This result has been confirmed by its synthesis by A.
Martinengo Cesarescos Liberation of Italy (London, 1895) is to be strongly recommended, and is indeed, for accuracy, fairness and synthesis, as well as for charm of style, one of the very best books on the subject in any language; Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (2 vols., London, 1899) is bulkier and less satisfactory, but contains a useful bibliography.
Inevitably the question forces itself upon the mind, is not some fuller synthesis possible?
Theoretically this branch of the subject should connect with and form the completion of morphological anatomy, but the field, has not yet been sufficiently explored to allow of the necessary synthesis.
This process is called conceptual synthesis, the possibility of which is a sine qua non for the exchange of information by speech and writing.
His power lies chiefly in the clear grasp of fact, in selection and synthesis, in the vivid narration of incident.
In either case it is of course open to anyone to maintain that the apparent completeness of synthesis really rests on the subtle intrusion of elements of feeling into the rational process.
The synthesis of citric acid was accomplished by L.
The fundamental chemical classification of matter, on the other hand, recognizes two groups of substances, namely, elements, which are substances not admitting of analysis into other substances, and compounds, which do admit of analysis into simpler substances and also of synthesis from simpler substances.
This dogma was shaken by Wohler's synthesis of urea in 1828.
But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained isolated for many years; and many explanations were attempted by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical vital force), but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is determined.'.
isomerism, or the existence of two or more chemically different substances having identical molecular weights, is adequately shown; and, most important of all, once the structure is determined, the synthesis of the compound is but a matter of time.
Berthelot first accomplished the synthesis of benzene in 1870 by leading acetylene, HC: CH, through tubes heated to dull redness; at higher temperatures the action becomes reversible, the benzene yielding diphenyl, diphenylbenzene, and acetylene.
An analogous synthesis is that of dihydro-m-xylene from methyl heptenone,(CH 3) 2 C:CH (CH2)2.CO CH3.
We may here mention the synthesis of oxyuvitic ester (5-methyl-4-oxy-I-3-benzene dicarboxylic ester) by the condensation of two molecules of sodium acetoacetic ester with one of chloroform (Ann., 1883, 222, p. 249).
Another hexa-substituted benzene compound capable of direct synthesis is mellitic acid or benzene carboxylic acid, C6(000H)6.
The fifth compound, on the other hand, does not behave as an unsaturated aliphatic compound, but its deportment is that of a nucleus, many substitution derivatives being capable of synthesis.
It is to be noted in the Kolbe method of synthesis that potassium phenolate may be used in place of the sodium salt, provided that the temperature be kept low (about 150° C.), for at the higher temperature (220° C.) the isomeric para-oxybenzoic acid is produced.
Gregorovius's Geschichte der Stadt Rom (3rd ed., Stuttgart, 1881), a work of immense research and admirable synthesis, giving a very unfavourable view of the Borgia; A.
- These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.
The general trend of these researches lies in the study of the decomposition or " breaking down " products of the albumin molecules; once these are accurately determined, the synthesis of an albumin is but a matter of time.
He produced in the end a synthesis of Plato and Aristotle with an admixture of Pythagorean or Oriental mysticism, and is closely allied to the Alexandrian school of thought.
The above formula for piperic acid was confirmed by its synthesis by A.
The synthesis of piperine follows from the interaction of piperyl chloride (formed from piperic acid and phosphorus pentachloride) and piperidine (L.
Kennett's Schweich Lecture (1909), The Composition of the Book of Isaiah in thelLight of Archaeology and History, an interesting attempt at a synthesis of results, is a brightly written b'ut scholarly sketch of the growth of the book of Isaiah, which went on till thegreat success of the Jews under Judas Maccabaeus.
Long robes bearing Greek names (synthesis, syrma, &c.) were worn at dinner-parties.
It almost follows from the nature of the case that the great task of Boerhaave's life, a synthesis of ancient and modern medicine, and the work in which this is chiefly contained, his.
Before proceeding to the actual synthesis of the sugars, it is advisable to discuss their decompositions and transformations.
The general principles of stereochemistry being discussed in Stereoisomerism (q.v.), we proceed to the synthesis of glucose and fructose and then to the derivation of their configurations.
Fischer's a-acrose therefore led to the synthesis of the dextro and laevo forms Gf mannose, glucose and fructose; and these substances have been connected synthetically with many other sugars by means of his cyanhydrin process, leading to higher sugars, and Wohl and.
Chemically pure sodium nitrate can be obtained by repeated recrystallization of Chile saltpetre or by synthesis.
A great analysis was to precede a great synthesis, but it was the synthesis on which Comte's vision was centred from the first.
The main principles of the Comtian system are derived from the Positive Polity and from two other works, - the Positivist Catechism: a Summary Exposition of the Universal Religion in Twelve Dialo ues between a Woman and a The g, g Elvis f Priest of Humanity; and, second, The Subjective Synthesis (1856), which is the first and only volume of a work upon mathematics announced at the end of the Positive Philosophy.
The subordination never was, and never will be, effected except by means of a religion, and a religion, to be final, must include a harmonious synthesis of all our conceptions of the external order of the universe.
In spite of this, however, his heroic attempt at a synthesis of all scientific knowledge could not but fall short of its aim.
There are certain reactions, however, in which oxidation can be successfully applied to the synthesis of acids.
An important oxidation synthesis of aromatic acids is from hydrocarbons with aliphatic side chains; thus toluene, or methylbenzene, yields benzoic acid, the xylenes, or dimethyl-benzene, yield methyl-benzoic acids and phthalic acids.
Among the poems written or at least sketched during this period were L'Oaristys, L'Aveugle, La Jeune Malade, Bacchus,Euphrosine and Ld Jeune Tarentine, the last a synthesis of his purest manner, mosaic though it is of reminiscences of at least a dozen classical poets.
" In this sense the doctrine of the Trinity was the synthesis, and summary, of all that was highest in the Hebrew and Hellenic conceptions of God, fused into union by the electric touch of the Incarnation."
Next he groups these sections into fourteen larger masses of apocalyptic matter, and by a process of synthesis seeks to arrive at the plan on which the author constructed his book.
The primitive fact under which might be gathered the special conditions of that synthesis which we call cognition was this unity.
The contradiction is solved in a higher synthesis, which takes up into itself the two opposites.
We progress by making explicit the oppositions contained in the fundamental synthesis, by uniting these opposites, analysing the new synthesis, and so on, until we reach an ultimate pair.
Now, in the synthesis of the third act two principles may be distinguished: - (1) the non-ego determines the ego; (2) the ego determines the non-ego.
Leaving all detailed descriptions of these schools to special articles devoted to them, it is sufficient here to say that their doctrines were a synthesis of Platonism, Stoicism and the later Aristotelianism with a leaven of oriental mysticism which gradually became more and more important.
Equally fundamental is the element of synthesis.
In other words the intelligence when it once begins to define an object for itself, finds itself launched on a movement of selfasserting synthesis in which it cannot stop until it had recognized that the unity of the object with itself involves its unity with all other objects and with the mind that knows it.
Discovered by Boyle in 1661, it was first carefully studied by Dumas and Peligot in 1831; its synthesis from its elements (through methane and methyl chloride) was effected by Berthelot in 1858.
The earlier papers deal chiefly with the properties and modes of synthesis of cloud chain hydrocarbons and their derivatives.
This work led naturally to the synthesis of many terpenes and members of the camphor group; also to the investigation of various alkaloids and natural colouring matters.
Thus the attempt to find out a constitution for the aether will involve a synthesis of intimate correlation of the various types of physical agencies, which appear so different to us mainly because we perceive them through different senses.
It thus appears that the doctrine of atomic material constitution and the doctrine of a universal aether stand to each other in a relation of mutual support; if the scheme of physical laws is to be as precise as observation and measurement appear to make it, both doctrines are required in our efforts towards synthesis.
If we rest on the synthesis here described, the energy of the matter, even the thermal part, appears largely as potential energy of strain in the aether which interacts with the kinetic energy associated with disturbances involving finite velocity of matter.
Dr Thomson first pointed out a process by synthesis, which has the advantage of being very simple, and at the same time rigidly accurate, resulting from his observation that when hydrochloric acid gas and ammonia gas are brought in contact with each other, they always combine in equal volumes.
The only possible synthesis is that of the Christianity common to all; as institutions, though they possess many features in common, their history is separate and must be separately dealt with.
Dealing with interrupted evidence, however, it becomes necessary to exercise the closest analysis and synthesis as part of his general art as a restorer.
Baeyer was enabled to carry out the complete synthesis of indigo.
The synthesis of trichloracetic acid from its elements was accomplished in 1843 by H.
Kolbe; this taken in conjunction with Melsens's observation provided the first synthesis of acetic acid.
Matter is deduced by the "original synthesis."
Mme Blavatsky's principal books were Isis Unveiled (New York, 1877), The Secret Doctrine, the Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy (1888), The Key to Theosophy (1891).
The purely chemical literature on the alkaloids is especially voluminous; and from the assiduity with which the constitutions of these substances have been and are still being attacked, we may conclude that their synthesis is but a question of time.
In the language of a later period this principle may be expressed as the absolute synthesis of subject and object; no object exists apart from Mind.
But this synthesis is not brought forward prominently by Berkeley.
explains the terms analysis and synthesis, and the distinction between theorem and problem.
It can also be used for the synthesis of pyridine derivatives, since A.
In order to prove this novel conclusion he started afresh from the Cartesian " I think " in the Kantian form of the synthetic unity of apperception acting by a priori categories; but instead of allowing, with all previous metaphysicians, that the Ego passively receives sensations from something different, and not contenting himself with Kant's view that the Ego, by synthetically combining the matter of sensations with a priori forms, partially constructs objects, and therefore Nature as we know it, he boldly asserted that the Ego, in its synthetic unity, entirely constructs things; that its act of spontaneity is not mere synthesis of passive sensations, but construction of sensations into an object within itself; and that therefore understanding makes as well as shapes Nature.
According to him, the Ego posits first itself (thesis); secondly, the non-Ego, the other, opposite to itself (antithesis); and, thirdly, this non-Ego within itself (synthesis), so that all reality is in consciousness.
Kant's a priori synthesis of sensations into experience lies at the root of all German idealism.
The noumenal idealists of Germany assumed, like all psychological idealists, the unproved hypothesis that there is no sense of body, but there is a sense of sensations; and they usually accepted Kant's point, that to get from such sensations to knowledge there is a synthesis contributing mental elements beyond the mental data of sense.
He accepts the Kantian positions that unity of consciousness combines sensations by a priori synthesis, and that therefore all that natural science knows about matter moving in space is merely phenomena of outer sense; and he agrees with Kant that from these data we could not infer things in themselves by reason.
Taken for granted the Kantian hypothesis of a sense of sensations requiring synthesis by understanding, and the Kantian conclusion that Nature as known consists of phenomena united by categories as objects of experience, Green argued, in accordance with Kant's first position, that knowledge, in order to unite the manifold of sensations by relations into related phenomena, requires unifying intelligence, or what Kant called synthetic unity of apperception, which cannot itself be sensation, because it arranges sensations; and he argued, in accordance with Kant's second position, that therefore Nature itself as known requires unifying intelligence to constitute the relations of its phenomena, and to make it a connected world of experience.
His theory of reason brings him into contact with the German idealists: he accepts from Kant the hypothesis of synthesis and a priori categories, from Fichte the hypothesis that will is necessary to reason, from Schelling and Hegel the hypothesis of universal reason, and of an identity between the cosmic reason and the reason of man, in which he agrees also with Green and Caird.
Under the second head, according to Ward, as according to Wundt, knowledge is experience; we must start with the duality of subject and object, or perpetual reality, phenomenon, in the unity of experience, and not believe, as realists do, that either subject or object is distinct from this unity; moreover, experience requires " conation," because it is to interesting objects that the subject attends; conation is required for all synthesis, associative and intellective; thinking is doing; presentation, feeling, conation are one inseparable whole; and the unity of the subject is due to activity and not to a substratum.
Although he does not agree with Kant that either the formal element in sense or the synthesis of sensations is a priori, yet in very Kantian fashion, through not distinguishing between operation and object, he holds that, in synthetically combining sensations of touch and sight, we not only have a complex perception of a solid body, but also know this " object thought of " as itself the complex of these sensations objectified.
The view of the dual nature of lichens had hitherto been based on analysis; the final proof of this view was now supplied by the actual synthesis of a lichen from fungal and algal constituents.
In all cognition, strictly so-called, there is involved a certain synthesis or relation of parts of a characteristic nature, and if we attempt to discuss this synthesis as though it were in itself but one of the facts forming the matter of knowledge, we are driven to regard this relation as being of the quite external kind discovered by observation among matters of knowledge.
The difficulty of reconciling the two views is that which gives rise to much of the obscurity in Locke's treatment of the theory of knowledge; in Hume the effort to identify them, and to explain the synthesis which is essential to cognition as merely the accidental result of external relations among the elements of conscious experience, appears with the utmost clearness, and gives the keynote of all his philosophical work.
It remains to be seen how knowledge can be explained on such a basis; but, before proceeding to sketch Hume's answer to this question, it is necessary to draw attention, first, to the peculiar device invariably resorted to by him when any exception to his general principle that ideas are secondary copies of impressions presents itself, and, secondly, to the nature of the substitute offered by him for that perception of relations or synthesis which even in Locke's confused statements had appeared as the essence of cognition.
These external relations are, in fact, what Hume describes as the natural bonds of connexion among ideas, and, regarded subjectively as principles of association among the facts of mental experience, they form the substitute he offers for the synthesis implied in knowledge.
This conception led Kekule to his "closed-chain" or "ring" theory of the constitution of benzene which has been called the "most brilliant piece of prediction to be found in the whole range of organic chemistry," and this in turn led in particular to the elucidation of the constitution of the "aromatic compounds," and in general to new methods of chemical synthesis and decomposition, and to a deeper insight into the composition of numberless organic bodies and their mutual relations.
The council of state was, moreover, itself soon enlarged and subdivided; and in course of time the emperor alone represented any synthesis of the various departments of the administration.
by synthesis at a summation of "beats" or of simple contras tions in the compound, or "tetanic," or summed contraction of the skeletal muscles.
In this direction pragmatism may ultimately lead to a number of metaphysics, each of which will represent a personal guess at a final synthesis of experience, while remaining essentially undogmatic and improvable.
Bokorny, moreover, it appears that such filaments will yield :starch from formaldehyde when they are supplied with sodium -oxymethyl sulphonate, a salt which readily decomposes into formaldehyde and hydrogen sodium sulphite, an observation which has been taken to mean that formaldehyde is always a stage in the synthesis of starch.
Its synthesis in 1828 by F.
He does not free himself from the current theology either by rational moralizing like Kant, or by bold speculative synthesis like Fichte and Schelling.
The first step is a preliminary affirmation and unification, the second a negation and differentiation, the third a final synthesis.
Beginning with the antithesis of a legal system and 2 Law morality, Hegel, carrying out the work of Kant, presents and the synthesis of these elements in the ethical life (Sittlichhistory.
By this Transcendental Synthesis he proposed to reconcile Realism and Idealism, and to destroy the traditional difficulty between transcendental, or pure, thought and "things in themselves."
It was thought that it might be identical with hexaphenylethane, but the supposed synthesis of this substance by Ullmann and Borsum (Ber., 1902, 35, p. 2877) appeared to disprove this, although it showed that triphenylmethyl readily isomerized into their product, under the influence of catalysts.
The truth is that, though the premises contain the conclusion, neither premise alone contains it, and a man who knows both but does not combine them does not draw the conclusion; it is the synthesis of the two premises which at once contains the conclusion and advances our knowledge; and as syllogism consists, not indeed in the discovery, but essentially in the synthesis of two premises, it is an inference and an advance on each premise and on both taken separately.
As again the synthesis contains or involves the conclusion, syllogism has the advantage of compelling assent to the consequences of the premises.
c. It is the synthesis of ideas into unity and consciousness of their objective validity, not in the sense of agreement with external reality but in the sense of the logical necessity of their synthesis (Sigwart).
It is the analysis of an aggregate idea (Gesammtvorstellung) into subject and predicate; based on a previous association of ideas, on relating and comparing, and on the apperceptive synthesis of an aggregate idea in consequence; but itself consisting in an apperceptive analysis of that aggregate idea; and requiring will in the form of apperception or attention (Wundt).
The sensory judgment then, which is nothing but a belief that at the moment of sense something sensible exists, is a proof that not all judgment requires conception, or synthesis or analysis of ideas, or decision about the content, or about the validity, of ideas, or reference of an ideal content to reality, as commonly, though variously, supposed in the logic of our day.
- Alexander the Commentator defined synthesis as a progress from principles to consequences, analysis as a regress from consequences to principles; and Latin logicians preserved the same distinction between the progressus a principiis ad principiata, and the regressus a principiatis ad principia.
No distinction is more vital in the logic of inference in general and of scientific inference in particular; and yet none has been so little understood, because, though analysis is the more usual order of discovery, synthesis is that of instruction, and therefore, by becoming more familiar, tends to replace and obscure the previous analysis.
These two kinds of syllogism are synthesis and analysis in the ancient sense.
Deduction is synthesis when it is progressive from real ground to consequence, as when we start from these two results of analysis as principles and deduce synthetically the proposition that therefore the angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles, in the order familiar to the student of Euclid.
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