripsholm in January 1526.
In age it almost rivals Sanskrit; in primitiveness it surpasses that language in many points; it is inferior only in respect of its less extensive literature, and because it has not been made the subject of systematic grammatical treatment.
DOGMATIC THEOLOGY, the name usually given in modern times to the systematic study of Christian doctrine or of dogma in the widest sense possible (see Dogma).
The establishment of a systematic police force was of slow growth in England, and came into effect long after its creation abroad.
- After Wood's superficial explorations, the city remained desolate till 1894, when the Austrian Archaeological Institute obtained a concession for excavation and began systematic work.
His systematic work is represented by a large number of papers and monographs, many of which relate to the flora of New Caledonia; and by his Enumeration des genres de plantes cultivees au Musee d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris (1843), which is an interesting landmark in the history of classification in that it forms the starting-point of the system, modified successively by A.