The history of Jerusalem during the succeeding three centuries consists for the most part of a succession of wars against the kingdom of Israel, the Moabites and the Syrians.
Thus He not only brought the Israelites out of Egypt, but also the Philistines from Caphtor and the Syrians from Kir (ix.
Asa utilized the treasure of the Temple and palace to induce the Syrians to break off their relations with Baasha.
Soon after, a small band of Syrians entered Judah, destroyed its.
The Syrians seized Gilead, crossed over into Palestine, and occupied the land.
Thrice Joash smote the Syrians - in accordance with the last words of the dying prophet - and Aphek in the Sharon plain, famous in history for Israel's disasters, now witnessed three victories.
The proposal to read " Edomites " for " Syrians " in the list of bands which troubled Jehoiakim (2 Kings xxiv.
It is reported that philosophers are called Calani among the Indians and Jews among the Syrians.
They replied by demanding his death and called in the Syrians.
But when the Syrians chased him into the mountains, 6000 Jews went over to him and, with their aid, he put down the rebellion.
The Syrians admitted the fact, but insisted that it was a city for Greeks, as its temples and statues proved.
The quarrel was therefore referred to the emperor Nero, who finally gave his decision in favour of the Syrians or Greeks.
At that time the Syrians and Antiochenes were the solitary champions of the observance of the fourteenth day.
When, in the 5th century A.D., owing to theological differences the Syriac-using Christians became divided into Nestorians or East Syrians and Jacobites (Monophysites) or West Syrians, certain differences of pronunciation, chiefly in the vowels, began to develop themselves.
The East Syrians in most cases kept the more primitive pronunciation: e.g.
But about the time when it began to be supplanted by Arabic, two systems of vowel-signs were invented, one for the West Syrians, who borrowed the forms of Greek vowels, and the other more elaborate for the East Syrians, who used combinations of dots.
The names of the months were the same as those used by the Nabataeans, Syrians and later Jews, viz.
The religion of Palmyra did not differ in essentials from that of the north Syrians and the Arab tribes of the eastern desert.
Along with this paid cavalry went another branch of the army, the Turcopuli, a body of light cavalry, recruited from the Syrians and Mahommedans, and using the tactics of the Arabs; while an infantry was found among the Armenians, the best soldiers of the East, and the Maronites, who furnished the kingdom with archers.
Burgesses and nobles, however different in status, were both of the same Frankish stock, and both occupied the same superior position with regard to the native Syrians.
The former courts, under their bailiffs, gradually absorbed the separate courts which the Syrians had at first been permitted to enjoy under their own refs; and the bailiff with his 6 assessors (4 Syrians and 2 Franks) thus came to judge both commercial cases and cases in which Syrians were involved.
The villages were mostly inhabited by Syrians: it was rarely that Franks settled down as tillers of the soil.
One must not forget that there was a brisk native manufacture of carpets, pottery, ironwork, gold-work and soap; or that the Syrians of the towns had a definite legal position.
Homer knows only "Apt ot, but Herodotus speaks of " Syrians " as identical with Assyrians, the latter being, he thinks, a " barbarian " form, and he applies the name very widely to include, e.g.
north Cappadocians (" White Syrians " of Pteria).
Generally the ethnic term, Syrians, came to mean in antiquity the Semiti peoples domiciled outside the Mesopotamian and Arabian areas: but neither in pre-Greek nor in Greek times had the word Syria any very precise geographical significance, various lands, which we include under it, retaining their distinctive status, e.g.
In the Phoenician coast towns are many Greeks (to be distinguished from Orthodox Syrians, called also Greeks on account of creed).
Catholics - United Greeks, United Syrians and Maronites - are numerous.
Over against its want of originality must be set the fact, not merely that Syrian culture ultimately spread extensively towards the West, but that the Syrians (as is shown by the inscriptions of Teima, &c.) long before the Christian era exercised over the northern Arabs a perceptible influence which afterwards, about the beginning of the r st century, became much stronger through the kingdom of the Nabataeans.
The art of writing was, derived by the Arabs from the Syrians.
He embellished the walls and pylons of his court with scenes from his victories over Hittites and Syrians, and placed a number of colossal statues within it.
The Syrians celebrated every three years a "Booth Festival."
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
This interpretation of the popular tales, according to which the career of the hero can be followed in its entirety and in detail in the movements in the heavens, in time, with the growing predominance of the astral-mythological system, overshadowed the other factors involved, and it is in this form, as an astral myth, that it passes through the ancient world and leaves its traces in the folk-tales and myths of Hebrews, Phoenicians, Syrians, Greeks and Romans throughout Asia Minor and even in India.
The majority of these were Greeks, Italians, Syrians, Armenians and other Levantines, though almost every European and Oriental nation is represented.
Being the starting-point of the "overland route" to India, and the residence of the chief foreign consuls, it quickly acquired a European character and attracted not only Frank residents, but great numbers of Greeks, Jews and Syrians.
Of the Semitic races the Arabs - over whom, however, the Turkish rule is little more than nominal - number scme 7 millions, and in addition to about 300,000 Jews there is a large number of Syrians.
Among the Christians, especially the Armenians, the Greeks of Smyrna and the Syrians of Beirut, it has long embraced a considerable range of subjects, such as classical Greek, Armenian and Syriac, as well as modern French, Italian and English, modern history, geography and medicine.
sbot) is borne among the Syrians only by the patriarch, in all the other rites by all bishops, in the Greek 1 Among curious exceptions is the pastoral staff still carried by the Lutheran abbot of Lokkum.
" With the 7th century," as Wright remarks, " begins the slow decay of the native literature of the Syrians, to which the frightful sufferings of the people during the great war with the Persians in its first quarter largely contributed."
a Such tasselled or fringed caps were used by the Syrians in the Christian era, see W.
The whole physiognomy is fleshy and markedly distinct from that of other Syrians.
It was first taken from the Syrians by Simon the Asmonean (1 Macc. xiv.
The Syrians submitted to Rome at the synod of Dampier in 1599, but it was a forced submission, and in 1653 when the Portuguese arrested the Syrian bishop just sent out by the catholicus of Babylon, the rebellion broke out.
Thus the Nestorian Church in India, voluntarily and with perfect indifference to theological dogmas, passed under Jacobite rule, and when early in the 18th century, Mar Gabriel, a Nestorian bishop, came to Malabar, he had a cool reception, and could only detach a small following of Syrians whom he brought back to the old Nestorianism.
- The Nestorians or East Syrians (Surayi) of Turkey and Persia now inhabit a district bounded by Lake Urmia, or Urumia, on the east, stretching westwards into Kurdistan, to Mosul on the south, and nearly as far as Van on the north.
Its native population was of the same stock as that of Cappadocia, of which it had formed a part, an Oriental race often called by the Greeks Leucosyri or White Syrians, as distinguished from the southern Syrians, who were of a darker complexion, but their precise ethnological relations are uncertain.
Syrians by race and Arab-speaking, they are descendants of those "Melkites" who took the side of the Byzantine church in the time of Justinian II.
The Syrians computed it from their month Tishrin I.; but the Greeks threw it back to the month Gorpiaeus of the preceding year.
Hence there is a difference of eleven months between the epochs assumed by the Syrians and the Greeks.
According to the computation of the Greeks, the 49th year of the Caesarean era began in the autumn of the year preceding the commencement of the Christian era; and, according to the Syrians, the 49th year began in the autumn of the first year of the Incarnation.
t:xo,000,00a ' English Miles s o Long.East32°of Greenwich these above 10,000 were Arabs, Indians, Syrians and Goanese, and 3000 Europeans (over 2000 being Germans).
Invasions followed by Chaldeans, Syrians, Moabites and Ammonites, per 1 2 Kings xxiv.
Nothing certain is known of the marauding bands sent against Jehoiakim; for Syrians (Aram) one would expect Edomites (Edom), but see Jer.
m.; its population at 1 z to 2 millions, comprising various races, as Persians proper, Turks, Kurds, Syrians, Armenians, &c. The country is superior in fertility to most provinces of Persia, and consists of a regular succession of undulating eminences, partially cultivated and opening into extensive plains.
On returning to Rome, Felix was accused of having taken advantage of a dispute between the Jews and Syrians of Caesarea to slay and plunder the inhabitants, but through the intercession of his brother, the freedman Pallas, who had great influence with the emperor Nero, he escaped unpunished.
Probably the idea of providing vowel points was borrowed from the Syrians.
The decree for the Syrians, published at the Lateran on the 30th of September 1444, and those for the Chaldeans (Nestorians) and the Maronites (Monothelites), published at the last known session of the council on the 7th of August 1445, added nothing of doctrinal importance.
That the Armenians appropriated from the Syrians this, as well as the stories of Bartholomew and Thaddeus (the Syriac Addai), was merely an avowal on their part that Edessa was the centre from which the faith radiated over their land.
Besides Grottaferrata, there are Catholic Basilian monasteries in Poland, Hungary, Galicia, Rumania; and among the Melchites or Uniat Syrians.
There is a liturgy which bears his name, and which exists in two forms; the one form was found in a MS. of the 12th century in Calabria, and is, according to Renaudot, the foundation of the three liturgies of St Basil, St Gregory Nazianzen and St Cyril; the other is that which is used by the Maronite and Jacobite Syrians.
Trade is largely in the hands of Greeks, Syrians, Danagla and Jaalin.
Of the Syrians who made their mark in Greek literature, some were of native blood, e.g.
Syrians and Levantines are numerous, and there is a colony of Persians.
The Syrians and the, Keftiu, the latter now identified with the Cretans and other representatives of the Aegean civilization, are the only peoples who by their elaborate clothing and artistic products reveal themselves upon the ancient Egyptian monuments as the equals in culture of the Egyptian nation.
His wars began in his second year, their field comprising the Nubians, the Libyans, the Syrians and the Hittites.
The Ethiopian could do no more than encourage or support the Syrians in their fight for freedom against Sargon and Sennacherib.
Shawar, being unable to cope with the Syrians, demanded help of the Frankish king of Jerusalem Amalric (Amauri) I., who hastened to his aid with a large force, which united with Shawars and besieged Shirgflh in Bilbeis for three months; at the end of this time, owing to the successes of Nureddin in Syria, the Franks granted Shirguh a free passage with his troops back to Syria, on condition of Egypt being evacuated (October 1164).
Terms were then made by which both Syrians and Franks were to quit Egypt, though the garrison of Cairo remained; the hostile attitude of the Moslem population to this garrison led to another invasion at the beginning of 1168 by King Amalric, who after taking Bilbeis advanced to Cairo.
The Syrian forces were defeated at the battle of Jazurah (April 26th, 1280) and Kal~n resumed possession of the country; but the disaffected Syrians entered into relations with the Mongols, who proceeded to invade Syria, but were finally defeated by Kaln on the 30th of October 1281 under the walls of Horns (Emesa).
were not long in revealing themselves- Scarcely a year from the signing of the convention of Kutaya the application by Ibrahim of Egyptian methods of government, notably of the monopolies and conscription, had driven Syrians, Druses and Arabs, who had welcomed him as a deliverer, into revolt.
The unrest was suppressed by Mehemet ~ Ali in person, and the Syrians were terrorized and Ahi~ied, (v disarmed.
27) presupposes peaceful relations between Israel and the Syrians, with which, however, contrast ch.
His next signal interference was during the incursions of the Syrians, when he disclosed the plans of the invaders to the "king of Israel" with such effect that they were again and again baffled.
Warned by these examples, the Syrians opened their gates to him and paid their taxes.
Of the native Christians about two-fifths are Roman Catholics and oneeighth Uniat Syrians; one-ninth belong to the Anglican communion, one-eleventh are Jacobite Syrians, and one-twelfth are Baptists;.
He exhibited Othman's blood-stained garment in the mosque at Damascus, and incited his Syrians to vengeance.
He was so loved and honoured by his Syrians that, when he invited them to avenge the blood of Othman, they replied unanimously, "It is your part to command, ours to obey."
This appeal has been called by a European scholar "one of the unworthiest comedies of the whole world's history," accepting the report of very partial Arabic writers that it happened when the Syrians were on the point of losing the battle.
660), is not very probable, for it is pretty certain that just then Ali had raised an army of 40,000 men against the Syrians, and also that in the second or third month of that year Moawiya was proclaimed caliph at Jerusalem.
Madaini says that Moawiya was prompted to it, because when he consulted the Syrians about the choice of his son Yazid as his successor, they had proposed Abdarrahman.
The Medinians fought valiantly, but could not hold out against the well-disciplined Syrians.
The evidence is quite conclusive; yet the fire has been imputed to the Syrians, and a tale was invented about ballistas which hurled against the House of God enormous stones and vessels full of bitumen.
An army despatched against Obaidallah under Ibrahim routed the Syrians near Mosul (battle of Khazir); Obaidallah and Hosain b.
Yusuf at the head of 2000 Syrians against Ibn Zobair in Mecca, and despatched a messenger toTariq b.'Amr, who 1 Formerly the capital of the homonymous province of Syria; it lies a day's march west from Haleb (Aleppo).
Eutychius and others pretend that he desired to substitute Jerusalem for Mecca, because Ibn Zobair had occupied the latter place, and thus the pilgrimage to the Ka`ba had become difficult for the Syrians.
He now proclaimed a Holy War against the Syrians, whom he declared to be worse enemies of Islam than even the Turks and the Dailam.
With the approach of the Syrians, Yazid b.
His first public action was to increase the pay of all soldiers by 10 dirhems, that of the Syrians by 20.
After this new pacification, Merwan caused the Syrians to acknowledge his two sons as heirs to the Caliphate, and married them to two daughters of Hisham.
He then equipped ro,000 Syrians, and ordered them to rejoin the army of 20,000 men from Kinnesrin (Qinnasrin) and Mesopotamia, who, under Yazid b.
When these Syrians came to Rosafa (Rusafa), Suleiman b.
From all sides Syrians flocked to his aid till he had 70,000 men under his orders.
Another tradition - accepted by the Kurds, Syrians and Nestorians - fixes on Mount Judi, in the south of Armenia, on the left bank of the Tigris, near Jezire, as the Ark's resting-place.
The retail trade is in the hands of Syrians.
So early as 1834 it seemed as though the struggle would be renewed; for Mehemet Ali had extended to his new pashaliks his system of monopolies and conscription, and the Syrians, finding that they had exchanged Turkish whips for Egyptian scorpions, rose in a passion of revolt.
11) was the signal for a general rising of the Syrians against Ibrahim's tyranny.
During the past generation much light has been thrown upon one of these races - the "Hittites" or "Syro-Cappadocians," who, after their rule had passed away, were known to Herodotus as "White Syrians," and whose descendants can still be recognized in the villages of Cappadocia.'
Next to the Roman Uniats (whom they term Rassen or Venal) they most hate the Nestorian Syrians of Persia.
Later the French-Canadians, Italians, Poles and Bohemians added notably to the number; an appreciable percentage of Oriental Catholics is also found, - Greeks, Syrians, Armenians, &c. Natural increase, especially among the first Catholic immigrants, and a certain percentage of conversions from Protestantism, are contributory sources.
In the year 854 B.C. Hamath was taken by Shalmaneser II., king of Assyria, who defeated a large army of allied Hamathites, Syrians and Israelites at Karkor and slew 14,000 of them.
The early Christian Fathers recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century A.D., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philad.elphus the design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks.
About 165 B.C. Simon Maccabaeus defeated the Syrians in many battles in Galilee, and drove them into Ptolemais.
Some years later, however, Tryphon, an officer of the Syrians, who had grown suspicious of the Maccabees, enticed Jonathan into Ptolemais and there treacherously took him prisoner.
The real missionaries of culture in the empire were the Aramaeans (Syrians), who were connected with the West by their Christianity, and in their translations diffused Greek literature through the Orient.
Since 1900 a considerable number of Syrians and Lebanese migrants have settled in the country as traders.
But as the Maccabees had now in the name of the Syrians cleared the Syrians out of Palestine, Tryphon's jealousy was aroused, and he resolved to be rid of Jonathan, who, with all his cunning, walked into a trap at Ptolemais, was made prisoner and ultimately slain (143).
He is assisted by two bishops, one for Alaska residing at Sitka, one for Orthodox Syrians residing in Brooklyn.
The same is the case with the Eastern Churches united to the Holy See; following the example of the famous council of Lebanon for the Maronites, held in 1730, and that of Zamosc for the Ruthenians, in 1720, these churches, at the suggestion of Leo XIII., have drawn up in plenary assembly their own local law: the Syrians at Sciarfa in 1888; the Ruthenians at Leopol in 1891; and a little later, the Copts.
Those of the Armenians and Syrians who have retained adult baptism use rivers alone at any time of year.
The third is counterbalanced everywhere by a large population of Moslem and Orthodox Syrians.
His subjects were mainly Greeks or Syrians, and his coins bear the image of Augustus or Tiberius.
i we find the full name of the district, Galil ha-Goyim, literally "the ring,' circuit or border of the foreigners" - referring to the Phoenicians, Syrians and Aramaeans, by whose country the province, was on three sides surrounded.
The invaders were a coalition of Arabs, Syrians and Berbers.
There has also been a slight immigration of Abyssinians, Egyptians, Syrians and Europeans - the last named chiefly Greeks.
tile pressure of a strong hand kept the Syrians and Canaanites sufficiently loyal to the Pharaohs.
The massacre of Syrians, Jacobites and Chaldees at Urfa and elsewhere formed no part of the original plan.
The soldiers and captains of the Byzantine garrisons were equally Armenians and Syrians, in whom the sight of a crucifix or image set up for worship inspired nothing but horror.
The expedition was successful; David smote of the Syrians 22,000 men, and took and garrisoned the city; "and the Syrians became servants to David, and brought gifts" (2 Sam.
This seems to indicate an intermediate defeat and vassalage of Ahab, of which no direct record remains; and it was probably in the attempt to throw off this vassalage in 853, the year after the battle of Karkar, that Ahab met his death in battle with the Syrians (r Kings xxii.
In the next year (168) both Lycortas and Polybius were on the point of starting at the head of 1200 Achaeans to take service in Egypt against the Syrians, when an intimation from the Roman commander that armed interference was undesirable put a stop to the expedition (xxix.
When the popular Nestorianism of the Syrians was condemned at Ephesus (431) it began to gravitate eastwards, Nisibis becoming its eventual headquarters; but Edessa and the western Syrians refused to bow to the Council of Chalcedon (45r) when it condemned Monophysitism.
On the whole it is an unpleasant foul stream running between poisonous banks, and as such it seems to have been regarded by the Jews and other Syrians.
Bacchides, the general of the Syrians, captured and fortified it (1.
The gratitude of the Syrians brought him to the knowledge of Sextus Caesar the governor of Syria; but his action inspired the chief men of the Jews with apprehension.
The action of the Sanhedrin and the presence of the women suppliants in the Temple suggest, if the y do not prove, that this Hezekiah who harassed the Syrians was a Jewish patriot, who could not acquiesce and wait with Sameas.
One very tangible difference appears in the fact that the name Jesus was by the East Syrians written and pronounced " ' slur, by the West Syrians Yeshu.
(See DAN, tribe.) The account of David's wars is remarkable for the inclusion of the Syrians of Damascus and beyond the Euphrates; some exaggeration has been suspected (cf.
Absentee landlords, he thinks, rack-rented the soil (p. 167), while the "inhuman severity" of their treatment of villeins led to a progressive decay of agriculture, destroyed the economic basis of the Latin kingdom, and led the natives to welcome the invasion of Saladin (pp. 327-331) The French writers Rey and Dodu are more kind to the Franks; and the testimony of contemporary Arabic writers, who seem favourably impressed by the treatment of their subjects by the Franks, bears out their view, while the tone of the assizes is admittedly favourable to the Syrians.
The Syrians were more original in what related to religion; every place, every tribe, had its " lord " (Ba`al) and its " lady " (Ba`alat); the latter is generally called `Ashtar or `Ashtaret (i.e.
" White Syrians," however, were still in Cappadocia even after the Cimmerians had destroyed the Phrygian monarchy, allowing Lydia to become independent under the Mermnad dynasty.
t:xo,000,00a ' English Miles s o Long.East32Ã‚°of Greenwich these above 10,000 were Arabs, Indians, Syrians and Goanese, and 3000 Europeans (over 2000 being Germans).
Similarly Josephus quotes from Herodotus the statement that the Syrians in Palestine are circumcised and profess to have learned the practice from the Egyptians (C. Apionem, i.
They compelled him suddenly to break off the battle of Siffin, which he was apparently on the point of gaining over Moawiya, because the Syrians fastened copies of the Koran to their lances to denote that not the sword, but the word of God should decide the contest (see further below, B.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.