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synods

synods Sentence Examples

  • In 1869 and 1871 he was president of the first and second Jewish Synods at Leipzig and Augsburg.

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  • LAMBETH CONFERENCES, the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury.

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  • Protestants were granted full civil rights and protection, and were permitted to hold their ecclesiastical assemblies - consistories, colloquies and synods, 1 Lindsay, Hist.

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  • Synods were held in 1718, 1723, 1726 and 1727; and in a remote spot in Bas Languedoc in 1 744 a national synod assembled - the first since 1660 - which consisted of representatives from every province formerly Protestant.

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  • In 1581 the Middelburg Synod divided the Church, created provincial synods and presbyteries, but could not shake off the civil power in connexion with the choice of church officers.

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  • In 1864 the two associations or synods of North and South Wales were united in a general assembly.

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  • and the new states west of the Alleghany Mountains, which grew into presbyteries and synods having peculiar features midway between Presbyterianism and Congregationalism.

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  • In 1858 the associate synods of the north and west united with the Associate Synod as the United Presbyterian Church.

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  • 1858, 6 synods, 21 presbyteries and about 15,000 communicants withdrew and organized the United Synod.

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  • - The Southern presbyteries of the Old School Assembly withdrew in 1861, and delegates from ten southern synods (47 presbyteries) met in Augusta, Georgia, in December, and organized as the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America, which included 700 ministers, 1000 churches and 75,000 communicants.

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  • Its consistories are grouped into two special synods, one at Paris and one at Montbliard (for the department of Doubs and Haute-Sane and the territory of Belfort, where the churches of this denomination are principally situated).

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  • As neighbouring dioceses coalesced into " provinces " and provinces into larger districts (corresponding to the civil " dioceses " of the later Roman Empire), the provincial synods of bishops and the synods of the larger districts acquired a criminal jurisdiction, still purely spiritual, of their own.

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  • That this may be conveniently inquired into, synods are to be held, three in every year, in each province, and questions of this kind examined.

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  • Any bishop, priest or deacon " importuning " the emperor, instead of exerting his right of appeal to synods, is to lose all right of appeal and never to be restored or pardoned.

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  • The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.

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  • Consistories and synods have till near the end of the 18th century.

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  • The cause of Ignatius and Photius was dealt with in the 9th century by various synods; those in the East agreeing with the emperor's view for the time being, while those in the West acted with the pope.

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  • In provincial matters each province is independent, holds its own synods, makes its own laws, and elects its own governing board; but the General Synod meets, on the average, every ten years at Herrnhut, and its regulations are binding in all the provinces.

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  • Any bishop, priest or deacon " importuning " the emperor, instead of exerting his right of appeal to synods, is to lose all right of appeal and never to be restored or pardoned.

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  • Cartwright and Edmund Snape were ministers there; and from 1576 to 1625 a completely appointed Presbyterian Church existed, under the rule of synods, and authorized by the governor.

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  • Synods Synod of also were held in the north.

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  • At provincial synods archbishops wear the pretiosa, bishops the auriphrygiata, and mitred abbots the simplex.

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  • it may be noted that Cranmer favoured a proposal for the formation of a council of presbyters in each diocese, and for provincial synods.

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  • All the Maize - - - 1,39 more important questions of church discipline and all decisions regulating the doctrine and practice of the church are dealt with by the synods.

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  • The first trace of system is in the limited right of appeal given by the first oecumenical council of Nicaea and its provision that episcopal sentences or those of provincial synods on appeal were to be recognized throughout the world.

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  • The story of the administrative development of the Church in the 5th century is mainly the story of the final emergence and constitution of the great " patriarchates," as authorities superior to metropolitans and provincial synods.

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  • Episcopis, &c., subjected clerics for small offences pertaining to the observances of religion to bishops and synods.

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  • Discipline over ministers and other office-bearers was exercised by administrative methods in the form of trials before consistories or synods.

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  • He set himself in opposition to Novatian, a presbyter of Rome, who advocated their permanent exclusion from the church; and it was his influence which guided the tolerant measures of the Carthaginian synods on the subject.

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  • The country was divided into five districts with five synods; and Josephus asserts that the people welcomed the change from the monarchy.

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  • (contains also notices of later synods at Arles); W.

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  • In the East, in the 5th century, the archdeacons were already charged with the proof of the qualifications of candidates for ordination; they attended the bishops at ecclesiastical synods, and sometimes acted as their representatives; they shared in the administration of sees during a vacancy.

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  • He obtained the king's permission to deal with the affairs of the Church in synods which met apart from the Great Council, and were exclusively composed of ecclesiastics.

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  • He acknowledged the royal right to veto the legislation of national synods.

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  • SYNODS OF.

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  • Though the precise locality is occasionally uncertain, the majority of the medieval synods assembled in the chapter-house of old St Paul's, or the former chapel of St Catherine within the precincts of Westminster Abbey or at Lambeth.

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  • In 1852 there was held the first of a series of synods of the newly organized Roman Catholic archdiocese of Westminster.

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  • For the "Pan-Anglican Synods" see Lambeth Conferences.

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  • - For acts of synods prior to the Reformation see Spelman, Hardouin, W.

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  • This is why, besides the disciplinary measures which regulated the elections, the celebration of divine service, the periodical holding of diocesan synods and provincial councils, are found also decrees aimed at some of the "rights" by which the popes had extended their power, and helped out their finances at the expense of the local churches.

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  • Gerbert proceeds to argue that the church councils admitted the right of metropolitan synods to depose unworthy bishops, but contends that, even if an appeal to Rome were necessary, that appeal had been made a year before without effect.

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  • A " Scouts " Church was formed at the end of the war of1899-1902by burghers who had previously acted as " National Scouts " and were ostracized by the synods of their former Churches.

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  • In 1559 it was the headquarters of the Lords of the Congregation, and in 1607 the scene of the meetings of the synod of Fife known as the Three Synods of Dysart.

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  • LATERAN COUNCILS, the ecclesiastical councils or synods held at Rome in the Lateran basilica which was dedicated to Christ under the title of Salvator, and further called the basilica of Constantine or the church of John the Baptist.

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  • Among these numerous synods the most prominent are those which the tradition of the Roman Catholic church has classed as ecumenical councils.

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  • Provincial synods were held in the 2nd century, and were not completely organized before the advent of oecumenical councils.

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  • The two terms are still used side by side; thus there are patriarchal, national and primatial councils, as well as provincial councils (under the metropolitan of a province) and diocesan synods, consisting of the clergy of a diocese and presided over by the bishop (or the vicar-general).

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  • (Guibert of Ravenna) in Rome; but a series of well-attended synods at Rome, Amalfi, Benevento and Troia, supported him in.

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  • With the definite triumph of the church, the profanation of its sanctuaries became less frequent, and once robbery or seizure of ecclesiastical possessions or violation of its privileges tended to absorb the attention of synods and popes.

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  • In the Western Church the title was hardly known before the 7th century, and did not become common until the Carolingian emperors revived the right of the metropolitans to summon provincial synods.

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  • The summoning of provincial synods, which was made obligatory every three years by the council, was long neglected, but is now more common wherever the political conditions, e.g.

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  • The Eastern Church has no general doctrinal tests beyond the Nicene Creed, but from time to time synods have approved exposi (without the words And the Son "), and the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church.

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  • He admonished the pope, appointed the bishops, watched over the morals and work of the clergy, and took an active part in the deliberations of church synods; he founded bishoprics and monasteries, was lavish in his gifts to ecclesiastical foundations, and chose bishops and abbots for administrative work.

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  • On this point the provincial synods of Illiberis (Elvira) in 305 and of Ancyra in 315 subsequently came to conflicting decisions, the council of Elvira forbidding the reception of offenders into communion during life, and the council of Ancyra fixing a limit to the penalty in the same cases.

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  • Hooker expressly denies the power of synods to excommunicate: "that there should be Synods, which have potestatem juridicam is nowhere proved in Scripture because it is not a truth" (Survey, P t.

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  • In the following year several African synods, held under the influence of Maximus, declared for orthodoxy.

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  • The pax ecclesiae is first heard of in the year 990 at three synods held in different parts of southern and central France - at Charroux, Narbonne and Puy.

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  • The peace decrees of these various synods differed considerably in detail, but in general they were intended fully to protect non-combatants; they forbade, under pain of excommunication, every act of private warfare or violence against ecclesiastical buildings and their environs, and against certain persons, such as clerics, pilgrims, merchants, women and peasants, and against cattle and agricultural implements.

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  • Thus far, however, synods were still compatible with local autonomy and so with Congregationalism.

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  • But as the idea that bishops were successors of the apostles came to prevail, presbyters, though sharing in the deliberations, gradually ceased to share in the voting; while synods insensibly acquired more and more coercive control over the churches of the area represented.

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  • After his return to Rome he held (29th April 1050) another Easter synod, which was occupied largely with the controversy about the teachings of Berengarius of Tours; in the same year he presided over provincial synods at Salerno, Siponto and Vercelli, and in September revisited Germany, returning to Rome in time for a third Easter synod, at which the question of the reordination of those who had been ordained by simonists was considered.

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  • In the 9th and 10th century it was even made obligatory, by the decrees of the synods of Mainz (813) and Tribur (895), on priests throughout the Frank Empire to wear it at all times, especially when travelling.

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  • Some of the older baptisteries were very large, so large that we hear of councils and synods being held in them.

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  • Of the three forms of absolution in the Anglican Prayer Book, that in the Visitation of the Sick (disused in the church of Ireland by decision of the Synods of 187r and 1877) runs "I absolve thee," tracing the authority so to act through the church up to Christ: the form in the Communion Service is precative, while that in Morning and Evening Prayer is indicative indeed, but so general as not to imply anything like a judicial decree of absolution.

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  • This view is confirmed by the evidence of the Synodicon Orientate (the collection of the canons of Nestorian Councils and Synods), which shows that the Great Syriac Church built up by the adherents of Nestorius and ever memorable for its zeal in carrying the Gospel into Central Asia, China and India cannot, from its inception, be rightly described as other than orthodox.

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  • ii., 1778) that there were more than Ho such complaints in councils and synods between the years 1009 and 1528.

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  • But this general unity became official, and expressed itself in organization, only with the rise of the conciliar and metropolitan systems. Already before the end of the and century local synods were held in Asia Minor to deal with Montanism, and in the 3rd century provincial synods became common, and by the council of Nicaea (canon 5) it was decreed that they should be held twice every year in every province.

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  • Larger synods representing the churches of a number of contiguous provinces also met frequently; for instance, in the early 4th century at Elvira, Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea and Arles, the last representing the entire Western world.

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  • The bishops continued to meet in synods as before, but the councils became territorial synods; they were called together at irregular intervals by the king, and their decisions obtained legal effect only by royal sanction.

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  • He established a library at Salzburg, furthered in other ways the interests of learning, and presided over several synods called to improve the condition of the church in Bavaria.

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  • At his instance synods and assemblies were held where laws were decreed for the better government of church and state.

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  • The frequent synods represented the whole of Poland, and kept alive, as nothing else could, the idea of national solidarity.

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  • In the 13th century alone no fewer than forty-nine papal legates visited Poland, and thirty provincial synods were held by them to regulate church affairs and promote good government.

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  • This was ratified by Pope Gelasius (492-496), and independently confirmed for the province of Africa by a series of Synods held at Hippo Regius in 393, and at Carthage in 397 and 419, under the lead of Augustine.

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  • After holding synods at Paris, Reims and Trier, he returned to Italy in June 1148 and took up his residence at Viterbo.

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  • Synods were occasionally held in this church, and parliaments also, before the Commons' Hall was destroyed in 1566 by an accidental explosion of gunpowder.

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  • Synods Of Carthage >>

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  • Under the sons of Constantine Christian bishops in numberless synods cursed one another turn by turn.

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  • One of his friends, Gregory Acindynus, continued the controversy, and three other synods on the subject were held, at the second of which the Barlaamites gained a brief victory.

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  • The organization of the Church is: a General Synod (1794); the (particular) synods of New York (1800), Albany (1800), Chicago (1856) and New Brunswick (1869); classes, corresponding to the presbyteries of other Calvinistic bodies; and the churches, numbering, in 1906, 659.

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  • The first two of these forms were very early developed; and, in spite of their prohibition by synods here and there (e.g.

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  • Synods Of Westminster >>

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  • The provincial synods are composed of ministers and elders deputed by the classes; and these are composed of the ministers belonging to the particular class and an equal number of elders appointed by the local sessions.

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  • Michael Schlatter (1716-1790), a Swiss of St Gall, sent to America in 1746 by the Synods (Dutch Reformed) of Holland, immediately convened Boehm, Weiss and Rieger in Philadelphia, and with them planned a Coetus, which first met in September 1747; in 1751 he presented the cause of the Coetus in Germany and Holland, where he gathered funds; in 1752 came back to America with six ministers, one of whom, William Stoy (1726-1801), was an active opponent of the Coetus and of clericalism after 1772.

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  • The Synods organized a General Synod in 1863.

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  • New German Synods were: that of the North-West (1867), organized at Fort Wayne, Ind.; that of the East (1875), organized at Philadelphia; and the Central Synod (1881), organized at Galion, Ohio.

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  • New English Synods were: that of Pittsburg (1870); that of the Potomac (1873); and that of the Interior (1887), organized at Kansas City, Missouri.

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  • In 1894 there were eight district synods.

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  • Coblenz (Confluentes, Covelenz, Cobelenz) was one of the military posts established by Drusus about 9 B.C. Later it was frequently the residence of the Frankish kings, and in 860 and 92 2 was the scene of ecclesiastical synods.

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  • During the I9th century, however, a large measure of ecclesiastical self-government (by means of general synods, &c.) was introduced, pan passu with the growth of constitutional government in the state; and in effect, though the theoretical supremacy of the sovereign survives in the church as in the state, he cannot exercise it save through the general synod, which is the state parliament for ecclesiastical purposes.

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  • Two further developments must be mentioned: (a) The creation of diocesan and provincial synods, the first diocesan synod to meet being that of New Zealand in 1844, whilst the formation of a provincial synod was foreshadowed by a conference of Australasian bishops at Sydney in 1850; (b) towards the close of the r9th century the title of archbishop began to be assumed by the metropolitans of several provinces.

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  • It was first assumed by the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land, at the desire of the Canadian general synod in 1893; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of the Lambeth conference of 1897, it was given by their synods to the bishop of Sydney as metropolitan of New South Wales and to the bishop of Cape Town as metropolitan of South Africa.

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  • Synods Of Antioch.

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  • Beginning with three synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in Antioch in ancient times.

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  • As papal legate in France he held several synods for the reformation of the clergy and conducted the negotiations for the assumption of the crown of Sicily by Charles of Anjou.

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  • He attended many synods, and we last hear of him at the synod of Antioch in 341.

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  • In addition a system of synods provides for local unity among bishops, priests and laity.

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  • A series of synods, from the early 12th century onwards, declared such marriages to be not only unlawful, but null and void in themselves.

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  • 339 ff.) gives a long series of quotations to this effect from church synods and orthodox disciplinary writers of modern times.

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  • With Rabbi Aqiba (q.v.) and the synods of Jamnia (about 90 and 118 A.D.) a definite epoch in Judaism begins.

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  • the acts of the Nestorian synods held under the rule of the Sassanids)

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  • There are separate synods with independent authority for the congregations of the Dutch Reformed Churches in the Cape, Orange Free State and Transvaal provinces.

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  • The Doppers (" roundheads ") and other dissentient bodies have also separate synods.

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  • Stewart, Lovedale (1884) and Dawn in the Dark Continent (1903); the Reports on the synods of the Dutch Reformed Church, those of the London Missionary Society and of other missionary bodies.

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  • As a representative of this party, he took a prominent part in the general synods of 1875 and 1879.

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  • - Actium belonged originally to the Corinthian colonists of Anactorium, who probably founded the worship of Apollo Actius and the Actia games; in the 3rd century it fell to the Acarnanians, who subsequently held their synods there.

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  • The Church of Christ is the fellowship of ALL Those Who Accept And Profess All The Articles Of Faith Transmitted By The Apostles And Approved By General Synods.

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  • Through the energy and activity of Hincmar the theories of Gottschalk were condemned at Quierzy (8J3) and Valence (855), and the decisions of these two synods were confirmed at the synods of Langres and Savonnieres, near Toul (859).

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  • The Half-Way Covenant adopted by the synods of 1657 and 1662 had made baptism alone the condition to the civil privileges of church membership, but not of participation in the sacrament of the Supper.

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  • The position was accordingly condemned by several synods and in particular by that of Constantinople (A.D.

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  • Dionysius knows only the council of 419, in connexion with the affair of Apiarius; but in this single text are reproduced, more or less fully, almost all the synods of the collection; this was the celebrated Concilium Africanum, so often quoted in the middle ages, which was also recognized by the Greeks.

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  • It would be impossible to enumerate here all the Gallic councils which contributed towards the canon law of that country; we will mention only the following: - Arles (314), of great importance; a number of councils in the district of Arles, completed by the Statuta Ecclesiae antiqua of St Caesarius; 2 the councils of the province of Tours; the assemblies of the episcopate of the three kingdoms of the Visigoths at Agde (506), of the Franks at Orleans (511), and of the Burgundians at Epaone (517); several councils of the kingdoms of the Franks, chiefly at Orleans; and finally, the synods of the middle of the 8th century, under the influence of St Boniface.

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  • The latter, which form the local section, are further divided into several classes: firstly, the synods held under the Roman empire, the chief being that of Elvira 4 (c. 300); next the texts belonging to the kingdom of the Suevi, after the conversion of these barbarians by St Martin of Braga: these are, the two councils of Braga (563 and 572), and a sort of free translation or adaptation of the canons of the Greek councils, made by Martin of Braga; this is the document frequently quoted in later days under the name of Capitula Martini papae; thirdly, the decisions of the councils of the Visigothic Church, after its conversion to Catholicism.

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  • Whether in the case of national or provincial councils, or of diocesan synods, the chief object of the decrees is to reinforce, define or apply the law; the measures which constitute a derogation have only a small place in them.

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  • England has its council of Westminster (1852), the United States their plenary councils of Baltimore (1852, 1866, 1884), mentioning the diocesan synods; and Ot h er 4) g co u the whole of Latin America is ruled by the special law of its plenary council, held at Rome in 1899.

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  • (5) The addition of houses of priests to the provincial synods seems peculiar to England and Ireland.

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  • The sources of English ecclesiastical law (purely ecclesiastical) were therefore (1) the principles of the jus commune ecclesiasticum; (2) foreign particular constitutions received here, as just explained; (3) the constitutions and canons of English synods (cf.

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  • The particular constitutions of English synods are numerous and cover a large field.

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  • These constitutions are again divided into two classes: (a) provincial constitutions promulgated by provincial synods, usually in the name of the presiding archbishop or bishop; and (b) decrees of papal legates, Otho in 1236 and Othobon (Ottobuono de' Fieschi, afterwards Pope Adrian V.) in 1269.

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  • In addition to the enactment of canons (strictly so-called) the English provincial synods since the Henrician changes have legislated - in 1570 by the enactment of the Thirty-Nine Articles, in 1661 by approving the present Book of Common Prayer, and in 1873 by approving shorter forms of matins and evensong.

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  • Apparently diocesan synods may still enact valid canons without the king's authority; but these bodies are not now called.

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  • 19 repealed any act of parliament, law or custom whereby the bishops, clergy or laity of the said church were prohibited from holding synods or electing representatives thereto for the purpose of making rules for the well-being and ordering of the said church, and enacted that no such law, &c., should hinder the said bishops, clergy and laity, by such representatives, lay and clerical, and so elected as they shall appoint, from meeting in general synod or convention and in such general synod or convention forming constitutions and providing for future representation of the members of the church in diocesan synods, general convention or otherwise.

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  • mixed synods of clergy and laity, and a system of representation by election, unknown to primitive or medieval times.

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  • For any alteration or amendment of " articles, doctrines, rites or rubrics," a two-thirds majority of each order of the represen tative house was required and a year's delay for consultation of the diocesan synods.

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  • Provisions were made as to lay representation in the diocesan synods.

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  • It expressly provided that its own legislation might be repealed or amended by future general synods.

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  • Synods of bishops at Edinburgh in 1724 and 1731 dealt with some disputed questions of ritual and ceremonial.

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  • A " primus " was to be chosen indifferently from the bishops, but to have no other powers than those of convoking and presiding over synods.

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  • presbyters appointed by the bishops in each diocese to defend the interests of the presbyters and now for the first time given " decisive " voice in synods) and certain clerical representatives from the " districts " or dioceses.

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  • Future synods, called for the purpose of altering the code, were to consist of two chambers.

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  • The code of this last year created diocesan synods, to be held annually and to consist of the bishop, dean and all instituted clergy of the diocese.

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  • This revised code enabled the bishop to appoint a learned and discreet layman to act as his chancellor, to advise him in legal matters and be his assessor at diocesan synods.

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  • Assistant curates and mission priests were, under certain restrictions, given seats in diocesan synods.

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  • Male communicants were also permitted to be present at such synods, with a deliberative but not " decisive " voice; unless in special circumstances the bishop excluded them.

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  • In the West Indies, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, provincial and diocesan synods or conventions have been formed on one or other of the types above mentioned and have enacted canons.

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  • In 1748 the synods of Glasgow, Perth and Lothian passed vain resolutions intended to exclude him from churches; in 1753 he compiled his hymn-book, and in 1756 opened the chapel which still bears his name in Tottenham Court Road.

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  • Five years later there arrived from Rome the great organizer, Archbishop Theodore of Tarsus, who bound the hitherto isolated churches of the English kingdoms into a well-compacted whole, wherein the tribal bishops paid obedience to the metropolitan at Canterbury, and met him frequently in national councils and synods.

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  • To guard against them he laid down three general rules: (1) that no one should be recognized as pope in England till he had himself taken cognizance of the papal election, and that no papal letters should be brought into the realm without his leave; (2) that no decisions of the English eccIe~iastical synods should be held valid till he had examined and sanctioned them; (3) that none of his barons or ministers should be~x.

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  • He would permit free election to all benefices, and free legislation by ecclesiastical synods, and would surrender any claims of the royal courts to have jurisdiction over clerks or the property of clerks.

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  • the censing of the altar during the Magnificat and at Mattins (whence the German name Rauchmantel, smoke-mantel), processions, solemn consecrations, and as the dress of bishops attending synods.

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  • Other notable dates in history are 1637 and 1647, when general synods of New England churches met at Cambridge to settle disputed doctrine and define orthodoxy; the departure for Connecticut of Thomas Hooker's congregation in 1636; the meeting of the convention that framed the present constitution of the commonwealth, 1779-1780; the separation of the Congregationalists and Unitarians of the first parish church, in 1829; and the grant of a city charter in 1846.

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  • CARTHAGE During the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries the town of Carthage (q.v.) in Africa served as the meeting-place of a large number of church synods, of which, however, only the most important can be treated here.

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  • Other Carthaginian synods concerning the lapsi were held in 252 and 254.

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  • Two synods, in 255 and 256, held under Cyprian, pronounced against the validity of heretical baptism, thus taking direct issue with Stephen, bishop of Rome, who promptly repudiated them, and separated himself from the African Church.

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  • The question of appeals to Rome occasioned two synods, one in 419, the other in 424.

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  • In 1565 the diet of Piotrkow excluded anti-Trinitarians from the existing synod; henceforward they held their own synods as the Minor Church.

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  • We find that " penitential books " for the use of the confessional, founded partly on traditional practice and partly on the express decrees of synods, come into general use in the 7th century.

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  • 2 He was condemned by two synods, in 1 121 and 1140.

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  • In 1341 and 1351 he took part in the two synods at Constantinople, which definitively secured the victory of the Palamites.

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  • Innumerable similar cases appear in acts of synods and in chronicles during the 11th century.

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  • In the following year this decree was reaffirmed by synods held at Vienne and Toulouse under the presidency of a legate of Nicholas II.

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  • The papal prohibition of lay investiture was renewed at synods in 1078 and 1080, and although Gregory's death in exile (1085) prevented him from realizing his aim in the matter, his policy was steadfastly maintained by his successors.

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  • authorization to hold synods and political assemblies, to open schools, and to occupy a hundred strong places for eight years at the expense of the king, assured to the Protestants not only rights but privileges.

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  • The same year he attended the synods of Tarsus and Antioch, at both of which Cyril was again deposed and anathematized.

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  • moderators of synods and Assembly appointed staff.

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  • The Committee encourages the synods ' continuing active ownership and support of the advocacy work.

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  • An outstanding and prolific writer, he presided over several synods and worked much on the liturgy.

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  • On the 26th of January the grand-duke issued a circular letter to the Tuscan bishops suggesting certain reforms, especially in the matter of the restoration of the authority of diocesan synods, the purging of the missals and breviaries of legends, the assertion of episcopal as against papal authority, the curtailing of the privileges of the monastic orders, and the better education of the clergy.

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  • But as late as the 9th and 10th centuries the alba is still an everyday as well as a liturgical garment, and we find bishops and synods forbidding priests to sing mass in the alba worn by them in ordinary life (see Braun, p. 62).

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  • In 1869 and 1871 he was president of the first and second Jewish Synods at Leipzig and Augsburg.

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  • LAMBETH CONFERENCES, the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury.

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  • Of the thirteen resolutions adopted by the conference, two have direct reference to this case; the rest have to do with the creation of new sees and missionary jurisdictions, commendatory letters, and a "voluntary spiritual tribunal" in cases of doctrine and the due subordination of synods.

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  • Protestants were granted full civil rights and protection, and were permitted to hold their ecclesiastical assemblies - consistories, colloquies and synods, 1 Lindsay, Hist.

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  • Synods were held in 1718, 1723, 1726 and 1727; and in a remote spot in Bas Languedoc in 1 744 a national synod assembled - the first since 1660 - which consisted of representatives from every province formerly Protestant.

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  • In 1581 the Middelburg Synod divided the Church, created provincial synods and presbyteries, but could not shake off the civil power in connexion with the choice of church officers.

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  • it may be noted that Cranmer favoured a proposal for the formation of a council of presbyters in each diocese, and for provincial synods.

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  • Cartwright and Edmund Snape were ministers there; and from 1576 to 1625 a completely appointed Presbyterian Church existed, under the rule of synods, and authorized by the governor.

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  • Synods Synod of also were held in the north.

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  • In 1864 the two associations or synods of North and South Wales were united in a general assembly.

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  • and the new states west of the Alleghany Mountains, which grew into presbyteries and synods having peculiar features midway between Presbyterianism and Congregationalism.

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  • The greater part of the ministers decided to remain separate, and accordingly organized three independent synods - New York, Scioto and the Carolinas.

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  • In 1858 the associate synods of the north and west united with the Associate Synod as the United Presbyterian Church.

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  • J., founded in 1812 by the General Assembly; the Auburn Theological Seminary at Auburn, N.Y., founded in 1819 by the synod of Geneva, and afterwards associated with the New School; a school at Hampden Sidney, Virginia, founded by the synod of Virginia in 1824, named Union Theological Seminary in Virginia after 1826, supported after 1828 by the synods of Virginia and North Carolina, and in 1898 removed to Richmond, Va.; the Western Theological Seminary, founded at Allegheny (Pittsburg), Pa., in 1827 by the General Assembly; the Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Columbia, South Carolina, founded in 1828 by the synod of South Carolina; Lane Theological Seminary, founded independently in 1829 by the New School at Cincinnati, Ohio; and Union Theological Seminary, founded in 1836 by independent action of New School men, in New York City.

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  • In 1837 the Old Side obtained the majority in the General Assembly for the second time only in seven years; they seized their opportunity and abrogated the "Plan of Union of 1801 with the Connecticut Congregationalists," cut off the synod of Western Reserve and then the synods of Utica, Geneva and Genesee, without a trial, and dissolved the third presbytery of Philadelphia without providing for the standing of its ministers.

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  • 1858, 6 synods, 21 presbyteries and about 15,000 communicants withdrew and organized the United Synod.

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  • - The Southern presbyteries of the Old School Assembly withdrew in 1861, and delegates from ten southern synods (47 presbyteries) met in Augusta, Georgia, in December, and organized as the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America, which included 700 ministers, 1000 churches and 75,000 communicants.

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  • - 2,3o~ are grouped into 21 provincial synods Oats.

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  • All the Maize - - - 1,39 more important questions of church discipline and all decisions regulating the doctrine and practice of the church are dealt with by the synods.

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  • Its consistories are grouped into two special synods, one at Paris and one at Montbliard (for the department of Doubs and Haute-Sane and the territory of Belfort, where the churches of this denomination are principally situated).

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  • As neighbouring dioceses coalesced into " provinces " and provinces into larger districts (corresponding to the civil " dioceses " of the later Roman Empire), the provincial synods of bishops and the synods of the larger districts acquired a criminal jurisdiction, still purely spiritual, of their own.

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  • The first trace of system is in the limited right of appeal given by the first oecumenical council of Nicaea and its provision that episcopal sentences or those of provincial synods on appeal were to be recognized throughout the world.

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  • That this may be conveniently inquired into, synods are to be held, three in every year, in each province, and questions of this kind examined.

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  • It will be noticed that as yet no provision is made for appeals by bishops from provincial synods sitting in first instance.

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  • On the other hand, the Arian reaction at court worked its objects (see Pusey, Councils of the Church) by using the criminal spiritual jurisdiction of synods against the Catholics - often packing the synods for the purpose.

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  • The story of the administrative development of the Church in the 5th century is mainly the story of the final emergence and constitution of the great " patriarchates," as authorities superior to metropolitans and provincial synods.

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  • The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.

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  • Episcopis, &c., subjected clerics for small offences pertaining to the observances of religion to bishops and synods.

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  • Discipline over ministers and other office-bearers was exercised by administrative methods in the form of trials before consistories or synods.

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  • Consistories and synods have till near the end of the 18th century.

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  • Bishops were often deposed by administrative order of the emperor; synods being expected afterwards to confirm, or rather accept, such order.

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  • The cause of Ignatius and Photius was dealt with in the 9th century by various synods; those in the East agreeing with the emperor's view for the time being, while those in the West acted with the pope.

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  • The most important enactments of the council of Chalcedon were the following: (1) the approval of the canons of the first three ecumenical councils and of the synods of Ancyra, NeoCaesarea, Changra, Antioch and Laodicea; (2) forbidding trade, secular pursuits and war to the clergy, bishops not even being allowed to administer the property of their dioceses; (3) forbidding monks and nuns to marry or to return to the world; likewise forbidding the establishment of a monastery in any diocese without the consent of the bishop, or the disestablishment of a monastery once consecrated; (4) punishing with deposition an ordination or clerical appointment made for money; forbidding "absolute ordination" (i.e.

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  • In provincial matters each province is independent, holds its own synods, makes its own laws, and elects its own governing board; but the General Synod meets, on the average, every ten years at Herrnhut, and its regulations are binding in all the provinces.

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  • He set himself in opposition to Novatian, a presbyter of Rome, who advocated their permanent exclusion from the church; and it was his influence which guided the tolerant measures of the Carthaginian synods on the subject.

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  • The country was divided into five districts with five synods; and Josephus asserts that the people welcomed the change from the monarchy.

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  • At provincial synods archbishops wear the pretiosa, bishops the auriphrygiata, and mitred abbots the simplex.

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  • A number of ecclesiastical synods have been held at Arles, as in 314 (see below), 354, 45 2 and 475.

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  • (contains also notices of later synods at Arles); W.

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  • In the East, in the 5th century, the archdeacons were already charged with the proof of the qualifications of candidates for ordination; they attended the bishops at ecclesiastical synods, and sometimes acted as their representatives; they shared in the administration of sees during a vacancy.

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  • He obtained the king's permission to deal with the affairs of the Church in synods which met apart from the Great Council, and were exclusively composed of ecclesiastics.

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  • He acknowledged the royal right to veto the legislation of national synods.

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  • SYNODS OF.

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  • Though the precise locality is occasionally uncertain, the majority of the medieval synods assembled in the chapter-house of old St Paul's, or the former chapel of St Catherine within the precincts of Westminster Abbey or at Lambeth.

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  • Before the reign of Edward I., when convocation assumed substantially its present form (see Convocation), there were convened in London various diocesan, provincial, national and legatine synods; during the past six centuries, however, the chief ecclesiastical assemblies held there have been convocations of the province of Canterbury.

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  • The 14th-century synods at St Paul's concerned themselves largely with the financial and moral status of the clergy, and made many quaint regulations regarding their dress and behaviour (1328, 1342, 1343; cf.

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  • In 1852 there was held the first of a series of synods of the newly organized Roman Catholic archdiocese of Westminster.

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  • For the "Pan-Anglican Synods" see Lambeth Conferences.

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  • - For acts of synods prior to the Reformation see Spelman, Hardouin, W.

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  • This is why, besides the disciplinary measures which regulated the elections, the celebration of divine service, the periodical holding of diocesan synods and provincial councils, are found also decrees aimed at some of the "rights" by which the popes had extended their power, and helped out their finances at the expense of the local churches.

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  • Gerbert proceeds to argue that the church councils admitted the right of metropolitan synods to depose unworthy bishops, but contends that, even if an appeal to Rome were necessary, that appeal had been made a year before without effect.

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  • A " Scouts " Church was formed at the end of the war of1899-1902by burghers who had previously acted as " National Scouts " and were ostracized by the synods of their former Churches.

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  • In 1559 it was the headquarters of the Lords of the Congregation, and in 1607 the scene of the meetings of the synod of Fife known as the Three Synods of Dysart.

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  • LATERAN COUNCILS, the ecclesiastical councils or synods held at Rome in the Lateran basilica which was dedicated to Christ under the title of Salvator, and further called the basilica of Constantine or the church of John the Baptist.

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  • Among these numerous synods the most prominent are those which the tradition of the Roman Catholic church has classed as ecumenical councils.

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  • Provincial synods were held in the 2nd century, and were not completely organized before the advent of oecumenical councils.

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  • The two terms are still used side by side; thus there are patriarchal, national and primatial councils, as well as provincial councils (under the metropolitan of a province) and diocesan synods, consisting of the clergy of a diocese and presided over by the bishop (or the vicar-general).

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  • (Guibert of Ravenna) in Rome; but a series of well-attended synods at Rome, Amalfi, Benevento and Troia, supported him in.

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  • The Frankish synods emphasize the crime of seizing church property of every kind, including the vast estates so envied by the lay nobility.

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  • With the definite triumph of the church, the profanation of its sanctuaries became less frequent, and once robbery or seizure of ecclesiastical possessions or violation of its privileges tended to absorb the attention of synods and popes.

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  • In the Western Church the title was hardly known before the 7th century, and did not become common until the Carolingian emperors revived the right of the metropolitans to summon provincial synods.

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  • According to the medieval canon law, based on the decretals, and codified in the 13th century in the Corpus juris canonici, by which the earlier powers of metropolitans had been greatly curtailed, the powers of the archbishop consisted in the right (i) to confirm and consecrate suffragan bishops; (2) to summon and preside over provincial synods; (3) to superintend the suffragans and visit their dioceses, as well as to censure and punish bishops in the interests of discipline, the right of deprivation, however, being reserved to the pope; (4) to act as a court of appeal from the diocesan courts; (5) to exercise the jus devolutionis, i.e.

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  • The summoning of provincial synods, which was made obligatory every three years by the council, was long neglected, but is now more common wherever the political conditions, e.g.

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  • In addition to his diocesan synods, he presided in 1873 over the fourth provincial synod of Westminster, which legislated on "acatholic" universities, church music, mixed marriages, and the order of a priest's household, having previously taken part, as theologian, in the provincial synods of 1853 and 1859, with a hand in the preparation of their decrees.

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  • The Eastern Church has no general doctrinal tests beyond the Nicene Creed, but from time to time synods have approved exposi (without the words And the Son "), and the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church.

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  • By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed., vi.

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  • He admonished the pope, appointed the bishops, watched over the morals and work of the clergy, and took an active part in the deliberations of church synods; he founded bishoprics and monasteries, was lavish in his gifts to ecclesiastical foundations, and chose bishops and abbots for administrative work.

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  • On this point the provincial synods of Illiberis (Elvira) in 305 and of Ancyra in 315 subsequently came to conflicting decisions, the council of Elvira forbidding the reception of offenders into communion during life, and the council of Ancyra fixing a limit to the penalty in the same cases.

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  • Hooker expressly denies the power of synods to excommunicate: "that there should be Synods, which have potestatem juridicam is nowhere proved in Scripture because it is not a truth" (Survey, P t.

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  • In the following year several African synods, held under the influence of Maximus, declared for orthodoxy.

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  • The pax ecclesiae is first heard of in the year 990 at three synods held in different parts of southern and central France - at Charroux, Narbonne and Puy.

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  • The peace decrees of these various synods differed considerably in detail, but in general they were intended fully to protect non-combatants; they forbade, under pain of excommunication, every act of private warfare or violence against ecclesiastical buildings and their environs, and against certain persons, such as clerics, pilgrims, merchants, women and peasants, and against cattle and agricultural implements.

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  • Thus far, however, synods were still compatible with local autonomy and so with Congregationalism.

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  • But as the idea that bishops were successors of the apostles came to prevail, presbyters, though sharing in the deliberations, gradually ceased to share in the voting; while synods insensibly acquired more and more coercive control over the churches of the area represented.

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  • After his return to Rome he held (29th April 1050) another Easter synod, which was occupied largely with the controversy about the teachings of Berengarius of Tours; in the same year he presided over provincial synods at Salerno, Siponto and Vercelli, and in September revisited Germany, returning to Rome in time for a third Easter synod, at which the question of the reordination of those who had been ordained by simonists was considered.

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  • In the 9th and 10th century it was even made obligatory, by the decrees of the synods of Mainz (813) and Tribur (895), on priests throughout the Frank Empire to wear it at all times, especially when travelling.

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  • Some of the older baptisteries were very large, so large that we hear of councils and synods being held in them.

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  • Of the three forms of absolution in the Anglican Prayer Book, that in the Visitation of the Sick (disused in the church of Ireland by decision of the Synods of 187r and 1877) runs "I absolve thee," tracing the authority so to act through the church up to Christ: the form in the Communion Service is precative, while that in Morning and Evening Prayer is indicative indeed, but so general as not to imply anything like a judicial decree of absolution.

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  • This view is confirmed by the evidence of the Synodicon Orientate (the collection of the canons of Nestorian Councils and Synods), which shows that the Great Syriac Church built up by the adherents of Nestorius and ever memorable for its zeal in carrying the Gospel into Central Asia, China and India cannot, from its inception, be rightly described as other than orthodox.

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  • ii., 1778) that there were more than Ho such complaints in councils and synods between the years 1009 and 1528.

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  • But this general unity became official, and expressed itself in organization, only with the rise of the conciliar and metropolitan systems. Already before the end of the and century local synods were held in Asia Minor to deal with Montanism, and in the 3rd century provincial synods became common, and by the council of Nicaea (canon 5) it was decreed that they should be held twice every year in every province.

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  • Larger synods representing the churches of a number of contiguous provinces also met frequently; for instance, in the early 4th century at Elvira, Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea and Arles, the last representing the entire Western world.

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  • The bishops continued to meet in synods as before, but the councils became territorial synods; they were called together at irregular intervals by the king, and their decisions obtained legal effect only by royal sanction.

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  • He established a library at Salzburg, furthered in other ways the interests of learning, and presided over several synods called to improve the condition of the church in Bavaria.

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  • At his instance synods and assemblies were held where laws were decreed for the better government of church and state.

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  • The frequent synods represented the whole of Poland, and kept alive, as nothing else could, the idea of national solidarity.

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  • In the 13th century alone no fewer than forty-nine papal legates visited Poland, and thirty provincial synods were held by them to regulate church affairs and promote good government.

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  • This was ratified by Pope Gelasius (492-496), and independently confirmed for the province of Africa by a series of Synods held at Hippo Regius in 393, and at Carthage in 397 and 419, under the lead of Augustine.

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  • After holding synods at Paris, Reims and Trier, he returned to Italy in June 1148 and took up his residence at Viterbo.

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  • Synods were occasionally held in this church, and parliaments also, before the Commons' Hall was destroyed in 1566 by an accidental explosion of gunpowder.

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  • Synods Of Carthage >>

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  • Under the sons of Constantine Christian bishops in numberless synods cursed one another turn by turn.

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  • One of his friends, Gregory Acindynus, continued the controversy, and three other synods on the subject were held, at the second of which the Barlaamites gained a brief victory.

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  • The organization of the Church is: a General Synod (1794); the (particular) synods of New York (1800), Albany (1800), Chicago (1856) and New Brunswick (1869); classes, corresponding to the presbyteries of other Calvinistic bodies; and the churches, numbering, in 1906, 659.

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  • The first two of these forms were very early developed; and, in spite of their prohibition by synods here and there (e.g.

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  • Synods Of Westminster >>

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  • The provincial synods are composed of ministers and elders deputed by the classes; and these are composed of the ministers belonging to the particular class and an equal number of elders appointed by the local sessions.

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  • Michael Schlatter (1716-1790), a Swiss of St Gall, sent to America in 1746 by the Synods (Dutch Reformed) of Holland, immediately convened Boehm, Weiss and Rieger in Philadelphia, and with them planned a Coetus, which first met in September 1747; in 1751 he presented the cause of the Coetus in Germany and Holland, where he gathered funds; in 1752 came back to America with six ministers, one of whom, William Stoy (1726-1801), was an active opponent of the Coetus and of clericalism after 1772.

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  • The Synods organized a General Synod in 1863.

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  • New German Synods were: that of the North-West (1867), organized at Fort Wayne, Ind.; that of the East (1875), organized at Philadelphia; and the Central Synod (1881), organized at Galion, Ohio.

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  • New English Synods were: that of Pittsburg (1870); that of the Potomac (1873); and that of the Interior (1887), organized at Kansas City, Missouri.

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  • In 1894 there were eight district synods.

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  • Coblenz (Confluentes, Covelenz, Cobelenz) was one of the military posts established by Drusus about 9 B.C. Later it was frequently the residence of the Frankish kings, and in 860 and 92 2 was the scene of ecclesiastical synods.

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  • During the I9th century, however, a large measure of ecclesiastical self-government (by means of general synods, &c.) was introduced, pan passu with the growth of constitutional government in the state; and in effect, though the theoretical supremacy of the sovereign survives in the church as in the state, he cannot exercise it save through the general synod, which is the state parliament for ecclesiastical purposes.

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  • Two further developments must be mentioned: (a) The creation of diocesan and provincial synods, the first diocesan synod to meet being that of New Zealand in 1844, whilst the formation of a provincial synod was foreshadowed by a conference of Australasian bishops at Sydney in 1850; (b) towards the close of the r9th century the title of archbishop began to be assumed by the metropolitans of several provinces.

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  • It was first assumed by the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land, at the desire of the Canadian general synod in 1893; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of the Lambeth conference of 1897, it was given by their synods to the bishop of Sydney as metropolitan of New South Wales and to the bishop of Cape Town as metropolitan of South Africa.

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  • Synods Of Antioch.

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  • Beginning with three synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in Antioch in ancient times.

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  • As papal legate in France he held several synods for the reformation of the clergy and conducted the negotiations for the assumption of the crown of Sicily by Charles of Anjou.

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  • He attended many synods, and we last hear of him at the synod of Antioch in 341.

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  • - The Uniat Churches in Asia and Africa occupy a peculiar position in so far as Rome has recognized the traditional rights of the patriarchates (see, e.g., Leo XIII.'s encyclical Praeclara gratulationis of June 1894), and they therefore enjoy almost complete autonomy; thus the patriarchs nominate their own suffragans and have the right to summon synods for specific purposes (see Patriarch).

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  • In addition a system of synods provides for local unity among bishops, priests and laity.

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  • A series of synods, from the early 12th century onwards, declared such marriages to be not only unlawful, but null and void in themselves.

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  • 339 ff.) gives a long series of quotations to this effect from church synods and orthodox disciplinary writers of modern times.

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  • With Rabbi Aqiba (q.v.) and the synods of Jamnia (about 90 and 118 A.D.) a definite epoch in Judaism begins.

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  • the acts of the Nestorian synods held under the rule of the Sassanids)

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  • There are separate synods with independent authority for the congregations of the Dutch Reformed Churches in the Cape, Orange Free State and Transvaal provinces.

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  • The Doppers (" roundheads ") and other dissentient bodies have also separate synods.

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  • Stewart, Lovedale (1884) and Dawn in the Dark Continent (1903); the Reports on the synods of the Dutch Reformed Church, those of the London Missionary Society and of other missionary bodies.

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  • As a representative of this party, he took a prominent part in the general synods of 1875 and 1879.

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  • - Actium belonged originally to the Corinthian colonists of Anactorium, who probably founded the worship of Apollo Actius and the Actia games; in the 3rd century it fell to the Acarnanians, who subsequently held their synods there.

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  • The Church of Christ is the fellowship of ALL Those Who Accept And Profess All The Articles Of Faith Transmitted By The Apostles And Approved By General Synods.

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  • Through the energy and activity of Hincmar the theories of Gottschalk were condemned at Quierzy (8J3) and Valence (855), and the decisions of these two synods were confirmed at the synods of Langres and Savonnieres, near Toul (859).

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  • The Half-Way Covenant adopted by the synods of 1657 and 1662 had made baptism alone the condition to the civil privileges of church membership, but not of participation in the sacrament of the Supper.

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  • The position was accordingly condemned by several synods and in particular by that of Constantinople (A.D.

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  • Dionysius knows only the council of 419, in connexion with the affair of Apiarius; but in this single text are reproduced, more or less fully, almost all the synods of the collection; this was the celebrated Concilium Africanum, so often quoted in the middle ages, which was also recognized by the Greeks.

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  • It would be impossible to enumerate here all the Gallic councils which contributed towards the canon law of that country; we will mention only the following: - Arles (314), of great importance; a number of councils in the district of Arles, completed by the Statuta Ecclesiae antiqua of St Caesarius; 2 the councils of the province of Tours; the assemblies of the episcopate of the three kingdoms of the Visigoths at Agde (506), of the Franks at Orleans (511), and of the Burgundians at Epaone (517); several councils of the kingdoms of the Franks, chiefly at Orleans; and finally, the synods of the middle of the 8th century, under the influence of St Boniface.

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  • The latter, which form the local section, are further divided into several classes: firstly, the synods held under the Roman empire, the chief being that of Elvira 4 (c. 300); next the texts belonging to the kingdom of the Suevi, after the conversion of these barbarians by St Martin of Braga: these are, the two councils of Braga (563 and 572), and a sort of free translation or adaptation of the canons of the Greek councils, made by Martin of Braga; this is the document frequently quoted in later days under the name of Capitula Martini papae; thirdly, the decisions of the councils of the Visigothic Church, after its conversion to Catholicism.

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  • Whether in the case of national or provincial councils, or of diocesan synods, the chief object of the decrees is to reinforce, define or apply the law; the measures which constitute a derogation have only a small place in them.

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  • England has its council of Westminster (1852), the United States their plenary councils of Baltimore (1852, 1866, 1884), mentioning the diocesan synods; and Ot h er 4) g co u the whole of Latin America is ruled by the special law of its plenary council, held at Rome in 1899.

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  • (5) The addition of houses of priests to the provincial synods seems peculiar to England and Ireland.

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  • The sources of English ecclesiastical law (purely ecclesiastical) were therefore (1) the principles of the jus commune ecclesiasticum; (2) foreign particular constitutions received here, as just explained; (3) the constitutions and canons of English synods (cf.

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  • The particular constitutions of English synods are numerous and cover a large field.

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  • These constitutions are again divided into two classes: (a) provincial constitutions promulgated by provincial synods, usually in the name of the presiding archbishop or bishop; and (b) decrees of papal legates, Otho in 1236 and Othobon (Ottobuono de' Fieschi, afterwards Pope Adrian V.) in 1269.

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  • In addition to the enactment of canons (strictly so-called) the English provincial synods since the Henrician changes have legislated - in 1570 by the enactment of the Thirty-Nine Articles, in 1661 by approving the present Book of Common Prayer, and in 1873 by approving shorter forms of matins and evensong.

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  • Apparently diocesan synods may still enact valid canons without the king's authority; but these bodies are not now called.

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  • 19 repealed any act of parliament, law or custom whereby the bishops, clergy or laity of the said church were prohibited from holding synods or electing representatives thereto for the purpose of making rules for the well-being and ordering of the said church, and enacted that no such law, &c., should hinder the said bishops, clergy and laity, by such representatives, lay and clerical, and so elected as they shall appoint, from meeting in general synod or convention and in such general synod or convention forming constitutions and providing for future representation of the members of the church in diocesan synods, general convention or otherwise.

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  • mixed synods of clergy and laity, and a system of representation by election, unknown to primitive or medieval times.

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  • For any alteration or amendment of " articles, doctrines, rites or rubrics," a two-thirds majority of each order of the represen tative house was required and a year's delay for consultation of the diocesan synods.

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  • Provisions were made as to lay representation in the diocesan synods.

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  • It expressly provided that its own legislation might be repealed or amended by future general synods.

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  • Synods of bishops at Edinburgh in 1724 and 1731 dealt with some disputed questions of ritual and ceremonial.

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  • A " primus " was to be chosen indifferently from the bishops, but to have no other powers than those of convoking and presiding over synods.

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  • presbyters appointed by the bishops in each diocese to defend the interests of the presbyters and now for the first time given " decisive " voice in synods) and certain clerical representatives from the " districts " or dioceses.

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  • Future synods, called for the purpose of altering the code, were to consist of two chambers.

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  • The code of this last year created diocesan synods, to be held annually and to consist of the bishop, dean and all instituted clergy of the diocese.

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  • This revised code enabled the bishop to appoint a learned and discreet layman to act as his chancellor, to advise him in legal matters and be his assessor at diocesan synods.

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  • Assistant curates and mission priests were, under certain restrictions, given seats in diocesan synods.

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  • Male communicants were also permitted to be present at such synods, with a deliberative but not " decisive " voice; unless in special circumstances the bishop excluded them.

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  • In the West Indies, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, provincial and diocesan synods or conventions have been formed on one or other of the types above mentioned and have enacted canons.

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  • In 1748 the synods of Glasgow, Perth and Lothian passed vain resolutions intended to exclude him from churches; in 1753 he compiled his hymn-book, and in 1756 opened the chapel which still bears his name in Tottenham Court Road.

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  • Five years later there arrived from Rome the great organizer, Archbishop Theodore of Tarsus, who bound the hitherto isolated churches of the English kingdoms into a well-compacted whole, wherein the tribal bishops paid obedience to the metropolitan at Canterbury, and met him frequently in national councils and synods.

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  • To guard against them he laid down three general rules: (1) that no one should be recognized as pope in England till he had himself taken cognizance of the papal election, and that no papal letters should be brought into the realm without his leave; (2) that no decisions of the English eccIe~iastical synods should be held valid till he had examined and sanctioned them; (3) that none of his barons or ministers should be~x.

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  • He would permit free election to all benefices, and free legislation by ecclesiastical synods, and would surrender any claims of the royal courts to have jurisdiction over clerks or the property of clerks.

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  • the censing of the altar during the Magnificat and at Mattins (whence the German name Rauchmantel, smoke-mantel), processions, solemn consecrations, and as the dress of bishops attending synods.

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  • Other notable dates in history are 1637 and 1647, when general synods of New England churches met at Cambridge to settle disputed doctrine and define orthodoxy; the departure for Connecticut of Thomas Hooker's congregation in 1636; the meeting of the convention that framed the present constitution of the commonwealth, 1779-1780; the separation of the Congregationalists and Unitarians of the first parish church, in 1829; and the grant of a city charter in 1846.

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  • CARTHAGE During the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries the town of Carthage (q.v.) in Africa served as the meeting-place of a large number of church synods, of which, however, only the most important can be treated here.

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  • Other Carthaginian synods concerning the lapsi were held in 252 and 254.

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  • Two synods, in 255 and 256, held under Cyprian, pronounced against the validity of heretical baptism, thus taking direct issue with Stephen, bishop of Rome, who promptly repudiated them, and separated himself from the African Church.

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  • The Donatist schism (see Donatists) occasioned a number of important synods.

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  • The question of appeals to Rome occasioned two synods, one in 419, the other in 424.

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  • In 1565 the diet of Piotrkow excluded anti-Trinitarians from the existing synod; henceforward they held their own synods as the Minor Church.

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  • We find that " penitential books " for the use of the confessional, founded partly on traditional practice and partly on the express decrees of synods, come into general use in the 7th century.

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  • 2 He was condemned by two synods, in 1 121 and 1140.

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  • In 1341 and 1351 he took part in the two synods at Constantinople, which definitively secured the victory of the Palamites.

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  • Innumerable similar cases appear in acts of synods and in chronicles during the 11th century.

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  • In the following year this decree was reaffirmed by synods held at Vienne and Toulouse under the presidency of a legate of Nicholas II.

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  • The papal prohibition of lay investiture was renewed at synods in 1078 and 1080, and although Gregory's death in exile (1085) prevented him from realizing his aim in the matter, his policy was steadfastly maintained by his successors.

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  • authorization to hold synods and political assemblies, to open schools, and to occupy a hundred strong places for eight years at the expense of the king, assured to the Protestants not only rights but privileges.

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  • The Committee encourages the synods ' continuing active ownership and support of the advocacy work.

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  • An outstanding and prolific writer, he presided over several synods and worked much on the liturgy.

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  • Interim moderators, as the representatives of New Synods to vacant pastorates, also have a part to play in brokering settlements.

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