British, Swiss and Germans are comparatively few.
Traces of it have been found in the Swiss lake-dwellings; it is mentioned in the oldest Greek writings, and was cultivated by the Romans.
Werenfels (1657-1740) of Basel, forming what was once called the "Swiss triumvirate."
It rises at an elevation of 7800 ft., in a small lake under the Piz Longhino, in the Swiss canton of the Grisons.
He hoped she wasn't going to play a King Solomon and cut the damn thing in half but he withdrew a Swiss Army knife from his pocket.
Of the immigrant arrivals for the forty-seven years given, 1,331,536 were Italians, 4 1 4,973 Spaniards, 170,293 French, 37,953 Austrians, 35,435 British, 30,699 Germans, 25,775 Swiss, 19,521 Belgians, and the others of diverse nationalities, so that Argentina is in no danger of losing her Latin character through immigration.
Here another entrenched camp was made and from it the Moselle line (qv.) of forts darrit continues the barrier to Belfort (q.v.), another large entrenched camp, beyond which a series of fortifications at Montbliard and the Lomont range carries the line of defence to the Swiss border, which in turn is protected by works at Pontarlier and elsewhere.
VEVEY [German Vivid, a small town in the Swiss canton of Vaud and near the eastern extremity of the Lake of Geneva.
In that year the Swiss government reduced the rate for inland telegrams by one-half, and the traffic immediately doubled, but the cost of carrying on the service increased in a larger ratio.
Matthias consolidated his position by alliances with the dukes of Saxony and Bavaria, with the Swiss Confederation, and the archbishop of Salzburg, and was henceforth the greatest potentate in central Europe.
Another stock, with no close allies nearer than the south of France, is found in the plain of Racconigi and Carmagnola; the mouse-colored Swiss breed occurs in the neighborhood of Milan; the Tirolese breed stretches south to Padua and Modena; and a red-coated breed named of Reggio or Friuli is familiar both in what were the duchies of Parma and Modena, and in the provinces of lJdine and Treviso.
hand in the so-called First Helvetic Confession (the work of Swiss divines at Basel in January 1536); also in the conferences which urged the Swiss acceptance of the Wittenberg Concord (1536).
The Swiss, owing to their peculiar geographical position and to certain political circumstances, early manifested independence in ecclesiastical matters, and became accustomed to the Statistics.
When at the very height of power, all his schemes of aggrandisement came to sudden ruin through a succession of disastrous defeats at the hands of the Swiss at Grandson (March 2, 1476), at Morat (June 22, 1476) Austria.
Deyverdun, a young Swiss with whom he had formed a close and intimate friendship during his first residence at Lausanne, and finally decided in favour of the land which was his " friend's by birth " and " his own by adoption."
In February 1499 the king became involved in a war with the Swiss, who had refused to pay the imperial taxes or to furnish a contribution for the Italian expedition.
Examples may perhaps occasionally still be found in the uninhabited forests of Hungary and Transylvania, and occasionally in Spain and Greece, as well as in the Caucasus and in some of the Swiss cantons, but the original race has in most countries interbred with the domestic cat wherever the latter has penetrated."
JEAN FREDERIC OSTERVALD (1663-1747), Swiss Protestant divine, was born at Neuchatel on the 25th of November 1663.
in length) from Domodossola to Brigue, the St Gotthard from Milan to Chiasso (the tunnel is entirely in Swiss territory), the Brenner from Verona to Trent, the line from Udine to Tarvis and the line from Venice to Triest by the Adriatic coast.
Lodovico escaped to Germany, returned the next year, was betrayed by his Swiss mercenaries and sent to die at Loches in France.
LE LOCLE, a town in the Swiss canton of Neuchatel, 24 m.
Weller squirmed his large frame around, reaching into his pocket, retrieving first a handkerchief, then a set of keys and eventually a red Swiss Army knife.
It was provided that England and the Swiss might join the league.
The expense of enlisting io,000 Swiss was to be borne equally by pope and emperor.
At the Worms conference (1540) between Catholics and Protestants he was the sole representative of the Swiss.
It was with the Swiss that he hoped to effect this revolution; but the Swiss, now interfering for the first time as principals in Italian affairs, were incapable of more than adding to the already maddening distractions of the people.
1515 Francis I., having now succeeded to the throne of France, regained the Milanese, and broke the power of the Swiss, who held it for Massimiliano Sforza, the titular duke.
A month later, under the pretence of stilling the civil strifes in the Valtelline, Bonaparte absorbed that Swiss district in the Cisalpine Republic, which thus included all the lands between Como and Verona on the north, and Rimini on the south.
On the 15th of November he was assassinated, and as no one was punished for this crime the insolence of the disorderly elements increased, and shots were exchanged with the Swiss Guard.
rendered to Bixio, but the 10,000 men in Rome, mostly French, Belgians, Swiss and Bavarians, under Kanzler, were ready to fight.
Royal honors were attributed to the pope (Article 3), who was ftirther guaranteed the same precedence as that accorded to him by other Catholic sovereigns, and the right to maintain his Noble and Swiss guards.
Cesare made Cesena his headquarters, and with an army consisting of 300 French lances, 4000 Gascons and Swiss, besides Italian troops, he attacked Imola, which surrendered at once, and then besieged Forll, held by Caterina Sforza, the widow of Girolamo Riario.
by the departments of Savoie and Haute-Savoie and the Swiss cantons Geneva and Vaud.
COLCHICUM, the Meadow Saffron, or Autumn Crocus (Colchicum autumnale), a perennial plant of the natural order Liliaceae, found wild in rich moist meadow-land in England and Ireland, in middle and southern Europe, and in the Swiss Alps.
Anderledy, a Swiss, who had seen service in the United States.
Dairy-farming is making some progress, especially in the Swiss colony near San Jose.
Alexander Ivanovich (1769-1825) served with distinction under his relative Suvarov in the Turkish Wars, and took part as a general officer in the Italian and Swiss operations of 1799, and in the war against Napoleon in Poland in 1806-1807 (battle of Heilsberg).
The subsequent development of rack railways is especially associated with a Swiss engineer, Nicholas Riggenbach, and his pupil Roman Abt, and the forms of rack introduced by them are those most commonly used.
Soon after his " release from the fruitless task of the Swiss revolution " in 1768, he had gradually advanced from the wish to the hope, from the hope to the design, from the design to the execution of his great historical work.
This is illustrated by his love of Switzerland, his intense interest in the fortunes of that country, his design of writing " The History of the Liberty of the Swiss " - a theme, he says " from which the dullest stranger would catch fire."
AARAU, the capital of the Swiss canton of Aargau.
The cantonal library contains many works relating to Swiss history and many MSS.
On the Swiss Alps it is one of the most prevalent and striking of the forest trees, its dark evergreen foliage often standing out in strong contrast to the snowy ridges and glaciers beyond.
The bounds of the thus enlarged Cisalpine Republic were afterwards extended eastwards to the banks of the Adige by the terms of the treaty of Campo Formio; and in November 1797 Bonaparte added the formerly Swiss district of the Valtelline, north-east of Lake Como, to its territory.
Of all these interventions the most justifiable and beneficent, perhaps, was that which related to the Swiss cantons.
The settlement which he thereby imposed was in many ways excellent; but it was dearly purchased by the complete ascendancy of Bonaparte in all important affairs, and by the claim for the services of a considerable contingent of Swiss troops which he thereafter rigorously enforced.
He, ther,efore, pressed on the march of a corps of French and Swiss troops under Dupont towards Cadiz, in order to take possession of the French sail of the line, five in number, which had been in that harbour since Trafalgar.
He intervened in the French religious wars, and also fought with Bern and other Swiss cantons, and on the murder of Henry III.
Thus, when his duties called him to Constance in 1414, he employed his leisure in exploring the libraries of Swiss and Swabian convents.
We owe to his pen curious remarks on English and Swiss customs, valuable notes on the remains of antique art in Rome, and a singularly striking portrait of Jerome of Prague as he appeared before the judges who condemned him to the stake.
Basilea), the capital of the Swiss half canton of Basel Stadt or Bale Ville.
There are a number of modern monuments in the city, the most important being that set up to the memory of the Swiss who fell in the battle of St Jakob (1444), won by the French.
After long swaying between the neighbouring Rhine cities and the Swiss Confederation, it was admitted into the latter in 1501.
As in other Swiss towns the trade gilds got all political power into their hands, especially by the 18th century.
the remains of the Swiss lake-dwellings perhaps not earlier than the bronze age, while Pliny alludes to bread made of it by the ancient Germans.
The German and Swiss Reformers also believed that the end of the world was near, but they had different aims in view from those of the Anabaptists.
This schism lasted fully ten years, although the antipope found hardly any adherents outside of his own hereditary states, those of Alphonso of Aragon, of the Swiss confederation and certain universities.
The financial arrangement as finally agreed upon was that German financiers should control 40% of the capital of the line; French (through the Imperial Ottoman Bank), 30%; Austrian, Swiss, Italian and Turkish, 20%; and the Anatolian Railway Company, io %.
They comprised two parties: (1) the followers of Capito, Carlstadt and Bucer, who at the diet of Augsburg presented the Confessio Tetrapolitana from Strassburg, Constance, Lindau and Memmingen; (2) the followers of the Swiss reformer Zwingli, who to the same diet presented his private confession of faith.
The Swiss diet decided in 1804 to undertake the "correction" of this turbulent stream.
To commemorate the efforts of Escher, the Swiss diet in 1823 (after his death) decided that his male descendants should bear the name of "Escher von der Linth."
In 1515 Wolsey sent him to urge the Swiss to attack France, and in 1519 he went to Germany to discuss with the electors the impending election to the imperial throne.
It formed the imperial "Swiss guard," and never left the city except to accompany the emperor.
In 1466 it formed an alliance with the Swiss, and this became a permanent union in 1515.
By the peace of Westphalia (1648) it was recognized as an independent ally of the Swiss League.
Some authorities, notably the eminent Swiss jurist, J.
In the " Alabama " arbitration five arbitrators were nominated by the president of the United States, the queen of England, the king of Italy, the president of the Swiss Confederation, and the emperor of Brazil respectively.
His proposals came to nothing, but he continued the struggle at a series of diets, and urged the Germans to emulate the courage and union of the Swiss cantons.
The introduction of European immigrants dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic. Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
C. Branner, the Swiss naturalist E.
The principal breeds are either native or Swiss (especially that of Simmenthal).
The Swiss professor, Konrad Gesner (1516-1565), is the most voluminous and instructive of these earliest writers on systematic zoology, and was so highly esteemed that his Historia animalium was republished a hundred Gesner.
JEAN CHARLES GALISSARD DE MARIGNAC (1817-1894), Swiss chemist, was born at Geneva on the 24th of April 1817.
They were for some time ruled by a Portuguese, Joao Albasini, who had adopted native customs. Since 1873 Swiss Protestant missionaries have lived among then and many of the Shangaans are Christians and civilized.
Charriere, Agnes Isabelle Emilie De (1740-1805), Swiss author, was Dutch by birth, her maiden name being van Tuyll van Seeroskerken van Zuylen.
The Swiss physician, Theophile Bonet (1620-1689) had published his Sepulcretum in 1679; and observations of post mortem appearances had been made by Montanus, P. Tulp, Raymond Vieussens, A.M.
The Rhine rises in the mountains of the Swiss canton of the Grisons, and flows for 233 m.
in Swiss territory, within which its drainage basin includes about 14,059 sq.
On issuing from the Lake of Constance at Constance, the Rhine flows nearly due west to Basel, where it leaves Swiss territory, the south bank during this portion of the river being entirely Swiss, save the town of Constance, but the north shore belongs to Baden, save in the case of the Swiss town of Stein-am-Rhein and the Swiss canton of Schaffhausen.
Leaving out of account the innumerable glacier streams that swell its volume above the Lake of Constance, the most important affluents to its upper course are the Wutach, the Alb and the Wiese, descending on the right from the Black Forest, and the Aar, draining several Swiss cantons on the left.
On his return to his diocese,his zeal and eloquence were largely instrumental in withstanding the progress of Calvinism, and among others he converted Henry Sponde, who became bishop of Pamiers, and the Swiss general Sancy.
The manufacture of white goods was introduced by Swabian, or Swiss, immigrants about 1570.
ALTDORF, the capital of the Swiss canton of Uri.
On the left bank of the Reuss, immediately opposite Altdorf, is Attinghausen, where the ruined castle (which belonged to one of the real founders of the Swiss Confederation) now houses the cantonal museum of antiquities.
Grape-stones have been found among the remains of Swiss and Italian lake dwellings of the Bronze period, and others in tufaceous volcanic deposits near Montpellier, not long before the historic era.
The pass proper starts from Brieg (Swiss canton of the Valais), which is in the upper Rhone valley and 902 m.
The road descends past the Swiss village of Simplon, and passes through the wonderful rock defile of Gondo before entering Italy at Iselle (28 m.
To these should be added 133,144 Hungarians, 21,733 natives of Germany (3782 less than in 1890), 2506 natives of Italy, 1703 Russians, 1176 French, 1643 Swiss, &c. Of this heterogeneous population 1,461,891 were Roman Catholics, the Jews coming next in order with 146,926.
Curia Raetorum, Romonsch Cuera), the capital of the Swiss canton of the Grisons.
Berthoud), an industrial town in the Swiss canton of Bern.
The population is most thickly clustered in the north and in the neighbourhood of the Swiss town of Basel.
Its fidelity to the monarchy was tested in 1513, when the citizens were besieged by 50,000 Swiss and Germans, and forced to agree to a treaty so disadvantageous that Louis XII.
Influenced by a close study of English writers, the two Swiss, Bodmer and Breitinger, established Die Discurse der Maler (1721), and by paying more attention to the matter of works reviewed than to their manner, commenced a critical method new to Germany.
At the colloquy of Marburg "Zwingli offered his hand to Luther with the entreaty that they be at least Christian brethren, but Luther refused it and declared that the Swiss were of another spirit.
JOHANNES VON MULLER (1752-1809), Swiss historian, was born on the 3rd of January 1752 at Neunkirch, near Schaffhausen, where his father was pastor.
In July 1771 he undertook a sketch of Swiss history (no detailed history of Switzerland having so far been written) for a publisher of Halle, but his theological studies and the preparation of a Latin dissertation on the Bellum cimbricum (publ.
(to 1436) of the definitive form of his Swiss history, which was received with great praise.
(to 1443) of his Swiss history.
His Swiss History now possesses a literary value only, but it was an excellent work in every way for the 18th century.
The Swiss History was re-issued at Leipzig and Zurich, in 15 vols.
BADEN, a town in the Swiss canton of Aargau, on the left bank of the river Limmat, 14 m.
They are especially efficacious in cases of gouty and rheumatic affections, and are much frequented by Swiss invalids, foreign visitors being but few in number.
In 1415 Baden (with the Aargau) was conquered by the Eight Swiss Confederates, whose bailiff inhabited the other castle, on the right bank of the Limmat, which defends the ancient bridge across that river.
Among the Reformers were, of course, Martin Luther and most of his German collaborators; the Swiss Zwingli, Bullinger, Farel and Calvin; the English Latimer, John Bradford, John Jewel; the Scot John Knox.
The so-called Klippen of the Swiss Alps are now usually supposed to rest upon thrustplanes, but they are not strictly analogous, either in structure or in position, with those of the Carpathians.
It is connected with Milan by two lines of railway, one via Monza (the main line, which goes on to Chiasso - Swiss frontier - and the St Gotthard), the other via Saronno and also with Lecco and Varese.
The appearance of the houses is precisely that of Swiss chalets, picturesque and comfortable - the only drawback being a want of chimneys, which the Bhutias do not know how to construct.
This was done on the 4th of October; and a few alterations were introduced to meet the wishes of the Swiss deputies.
it adjoins part of present Switzerland (till 1652 the Lower Engadine was Tirolese, and not Swiss) and also the Austrian province of Voralberg; to the N.
In T499 the Swiss won a victory in the Calven gorge (near the head of the Adige valley) against Maximilian, which resulted in the Swiss gaining their practical independence of the empire.
It enabled him to study the Swiss and the Germans in their homes; and the report which he wrote on his return is among his most effective political studies.
A fine bridge leads north over the Rhine to one suburb, Petershausen, while to the south the town gradually merges into the Swiss suburb of Kreuzlingen.
Constance owes its fame, not to the Roman station that existed here, but to the fact that it was a bishop's see from the 6th century (when it was transferred hither from Vindonissa, near Brugg, in the Aargau) till its suppression in 1821, after having been secularized in 1803 and having lost, in 1814-1815, its Swiss portions.
The bishop was a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, while his diocese was one of the largest in Germany, including (shortly before the Reformation) most of Baden and Wurttemberg, and 12 out of the 22 Swiss cantons (all the region on the right bank of the Aar, save the portions included in the diocese of Coire) - in it were comprised 350 monasteries, 1760 benefices and 17,000 priests.
Constance is the natural capital of the Thurgau, so that when in 1460 the Swiss wrested that region from the Austrians, the town and the Swiss Confederation should have been naturally drawn together.
But Constance refused to give up to the Swiss the right of exercising criminal jurisdiction in the Thurgau, which it had obtained from the emperor in 1417, while the Austrians, having bought Bregenz (in two parts, 1451 and 1523), were very desirous of securing the well-placed city for themselves.
The Austrians had long tried to obtain influence in the town, especially when its support of the Protestant cause attracted the sympathy of the Swiss.
The Swiss churches, while agreeing to condemn Servetus, say nothing of capital punishment in their letters of advice.
His church discipline was drawn from the Swiss Baptists.
BERTHOLD HALLER (1492-1536), Swiss reformer, was born at Aldingen in Wurttemberg, and after studying at Pforzheim, where he met Melanchthon, and at Cologne, taught in the gymnasium at Bern.
MEIRINGEN, the principal village on the Hasle (or the upper Aar) valley in the Swiss canton of Bern.
The English Independents and the modern Baptists, as well as the Mennonites, may be regarded as the historical continuation of lines of development going back to the Waldensians and the Bohemian Brethren, and passing down through the German, Dutch and Swiss Anabaptists.
HEINRICH BULLINGER (1504-1575), Swiss reformer, son of Dean Heinrich Bullinger by his wife Anna (Wiederkehr), was born at Bremgarten, Aargau, on the 18th of July 1504.
It has also been suggested that the Swiss Siemental cattle are nearly related to the aurochs.
The Holy See, much dependent at that time on its Swiss mercenaries in the pursuit of its secular ends, expressed no resentment on this occasion.
Zwingli indeed seemed still to be devoted to the pope, whom he styled "beatissimus Christi vicarius," and he publicly proclaimed the mercenary aid given by the Swiss to the papal cause to be its dutiful support of the Holy See.
His first publications, which appeared as rhymed allegories, were political rather than religious, being aimed at what he deemed the degrading Swiss practice of hiring out mercenaries in the European wars.
The Swiss, who furnished them with troops, were to be treated with consideration; and the pope sought to silence the reformer by offers of promotion, which he refused.
He held himself, as did the Swiss in general, very free of papal control.
Zwingli denounced the publication of plenary indulgence to all visitors to the shrine, and his sermons in the Swiss vernacular drew great crowds and attracted the attention of Rome.
He had enunciated in his theses the far-reaching new principle that the congregation, and not the hierarchy, was the representative of the Church; and he sought henceforward to reorganize the Swiss constitution on the principles of representative democracy so as to reduce the wholly disproportionate voting power which, till then, the Forest Cantons had exercised.
In February 1531 Zwingli himself urged the Evangelical Swiss to attack the Five Cantons, and on the oth of October there was fought at Kappel a battle, disastrous to the Protestant cause and fatal to its leader.
This was the ground of his quarrel with the Swiss Anabaptists, for the main idea in the minds of these greatly maligned men was the modern thought of a free Church in a free state.
The last step in the development of the Waldensian body was taken in 1530, when two deputies of the Vaudois in Dauphine and Provence, Georges Morel and Pierre Masson, were sent to confer with the German and Swiss Reformers.
The result of this intercourse was an alliance between the Vaudois and the Swiss and German Reformers.
A synod was held in 1532 at Chanforans in the valley of the Angrogne, where a new confession of faith was adopted, which recognized the doctrine of election, assimilated the practices of the Vaudois to those of the Swiss congregations, renounced for the future all recognition of the Roman communion, and established their own worship no longer as secret meetings of a faithful few but as public assemblies for the glory of God.
Argovie), one of the more northerly Swiss cantons, comprising the lower course of the river Aar, whence its name.
It is one of the least mountainous Swiss cantons, forming part of a great table-land, to the north of the Alps and the east of the Jura, above which rise low hills.
In 1415 the Aargau region was taken from the Habsburgs by the Swiss Confederates.
The action of water and ice upon the soft sandstone of which the hills here are chiefly composed has produced deep gorges and isolated fantastic peaks, which, however, though both beautiful and interesting, by no means recall the characteristics of Swiss scenery.
A system of conciliation, similar to the Prussian, exists in Italy (laws of the 16th of June 1892, and the 26th of December 1892) and in some of the Swiss cantons (law of the 29th of April 1883).
The value of the American dollar, in terms of AustroHungarian paper kronen with legally fixed value, varied in fact, as shown by the Swiss exchange market, as follows: - State Finances.
His father, a Swiss officer in the service of the Genoese Republic, had married the mother of Laetitia Bonaparte, after the decease of her first husband.
His father was a designer, who had abandoned his country and his religion, and married a Swiss Protestant.
Luggarus), a small town of Italian appearance in the Swiss canton of Tessin or Ticino, of which till 1881 it was one of the three capitals (the others being Bellinzona, q.v., and Lugano, q.v.).
It is built at the north or Swiss end of the Lago Maggiore, not far from the point at which the Maggia enters that lake, and is by rail 14 m.
It was taken from the Milanese in 1512 by the Swiss who ruled it till 1798, when it became part of the canton of Lugano in the Helvetic Republic, and in 1803 part of that of Tessin or Ticino, then first erected.
Jean Gesner (1709-1790), a Swiss physician and botanist, states that at the end of the 18th century there were 1600 botanic gardens in Europe.
The canton is, save Zug, the smallest in the Swiss Confederation, while the city, long the most populous in the land, is now surpassed by Zurich and by Basel.
on the extreme north, where it borders on the Swiss canton of Vaud.
The canton was admitted into the Swiss Confederation in 1815 only, and ranks as the junior of the 22 cantons.
and 36,415 (30,582) Swiss citizens of other cantons.
The number of foreign residents is steadily rising, for in 1900 there were only 79,965 (62,189) Swiss in all as against 52,644 (42,607) foreigners.
Among the chief articles brought to these fairs (which were largely frequented by Italian, French and Swiss merchants) were cloth, silk, armour, groceries, wine, timber and salt, this last coming mainly from Provence.
Of a less severe type were Cherbuliez, the novelist; TSpffer, who spread a taste for pedestrianism among Swiss youth; Duchosal, the poet; Marc Monnier, the litterateur; not to mention the names of any persons still living, or of politicians of any date.
Most probably Geneva would soon have become an integral part of the realms of the house of Savoy had it not been for the appearance of a new protector on the scene - the Swiss confederation.
The duke, however, was no better inclined towards the Swiss than towards Geneva.
This nearly ruined Geneva, which, too, in 1477 had to pay a large indemnity to the Swiss army that, after the defeat of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, advanced to take vengeance on the dominions of his ally, Yolande, dowager duchess of Savoy and sister of Louis XI., as well as on the bishop of Geneva, her brother-in-law.
But, after this payment, the bishop made an alliance with the Swiss.
It split the citizens into two parties; the Eidgenots relying on the Swiss, while the Mamelus (mamelukes) supported the duke.
The Genevese, thus abandoned by their natural protector, looked to the Swiss for help. They sent (October 1530) a considerable army to save the city.
Thus 1530 marks the date at which Geneva became its own mistress within, while allied externally with the Swiss confederation.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, while the Romanist majority of the Swiss cantons steadily refused to accept Geneva as even a subordinate member of the Confederation, the city itself was distracted on several occasions by attempts of the citizens, as a whole, to gain some share in the aristocratic government of the town, though these attempts were only partially successful.
But in 1798 the city was annexed to France and became the capital of the French department of Leman (to be carefully distinguished from the Swiss canton of Leman, that is Vaud, of the Helvetic Republic, also set up in 1798), while in 1802, by the Concordat, the ancient bishopric of Geneva was suppressed.
On the fall of Napoleon (1813) the city recovered its independence, and finally, in 1815, was received as the junior member of the Swiss confederation, several bits of French and Savoyard territory (as pointed out above) being added to the narrow bounds of the old Genevese Republic in order to give the town some protection against its non-Swiss neighbours.
It set up a conseil representatif or legislature of 250 members, which named the conseil d'etat or executive, while it was itself elected by a limited class, for the electoral qualification was the annual payment of direct taxes to the amount of 20 Swiss livres or about 23 shillings.
There he met other Swiss, among them Marat and Etienne Dumont, but their schemes for a new Geneva in Ireland - which the government favoured - were given up when Necker came to power in France, and Claviere, with most of his comrades, went to Paris.
HERISAU, the largest town in the entire Swiss canton of Appenzell, built on the Glatt torrent, and by light railway 7 m.
(1881) Kropotkin was expelled from Switzerland by the Swiss government, and after a short stay at Thonon (Savoy) went to London, where he remained for nearly a year, returning to Thonon towards the end of 1882.
GEMMI PASS, a pass (7641 ft.) leading from Frutigen in the Swiss canton of Bern to Leukerbad in the Swiss canton of the Valais.
The coeval origin of consonants and vowels had indeed been questioned or denied by the earliest reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin), but later, in the period of Protestant scholasticism and under the influence of one school of Jewish Rabbis, Protestant scholars in particular, and especially those .of the Swiss school, notably the Buxtorfs, had committed themselves to the view that the vowels formed an integral and original part of the text of the Old Testament; and this they maintained with all the more fervency.
Antoine Anderledy (Swiss)..1884-189224.
The French chargé d'affaires, Dubois de Saligny, who had been sent out in November 1860, urged French intervention, and took up the Jecker claims. Jecker, a Swiss banker settled in Mexico, had lent Miramon's government in 1859 $75 0, 000 (subject, however, to various deductions): in return, Miramon gave him 6% bonds of the nominal value of $15,000,000 which were ingeniously disguised as a conversion scheme.
With Zwingli he represented the Swiss views at the unfortunate conference at Marburg.
RIVER BRETHREN, the name of a group of three Christian communities in the United States of America, descended from Swiss settlers near the Susquehanna river in Pennsylvania in 1750.
UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST, 1 an American religious sect which originated in the last part of the 18th century under the leadership of Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813), pastor of the Second Reformed Church in Baltimore, and Martin Boehm (1725-1812), a Pennsylvanian Mennonite of Swiss descent.
In 1900 i~hese two countries represented of the total only 52.7%; add the Dutch, the Danes, Swedes, Norwegians and Swiss to the latter and the share was 65.1%.
But we have fortunately preserved to us an elaborate plan of the great Swiss monastery of St Gall, erected about A.D.
The Ill valley is bounded south by the snowy chain of the Rhatikon (highest point, the Scesaplana, 9741 ft., a famous view-point), and of the Silvretta (highest point, Gross Piz Buin, 1 0,880 ft.), both dividing Vorarlberg from Switzerland; slightly to the north-east of Piz Buin is the Dreilanderspitze (10,539 ft.), where the Vorarlberg, Tirolese and Swiss frontiers unite.
STANS, the capital of the eastern half (or Nidwalden) of the Swiss canton of Unterwalden.
The early colonists were German Lutherans (Salzburgers), Piedmontese, Scottish Highlanders, Swiss, Portuguese Jews and Englishmen; but the main tide of immigration, from Virginia and the Carolinas, did not set in until 1752.
APPENZELL, the political capital of the Inner Rhoden half of the Swiss canton of Appenzell.
The different qualities of " waste," of which there are many, vary in colour from a rich yellow to a creamy white; the chief producing countries being China, Japan, India, Italy, France and the countries in the Near East; and the best-known qualities are: steam wastes, from Canton; knubs, from China and from Italy and other Western countries; frisons, from various sources; wadding and blaze, Shanghai; china, Hangchow; and Nankin buttons; Indian and Szechuen wastes; punjum, the most lustrous of wastes; China curlies; Japan wastes, known by such terms as kikai, ostue, &c.; French, Swiss, Italian, China, Piedmont, Milan, &c. There are yellow wastes from Italy, and many more far too numerous to mention.
The former, " schapping," is the French, Italian and Swiss method, from which the silk when finished is neither so bright nor so good in colour as the " discharged silk "; but it is very clean and level, and for some purposes absolutely essential, as, for instance, in velvet manufacture.
In the same way the federation of Swiss cantons, of the states of the North American Union and of the present German Empire have served as means of reducing the number of possible parties to war, and consequently that of its possible occasions.
It was stipulated that the dismantling should be controlled by a technical commission of three officers of foreign nationality, to be chosen, one by each of the contracting powers and the third by the two officers thus appointed, or, in default of an agreement on their part, by the president of the Swiss Confederation.
He now found a new friend in the Swiss adventurer, Francois Lefort, a shrewd and jovial rascal, who not only initiated him into all the mysteries of profligacy (at the large house built at Peter's expense in the German settlement), but taught him his true business as a ruler.
DANIEL SCHENKEL (1813-1885), Swiss Protestant theologian, was born at Dagerlen in the canton of Zurich on the 21st of December 1813.
In 1589 he obtained in Geneva and Berne sums sufficient to raise an army of mercenaries for Henry III., partly by the sale of jewels, among them the "Sancy" diamond which in 1835 found its way to the Russian imperial treasure, and partly by leading the Swiss to suppose that the troops were intended for serious war against Savoy.
of the Lake of Constance, and extends along the right bank of the Rhine, opposite Swiss territory, between Sargans and Sennwald, while on the E.
angle of the state, in the Rhatikon range, and is named to Naafkopf or the Rothe Wand (8445 ft.); on its summit the Swiss, Vorarlberg, and Liechtenstein frontiers join.
LAUSANNE, the capital of the Swiss canton of Vaud.
Haldimand, an Englishman of Swiss descent.
In the end the Swiss saved the Holy See; and, when Julius died the power of France had been broken in Italy, although the power of Spain had taken its place.
Latimer, however, besides possessing sagacity, quick insight into character, and a ready and formidable wit which thoroughly disconcerted and confused his opponents, had naturally a distaste for mere theological discussion, and the truths he was in the habit of inculcating could scarcely be controverted, although, as he stated them, they were diametrically contradictory of prevailing errors both in The only reasons for assigning an earlier date are that he was commonly known as " old Hugh Latimer," and that Bernher, his Swiss servant, states incidentally that he was " above threescore and seven years " in the reign of Edward VI.
LA CHAUX DE FONDS, a large industrial town in the Swiss canton of Neuchatel.
He returned to Switzerland in 1786, and in the next year visited Paris, where he met Madame de Charriere, a Dutchwoman who had married into a Swiss family with which his own was connected.
In 1819 he was returned to the Chamber of Deputies, and proved so formidable an opponent that the government made a vain attempt to exclude him from the Chamber on the ground of his Swiss birth.
Apart from the large class of brocaded cloths made in Jacquard looms there are innumerable simpler kinds, including stripes and checks of various descriptions, such as Swiss, Cord, Satin, Doriah stripes, &c. Mercerized cloths are of many kinds, as the mercerizing process can be applied to almost anything.
The ex- ternal service of the palace is performed by the Swiss Guard and the gendarmerie; the service of the ante-chamber by the lay and ecclesiastical chamberlains; this service has also given rise to certain honorary titles both for ecclesiastics, e.g.
LEO JUD (1482-1542), known to his contemporaries as Meister Leu, Swiss reformer, was born in Alsace and educated at Basel, where after a course in medicine he turned to the study of theology.
PESETA, a silver coin and unit of value, the Spanish equivalent of the French, Belgian and Swiss franc, the Italian lira and the Greek drachma in the Latin monetary union.
JUNGFRAU, a well-known Swiss mountain (13,669 ft.), admirably seen from Interlaken.
In 1890 also the Hall process operated by steam power was installed at Patricroft, Lancashire, where the plant had a capacity of 300 lb per day, but by 1894 the turbines of the Swiss and French works ruined the enterprise.
In July 1888 the Societe Metallurgique Suisse erected plant driven by a 500 h.p. turbine to carry out Heroult's alloy process, and at the end of that year the Allgemeine Elektricitais Gesellschaft united with the Swiss firm in organizing the Aluminium Industrie Actien Gesellschaft of Neuhasen, which has factories in Switzerland, Germany and Austria.
As regards the main divisions, three are generally distinguished; the Western Alps (chiefly French and Italian, with a small bit of the Swiss Valais) being held to extend from the Col de Tenda to the Simplon Pass, the Central Alps (all but wholly Swiss and Italian) thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass, and the Eastern Alps (wholly Austrian and Italian, save the small Bavarian bit at the north-west angle) thence to the Radstadter Tauern route, with a bend outwards towards the south-east, as explained under (2) in order to include the higher summits of the SouthEastern Alps.
8,977 11,615 Col de Fenetre (Great St Bernard to the Swiss Val Ferret), 11, 539 bridle path.
The Alps of North-Eastern Switzerland (north of the Klausen Pass) Chief Peaks of the North-Eastern Swiss Alps.
6,411 6,240 5,906 5,899 5,194 3,255 2,887 2,864 Chief Passes of the North-Eastern Swiss Alps.
In the Central Alps the chief event, on the northern side of the chain, is the gradual formation from 1291 to 1815 of the Swiss Confederation, at least so far as regards the mountain Cantons, and with especial reference to the independent confederations of the Grisons and the Valais, which only became full members of the Confederation in 1803 and 1815 respectively.
Further, in 1512, the Swiss Confederation as a whole won the valleys of Locarno with Lugano, which, combined with the 15th century conquests by the Forest Cantons, were formed in 1803 into the new Canton of Ticino or Tessin.
On the other hand, the Grisons won in 1512 the Valtellina, with Bormio and Chiavenna, but in 1797 these regions were finally lost to it as well as to the Swiss Confederation, though the Grisons retained the valleys of Mesocco, Bregaglia and Poschiavo, while in 1762 it had bought the upper bit of the valley of Munster that lies on the southern slope of the Alps.
The Habsburgers, whose original home was in the lower valley of the Aar, where still stand the ruins of their ancestral castle, lost that district to the Swiss in 1415, as they had previously lost various other bits of what is now Switzerland.
Their pioneer work was continued in that district, as well as others, by a number of Swiss, pre-eminent among whom were Gottlieb Studer (1804-1890) of Bern, and Edouard Desor (1811-1882) of Neuchatel.
The first was the English Alpine Club (founded in the winter of 1857-1858), followed in 1862 by the Austrian Alpine Club (which in 1873 was fused, under the name of the German and Austrian Alpine Club, with the German Alpine Club, founded in 1869), in 1863 by the Italian and Swiss Alpine Clubs, and in 1874 by the French Alpine Club, not to mention numerous minor societies of more local character.
Coolidge, Swiss Travel and Swiss Guide-Books (1889) and The Alps (1908); R.
Zimmerli, Die deutsch franzosische Sprachgrenze in der Schweiz (3 vols., 1891-1899); besides the great Swiss Dialect Dictionary (Schweiz.
(1902-1905) by the Swiss Alpine Club under the name of Clubfiihrer to the Alps of Glarus and Uri, and V.
C.), and the Alpina, Echo des Alpes, Jahrbuch, Schweizer Alpen-Zeitung (Swiss A.
version, 1905, mentioned above); (Central and Swiss Alps) G.
Ravenstein's maps (scale :250,000) of the Swiss Alps (2 sheets) and of the Eastern Alps (8 sheets) include the whole chain, save that portion south of the range of Mont Blanc.
But the most splendid Government map of all is that put forth by the Swiss Federal Topographical Bureau, under the title of Siegfried Atlas (scale 1 :50,000 for the Alpine districts), which has quite superseded the Dufour Map (scale 1: loo,000), the history of which was published in 1896.
For maps of the Swiss Alps and their neighbours, see J.
Such is in outline the process by which the Alps were elevated; but when the chain is examined in detail, it is found that its history has not been uniform throughout; and it will be convenient, for purposes of description, to divide it into three portions, which may be called the Eastern Alps, the Swiss Alps, and the Western Alps.
P. Protogine connexion, that the pebbles of the Swiss Molasse are not generally such as would be derived from the neighbouring mountains, but resemble the rocks of the Eastern Alps.
Although the explanation here given of the origin of the Swiss Klippen is that which now is usually accepted, it should be mentioned that other theories have been proposed to account for their peculiarities.
In the Swiss lake-dwellings stones of the P. insititia as well as of P. spinosa have been found, but not those.
At this time Lessing began the study of medieval literature to which attention had been drawn by the Swiss critics, Bodmer and Breitinger, and wrote occasional criticisms for Nicolai's Bibliothek der schonen Wissenschaften.
Berne), after the Grisons, the largest of the Swiss cantons, but by far the most populous, though politically Bern ranks after that of Zurich.
FRAUENFELD, the capital of the Swiss canton of Thurgau, 27 m.
The abbot retained all manorial rights till 1803, while the political powers of the Kyburgers (who were the "protectors" of Reichenau) passed to the Habsburgs in 1273, and were seized by the Swiss in 1460 with the rest of the Thurgau.
Michael Schlatter (1716-1790), a Swiss of St Gall, sent to America in 1746 by the Synods (Dutch Reformed) of Holland, immediately convened Boehm, Weiss and Rieger in Philadelphia, and with them planned a Coetus, which first met in September 1747; in 1751 he presented the cause of the Coetus in Germany and Holland, where he gathered funds; in 1752 came back to America with six ministers, one of whom, William Stoy (1726-1801), was an active opponent of the Coetus and of clericalism after 1772.
'JEAN PIERRE DE CROUSAZ (1663-1750), Swiss writer, was born at Lausanne.
It rises at the upper or eastern extremity of the Swiss canton of the Valais, flows between the Bernese Alps (N.) and the Lepontine and Pennine Alps (S.) till it expands into the Lake of Geneva, winds round the southernmost spurs of the Jura range, receives at Lyons its principal tributary, the Saline, and then turns southward through France till, by many mouths, it enters that part of the Mediterranean which is rightly called the Golfe du Lion (sometimes wrongly the Gulf of Lyons).
of the Swiss portion being composed of glaciers), and its total fall 5898 ft.
Conches), its chief village being Munster, while Fiesch, lower down, is well known to most Swiss travellers.
(by which the St Gotthard railway line is joined at Biasca, the route lying entirely through Swiss territory) the Spli gen road (constructed in 1823) mounts south to the pass (6946 ft.), which forms the political frontier.
His career was determined by his uncle, Johann Hartwig Ernst Bernstorff, who early discerned the talents of his nephew and induced him to study in the German and Swiss universities and travel for some years in Italy, France, England and Holland, to prepare himself for a statesman's career.
TURRETIN, or Turretini, the name of three Swiss divines.
The principal river of northern Italy is the Po, which rises to the west of Piedmont and is fed not from glaciers like the Swiss torrents, but by rain and snow, so that the water has a somewhat higher temperature, a point to which much importance is attached for the valuable meadow irrigation known as marcite.
This plain is separated on the west from the Swiss plain by the Lake of Constance (Bodensee, 1306 ft.
To the south the range is not continuous with the Swiss Jura, the valley of the Rhine being connected here with the Rhone system by low ground known as the Gate of Mulhausen.
In the Swiss territory the line of demarcation passes through Bienne, Fnibourg, Saanen, Leuk and Monte Rosa.
Included within it, besides the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, are the Austrian communes of Jungholz and Mittelberg; while, outside, lie the little free-port territories of Hamburg, Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven and Geestemnde, Heligoland, and small portions of the districts of Constance and Waldshut, lying on the Baden Swiss frontier.
But Louis was perhaps still more indebted for his victory to the memorable conflict between the Swiss and the Habsburgs, the defeat of Leopold of Austria at Morgarten in 1315 striking a heavy blow at his position.
However, they minimized this handicap by joining league to league; in 1381 the Swabian and the Rhenish cities formed an alliance for three years, while the Swabian League obtained promises of help from the Swiss.
The Swiss opened the fight.
Frederick meanwhile was involved in wars with the Swiss, with his brother Albert and his Austrian subjects, and later with the Hungarians.
The Swiss refused to pay the common penny and to submit to the jurisdiction of the imperial court of justice.
Consequently, in 1499, Maximilian sent such troops as he could collect against them, but his forces were beaten, and by the peace of Basel he was forced to concede all the demands made by the Swiss, who became virtually independent of the Empire.
The league was soon joined by other strong cities, among them Strassburg, Ulm, Constance, Lhbeck and Goslar; but it was not until after the defeat and death of Zwingli atKappel in October 1531 that it was further strengthened by the adhesion of those towns which had hitherto looked for leadership to the Swiss reformer.
The Swiss authorities had imprisoned some foolish royalists of Neuchfttel, in which the house of Hohenzollern had never resigned its rights.
He further paved the way for the "Golden" or "Borromean" league formed in 1586 by the Swiss Catholic cantons of Switzerland to expel here tics if necessary by armed force.
In 1772 he became first lieutenant of the Swiss guards of the count of Provence (afterwards Louis XVIII.).
In 1314 Albert's son, Frederick, was chosen German king in opposition to Louis IV., duke of Upper Bavaria, afterwards the emperor Louis IV., and Austria was weakened by the efforts of the Habsburgs to sustain Frederick in his contest with Louis, and also by the struggle carried on between another brother, Leopold, and the Swiss.
He failed to obtain military assistance from the Swiss, and by the king's command yielded the disputed territory to Marie, although the courts of law had decided in his favour.
he had imbibed from his Swiss tutor, Frederic Cesar de Laharpe, the principles of Rousseau's gospel of humanity; from his military governor, General Soltikov, the traditions of Russian autocracy; while his father had inspired him with his own passion of military parade, and taught him to combine a theoretical love of mankind with a practical contempt for men.
He was made colonel-general of the Swiss regiment, governor of Languedoc and master of the hounds of France.
At the Marburg conference (1529) between the German and Swiss reformers, Luther was pitted against Oecolampadius and Melanchthon against Zwingli in the discussion regarding the real presence in the sacrament.
JEAN HENRI MERLE D AUBIGNE' (1794-1872), Swiss Protestant divine and historian, was born on the 16th of August 1794, at Eaux Vives, near Geneva.
His principal works are - Discours sur l'etude de l'histoire de Christianisme (Geneva, 1832); Le Lutheranisme et la Reforme (Paris, 1844); Germany, England and Scotland, or Recollections of a Swiss Pastor (London, 1848); Trois siecles de lutte en Ecosse, on deux rois et deux royaumes; Le Protecteur on la republique d'Angleterre aux jours de Cromwell (Paris, 1848); Le Concile et l'infaillibilite (1870); Histoire de la Reformation au X VIt me siecle (Paris, 1835-1853; new ed., 1861-1862, in 5 vols.); and Histoire de la Reformation en Europe au temps de Calvin (8 vols., 1862-1877).
TELL The story of William Tell's skill in shooting at and striking the apple which had been placed on the head of his little son by order of Gessler, the tyrannical Austrian bailiff of Uri, is so closely bound up with the legendary history of the origin of the Swiss Confederation that they must be considered together.
Both appear first in the 15th century, probably as results of the war for the Toggenburg inheritance (1436-50); for the intense hatred of Austria, greatly increased by her support of the claims of Zurich, favoured the circulation of stories which assumed that Swiss freedom was of immemorial antiquity, while, as the war was largely a struggle between the civic and rural elements in the Confederation, the notion that the (rural) Schwyzers were of Scandinavian descent at once separated them from and raised them above the German inhabitants of the towns.
(It is worthy of notice that the same meaning is attributed to the name of Tokko, the hero of a similar legend in Gheysmer's abridgment of the Historia Danica of Saxo Grammaticus, which may, somehow, have influenced the Swiss version.) The only other known instances of the Uri version of the legend relating to the origin of the Confederation are the Latin hexameters of Glareanus (1515), in which Tell is compared to Brutus as "assertor patriae, vindex ultorque tyrannum," and the Urnerspiel (composed in 1511-12), a play acted in Uri, in which Russ's version is followed, though the bailiff, who is unnamed, but announces that he has been sent by Albert of Austria, is slain in the "hollow way."
Convenient summaries of the controversy will be found in any modern book on Swiss history, and more particularly in G.
The setting up in 1895 in the market-place in Altdorf of a fine statue (by the Swiss sculptor Richard Kissling) of Tell and his son, and the opening in 1899 just outside Altdorf of a permanent theatre, wherein Schiller's play is to be represented every Sunday during the summer months, show that the popular belief in the Tell legend is still strong, despite its utter demolition at the hands of a succession of scientific Swiss historians during the 19th century.
Bellenz), the political capital of the Swiss canton of Tessin or Ticino.
They belonged for several centuries to the three Swiss cantons which were masters of the town.
ANTOINE HENRI JOMINI, Baron (1779-1869), general in the French and afterwards in the Russian service, and one of the most celebrated writers on the art of war, was born on the 6th of March 1779 at Payerne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, where his father was syndic. His youthful preference for a military life was disappointed by the dissolution of the Swiss regiments of France at the Revolution.
For some time he was a clerk in a Paris banking-house, until the outbreak of the Swiss revolution.
At the age of nineteen he was appointed to a post on the Swiss headquarters staff, and when scarcely twenty-one to the command of a battalion.
It must be observed, in Jomini's defence, that he had for years held a dormant commission in the Russian army, that he had declined to take part in the invasion of Russia in 1812, and that he was a Swiss and not a Frenchman.
His patriotism was indeed unquestioned, and he withdrew from the Allied Army in 1814 when he found that he could not prevent the violation of Swiss neutrality.
He declined as a Swiss patriot and as a French officer to take part in the passage of the Rhine at Basel and the subsequent invasion of France.
Wilhelm Tell is the drama of the Swiss people; its subject is less the personal fate of its hero than the struggle of a nation to free itself from tyranny.
ALP. To the Swiss dwellers in the plains the term "the Alps" signifies the high snowy mountains which they see on the horizon, but to the dwellers in the valleys which nature has carved in the sides of those high mountains, the word alp means exclusively the summer pastures situated on the slopes above the valley, though below the snow-line.
In the case of the alps belonging to the Swiss communes, it must be borne in mind that "commune" here does not signify either Einwohnergemeinden or Biirgergemeinden, but a special class called Alpgemeinden (for instance in the well-known valley of Grindelwald there is one Einwohnergemeinde, but seven Alpgemeinden).
Alpwirtschaft (Bern, 1897-1898); the Schweiz-Alpstatistik (each volume devoted to the alps of a single Swiss canton); and A.
JOHANN HEINRICH HEIDEGGER (1633-1698), Swiss theologian, was born at Barentschweil, in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, on the 1st of July 1633.
Heidegger was the principal author of the Formula Consensus Helvetica in 1675,which was designed to unite the Swiss Reformed churches, but had an opposite effect.
Gass describes him as the most notable of the Swiss theologians of the time.
1 It should be mentioned that the professors of chemistry of a number of German, Austrian and Swiss universities, have, by agreement, instituted an intermediate examination in that subject which students are required to pass before beginning work on the doctoral thesis.
He was delighted with the varied play of the waterfalls, but no glamour blinded him to the squalor of Swiss peasant life.
The Saxons and the Swiss, Luther and Zwingli, were in fierce controversy about the true doctrine of the sacrament of the Supper.
Luther was a patriotic German who was for ever bewailing the disintegration of the Fatherland; Zwingli was full of plans for confederations of Swiss cantons with South German cities, which could not fail to weaken the empire.
When Luther thought of the Swiss reformer he muttered as Archbishop Parker did of John Knox- "God keep us from such visitations as Knox hath attempted in Scotland; the people to be orderers of things."
It is possible that had Luther lived longer his followers might have been united with the Swiss.
He repeatedly expressed an admiration for Calvin's writings on the subject of the sacrament; and Melanchthon believed that if the Swiss accepted Calvin's theory of the Supper, the Wittenberg Concord could be extended to include them.
But the Consensus Tigurinus, which dates the adhesion of the Swiss to the views of Calvin, was not signed until 1549, when Luther was already dead.
Bale), one of the most northerly of the Swiss cantons, and the only one (save Schaffhausen) that includes any territory north of the Rhine.
He was lucky enough at once to find a post as principal of the educational institution established in his château at Marschlins by the Swiss statesman Ulysses von Salis (1728-1800).
In 1411 Appenzell was placed under the "protection" of the Swiss Confederation, of which, in 1452, it became an "allied member," and in 1513 a full member.
It gained a favourable hold on the Swiss churches, who had found the First Confession too short and too Lutheran.
The following year he was fighting the English, and in 1443 aided his father to suppress the revolt of the count of Armagnac. His first important command, however, was in the next year, when he led an army of from 15,000 to 20,000 mercenaries and brigands, - the product of the Hundred Years' War, - against the Swiss of the canton of Basel.
The heroism of some two hundred Swiss, who for a while held thousands of the French army at bay, made a great impression on the young prince.
After an ineffective siege of Basel, he made peace with the Swiss confederation, and led his robber soldiers into Alsace to ravage the country of the Habsburgs, who refused him the promised winter quarters.
Louis was the soul of all hostile coalitions, especially urging on the Swiss and Sigismund of Austria, who ruled Tirol and Alsace.
With his vassals terrorized and subdued, Louis continued to subsidize the Swiss and Rene II.
BIENNE, or Biel, an industrial town in the Swiss canton of Bern.
Its industrial importance is shown by the fact that it is the site of the West Swiss technical institute, which has departments for instruction in watch-making, in electricity, in engraving and chasing, and in subjects relating to railway, postal and telegraph matters.
But its attempts to be admitted into the Swiss Confederation Were fruitless, though after it adopted the Reformation in 1525, it was closely associated with the Protestant cantons.
The Austrian occupation lasted until 1827, having cost the state 310,000,000 lire; but in the meanwhile the Swiss Guard had been established as a further protection for autocracy, and the revolutionary outbreak at Bosco on the Cilento was suppressed with the usual cruelty.
A few shots were fired - it is not known who fired first - on the 15th, the Swiss regiments 'stormed the barricades and street fighting lasted all day.
By the evening the Swiss and the royalists were masters of the situation.
In June part of the Swiss Guard mutinied because the Bernese government not having renewed the convention with Naples the troops were deprived of their cantonal flag.
Lauis), the most populous and most thriving town in the Swiss canton of Ticino or Tessin, situated (906 ft.) on the northern shore of the lake of Lugano.
Though politically Swiss since 1512, Lugano is thoroughly Italian in appearance and character.
MELCHIOR GOLDAST AB HAIMINSFELD (1576-1635) Swiss writer, an industrious though uncritical collector of documents relating to the medieval history and Constitution of Germany, was born on the 6th of January 1576 (some say 1578), of poor Protestant parents, near Bischofszell, in the Swiss Canton of Thurgau.
Berne), the capital of the Swiss canton of the same name, and, by a Federal law of 1848, the political capital of the Swiss confederation.
and rare printed books, but should be carefully distinguished from the national Swiss library, which, with the building for the federal archives, is built in the new Kirchfeld quarter.
There are a number of museums; the historical (archaeological and medieval), the natural history (in which the skin of Barry, the famous St Bernard dog, is preserved), the art (mainly modern Swiss pictures), and the Alpine (in which are collections of all kinds relating to the Swiss Alps).
In the second battle Bern received help from the three forest cantons with which it had become allied in 1323, while in 1353 it entered the Swiss confederation as its eighth member.
From 1815 to 1848 it shared with Zurich and Lucerne the supreme rule (which shifted from one to the other every two years) in the Swiss confederation, while in 1848 a federal law made Bern the sole political capital, where the federal government is permanently fixed and where the ministers of foreign powers reside.
Others seceded as members of the Swiss Confederation.
His renown was soon increased by his active interference on behalf of the Swiss of the Château-Vieux Regiment, condemned to the galleys for mutiny at Nancy.
Among the later European confederations the Swiss republic is one of the most interesting.
The United States of America more nearly resembles the Swiss confederacy, though retaining marks of its English origin.
In 1912 a Swiss expedition under Dr. A.
For its insurrection against the French garrison in 1499 it paid a terrible penalty in 1500, and in 1512, after the victory of Ravenna, Pavia presented to Louis XII., as a sign of fidelity, a magnificent standard: this however fell into the hands of Swiss mercenaries and was sent to Fribourg as a trophy of war (it no longer exists).
But it was not until after the discovery of the pile-villages of the Swiss lakes, in 1853, had drawn public attention to the subject of lake-dwellings, that the crannogs of Scotland and Ireland were systematically investigated.
The results of these investigations show that they have little in common with the Swiss lake-dwellings, except that they are placed in lakes.
In Ireland, Sir William Wilde has assigned their range approximately to the period between the 9th and 16th centuries; while Dr Munro holds that the vast majority of them, both in Ireland and in Scotland, were not only inhabited, but constructed during the Iron Age, and that their period of greatest development was as far posterior to Roman civilization as that of the Swiss Pfahlbauten was anterior to it.
Formerly Zermatt was called "Praborgne," and this name is mentioned in the Swiss census of 1888.
He published in the same volume a general description of the Alps, as the Introduction to his projected work on the several Swiss Cantons.
It was regarded as the chief authority on Swiss constitutional matters up to 1798.
This is known to have been cultivated by the inhabitants of the Swiss lake-dwellings, and is found wild in south and west Europe (including England), North Africa, and western Asia.
Not long after Spinoza was himself in danger from the mob, in consequence of a visit which he paid to the French camp. He had been in correspondence with one Colonel Stoupe, a Swiss theologian and soldier, then serving with the prince of Conde, the commander of the French army at Utrecht.
In 1895, the foreigners included in the Chilean population numbered 72,812, of which 42,105 were European, 29,687 American, and 1020 Asiatic, &c. According to nationality there were 8269 Spanish, 7809 French, 7587 Italian, 7049 German, 6241 British, 1570 Swiss, 1490 Austro-Hungarian, 13,695 Peruvian, 7531 Argentine, 6654 Bolivian, 701 American (U.S.), 797 Chinese.
In order that future disputes might be amicably settled, a treaty was signed by which it was agreed that any question that might arise should be submitted to the arbitration of Great Britain or in default of that power to the Swiss Confederation.
The growth of P. Cembra is slow, but the wood is of remarkably even grain, and is employed by the Swiss wood-carvers in preference to any other.
Though Eck claimed the victory in argument, the only result was to strengthen the Swiss in their memorial view of the Lord's Supper, and so to diverge them further from Luther.
In addition the purer and rarefied air of the Swiss mountains seems to produce a sense of exhilaration which is not felt nearer the sea-level.
For those who suffer from nervous depression, exercise in the Swiss mountains is useful, and even living at a height of about 6000 ft.
At the Swiss health resorts, on the contrary, during the winter the air is very pure, and has just sufficient coldness to make exercise agreeable to patients.
Till 1813 it was in the hands of Major de Bosset, a Swiss in the British service, who displayed an industry and energy in the repression of injustice and development of civilization only outdone by the despotic vigour of Sir Charles Napier, who held the same office for the nine years from 1818 to 1827.
His idea would have been a parliamentary republic on the American lines, with some traits of the Swiss constitution to keep in touch with the regionalist and provincialist inclinations of many parts of the peninsula.
The award of the Swiss arbitrators in the matter of the Delagoa Bay railway was given in 1900 (see Lourenco Marques).
JOHANN HEINRICH HOTTINGER (1620-1667), Swiss philo logist and theologian, was born at Zurich on the 10th of March 1620.
When they became intolerable, from the Empire were sought the exemptions, privileges, immunities from that local authority, which, anomalous and anarchical as they were in theory, yet in fact were the foundations of all the liberties of the middle ages in the Swiss cantons, in the free towns of Germany and the Low Countries, in the Lombard cities of Italy.
Article 1, after expressing the regret felt by Her Majesty's government for the escape, in whatever circumstances, of the "Alabama" and other vessels from British ports, and for the depredations committed by these vessels, provided that "the claims growing out of the acts of the said vessels, and generically known as the ` Alabama ' claims" should be referred to a tribunal composed of five arbitrators, one to be named by each of the contracting parties and the remaining three by the king of Italy, the president of the Swiss Confederation and the emperor of Brazil respectively.
The shores of the lake - reminding a visitor somewhat of the Swiss lake of Lucerne - rise almost sheer to over 6000 ft.
For a short time after the outlawry of Duke Frederick of Austria, it became a free imperial city (1415-1442); but after the conquest of the Thurgau by the Swiss Confederates (1460-1461) Winterthur, which had gallantly stood a nine-weeks' siege, was isolated in the midst of nonAustrian territory.
He at once became the principal champion of Swiss Protestantism against the Lutherans as well as the Catholics, and was appointed chaplain to Protector Somerset.
It was at this time that he laid the foundations of his military fame, and he particularly distinguished himself in Massena's great Swiss campaign, and especially at the battle of Zurich.
in area, that is, thirty-one times as large as the Lake of Geneva; but, its depth being less, it contains only nineteen times as much water as the Swiss lake.
and the Swiss.
The duke of Milan, Maximilian Sforza, had secured the support of the emperor, the king of Spain, and the pope, and also that of the Swiss cantons, which then supplied the best and most numerous mercenary soldiers in Europe.
The practicable passes of the Alps and the Apennines were held by Swiss and papal troops.
But in order to avoid the necessity of besieging Milan itself, he offered the Swiss a large sum to retire into their own country.
The French took position at Melegnano to face the Swiss, the Venetians at Lodi to hold in check the Spanish army at Piacenza.
Alviano, who was visiting the king when the Swiss appeared before Melegnano, hurried off to bring thither his own army.
Meantime the French and the Swiss engaged in an incredibly fierce struggle.
The king's army was grouped in front of the village, facing in the direction of Milan, with a small stream separating it from the oncoming Swiss.
As the Swiss advanced in three huge columns, the French guns fired into them with terrible effect, but the assailants reached the intersected ground bordering the stream, and thus protected from the rush of the French gendarmerie, they debouched on the other side, and fell upon the landsknechts.
Francis himself at the head of two hundred gendarmes charged and drove back two large bodies of Swiss which were pressing the landsknechts hard.
The battle went on by moonlight till close on midnight, when the Swiss retired a short distance.
The Swiss now left their centre inactive opposite the king and with two strong corps attempted to work round his flanks.
The nearest French gendarmerie joined in the pursuit, but a detachment from the Swiss centre fell upon these and destroyed them.
This detachment in turn followed up its advantage until as Francis himself expressed it, "the whole camp turned out" to aid the landsknechts and "hunted out" the Swiss.
Meantime the Swiss left attack had closed with the French infantry bands and the "aventuriers" (afterwards the famous corps of Picardie and Piedmont), who were commanded on this day be the famous engineer Pedro Navarro.
When the Swiss ranks had been disordered, the short pike and the sword came into play, and aided by the constable de Bourbon with a handful of the gendarmerie, the French right more than held its own until Alviano with the cavalry from Lodi rode on to the field and completed the rout of the Swiss.
But the landsknechts, animated by the king, endured it as well as the Swiss; and at the last, Francis leading a final advance of his exhausted troops, the Swiss gave way and fled.
Only 3000 Swiss escaped out of some 25,000 who fought.
Amongst all these high glens there is a remarkable absence of lakes and waterfalls; nor are there down in the lower valleys at the foot of the mountains, as one would naturally expect in a region so extensively glaciated, any sheets of water corresponding to the Swiss lakes.
Slopes of Range.-Between the northern and the southern sides of the range there is quite as great a difference in climate, productions and scenery as there is between the Swiss and the Italian sides of the Alps.
de Schumacher, a Swiss councillor of state and chief of the department of justice in the canton of Lucerne.
Fort Pitt was one of the important objective points of Pontiac's conspiracy (1763), and as soon as the intentions of the Indians became evident, Captain Simeon Ecuyer, the Swiss officer in command of the garrison (which then numbered about 330), had the houses outside the ramparts levelled and prepared for a siege.
This power had, by the advice of Werner Munzinger, their Swiss governor of Massawa, seized and occupied in 1872 the northern province of Bogos; and, later on, insisted on occupying Hamasen also, for fear Bogos should be attacked.
Another expedition of Abyssinians, under Dejaj Tasamma and accompanied by three Europeans - Faivre (French), Potter (Swiss) and Artomonov (Russian) - started early in 1898, and reached the Nile at the Sobat mouth in June, a few days only before Major Marchand and his gallant companions arrived on the scene.
He counted on baffling them by forming a counter league of the principalities of northern Italy, and by raising the Turks against Venice, and the Germans and Swiss against France.
Germans and Swiss, however, inopportunely fell to war against each other.
But in April he was once more overthrown by the French in a battle fought at Novara, his Swiss clamouring at the last moment for their overdue pay, and treacherously refusing to fight against a force of their own countrymen led by La Tremouille.
GIOVANNI DIODATI (1576-1649), Swiss Protestant divine, was born at Geneva on the 6th of June 1576, of a noble family originally belonging to Lucca, which had been expatriated on account of its Protestantism.
The strong French sympathies of the Swiss in the Franco-German War led to his speedy resignation.
AUGUSTE ARTHUR DE LA RIVE (1801-1873), Swiss physicist, was born at Geneva on the 9th of October 1801.
Carra, a Swiss who had been tutor to Prince Ghica's children, and who published in 1781 an account of the actual state of the principalities, speaks of some of the boiars as possessing a taste for French literature and even for the works of Voltaire, a tendency actively combated by the patriarch of Constantinople.
Slightly more than half of all foreigners are Germans; Irish, English and Scotch, French and English Canadians, Swiss and Scandinavians following.
LEONHARD EULER (1707-1783), Swiss mathematician, was born at Basel on the 15th of April 5707, his father Paul Euler, who had considerable attainments as a mathematician, being Calvinistic pastor of the neighbouring village of Riechen.
Tessin, anc. Ticinus), a river of Switzerland and north Italy, which gives its name to the Swiss canton of Ticino (q.v.), and gave it in classical times to the town of Ticinum (Pavia).
WINKELRIED The incident with which this name is connected is, after the feat of William Tell, the best known and most popular in the early history of the Swiss Confederation.
We are told how, at a critical moment in the great battle of Sempach, when the Swiss had failed to break the serried ranks of the Austrian knights, a man of Unterwalden, Arnold von Winkelried by name, came to the rescue.
No other mention has been found in any of the numerous Swiss or Austrian chronicles till we come to the book De Helvetiae origine, written in 1538 by Rudolph Gwalther (Zwingli's son-in-law), when the hero is still nameless, being compared to Decius or Codrus, but is said to have been killed by his brave act.
This began the lively paper war humorously called "the second war of Sempach," in which the Swiss (with but rare exceptions) maintained the historical character of the feat against various foreigners - Austrians and others.
(1) There is the total silence of all the old Swiss and Austrian chroniclers until 1538, with the solitary exception of the Zurich chronicle of 1476 (and this while they nearly all describe the battle in more or less detail).
This argument rests on the careful critical narrative of the fight constructed by Herr Kleissner and Herr Hartmann from the contemporary accounts which have come down to us, in which the pride of the knights, their heavy armour, the heat of the July sun, the panic which befell a sudden part of the Austrian army, added to the valour of the Swiss, fully explain the complete rout.
Assuming this, and rejecting the evidence of the 1476 chronicle as an interpolation and full of mistakes, and that of the song as not proved to have been in existence before 1531, Herr Burkli comes to the startling conclusion that the phalanx formation of the Austrians, as well as the name and act of Winkelried, have been transferred to Sempach from the fight of Bicocca, near Milan (April 27, 1522), where a real leader of the Swiss mercenaries in the pay of France, Arnold Winkelried, reall y met his death in very much the way that his namesake perished according to the story.
Herr Burkli confines his criticism to the first struggle, in which alone mention is made of the driving back of the Swiss, pointing out also that the chronicle of 1476 and other later accounts attribute to the Austrians the manner of attack and the long spears which were the special characteristics of Swiss warriors, and that if Winkelried were a knight (as is asserted by Tschudi) he would have been clad in a coat of mail, or at least had a breastplate, neither of which could have been pierced by hostile lances.
He concluded alliances with the Protestant princes in Germany, with the duke of Lorraine, the Swiss cantons (treaty of Soleure, 1602) and with Sweden.
On the other hand, since the socalled peat-sheep of the prehistoric Swiss lake-dwellers appears to be represented by the existing Graubunden (Grisons) breed, which is woolly and coloured something like a Southdown, it may be argued that the former was probably also woolly, and hence that the survival of a hairy breed in a neighbouring part of Europe would be unlikely.
Starting from Landeck, the carriage road runs up the Inn valley to Pfunds, whence it mounts above the gorge of Finstermiinz to the village of Nauders (274 m.) where the road from the Swiss Engadine falls in (532 m.
Though on the Swiss side it appears to be an isolated obelisk, it is really but the butt end of a ridge, while the Swiss slope is not nearly as steep or difficult as the grand terraced walls of the Italian slope.
The name Weissenburg occurs in three other places; the town of Weissenburg-am-Sand in Bavaria; a Swiss invalid resort in the Niedersimmental, above Lake Thun, with sulphate of lime springs, beneficial for bronchial affections; also a Hungarian comitat (Magyar Fejervar), with Stuhlweissenburg as capital.
The humiliation of the king and queen after their capture at Varennes; the compulsory acceptance of the constitution; the plain incompetence of the new Legislative Assembly; the growing violence of the Parisian mob, and the ascendency of the Jacobins at the Common Hall; the fierce day of the 20th of June (1792), when the mob flooded the Tuileries, and the bloodier day of the 10th of August, when the Swiss guard was massacred and the royal family flung into prison; the murders in the prisons in September; the trial and execution of the king in January (1793); the proscription of the Girondins in June, the execution of the queen in October - if we realize the impression likely to be made upon the sober and homely English imagination by such a heightening of horror by horror, we may easily understand how people came to listen to Burke's voice as the voice of inspiration, and to look on his burning anger as the holy fervour of a prophet of the Lord.
Norwegians and other Scandinavians, Irish, Poles, Dutch, Belgians and Swiss followed.
Poles are chiefly in Milwaukee, Manitowoc and Portage counties, Belgians and Dutch in Brown and Door counties, German Swiss in Green, Fond du Lac, Winnebago, Buffalo and Pierce counties, and Bohemians in Kewaunee county, where they form almost 50% of the population.
An Indian village occupied the site of Red Wing probably for many years before the arrival of the first whites, two Swiss missionaries, Samuel Denton and Daniel Gavin, who maintained a mission here in 18374 6.
to the Upper Engadine in the Swiss canton of the Grisons.
of France over the Swiss in 1515, known as the battle of Marignan, and for the action between the French and Austrians in 1859.
Alphonse de Candolle, who has collected the evidence on this point, draws attention to the fact that no traces of this cereal have hitherto been found in Egyptian monuments, or in the earlier Swiss dwellings, though seeds have been found in association with weapons of the Bronze period at Olmiitz.
Of the two line regiments quartered in the capital, one was Swiss and therefore trusty; but the other, the Gardes Francaises, shared all the feelings of the populace.
Beside a few August, gentlemen in arms and a number of National Guards the palace was garrisoned by the Swiss Guard, about 950 strong.
The Swiss Guard stood firm, and, possibly by accident, a fusillade began.
The enemy were gaining ground when the Swiss received an order from the king to cease firing and withdraw.
(1) Triticum monococcum, which undoubtedly grows wild in Greece and Mesopotamia, is cultivated in Spain and elsewhere, and was also cultivated by the aboriginal Swiss lake-dwellers, as well as at Hissarlik, as is shown by the grain 1 found in those localities.
2) were cultivated by the aboriginal Swiss, by the ancient Egyptians, and throughout the Roman empire.
HORGEN, a small town in the Swiss canton of Zurich, situated on the left or west shore of the Lake of Zurich, and by rail roe m.
(so named by the Swiss government in honour of General Dufour, the head of the great survey which first accurately fixed the position of these points), rises W.
The ascent of all the points named is not difficult from the Swiss side, but excessively dangerous on the east or Italian side.
FREDERIC LOUIS GODET (1812-1900), Swiss Protestant theologian, was born at Neuchatel on the 25th of October 1812.
In 1381 the city joined the Stadtebund, or league of Swabian towns, and about a century later it rendered efficient aid to the Swiss confederates at Granson and Nancy.
JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564), Swiss divine and reformer, was born at Noyon, in Picardy, on the 10th of July 1509.
Among his friends were the Hangests (especially Claude), Nicolas and Michel Cop, sons of the king's Swiss physician, and his own kinsman Pierre Robert, better known as Olivetan.
They went first to Bern, and soon after to Zurich, where a synod of the Swiss pastors had been convened.
When, however, it is remembered that the unanimous decision of the Swiss churches and of the Swiss state governments was that Servetus deserved to die; that the general voice of Christendom was in favour of this; that even such a man as Melanchthon affirmed the justice of the sentence; 3 that an eminent English divine of the next age should declare the process against him "just and honourable," 4 and that only a few voices here and there were at the time raised against it, many will be ready to accept the judgment of Coleridge, that the death of Servetus was not "Calvin's guilt especially, but the common opprobrium of all European Christendom."
His idea appears to have been to form a general union between the German, the English and the Swiss Protestants, and thus to establish una eademque sancta catholica et apostolica eademque evangelica et reformata ecclesia.
ALEXANDRE RODOLPHE VINET (1797-1847), French critic and theologian, of Swiss birth, was born near Lausanne on the 17th of June 1797.
He endeavoured to define his ideas, and in 1833 published his Reveries politiques, suivies d'un projet de constitution, and Considerations politiques et militaires sur la Suisse; in 1836, as a captain, in the Swiss service, he published a Manuel d'artillerie, in order to win popularity with the French army.
In 1838 it caused his partisan Lieutenant Laity to be condemned by the Court of Peers to five years' imprisonment for a pamphlet which he had written to justify the Strassburg affair; then it demanded the expulsion of the prince from Switzerland, and when the Swiss government resisted, threatened war.
JAKOB BURCKHARDT (1818-1897), Swiss writer on art, was born at Basel on the 25th of May 1818; he was educated there and at Neuchatel, and till 1839 was intended to be a pastor.
First came the reconciliation, in his despite, of those irreconcilables, the Swiss and Sigismund of Austria; and then the union of both with the duke of Lorraine, who was also disturbed at the duke of Burgundys ambition.
To the hanging of the brave garrison of Granson the Swiss responded by terrible reprisals at Granson and at Morat (March to June 1476); while the people of Lorraine finally routed Charles at Nancy on the 5th of January 1477, the duke himself falling in the battle.
conquered Milan in seven months and held it br fourteen years; while Lodovico Sforza, betrayed by his Swiss mercenaries, died a prisoner in France.
The heroic episode of Marignano, when he defeated Cardinal Schinners Swiss troops (1315 of September 1515), made him master of the duchy of Milan and obliged his adversaries to make peace.
The Swiss signed the permanent peace which they were to maintain until the Revolution of 1789; while the emperor and the king of Spain recognized Francis II.s very precarious hold upon Milan.
Allies from outside were therefore called in, and this it was that gave a European character to these wars of religion; the two parties were parties of foreigners, the Protestants being supported by German Landsknechts and Elizabeth of Englands cavalry, and the royal army by Italian, Swiss or Spanish auxiliaries.
Indignant at his conversion., Elizabeth, the Germans, and the Swiss Protestants~ deserted him; while the taking of Amiens by the Spaniards compromised for the moment the future both of the king and the, country.
But having defeated the duke of Savoy he had no hesitation in making sure of him by a marriage; though the Swiss might have misunderstood the treaty of Brusol (1610) by which he gave one of his daughters to the grandson of Philip IL On the other hand he astonished the Protestant world by the imprudence of his mediation between Spain and the rebellious United Provinces (1609).
The Spaniards had no longer any hope of adding Luxemburg