The Dutch trade was closed In 1814; the Swedish had been abolished in 1813.
Livonia continued to be under Swedish rule, and Lithuania remained united with Poland.
The Alexander legend was the theme of poetry in all European languages; six or seven German poets dealt with the subject, and it may be read in French, English, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Flemish and Bohemian.
In the church of St Lars are some paintings by Per Horberg (1746-1816), the Swedish peasant artist.
This army, it is true, was so inefficient that it was completely routed by the Swedish king with a most inferior force, but it was improved gradually until it learned to conquer its Swedish opponents.
In 1678 it was captured by the elector of Brandenburg, but was restored to the Swedes in the following year; in 1713 it was desolated by the Russians; in 1715 it came into the possession of Denmark; and in 1721 it was again restored to Sweden, under whose protection it remained till 1815, when, along with the whole of Swedish Pomerania, it came into the possession of Prussia.
Nests of this species were found in 1821 by Johana Wilhelm Zetterstedt near Juckasj,rwi in Swedish Lapland, but little was known concerning its nidification until 1855, when John Wolley, after two years' ineffectual search, succeeded in obtaining near the Finnish village Muonioniska, on the Swedish frontier, well-authenticated specimens with the eggs, both of which are like exaggerated bullfinches'.
SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS (1859-), Swedish physicist and chemist, was born on the 19th of February 1859, at Schloss Wijk, near Upsala.
An invitation to the Swedish court was urged upon Descartes, and after much hesitation accepted; a vessel of the royal navy was ordered to wait upon him, and in September 1649 he left Egmond for the north.
The queen wished to bury him at the feet of the Swedish kings, and to raise a costly mausoleum in his honour; but these plans were overruled, and a plain monument in the Catholic cemetery was all that marked the place of his rest.
A notable feature of the conference was the presence of the Swedish bishop of Kalmar, who presented a letter from the archbishop of Upsala, as a tentative advance towards closer relations between the Anglican Church and the Evangelical Church of Sweden.
Helmfeld routed a Danish division, was the first gleam of good luck, and on the 4th of December, on the tableland of Helgonaback, near Lund, the young Swedish monarch defeated Christian V.
All the Swedish commanders showed remarkable ability, but the chief glory of the day indisputably belongs to Charles XI.
Yet his early military education could have consisted at most of the perusal of the Swedish Intelligencer and the practice of riding.
carried out by the Swedish chemist, Torbern Bergman, acting under the impulse of Linnaeus, and by the German philosopher, Immanuel Kant.
Bergman's Physical Description of the Earth was published in Swedish in 1766, and translated into English in 1772 and into German in 5774.
1738, Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, Alexis Claude Clairaut, Charles Etienne Louis Camus, Pierre Charles Lemonnier and the Swedish physicist Celsius measured an arc of the meridian in Lapland.
The word Rus, in former times wrongly connected with the tribal name Rhoxolani, is more probably derived from Ruotsi, a Finnish name for the Swedes, which seems to be a corruption of the Swedish rothsmenn, " rowers " or " seafarers."
As Sweden was known to be exhausted by the long wars of Gustavus Adolphus and his successors, and weakened by internal dissensions, the dismemberment seemed an easy matter, and Peter embarked on the scheme with a light heart; but his illusions were quickly dispelled by the eccentric young Swedish king, Charles XII., who arrived suddenly in Esthonia and completely routed the Russian army before Narva.
In the midst of the Northern War, shortly after the great Russian victory of Poltava (1709), the sultan, at the instigation of Swedish and French agents, determined to recover Azov, and made great military preparations for that purpose.
In 1720, by the peace of Stockholm, Swedish Pomerania was curtailed by extensive concessions to Prussia, but the district to the west of the Peene remained in the possession of Sweden until the general European settlement of 1815.
Regular passenger steamers run from Grimsby to Dutch and south Swedish ports, and to Esbjerg (Denmark), chiefly those of the Wilson line and the Great Central railway.
OSCAR JOSEF ALIN (1846-1900), Swedish historian and politician, was born at Falun on the 22nd of December 1846.
Among his numerous works the following are especially worthy of note: Bidrag till svenska radets historia under medeltiden (Upsala, 1872); Sveriges Historia, 1511 -1611 (Stockholm, 1878); Bidrag till svenska statsrickets historia (Stockholm, 1884-1887); Den svensk-norsk Unionen (Stockholm, 1889-1891), the best book on the Norwego-Swedish Union question from the Swedish point of view; Fjerde Artiklen of Fredstraktaten i Kiel (Stockholm, 1899); Carl Johan och Sveriges yttre politik, 1810-1815 (Stockholm, 1899); Carl XIV.
CARL GUSTAF NORDIN (1749-1812), Swedish statesman, historian and ecclesiastic. In 1774 he was made docent of Gothic antiquities at Upsala University in consequence of his remarkable treatise, Monumenta svia-golhica vetustioris aevi falso meritoque suspecta.
the Swedish turnip and potato oat.
- Experiments upon root-crops--chiefly white turnips, Swedish turnips (swedes) and mangels - have resulted in the establishment of the following conclusions.
above the sea, though in Swedish Lapland it is found on the slope of the Sulitelma as high as 1200 ft., its upper limit being everywhere lower than that of the pine.
Yet during the armistice which ensued (June 4th - July loth; afterwards prolonged to August loth) Napoleon did nothing to soothe the Viennese government, and that, too, despite the encouragement which the allies received from the news of Wellington's victory at Vittoria and the entry of Bernadotte with a Swedish contingent on the scene.
During this period of diplomatic work he acquired an exceptional knowledge of the affairs of Europe, and in particular of Germany, and displayed great tact and temper in dealing with the Swedish senate, with Queen Ulrica, with the king of Denmark and Frederick William I.
He could translate Latin into Swedish or German, or Swedish or German into Latin at sight.
The timidity of the Danish admiral Ulrik C. Gyldenldve, and the daring of Charles, who forced his nervous and protesting admiral to attempt the passage of the eastern channel of the Sound, the dangerous flinterend, hitherto reputed to be unnavigable, enabled the Swedish king to effect a landing at Humleback in Sjaelland (Zealand), a few miles north of Copenhagen (Aug.
First, however, Charles cleared Livonia of the invader (July 1701), subsequently occupying the duchy of Courland and converting it into a Swedish governor-generalship. In January 1702 Charles established himself at Bielowice in Lithuania, and, after issuing a proclamation declaring that "the elector of Saxony" had forfeited the Polish crown, set out for Warsaw, which he reached on the 14th of May.
He soon convinced himself that western Europe had nothing to fear from Charles, and that no bribes were necessary to turn the Swedish arms from Germany to Russia.
But the allies interfered in Charles's favour, lest he might be tempted to aid France, and induced the emperor to satisfy all the Swedish king's demands, the maritime Powers at the same time agreeing to guarantee the provisions of the peace of Altranstadt.
The Swedish army now began to suffer severely, bread and fodder running short, and the soldiers subsisting entirely on captured bullocks.
The Swedish infantry was well nigh annihilated, while the 14,000 cavalry, exhausted and demoralized, surrendered two days later at Perevolochna on Dnieper.
On the lath of December, when the Swedish approaches had come within 280 paces of the fortress of Fredriksten, which the Swedes were closely besieging, Charles looked over the parapet of the foremost trench, and was shot through the head by a bullet from the fortress.
and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire (London and Oxford, 1895); Bidrag til den Store Nordiske Krigs Historie (Copenhagen, 1899-1900); G.
This view is supported by the fact that petroleum is found on the Sardinian and Swedish coasts as a product of the decomposition of seaweed, heated only by the sun, and under atmospheric pressure.
It lies in the well-nigh uninhabited region of Swedish Lapland, 43 m.
Two years later the mines passed into the hands of a Swedish company, and the railway was acquired by the Swedish Government.
At the beginning of the Swedish War, Orduin was appointed to a high command, in which he displayed striking ability.
Buraeus, the " father of Swedish cartographers " (1650-1660); the British Islands by Ch.
VISBY, or Wisby, the capital of the Swedish island and administrative district (lain) of Gotland, in the Baltic Sea.
Ramsay manifested an aptitude for art from an early period, and at the age of twenty we find him in London studying under the Swedish painter Hans Huyssing, and at the St Martin's Lane Academy; and in 1736 he left for Rome, where he worked for three years under Solimena and Imperiali (Ferna.ndi).
But she finally married Eric Magnus, Baron of Stael-Holstein, who was first an attaché of the Swedish legation, and then minister.
The average number of seals killed annually is about 33,000.1 The 1 Owing to representations of the Swedish government in 1874 as to the killing of seals at breeding time on the east coast of Greenland, and the consequent loss of young seals left to die of starvation, the Seal Fisheries Act 1875 was passed in England to provide for the establishment of a close time for seal fishery in the seas in question.
Hence from the 10th to the 12th centuries there was great intercourse with Iceland and Greenland on the part of the English, Swedish and Danish, but at the end of the 13th century some change occurred, resulting in the southerly emigration of the Eskimos and the extinction of European civilization in Greenland.
alongside), which is used by French, Swedish and transatlantic steamers.
During the disastrous Swedish War of 1643-1645 Frederick was appointed generalissimo of the duchies by his father, but the laurels he won were scanty, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille, who commanded the Danish forces.
Terror was the first feeling produced at Copenhagen by the landing of the main Swedish army at Korsor in Zealand.
By the beginning of September all the breaches were repaired, the walls bristled with cannon, and 7000 men were under arms. So strong was the city by this time that Charles X., abandoning his original intention of carrying the place by assault, began a regular siege; but this also he was forced to abandon when, on the 29th of October, an auxiliary Dutch fleet, after reinforcing and reprovisioning the garrison, defeated, in conjunction with the Danish fleet, the Swedish navy of 44 liners in the Sound.
By sheer tenacity of purpose, Bestuzhev had extricated his country from the Swedish imbroglio; reconciled his imperial mistress with the courts of Vienna and London, her natural allies; enabled Russia to assert herself effectually in Poland, Turkey and Sweden, and isolated the restless king of Prussia by environing him with hostile alliances.
JOHAN GYLLENSTJERNA, Count (1635-1680), Swedish statesman, completed his studies at Upsala and then visited most of the European states and laid the foundations of that deep insight into international politics which afterwards distinguished him.
In 1679 Gyllenstjerna was appointed the Swedish plenipotentiary at the peace congress of Lund.
It was translated into French, German, Russian, Swedish, Dutch and Danish.
OLAF WALLQVIST (1755-1800), Swedish statesman and ecclesiastic, was ordained in 1776, became doctor of philosophy in 1779, court preacher to Queen Louisa Ulrica in 1780, and bishop of Vexio in 1787.
Shimizu 3 indicate that Steinmetz's formula holds for nickel and annealed cobalt up to B =3000, for cast cobalt and tungsten steel up to B =8000, and for Swedish iron up to B =18,000, the range being in all cases extended at the temperature of liquid air.
Thus the magnetization which the sample of Swedish iron received in a field of 1490 was not increased (beyond the limits of experimental error) when the intensity of the field was multiplied more than thirteen-fold, though the induction was nearly doubled.
Using an unannealed Swedish iron wire, he found that when H was gradually diminished from 0.04 to 0.00004 C.G.S.
They found that the permeability of Swedish iron, tungsten-steel and nickel, when the metals were cooled to - 186°, was diminished in weak fields but increased in strong ones, the field in which the effect of cooling changed its sign being 115 for iron and steel and 580 for nickel.
The hysteresis-loss in Swedish iron was decreased for inductions below about 9000 and increased for higher inductions; in tungsten-steel, nickel and cobalt the hysteresis-loss was always increased by cooling.
The silicon-iron had, in fields up to about Io, a greater permeability than a sample of the best Swedish charcoal-iron, and its hysteresisloss for max.
B =9000, at a frequency of loo per second, was only 0.254 watt per pound, as compared with 0.382 for the Swedish iron.
The aluminium-iron attained its greatest permeability in a field of o 5, about that of the earth's force, when its value was 9000, this being more than twice the maximum permeability of the Swedish iron.
2 The results are too numerous to discuss in detail; some of those to which special attention is directed are the following: In Swedish iron and tungsten-steel the change of elastic constants (Young's modulus and rigidity) is generally positive, but its amount is less than 0.5%; changes of Young's modulus and of rigidity are almost identical.
Andrew Sparrman, the Swedish naturalist, when exploring in the Sneeuwberg in 1776, learned from the Hottentots that eight or ten days' journey north there was a large perennial stream, which he rightly concluded was the groote-rivier of Hop. The next year Captain (afterwards Colonel) R.
Fredrikshald is close to the Swedish frontier, and had previously (1660) withstood invasion, after which its name was changed from Halden to the present form in 1665 in honour of Frederick III.
The castle surrendered to the Swedish crown prince Bernadotte in 1814, and its capture was speedily followed by the conquest of the kingdom and its union with Sweden.
Numbers of English artisans and shipbuilders, Swedish ironfounders, German engineers and French manufacturers sought fortunes in the new country, and diffused industry by their example.
A reply to Mr Nicholson was made in Swedish by a Roman priest, Bern-.
We may say, however, that Mr Nicholson has presented a strong case for the preservation of episcopal succession in the Swedish Church.
If the Swedish Church has preserved the episcopal succession, it does not make much of that advantage, for it is in communion with the Danish and Norwegian bodies, which can advance no such claim.
Of Peder Paars there exist at least twenty-three editions, besides translations in Dutch, German and Swedish.
The Iter subterraneum has been three several times translated into Danish, ten times into German, thrice into Swedish, thrice into Dutch, thrice into English, twice into French, twice into Russian and once into Hungarian.
The dismissal of Wallenstein, which is often attributed to the work of Father Joseph, Richelieu's envoy to the diet of Regensburg in July and August of 1630, was due rather to the fears of the electors themselves, but it was of double value to Richelieu when his Swedish ally marched south.
4 During the crisis of the Reformation all the Swedish sees became vacant but two, and the bishops of these two soon left the kingdom.
The episcopate, however, was preserved by Peter Magnusson, who, when residing as warden of the Swedish hospital of St Bridget in Rome, had been duly elected bishop of the see of Westeraes, and consecrated, c. 1524.
In Gothic it is Guth; Dutch has the same form as English; Danish and Swedish have Gud, German Gott.
To 1 First described by the Turk, Haj j i Khalifa, in the 37th century; first seen by the Swedish traveller Otter in 1736, and first published in 1840 in Ritter's Erdkunde, iii., after a drawing by Major Fischer, made in 1837.
HANS AXEL FERSEN, COUNT VON (1755-1810), Swedish statesman, was carefully educated at home, at the Carolinum at Brunswick and at Turin.
In 1797 Fersen was sent to the congress of Rastatt as the Swedish delegate, but in consequence of a protest from the French government, was not permitted to take part in it.
She seemed to consider Swedish affairs as far too petty to occupy her full attention; while her unworthy treatment of the great chancellor was mainly due to her jealousy of his extraordinary reputation and to the uneasy conviction that, so long as he was alive, his influence must at least be equal to her own.
The Swedish plenipotentiaries were Johan Oxenstjerna, the chancellor's son, and Adler Salvius.
Wearied of their importunities, yet revolting at the idea of submission to any member of the opposite sex, Christina settled the difficulty by appointing Charles her successor, and at the Riksdag of 1650 the Swedish crown was declared hereditary in Charles and his heirs male.
His works, the greater part of which originally appeared in Crelle's Journal, were edited by Holmboe and published in 1839 by the Swedish government, and a more complete edition by L.
SWEDENBORG (or [[Swedberg), Emanuel]] (1688-1772), Swedish scientist, philosopher and mystic, was born at Stockholm on the 29th of January 1688.
In 1716 he was introduced to Charles XII., who appointed him assessor-extraordinary on the Swedish board of mines.
His reports on smelting and assaying were remarkable for their detail and for the comparisons drawn between Swedish and other methods.
The next years were devoted to the duties and studies connected with his office, which involved the visitation of the Swedish, Saxon, Bohemian and Austrian mines.
The university of Vienna appealed to the Royal Swedish Academy for a complete issue of the scientific treatises, and this resulted in the formation of a committee of experts who have been entrusted with the task.
He was buried in the Swedish church in Princes Square, in the parish of St George's-in-theEast, and on the 7th of April 1908 his remains were removed at the request of the Swedish government to Stockholm.
In Finland Suomi (1841), written in Swedish, is still published.
The word, as applied to the animal here described, occurs in most Germanic and Romanic languages: German, marder; Dutch, marter; Swedish, mard; Danish, maar; English, marteron, martern, marten, martin and martlett; French, marte and martre; Italian, martora and martorella; Spanish and Portuguese, marta.
zibellina, the sable (German, Zobel and Zebel; Swedish, sabel; Russian, sobel, a word probably of Turanian origin), which closely resembles the last, if indeed it differs except in the quality of the fur - the most highly valued of that of all the group. The sable is found chiefly in eastern Siberia.
But the first real important work was undertaken by the Swedish naturalist, Georg Wahlenberg (1780-1851), who in 1813 explored the central Carpathians as a botanist, but afterwards also made topographical and geological studies of the system.
From 1646 to 1648 he frequented the Swedish court.
In 1648 he was appointed generalissimo of the Swedish forces in Germany.
The conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia prevented him from winning the military laurels he so ardently desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had unrivalled opportunities of learning diplomacy, in which science he speedily became a past-master.
Hostilities had already begun with the occupation of Diinaburg (Dvinsk) in Polish Livonia by the Swedes (July 1, 1655), and the Polish army encamped among the marshes of the Netze concluded a convention (July 25) whereby the palatinates of Posen and Kalisz placed themselves under the protection of the Swedish king.
His chief object, the conquest of Prussia, was still unaccomplished, and a new foe arose in the elector of Brandenburg, alarmed by the ambition of the Swedish king.
On July 18-20 the combined Swedes and Brandenburgers, 18,000 strong, after a three days' battle, defeated John Casimir's army of ioo,000 at Warsaw and reoccupied the Polish capital; but this brilliant feat of arms was altogether useless, and when the suspicious attitude of Frederick William compelled the Swedish king at last to open negotiations with the Poles, they refused the terms offered, the war was resumed, and Charles concluded an offensive and defensive alliance with the elector of Brandenburg (treaty of Labiau, Nov.
But the fortress of Fredriksodde (Fredericia) held Charles's little army at bay from mid-August to mid-October, while the fleet of Denmark, after a stubborn two days' battle, compelled the Swedish fleet to abandon its projected attack on the Danish islands.
The position of the Swedish king had now become critical.
The cold during the night of the 29th of January was most severe; and early in the morning of the 30th the Swedish king gave the order to start, the horsemen dismounting where the ice was weakest, and cautiously leading their horses as far apart as possible, when they swung into their saddles again, closed their ranks and made a dash for the shore.
and viii.) are based, in part, on documents in the Swedish Royal Archives and at the universities of Upsala and Lund, which were unknown to Benjamin Ferris (History of the Original Settlements of the Delaware, Wilmington, 1846) and Francis Vincent (History of the State of Delaware, Philadelphia, 1870), which ends with the English occupation in 1664).
Ekeberg discovered an element, tantalum, in some Swedish yttrium minerals.
Recent levellings along the Swedish and Danish coasts have confirmed the higher level of the Baltic; and the level of the Mediterranean has also been determined by exact measurements to be from 15 to 24 in.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
His father, a ribbon-weaver, was a descendant of a Swedish soldier who (in the service of Gustavus Adolphus) was left wounded at Rammenau and settled there.
BIRGER (?-1266), Swedish statesman, nephew of Birger Brosa, and the most famous member of the ancient noble family of the Folkungeatten, which had so much to say for itself in early Swedish history, was created jarl of Bjalbo by King Erik Eriksson in 1248 and married the king's sister.
It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and phonetic writing.
A number of persons in the entourage of the emperor, including the grand-duchess Catherine, Karamzin, Rostopchin and the Swedish general Baron Armfield, intrigued to involve him in a charge of treason.'
He did all he could personally to strengthen the bonds between the Norwegians and the royal house of Denmark, and though his endeavours were opposed by the so-called Swedish party, which desired a dynastic union with Sweden, he placed himself at the head of the Norwegian party of independence, and was elected regent of Norway by an assembly of notables on the 16th of February 1814.
This election was confirmed by a Storthing held at Eidsvold on the 10th of April, and on the 17th of May Christian was elected king of Norway, despite the protests of the Swedish party.
Sweden refusing Christian's conditions, a short campaign ensued, in which Christian was easily worsted by the superior skill and forces of the Swedish crown prince (Bernadotte).
The Swedish centre (infantry) had forced their way across the Leipzig road and engaged Wallenstein's living forts at close quarters.
The " Blue " brigadeGustavus's infantry wore distinctive colours - overran the Rdcken ' 'Battle Of Lutzen November 16th., 1632 :60,000 I German Armym Swedish Army battery of heavy guns, and the " Swedish " 1 and " Yellow " brigades engaged the left face of the Imperialist lozenge with success.
Wallenstein thus gained time to reestablish his order, and once more the now exhausted brigades of the Swedish first line were driven over the road.
For the last time Bernhard, wounded as he was, forced the Swedish army to the attack.
Of the losses on either side no accurate statement can be given, but the Swedish " Green " and " Yellow " brigades are said to have lost five-sixths of their numbers.
In 1527, supported by the diet, he carried his measures for secularizing such portions of the Church property as he thought fit, and for subjecting the Church to the royal power (Ordinances of Vesteras); but many of the old religious ceremonies and practices were permitted to continue, and it was not until 1592 that Lutheranism was officially sanctioned by the Swedish synod .2 Charles V., finding that his efforts to check the spread of the religious schism were unsuccessful, resorted once more to conferences between Roman Catholic and Lutheran theologians, but it became apparent that no permanent compromise was possible.
In the first, which was fought on the 5th and 6th of September 1634, the hitherto invincible Swedish army, commanded by Duke Bernhard of Saxe Weimar and Marshal Horn, was defeated with great loss by a somewhat superior army of Imperialists and Spaniards under General Gallas, Horn and 3000 men being made prisoners and 6000 killed or mortally wounded.
Two foreign settlements within the English sphere - the Dutch colony of New Netherland, now New York, and the Swedish settlement on the Delaware - were absorbed by the growing English element.
To the north-west lies the Fryksdal or valley of the Nors River, containing three beautiful lakes and fancifully named the "Swedish Switzerland."
A Swedish translation by F.
In view, however, of the unpreparedness of the Swedish army and the difficulties of the situation, Charles was forced to observe a strict neutrality.
The Swedish, Norwegian, Ontario and Michigan mines yield ores of this kind; and though none of them can be profitably worked as a source of phosphate, yet on reducing the ore it may be retained in the slags, and thus rendered available for agriculture.
The Swedish reformers of the 16th century, Olaus and Laurentius Petri, are commemorated by an obelisk.
either one or both parents were foreign-born), and of those having both parents of a given nationality 34,490 were of German, 19,359 of Swedish, 17,456 of Irish, 16,959 of Norwegian and 16,835 of English parentage.
Its artificial harbour, which admits vessels drawing 19 ft., is freer from ice in winter than any other Swedish Baltic port.
After the death of Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Liitzen, not far from Leipzig, in 1632, the elector, who was at heart an imperialist, detached himself from the Swedish alliance, and in 1635 concluded the peace of Prague with the emperor.
For a year before the peace of Altranstadt in 1706, when Augustus gave up the crown of Poland, Saxony was occupied by a Swedish army, which had to be supported at an immense expense.
" " Dutch florins 20.6 " " Danish .kroner 7.9 " " Swedish kroner 3.6 " Bulgarian levas.
He frittered away the resources of the kingdom in the unremunerative Swedish war of 1675-79, and did nothing for internal progress in the twenty years of peace which followed.
HERRING (Clupea harengus, Haring in German, le hareng in French, sill in Swedish), a fish belonging to the genus Clupea, of which more than sixty different species are known in various parts of the globe.
When, on the outbreak of the Swedish war of 1809, the emperor ordered the army to take advantage of an unusually severe frost and cross the ice of the Gulf of Finland, it was only the presence of Arakcheev that compelled an unwilling general and a semi-mutinous army to begin a campaign which ended in the conquest of Finland.
clung to his hereditary rights to the Swedish Crown involved Poland in a quite unnecessary series of wars with Charles IX.
In_ the very crisis of the Swedish War, the diminutive army of the victorious Chodkiewicz was left unpaid, with the result that the soldiers mutinied, and marched off en masse.
This he calculated would bring about a retaliatory invasion of Poland by the Turks, which would justify him in taking the field against them also with all the forces of the Republic. In case of success he would be able to impose the will of a victorious king upon a discredited diet, and reform the constitution on an English or Swedish model.
The first of these events, to be dated from the alliance between the emperor Leopold and John Casimir, on the 2 7th of May 1657, led to a truce with the tsar and the welcome diversion of all the Muscovite forces against Swedish Livonia.
By the peace of Oliva (May 3, 1660), made under French mediation, John Casimir ceded Livonia, and renounced all claim to the Swedish crown.
Augustus attempted to indemnify himself for his failure to obtain Livonia, his covenanted share of the Swedish plunder, by offering Frederick William of Prussia Courland, Polish Prussia and even part of Great Poland, provided that he were allowed a free hand in the disposal of the rest of the country.
Xavier Liske, born in 1838, professor of universal history at Lemberg, has published many historical essays of considerable value, and separate works by him have appeared in the German, Polish, Swedish, Danish and Spanish languages.
BERNHARD VON BESKOW, Baron (1796-1868), Swedish dramatist and historian, son of a Stockholm merchant, was born on the 19th of April 1796.
He held high appointments at court, and was, from 1834 onwards, perpetual secretary of the Swedish academy, using his great influence with tact and generosity.
as king and man"), printed in the transactions of the Swedish Academy (vols.
Moody's sermons were sold widely in English, and in German, Danish and Swedish versions.
In 1810 he was about to enter upon his new post of governor of Rome when he was, unexpectedly, elected successor to the Swedish throne, partly because a large part of the Swedish army, in view of future complications with Russia, were in favour of electing a soldier, and partly because Bernadotte was very popular in Sweden, owing to the kindness he had shown to the Swedish prisoners during the late war with Denmark.
The matter was decided by one of the Swedish couriers, Baron Karl Otto Morner, who, entirely on his own initiative, offered the succession to the Swedish crown to Bernadotte.
Although the Swedish government, amazed at Morner's effrontery, at once placed him under arrest on his return to Sweden, the candidature of Bernadotte gradually gained favour there, and, on the 21st of August 1810, he was elected crown-prince.
After the defeats of Liitzen and Bautzen, it was the Swedish crownprince who put fresh heart into the allies; and at the conference of Trachenberg he drew up the general plan for the campaign which began after the expiration of the truce of Plaswitz.
In 1604 he captured Dorpat, twice defeated the Swedish generals at Bialy Kamien, and was rewarded with the grand baton of Lithuania.
MAGNUS GABRIEL DE LA GARDIE, Count (1622-1686), Swedish statesman, the best-known member of an ancient family of French origin (the D'Escouperies of Languedoc) which had been settled in Sweden since the 14th century.
In 1646 he was sent at the head of an extraordinary mission to France, and on his return married the queen's cousin Marie Euphrosyne of Zweibri cken, who, being but a poor princess, benefited greatly by her wedding with the richest of the Swedish magnates.
With a force of seven hundred men he sailed into the Delaware in 1655, captured Fort Casimir (Newcastle) - which Stuyvesant had built in 1651 and which the Swedes had taken in 1654 - and overthrew the Swedish authority in that region.
Pop. (1890) 37,806; (1900) 33,111, of whom 6592 were foreign-born (including 1460 Swedish, 1176 German and 1054 Norwegian); (1910, census) 47,828.
ANDERS JONAS ANGSTROM (1814-1874), Swedish physicist, was born on the 13th of August 1814 at LOgdO, Medelpad, Sweden.
Becoming interested in terrestrial magnetism he made many observations of magnetic intensity and declination in various parts of Sweden, and was charged by the Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed till shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data obtained by the Swedish frigate "Eugenie" on her voyage round the world in 1851-1853.
With this object, during Charles XII.'s stay at Altranstadt (1706-1707), he tried to divert the king's attention to the Holstein question, and six years later, when the Swedish commander, Magnus Stenbock, crossed the Elbe, Gertz rendered him as much assistance as was compatible with not openly breaking with Denmark, even going so far as to surrender the fortress of Tenning to the Swedes.
Another simultaneous plan of procuring the Swedish crown for Duke Charles Frederick also came to nought.
Ostensibly, he was only the Holstein minister at Charles's court, in reality he was everything in Sweden except a Swedish subject - finance minister, plenipotentiary to foreign powers, factotum, and responsible to the king alone, though he had not a line of instructions.
The whole fury of the Swedish nation instantly fell upon Gertz.
KARL WILHELM SCHEELE (1742-1786), Swedish chemist, was born at Stralsund, the capital of Pomerania, which then belonged to Sweden, on the 19th of December 1742.
Gezelius, bishop of Abo, obtained an order from the Swedish government for the appropriation of certain corn-tithes, still known as Bibel Tryck-Tunnan.
Within fourteen years the following Bible societies were in active operation: the Basel Bible Society (founded at Nuremberg, 1804), the Prussian Bible Society (founded as the Berlin Bible Society, 1805), the Revel Bible Society (1807), the Swedish Evangelical Society (1808), the Dorpat Bible Society (1811), the Riga Bible Society (1812), the Finnish Bible Society (1812), the Hungarian Bible Institution (Pressburg, 1812), the Wurttemberg Bible Society (Stuttgart, 1812), the Swedish Bible Society (1814), the Danish Bible Society (1814), the Saxon Bible Society (Dresden, 1814), the Thuringian Bible Society (Erfurt, 1814), the Berg Bible Society (Eberfeld, 1814), the Hanover Bible Society (1814), the Hamburg-Altona Bible Society (1814), the Lubeck Bible Society (1814), the Netherlands Bible Society (Amsterdam, 1814).
AUGUST STRINDBERG (1849-), Swedish author, was born at Stockholm on the 22nd of January 1849.
The production of Master Olof marked the beginning of the new movement in Swedish literature, and the Red Room and the collection of satirical sketches entitled Det nya riket (" The New Kingdom," 1882) increased the growing hostility to Strindberg.
Strindberg's mastery of the art of description is perhaps seen at its best in the novels of life in the Swedish archipelago, in Hemsoborna (" The Inhabitants of Hemsd, 1887), one of the best existing novels of popular Swedish life, and Skarkarlslif (" Life of an Island Lad," 1890).
In igoi he married the Swedish actress Harriet Bosse, from whom he was amicably separated soon afterwards.
KARL FREDRIK PECHLIN (1720-1796), Swedish politician and demagogue, son of the Holstein minister at Stockholm, was educated in Sweden, and entered the Swedish army.
Pechlin first appears prominently in Swedish politics in 1760, when by suddenly changing sides he contrived to save the "Hats" from impeachment.
In 1769 Pechlin sold the "Hats" as he had formerly sold the "Caps," and was largely instrumental in preventing the projected indispensable reform of the Swedish constitution.
ARVID BERNHARD HORN, Count (1664-1742), Swedish statesman, was born at Vuorentaka in Finland on the 6th of April 1664, of a noble but indigent family.
Swedish historians have too often ignored the fact that Koniecpolski's superior strategy neutralized all the efforts of the Swedish king, whom he defeated again and again, notably at Homerstein (April 1627) and at Trzciand (April 1629).
At first he was the maitre des plaisirs of the Swedish court, but it was not long before more serious affairs were entrusted to him.
He remained absolutely faithful to Gustavus when nearly the whole of the nobility fell away from him; brilliantly distinguished himself in the later phases of the Russian war; and was the Swedish plenipotentiary at the conclusion of the peace of Verela.
(1792) committed the care of his infant son to Armfelt and appointed him a member of the council of regency; but the anti-Gustavian duke-regent Charles sent Armfelt as Swedish ambassador to Naples to get rid of him.
From Naples Armfelt communicated with Catherine II., urging her to bring about by means of a military demonstration a change in the Swedish government in favour of the Gustavians.
attained his majority, Armfelt was completely rehabilitated and sent as Swedish ambassador to Vienna (1802), but was obliged to quit that post two years later for sharply attacking the Austrian government's attitude towards Bonaparte.
From 1805 to 1807 he was commander-in-chief of the Swedish forces in Pomerania, where he displayed great ability and retarded the conquest of the duchy as long as it was humanly possible.
He quickly acquired the Swedish language, and, by the time he reached manhood, had become a general favourite.
In 1848 he supported Denmark against Germany; placed Swedish and Norwegian troops in cantonments in Fiinen and North Schleswig (1849-1850); and mediated the truce of Malmo (August 26th, 1848).
Gothenburg is the principal port of embarkation of Swedish emigrants for America.
Of the foreign-born in 1900 6400 were English-Canadians, 5542 were Irish, 1321 were English, 610 were French-Canadians, 590 were Italians, 576 were Scotch and 556 were Swedish.
He then attacked Swedish Pomerania.
These considerations no doubt led the Swedish and Norwegian governments, in their settlement of September 1905, to establish a " buffer " zone of 15 kilometres on either side of the frontier between the two states in question.
The prizes shall be awarded as follows: For physical science and chemistry, by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; for physiological or medical work, by the Caroline Institution at Stockholm; for literature, by the Stockholm Academy, and for peace work, by a committee of five members elected by the Norwegian Storthing.
The Swedish government was in the hands of an untried lad of sixteen; and the fine fleets of Denmark, and the veteran soldiers of Saxony, were on the same side as the myriads of Muscovy.
It suffered severely during the Hussite war, during the Swedish invasion in 1631 and 1647, and in the War of the Austrian Succession in 1742.
The teaching of sewing in the public schools has met with great success, and a simple form of the Swedish sloid was introduced into many of the schools in 1894.
To these we have to add small German and Flemish-speaking communities in Italy and France and somewhat larger German and Swedish populations in Russia.
Here also must be mentioned the Swedish Vardtrad or " guardian tree," which down to our own time is supposed to grant protection and prosperity to the household to which it belongs.
In one of the actions of this war the "Centaur" and "Implacable," unsupported by the Swedish ships (which lay to leeward), cut out the Russian 80-80-gun ship "Sevolod" from the enemy's line and, after a desperate fight, forced her to strike.
He is said to have rejoiced privately over Swedish victories, and certainly it was unerring instinct which told him that the great European conflict was no longer religious but dynastic. Anti-Spanish to the core, he became the greatest papal militarist since Julius II.; but Tuscany, Modena and Venice checkmated him in his ambitious attempt to conquer the duchy of Parma.
In 1657 it was taken by storm by the Swedish general Wrangel, and in 1659, after the fortress had been dismantled, it was occupied by Frederick William of Brandenburg.
He entered the Swedish army at an early age and was already a captain when, in 1689, at the head of a deputation of Livonian gentry, he went to Stockholm to protest against the rigour with which the land-recovery project of Charles XI.
For the next four years he led a vagabond life, but in 1698, after vainly petitioning the new king, Charles XII., for pardon, he entered the service of Augustus the Strong of Saxony and Poland, with the deliberate intention of wresting from Sweden Livonia, to which he had now no hope of returning so long as that province belonged to the Swedish Crown.
JAKOB MAGNUS SPRENGTPORTEN (1727-1786), Swedish soldier and politician.
But his whole Scandinavian policy was so irritating and vexatious that Swedish statesmen made up their minds that a war with Denmark was only a question of time; and in the spring of 1643 it seemed to them that the time had come.
In May the Swedish Riksrad decided upon war; on the 12th of December the Swedish marshal Lennart Torstensson, advancing from Bohemia, crossed the northern frontier of Denmark; by the end of January 1644 the whole peninsula of Jutland was in his possession.
Fortunately too for him, the Swedish government delayed hostilities in Scania till February 1644, so that the Danes were able to make adequate defensive preparations and save the important fortress of Malmo.
Another attempt to transport Torstensson and his army to the Danish islands by a large Swedish fleet was frustrated by Christian IV.
As he stood on the quarter-deck of the "Trinity" a cannon close by was exploded by a Swedish bullet, and splinters of wood and metal wounded the king in thirteen places, blinding one eye and flinging him to the deck.
Darkness at last separated the contending fleets; and though the battle was a drawn one, the Danish fleet showed its superiority by blockading the Swedish ships in Kiel Bay.
Exclusive of the sovereign and the princes of the blood, the order is limited to 23 Swedish and 8 foreign members.
The Order of the Sword (the " Yellow Ribbon "), the principal Swedish military order, was founded, it is said, by Gustavus I.
In 1592 Sigismund married the Austrian archduchess Anne, and the same year a reconciliation was patched up between the king and the chancellor to enable the former to secure possession of his Swedish throne vacant by the death of his father John III.
The old Swedish and Norwegian missionary societies work in South Africa, Madagascar and India; but large numbers of Scandinavians have been stirred up in missionary zeal, and have gone out to China in connexion with the China Inland Mission; several were massacred in the Boxer outbreaks.
The English United Methodists and some Swedish societies have begun work among the Gallas.
These four years were perhaps the most miserable and degrading in Swedish history (an age of lead succeeding an age of gold, as it has well been called) and may be briefly described as alternations of fantastic jacobinism and ruthless despotism.
But John George's reluctance to join the Protestants disappeared when the imperial troops under Tilly began to ravage Saxony, and in September 1631 he concluded an alliance with the Swedish king.
However, for the present the efforts of Gustavus Adolphus prevented the elector from deserting him, but the position was changed by the death of the king at Lutzen in 1632, and the refusal of Saxony to join the Protestant league under Swedish leadership. Still letting his troops fight in a desultory fashion against the imperialists, John George again negotiated for peace, and in May 1635 he concluded the important treaty of Prague with Ferdinand II.
In the last year practice in teaching is obtained at the primary " practice " school attached to each college, and students are also taught to make models explanatory of the various subjects of instruction after the manner of the Swedish Sloyd (Sli jd) system.
But the losses to Dutch trade were so serious that negotiations for peace were set on foot by the burgher party of Holland, and Cromwell being not unwilling, an agreement was reached in the Treaty of Westminster, signed on Provinces with a view to the settlement of the Dano Swedish question, which ended in securing a northern peace in 1660, and in keeping the Baltic open for Dutch trade.
He studied in Berzelius's laboratory at Stockholm, and there began a lifelong friendship with the Swedish chemist.
Chemists also had to thank him for translating three editions of the Lehrbuch of Berzelius and all the successive volumes of the Jahresbericht into German from the original Swedish.
given in 1905 by Professor Tornebohm to the Swedish parliament, credited the world with only io,000,000,000 tons of ore, and that, if the consumption of iron should continue to increase hereafter as it did between 1893 and 1906, this quantity would last only until 1946.
In Swedish Lapland, near the Arctic circle, are the great Gellivara, Kirunavara and Luossavara magnetite beds, among the largest in Europe.
Buyers of certain excellent classes of Swedish iron have been said to object even to the substitution of electricity for water-power as a means of driving the machinery of the forge.
Thus the small Swedish charges with but little silicon may be blown in 5 minutes, but for a 20-ton charge the time is more likely to reach or exceed 10 minutes, and sometimes reaches 20 minutes or even more.
Mushet had no such exclusive knowledge of the effects of manganese that he alone could have helped Bessemer; and even if nobody had then proposed the use of spiegeleisen, the development of the Swedish Bessemer practice would have gone on, and, the process thus established and its value and great economy thus shown in Sweden, it would have been only a question of time how soon somebody would have proposed the addition of manganese.
In some British and Swedish " pig and ore " practice (§ 98), on the other hand, little or no scrap is used, and here the removal of the large quantity of carbon, silicon and phosphorus prolongs the process to 17 hours.
In 1660 it gave its name to the treaty which concluded the Swedish war of Frederick III.
The nominal strength of the Russian fleet was eighty-three sail of the line, of the Danish twenty-three, and of the Swedish eighteen.
The British fleet then passed the Danish fort at Cronenburg, unhurt by its distant fire, and without being molested by the forts on the Swedish shore.
There he found an asylum till the 20th of May 1520, when he chartered a ship to Kalmar, one of the few Swedish fortresses which held out against Christian II.
That rival was the Swedish peasantry.
Such instructions were not calculated to promote confidence between Swedish and Danish negotiators.
On that occasion, apparently by way of protest against the decree of the diet of Vesteras (r 5th of January 1 544), declaring the Swedish crown hereditary in Gustavus's family, the Danish king caused to be quartered on his daughter's shield not only the three Danish lions and the Norwegian lion with the axe of St Olaf, but also "the three crowns" of Sweden.
Watson, The Swedish Revolution under Gustavus Vasa (London, 1889); O.
At the meeting of the states in 1604 Duke Charles assumed the Swedish crown as Charles IX.; and not long afterwards Duke John of Ostergotland introduced German craftsmen into Norrkoping, and thus originated its industrial activity.
on the Swedish throne.
In such noble projects of reform as the emancipation of the serfs (see Reventlow) Bernstorff took a leading part, and so closely did he associate himself with everything Danish, so popular did he become in the Danish capital, that a Swedish diplomatist expressed the opinion that henceforth Bernstorff could not be removed without danger.
With the head of the Swedish branch of the Gottorps, the crown prince Adolphus Frederick, things had been arranged by the exchange of 1750; but an attempt to make a similar arrangement with the chief of the elder Gottorp line, the cesarevitch Peter Feodorovich, had failed.
Moreover, it was a diplomatic axiom in Denmark, founded on experience, that an absolute monarchy in Sweden was incomparablymore dangerous to her neighbour than a limited monarchy, and after the collapse of Swedish absolutism with Charles XII., the upholding of the comparatively feeble, and ultimately anarchical, parliamentary government of Sweden became a question of principle with Danish statesmen throughout the 18th century.
This compact engaged Denmark to join with Russia in upholding the existing Swedish constitution, in return for which Catherine II.
His last political achievement was to draw still closer to Russia by the treaty of the 13th of December 1769, the most important paragraph of which stipulated that any change in the Swedish constitution should be regarded by Denmark and Russia as a cases belli against Sweden, and that in the event of such a war Denmark should retain all the territory conquered from Sweden.
Near the present site in 1643 colonists from Sweden built Fort Elfsborg; but the Swedish settlers in 1655 submitted to the Dutch at New Amsterdam, and the latter in turn surrendered to the English in 1664.
ARVID AUGUST AFZELIUS (1785-1871), Swedish pastor, poet, historian and mythologist, was born on the 8th of October 1785.
He is mainly known as a collaborator with the learned historian, Erik Gustaf Geijer, in the great collection of Swedish folk-songs, Svenske folkirsor fran forntiden, 3 vols.
Swedish - - - 4891 1,164,431 3317 747,656
Wurzburg and Frankfort were among the cities which opened their gates to the Swedish king as the deliverer of the Protestants; several princes sought his alliance, and, making the captured city of Mainz his headquarters, he was busily engaged for some months in resting and strengthening his army and in negotiating about the future conduct of the war.
Here the imperialists were beaten, but the victory was even more disastrous to the Protestant cause than a defeat, for the Swedish king was among the slain.
voice in the direction of affairs, the military command being divided between the Swedish general Horn and Bernhard, duke of Saxe-Weiinar.
The final stage of the war opened with considerable Swedish successes in the north of Germany, especially the signal victory gained by them over the imperialists and the Saxons at Wittstock in October 1636.
She received, however, the northern part of Saxony, Swedish Pomerania, Posen and those territories formerly part of the kingdom of Westphaliawhich constitute her Rhine provinces.
In Prussia therefore the older provinces came under the Prussian Code, the Rhine provinces had French law, the newly annexed provinces had endless variety, and in part of Pomerania considerable elements of Swedish law still remained, a relic of the long Swedish occupation.
loo 82 57 46 8 Out of a total of 1714 hours during which the sky was wholly overcast the Swedish expedition saw auroras on 17, occurring on 14 separate days, whereas 226 hours of aurora would have occurred out of an equal number of hours with the sky quite clear.
The Swedish Expedition (17) of 1899-1902, engaged in measuring an arc of the meridian in Spitsbergen, were unusually well provided spectrographically, and succeeded in taking photographs of aurora in conjunction with artificial lines-chiefly of hydrogen-which led to results claiming exceptional accuracy.
The Thirty Years' War now ceased to be a religious struggle The between Catholicism and Protestantism; it resolved Swedish itself into a return to the old political strife between and French France and the Habsburgs.
Akerblad, a Swedish orientalist attached to the embassy in Paris, identified the proper names of persons which occurred in the demotic text, being guided to them by the position of their equivalents in the Greek.
The unit of the Danish monetarysystem, as of the Swedish and Norwegian, is the krone (crown), equal to is.
We now have the names of several kings, Heiligo, Olaph (of Swedish origin), and his sons Chnob and Gurth.
Whilst Gustavus Vasa had leaned upon the Swedish peasantry, in other words upon the bulk of the Swedish nation, which was and continued to be an integral part of the Swedish body-politic, Christian III.
While the Swedish peasants were well represented in the Swedish Riksdag, whose proceedings they sometimes dominated, the Danish peasantry had no political rights or privileges whatever.
These terrible losses were somewhat retrieved by the subsequent treaty of Copenhagen (May 27, 1660) concluded by the Swedish regency with Frederick III.
His Swedish mission proved abortive, but, as he had anticipated, it effectually accelerated the negotiations at the Hague, and frightened the Dutch into unwonted liberality.
When, in December 1674, a Swedish army invaded Prussian Pomerania, Denmark was bound to intervene as a belligerent, but Griffenfeldt endeavoured to postpone this intervention as long as possible; and Sweden's anxiety to avoid hostilities with her southern neighbour materially assisted him to postpone the evil day.
But it would not have terminated advantageously for them at all, had not the powerful and highly efficient Danish fleet effectually prevented the Swedish government from succouring its distressed German provinces, and finally swept the Swedish fleets out of the northern waters.
She was punished for her obstinacy by being deprived of Norway, which she was compelled to surrender to Sweden by the terms of the treaty of Kiel (1814), on the 14th of January, receiving by way of compensation a sum of money and Swedish Pomerania, with Riigen, which were subsequently transferred to Prussia in exchange for the duchy of Lauenburg and 2,000,000 rix-dollars.
But Sigismund was both an alien and a heretic to the majority of the Swedish nation, and his formal deposition by the Riksdag in 1599 was, in effect, a natural vindication and legitimation of Charles's position.
24, 1600) declared that Sigismund and his posterity had forfeited the Swedish throne, and, passing over duke John, the second son of John III., a youth of ten, recognized duke Charles as their sovereign under the title of Charles IX.
Swedish historians have been excusably indulgent to the father of their greatest ruler.
He got some assistance from Gustavus Hesselius, a Swedish portrait painter then living near Annapolis, and from John Singleton Copley in Boston; and in 1767-1770 he studied under Benjamin West in London.
The name may have originated in the Swedish maenk applied to the European animal.
As the result of recent investigations by two Swedish algologists, Bohlin and Luther, it has been proposed to make a re-classification of a far-reaching nature.
Pop. (1900), 22,892, of whom 7270 were foreign-born, mostly Swedish; (1910 census) 31,297.
von Krusenstern (1770-1846), of the Swedish soldiers Pontus de la Gardie (d.
sold Reval and Esthonia to the Teutonic Knights in 1346, but on the dissolution of the order, in 1561, Esthonia and Reval surrendered to the Swedish king Erik XIV.
JOHN ADOLF DAHLGREN (1809-1870), admiral in the U.S. navy, was the son of the Swedish consul at Philadelphia, Pennsyl vania, and was born in that city on the 13th of November 1809.
The present church of the Great Monastery was erected, according to Leake's reading of the local inscription, in 1388 (Bjdrnstahl, the Swedish traveller, had given 1371), and it is one of the largest and handsomest in Greece.
499 2, 4994); his Journal of the Swedish Embassy ...
Reeve's edition of the Swedish Embassy; Foss's Judges of England; Eng.
Trans., 1753), but subsequently, after the Swedish physicist, Samuel Klingenstjerna (1698-1765), had pointed out that Newton's law of dispersion did not harmonize with certain observed facts, he began experiments to settle the question.
Swedish timber is stencilled with red letters or devices, the inferior qualities in blue.
It is the seat of a state hospital for the insane (1887) with about 1600 patients, of a business college, of the Park Region Luther College (Norwegian Lutheran, 1892), and of the North-western College (Swedish Lutheran; opened in 1901).
This constellation has been known by many other names - Arcas, Arctophylax, Arcturus minor, Bubuleus, Bubulus, Canis latrans, Clamator, Icarus, Lycaon, Philometus, Plaustri custos, Plorans, Thegnis, Vociferator; the Arabs termed it Aramech or Archamech; Hesychius named it Orion; Jules Schiller, St Sylvester; Schickard, Nimrod; and Weigelius, the Three Swedish Crowns.
4 Dollond did not reply to this memoir, but soon afterwards he received an abstract of a memoir by Samuel Klingenstierna, the Swedish mathematician and astronomer, which led him to doubt the accuracy of the results deduced by Newton on the dispersion of refracted light.
of the Neva), was fought on the banks of the Neva (July 15,1240) against the famous Swedish statesman, Birger Jarl, whom he utterly defeated, besides wounding him with his lance.
The name thoria (after the Scandinavian god Thor) was first given in 1815 by Berzelius to a supposed new earth which he had extracted from several rare Swedish minerals.
The great Swedish minister, Oxenstjerna, obtained for him a pension, and a commission to furnish a plan for regulating the Swedish schools according to his own method.
Hulth, " Swedish Arctic and Antarctic Explorations," 1758-1910, K.
The Swedish princes Eadgils, son of Ohthere, and Onela, who are mentioned in Beowulf, are in the Icelandic Heimskringla called Adils son of Ottarr, and Ali; the correspondence of the names, according to the phonetic laws of Old English and Old Norse, being strictly normal.
The inhabitants are mostly of Swedish descent, and are hardy seamen and fishermen.
TERN (Norsk taerne, tenne or tende; Swedish tdrna; Dutch Stern l y, the name now applied generally to a group of sea-birds, 1 " Starn " was used in Norfolk in the 19th century as a name for the bird commonly known as the black tern, thus confirming Turner, who, in 1544, describes what seems to have been the same c, roy al cell.
A Swedish archbishop, returning from Rome, had been seized by robbers, and as Frederick had not punished the offenders Adrian sent two legates to remonstrate.
A Swedish return of1896-1900shows that the annual births per thousand wives of 20-25 are fewer by nearly 17% than those of wives under zo.
from the Swedish coast - as well as the islands of the Gulf of Finland, Hogland, Tytars, &c. Its utmost limits are: 59° 48'-70° 6' N., and 19° 2'-32° 50' E.
This diet was on the old Swedish model, consisting of representatives of the four estates - nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants - sitting and voting in separate " Houses."
In 1323 it was settled that the river Rajajoki should be the boundary between Russia and the Swedish province.
Latin disappeared as the academic language, and Swedish was adopted.
Politics in Finland were complicated by the rivalry between the Swedish party, which x.
The dominion of the Swedes was very unfavourable to the development of anything like a Finnish literature, the poets of Finland preferring to write in Swedish and so secure a wider audience.
During the last quarter of the 19th century there was an ever-increasing literary activity in Finland, and it took the form less and less of the publication of Swedish works, but more and more that of examples of the aboriginal vernacular.
A valuable handbook of Finnish history was published at Helsingfors in 1869-1873, by Yrjo Koskinen, and has been translated into both Swedish and German.
For writers using the Swedish language, see SWEDEN: Literature.
Roasted ores may be smelted in reverberatory furnaces (English process), or in blast-furnaces (German or Swedish process).
The " German or Swedish process " is characterized by the introduction of blast-furnaces.
Ostermalm, lying east, that is, on the seaward side, of Norrmalm, is a good residential quarter, containing no public buildings of note, save the barracks of the Swedish Guards and the fine royal library, which is entitled to receive a copy of every work printed in Sweden.
The president of the governing body is appointed by the government, while the appointment of the remaining members is shared by the Swedish Academy, the Academy of Sciences and the City Council.
The Dramatic Theatre (Dramatiska Teatern), in Kungstradgards-Gatan, the Swedish (Svenska) theatre in Blasieholms-Gatan, and the Vasa theatre in Vasa-Gatan may also be mentioned.
An annual regatta is held early in August by the Royal Swedish Yacht Club (Svenska Segelsallkapet).
It is one of the two Swedish naval stations (Karlskrona being the principal one), and the headquarters of the fourth and fifth army divisions.
Frau Gliick finally rid herself of the girl by marrying her to a Swedish dragoon called Johan.
Many scholars connect the origin of the deity with the popular German and Swedish belief in a raging host (in Germany called das wiitende Heer or Wutes Heer, but in Sweden Odens Jagt), which passes through the forests on stormy nights.
It was settled by the Swedes about 1645, was called Upland and was the seat of the Swedish courts until 1682, when William Penn, soon after his landing at a spot in the town now marked by a memorial stone, gave it its present name.
Shrewdly guessing that Sweden was at exhaustion point, and that G6rtz, the Swedish plenipotentiary, was acting ultra vires, he advised Peter to put additional pressure on Sweden to force a peace.
The most obvious method of rendering the Russian alliance unserviceable to the queen of Hungary was by implicating Russia in hostilities with her ancient rival, Sweden, and this was brought about, by French influence and French money, when in August 1741 the Swedish government, on the most frivolous pretexts, declared war against Russia.
The dispositions previously made by Osterman enabled him, however, to counter the blow, and all danger from Sweden was over when, early in September, Field-Marshal Lacy routed the Swedish general Wrangel under the walls of the frontier-fortress of Villmanstrand, which was carried by assault.
The backbone of the Scandinavian peninsula is a range, or series of masses, of mountains (in Swedish Kolen, 1 the keel) extending through nearly the whole length of the peninsula towards the western side.
The eastern or Swedish flank has, therefore, the slighter slope.
The neighbourhood of Areskutan and the Dalarne highlands, owing to the railway and the development of communications by steamer on the numerous lakes, are visited by considerable numbers of travellers, both Swedish and foreign, in summer; but the northern heights, crossed only by a few unfrequented tracks, are known to few, and to a considerable extent, indeed, have not been closely explored.
1 In Swedish the definite article (masc. and fem.
(although properly it means a smaller river than elf); the names of towns at their mouths always following this form; treisk (local, properly meaning marsh), jaur (Lapp), afva, lake (provincial Swedish, properly a kind of creek opening from a river).
This " skerry-fence " (in Swedish, skeirg(Ird) is only interrupted for any considerable distance (in the case of Sweden) round the southern shore off the flat coast of Skane, between the towns of Varberg on the west and Ahus on the east.
Farther north, a narrow sound (Glands Haf) intervening on the Swedish side, the vast Aland archipelago, belonging to Russia, extends across to the Finnish coast.
Of the large islands in the Baltic and Cattegat, besides Oland, only Gotland is Swedish.
Swedish geologists distinguish between bottengrus (bottom gravel, bottom moraine) and ordinary krossgrus (terminal and side moraine).
The Swedish people belong to the Scandinavian branch, but the population includes in the north about 20,000 Finns and 7000 Lapps.
The more characteristic Swedish sports are naturally those of the winter.
The numerous inland waters and sheltered channels within the skargard have caused the high development of sailing as a summer sport, the Royal Swedish Yacht Club having its headquarters in Stockholm.
Swedish towns, though rarely of quite modern foundation, generally appear so, for the use of brick in building is mainly of modern introduction, and is still by no means general, so that the partial or total destruction of a town by fire is now only less common than formerly.
The headquarters of the Swedish Touring Club (Svenska Turistf oreningen) are in Stockholm, but its organization extends throughout the country, and is of special value to travellers in the far north.
The principal breeds of cattle are the alpine in Norrland, and Ayrshire, short-horn, and red-and-white Swedish in the midlands and south.
- The total number of vessels in the Swedish commercial fleet is about 3000 of 650,000 tons register; of which steamers represent about 380,000 tons.
The first Swedish bank, called the Palmstruch bank after its founder, Johan Palmstruch, was incorporated in 1656.
The counting unit in the Swedish coinage is the krona, equal to i i shilling.
The councillors must be of Swedish birth and adherents of the Lutheran confession.
Eligibility necessitates Swedish birth, an age of at least 35 years, and the possession, at the time of election and for three years previously, either of real property to the value of 80,000 kronor (£4400), or an annual income on which taxes have been paid of 4000 kronor (£220).
Every Swedish man belongs to the conscripts (varnpligtige) between the age of 21 and 40, during which time he serves eight years in the first levy, four in the second, and eight in the reserves.
More than 99% of the total population belong to the Swedish Lutheran Church, of which the king is the supreme head.
Dissenters are bound to contribute to the maintenance of the Swedish Church, in consideration of the secular duties of the priests.
Wide attention was attracted to Swedish educational methods principally by the introduction of the system of Sloyd (slojd), initiated at the Naas seminary near Gothenburg, and concerned with the teaching of manual occupations, both for boys and for girls.
Among the scientific and literary societies are to be noted the Swedish Academy, consisting of 18 members, which was instituted in 1786 by Gustavus III., after the pattern of the Academie Frangaise, for the cultivation of the Swedish language and literature; and the Academy of Science, founded in 1739 by Linnaeus and others for the promotion of the natural sciences.
vers., Stockholm, 1904); Bidrag till Sveriges officiela statistik (Stockholm, 1857 seq.); Statistisk Tidskrift, periodically from 1862; Publications (year-book, guides, &c.) of the Svenska Turistforeningen (Swedish Touring Club) Stockholm; periodical Bulletin of the Geological Institute of Upsala University, in which may be noted K.
For the same period we derive a considerable amount of information with regard to Swedish affairs from the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf.
Haethcyn, the son and successor of this Hrethel, is said to have perished in a disastrous battle against the Svear, but his fall was avenged by his brother Hygelac in a subsequent engagement in which the Swedish king Ongentheow was killed.
What is said in the poem with regard to the end of Beowulf belongs to the realm of myth, and for three centuries after this time we have no reference to Swedish affairs in English or other foreign authorities.
His full name appears to have been Yngvifreyr or Ingunar Freyr and his descendants are collectively termed Ynglingar, though we also occasionally meet with the name Skilfingar, which corresponds with the name Scilfingar borne by the Swedish royal family in Beowulf.
It is stated in the saga that the Swedish kings were believed to have control over the seasons like their ancestor, the god Frey, and traces of this belief seem to have lingered in the country down to the times of Gustavus Vasa.
The sons of Olafr Tretelgia moved westward into Norway, and if we may trust the saga, the Swedish kingdom never again came into the possession of their family.
appear to have taken place towards the middle of the 9th century, but it has not been found possible to connect these names with any families known to us from Swedish tradition.
The fact that many of the names which occur in Russian chronicles seem to be peculiarly Swedish suggests that Sweden was the home of the settlers, and the best authorities consider that the original Scandinavian conquerors were Swedes who had settled on the east coast of the Baltic.
Eventually he betook himself to Harold Bluetooth, then king of Denmark, and endeavoured to secure his assistance in gaining the Swedish throne by force of arms. Although he failed in this attempt he was not deterred from attacking Eric, and a battle took place between the two at the Fyrisa (close to Upsala) in which Styrbiorn was defeated and killed.
of Vestergotland, on condition that he should receive baptism, and the Swedish king's wife was also a Christian, though he himself was not baptized until 1008 by Sigfrid at Husaby.
Some years later we hear of hostilities between Olaf Skottkonung and another Norwegian prince, Olaf Haraldsson (the Fat), who raided Sweden and was besieged in the Malar by the Swedish king.
In 1014, the year of Earl Eric's departure to England with Canute, Olaf Haraldsson, returning to Norway as king, put an end to the Swedish and Danish supremacy, and in 1015 he forced Earl Sweyn to leave the country.
This king had become a Christian, but soon quarrelled with Adalhard, archbishop of Bremen, and endeavoured to secure the independence of the Swedish church, which was not obtained for another century.
With the death of Emund, which took place in 1060, the old family of Swedish kings dies out.
(1150-1160) organized the Swedish Church on the model prevalent elsewhere, and undertook a crusade against the heathen Finlanders, which marks the beginning of Sweden's overseas dominion.
The first union between Sweden and Norway occurred in 1319, when the three-year-old Magnus, son of the Swedish royal duke First Union with who had inherited the throne of Norway from his Norway.
Forced by the unruliness of the magnates to lean upon the middle classes, the king summoned (1359) the first Swedish Riksdag, on which occasion representatives from the towns were invited to appear along with the nobles and clergy.
of Denmark, the prelates and higher nobility of Sweden being favourable to the union, though the great majority of the Swedish people always detested it as a foreign usurpation.
able the Swedish people elected Gustavus Eriksson Vasa, who as president had already driven out the Danes (see Denmark: History), king of Sweden at Strengnas (June 6, 1523).
Its immediate effect was the loss of the Swedish Church.
He began by protecting and promoting the Swedish reformers Olavus and Laurentius Petri, and Laurentius Andreae.
A fresh step in the direction of Lutheran- Progress of ism was the translation of the New Testament into Swedish, which was published in 1526.
By the subsequent Vesteras Ordinance the Swedish Church was absolutely severed from Rome.
In this Gustavus acted contrary to the religious instincts of the vast majority of the Swedish nation; for there can be no doubt at all that the Swedes at the beginning of the 16th century were not only still devoted to the old Church, but violently anti-Protestant.
This popular Romanism was the greatest of all Gustavus's difficulties, because it tended to alienate the Swedish peasants.
In a word, they were the sound kernel of the still but partially developed Swedish constitution, the democratic safeguard against the monarchical tendency which was enveloping the rest of Europe.
Still more offensive was the attitude of Sweden's eastern neighbour Muscovy, with whom the Swedish king was nervously anxious to stand on good terms. Gustavus attributed to Ivan IV., whose resources he unduly magnified, the design of establishing a universal monarchy round the Baltic.
Sweden's original share of the spoil was Reval, which, driven to extremities, placed itself beneath the protection of the Swedish crown in March 1561.
As soon as he had mounted the throne he took measures to bring the Swedish Church ff1.
was ultimately persuaded to send an embassy to Rome to open negotiations for the reunion of the Swedish Church with the Holy See.
Sigismund and his posterity were declared to have forfeited the Swedish crown which was to pass to the heirs male of Charles.
Sweden was also to enjoy her religion, subject to such changes as a general council might make; but neither pope nor council was to claim or exercise the right of releasing Sigismund from his obligations to his Swedish subjects.
During Sigismund's absence from Sweden that realm was to be ruled by seven Swedes, six elected by the king and one by his uncle Duke Charles of Sudermania, the leader of the Swedish Protestants.
The endeavours of Swedish statesmen to bind the hands of their future king were due to their fear of the rising flood of the Catholic reaction in Europe.
Hitherto Charles had aimed at supporting the weaker Slavonic power against the stronger; but now that Muscovy seemed about to disappear from among the nations of Europe, Swedish statesmen naturally sought some compensation for the expenses of the war before Poland had had time to absorb everything.
But now, when everything depended on a concentration of forces, Charles's imprudent assumption of the title of " King of the Lapps of Nordland," which people properly belonged to the Danish Crown, involved him in another war with Denmark, a war known in Scandinavian history as the war of Kalmar because the Swedish fortress of Kalmar was the chief theatre of hostilities.
Thus the Swedish forces were diverted from their real objective and transferred to another field where even victory would have been comparatively unprofitable.
When Great Novgorod submitted provisionally to Peace of the suzerainty of Sweden, Swedish statesmen had Stolbova, believed, for a moment, in the creation of a Trans- 1617 baltic dominion extending from Lake Ilmen northwards to Archangel and eastwards to Vologda.
27, 1617), the tsar surrendered to the Swedish king the provinces of Kexholm and Ingria, including the fortress of NOteborg (the modern Schliisselburg), the key of Finland.
The same period which saw the extension of the Swedish Empire abroad, saw also the peaceful development of the Swedish Rule of constitution at home.
The rights of the Riksdag were secured by the KonungafOrsakran, or assurance given by every Swedish king on his accession, guaranteeing the collaboration of the estates in the work of legislation, and they were also to be consulted on all questions of foreign policy.
And to the honour of the Swedish people be it said that, from first to last, they showed a religious and patriotic zeal which shrank from no sacrifice.
by the knowledge that the Polish Vasas denied the right of Gustavus to the Swedish throne.
In the eyes of the Swedish king, moreover, the Polish War was a war of religion.
But this was the limit of the Swedish advance.
Here the only point to be insisted upon is the extreme precariousness of the Swedish position from first to last - a precariousness due entirely to inadequacy of material resources.
The mass of the Swedish people was penetrated by a justifiable fear that the external, artificial greatness of their country might, in the long run, be purchased with the loss of their civil and political liberties.
In a word, the natural equilibrium of Swedish society was seriously threatened by the preponderance of the nobility; and the people at large looked to the new king to redress the balance.
By this peace, Sweden's possession of Livonia, and the elector of Brandenburg's sovereignty over east Prussia, were alike confirmed; and the king of Poland renounced all claim to the Swedish crown.
Yet the Swedish Empire was rather a geographical expression than a state with natural and national boundaries.
The estuaries of all the great German rivers (for the Niemen and Vistula are properly Polish rivers) debouched in Swedish territory, within which also lay two-thirds of Lake Ladoga and one-half of.
The complications ensuing from Louis XIV.'s designs on the Spanish Netherlands led to a bid for the Swedish alliance, both from the French king and his adversaries.
After much hesitation on the part of the Swedish government, the anti-French faction prevailed; and in April 1668 Sweden acceded to the Triple Alliance, which finally checkmated the French king by bringing about the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.
In the course of May 1675 a Swedish army advanced into the Mark, but on the 18th of June was defeated at Fehrbellin, and hastily retreated to Demmin.
refused to do, whereupon Louis took it upon himself to conclude peace on Sweden's account without consulting the wishes of Treaty of the Swedish king.
The king emerged from Charles and the the war convinced that if Sweden were to retain her Swedish position as a great power she must radically reform Constitu- her whole economical system, and, above all, cir tion.
The Riksdag which assembled in Stockholm in October 1680 begins a new era of Swedish history.
Thus Sweden, as well as Denmark, had become an absolute monarchy, but with this important difference, that the right of the Swedish people, in parliament assembled, to be consulted on all important matters was recognized and acted upon.
20, 1700), the Swedish chancellor, Benedict Oxenstjerna, rightly regarded the universal bidding for the favour of Sweden by France and the maritime powers, then on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession, as a golden opportunity of " ending this present lean war and making his majesty the arbiter of Europe."
But all the efforts of the Swedish government were wrecked on the determination of Charles XII.
and the emperor, so that when peace was finally concluded between France and the Empire, at the congress of Baden, Swedish affairs were, by common consent, left out of consideration.
This Riksdag was to mark another turning-point in Swedish the direst pressure.
Nothing else was done on either side for six months more; and then the Swedish generals made a " tacit truce " with the Russians through the mediation of the French ambassador at St Petersburg.
By the time that the " tacit truce " had come to an end the Swedish forces were so demoralized that the mere rumour of a hostile attack made them retire panic-stricken to Helsingfors; and before the end of the year all Finland was in the hands of the Russians.
A motion for an inquiry into the conduct of the war was skilfully evaded by obtaining precedence for the succession question (Queen Ulrica Leonora had lately died childless and King Frederick was old); and negotiations were thus opened with the new Russian empress, Elizabeth, who agreed to restore the greater part of Finland if her cousin, Adolphus Frederick of Holstein, were elected successor to the Swedish crown.
Alghough no longer a great power, she still had many of the responsibilities of a great power; and if the Swedish alliance had considerably depreciated in value, it was still a marketable commodity.
an entirely incalculable factor had entered into Swedish politics.
Unknown to the party leaders, he had already renewed the Swedish alliance with France and had received solemn assurances of assistance from Louis XV.
Abroad the Swedish revolution made a great sensation.
She took the precaution, however, of concluding a fresh secret alliance with Denmark, in which the Swedish revolution was significantly described as " an act of violence " constituting a casus foederis, and justifying both powers in seizing the first favourable opportunity for intervention to restore the Swedish constitution of 1720.
Presently Reuterholm renewed his coquetry with the French republic, which was officially recognized by the Swedish government on the 23rd of April 1795.
The result was the total loss of Pomerania, and the Swedish army itself was only saved from destruction by the ingenuity of J.
19, 1809) broke the spirit of the Swedish army; and peace was obtained by the sacrifice of Finland, the Aland islands, " the fore-posts of Stockholm," as Napoleon rightly described them, and Vesterbotten as far as the rivers Tornea and Muonio (treaty of Fredrikshamn, Sept.
The infirmity of the old Influence' king, and the dissensions in the council of state, Policy 'of placed the government and especially the control of foreign affairs almost entirely in his hands; and he boldly adopted a policy which was antagonistic indeed to the wishes and hopes of the old school of Swedish statesmen, but, perhaps, the best adapted to the circumstances.
Thus on the 13th of November 1810, the Swedish government was forced to declare war against Great Britain, though the British government was privately informed at the same time that Sweden was not a free agent and that the war would be a mere demonstration.
The Swedish government thereupon concluded a secret convention with Russia (treaty of Petersburg, April 5, 1812), undertaking to send 30,000 men to operate against Napoleon in Germany in return for a promise from Alexander guaranteeing to Sweden the possession of Norway.
These two treaties were, in effect, the corner-stones of a fresh coalition against Napoleon, and were confirmed on the outbreak of the FrancoRussian War by a conference between Alexander and Charles John at Abo on the 30th of August 1812, when the tsar undertook to place an army corps of 35,000 men at the disposal of the Swedish crown prince for the conquest of Norway.
Hundreds of Swedish volunteers hastened to Schleswig-Holstein.
The Riksdag refused to sanction his favourite project of a reform of the Swedish army on the Prussian model, for which he laboured all his life, partly from motives of economy, partly from an apprehension of the king's martial tendencies.
The peasant proprietors, who, under the name of the " Landtmanna" party,' formed a compact majority in the Second Chamber, pursued a consistent policy of class interests in the matter of the taxes and burdens that had, as they urged, so long oppressed the Swedish peasantry; and consequently when a bill was introduced for superseding the old system of army organization by general compulsory service, they demanded as a condition of its acceptance that the military burdens should be more evenly distributed in the country, and that the taxes, which they regarded as a burden under which they had wrongfully groaned for centuries, should be abolished.
This majority in the Lower Chamber 1 The Swedish " Landtmanna " party was formed in 1867.
In the first Riksdag, however, the so-called " compromise," which afterwards played such an important part in Swedish political life, came into existence.
affected the Swedish farmers, protection gained ground to such an extent that its final triumph was considered as certain within a short time.
At last Baron Gillis Bildt, who, while Swedish ambassador in Berlin, had witnessed the introduction by Prince Bismarck of the agrarian protectionist system in Germany, accepted the premiership, and it was under his auspices that the two chambers imposed a series of duties on necessaries of life.
Brauting, the leader of the Swedish Social Democrats.
At last, after vain negotiations and discussions, the Swedish government in 1895 gave notice to Norway that the commercial treaty which till then had existed between the two countries and would lapse in July 1897 would, according to a decision in the Riksdag, cease, and as Norway at the time had raised the customs duties, a considerable diminution in the exports of Sweden to Norway took place.
The Swedish minister of foreign affairs, Count Lewenhaupt, who was considered as too friendly disposed towards the Norwegians, resigned, and was replaced by Count Ludvig Douglas, who represented the opinion of the majority in the First Chamber.
When, however, the Norwegian Storthing, for the third time, passed a bill for a national or " pure " flag, which King Oscar eventually sanctioned, Count Douglas resigned in his turn and was succeeded by the Swedish minister at Berlin, Lagerheim, who managed to pilot the questions of the union into more quiet waters.
He succeeded all the better as the new elections to the Riksdag of 1900 showed clearly that the Swedish people was not inclined to follow the ultraconservative or so-called " patriotic " party, which resulted in the resignation of the two leaders of that party, Professor Oscar Alin and Count Marschal Patrick Reutersvard as members of the First Chamber.
In 1902 the Union with Swedish government proposed that negotiations in Norway.
The proposal for these identical laws, which the Norwegian government in May 1904 submitted, did not meet with the approval of the Swedish government.
The latter in their reply proposed that the Swedish foreign minister should have such control over the Norwegian consuls as to prevent the latter from exceeding their authority.'
They maintained that the Swedish demands were incompatible with the sovereignty of Norway, as the foreign minister was a Swede and the proposed Norwegian consular service, as a Norwegian institution, could not be placed under a foreign authority.
A new proposal by the Swedish government was likewise rejected, and in February 1905 the Norwegians broke off the negotiations.
Crown Prince Gustaf, who during the illness of King Oscar was appointed regent, took the initiative of renewing the negotiations between the two countries, and on the 5th of April in a combined Swedish and Norwegian council of state made a proposal for a reform both of the administration of diplomatic affairs and of the consular service on the basis of full equality between the two kingdoms, with the express reservation, however, of a joint foreign minister - Swedish or Norwegian - as a condition for the existence of the union.
This proposal was approved of by the Swedish Riksdag on the 3rd of May 1905.
After the plebiscite in Norway on the 13th of August had decided in favour of the dissolution of the union and after the Storthing had requested the Swedish government to The co-operate with it for the repeal of the Act of Union, Karlstad a conference of delegates from both countries was Convention.
An alteration in the Swedish flag was also decided upon, by which the mark of union was to be replaced by an azure-blue square.
An offer from the Norwegian Storthing to elect a prince of the Swedish royal house as king in Norway was declined by King Oscar, who now on behalf of himself and his successors renounced the right to the Norwegian crown.
See also the bibliographies attached to the articles Denmark: History; Norway: History; Finland: History; as well as the special bibliographies attached to the various biographies of Swedish sovereigns and statesmen.
Swedish Literature Swedish literature, as distinguished from compositions in the common norraena tunga of old Scandinavia, cannot be said to exist earlier than the 13th century.
The oldest form in which Swedish exists as a written language (see Scandinavian Language) is the series of manuscripts known as Landskapslagarne, or " The Common Laws."
The chief ornament of medieval Swedish literature is Um styrilse kununga ok hdfdinga (" On the Conduct of Kings and Princes "), first printed by command of Gustavus II.
St Bridget, or Birgitta (1303-1373), an historical figure of extraordinary interest, has left her name attached to several important religious works, in particular to a collection of Uppenbarelser (" Revelations "), in which her visions and ecstatic meditations are recorded, and a version, the first into Swedish, of the five books of Moses.
In verse the earliest Swedish productions were probably the folk-song.'
Thomas, who left other poetical pieces, is usually called the first Swedish poet.
There are three rhyming chronicles in medieval Swedish, all anonymous.
They possess very slight poetic merit in their Swedish form.
The first book printed in the Swedish language appeared in 1495.
The 16th century added but little to Swedish literature, and that little is mostly connected with the newly-founded university of Upsala.
Psalms and didactic spiritual poems were the main products of Swedish letters in the 16th century.
Olaus, who is one of the noblest figures in Swedish annals, was of the executive rather than the meditative class.
He found time, however, to write a Swedish Chronicle, which is the earliest prose history of Sweden, a mystery-play, Tobiae comedia, which is the first Swedish drama, and three psalm-books, the best known being published in 1530 under the title of Nagre gudhelige vijsor (" Certain Divine Songs ").
The latter half of the 16th century is a blank in Swedish literature.
With the accession of Charles IX., and the consequent development of Swedish greatness, literature began to assert itself in more vigorous forms. The long life of the royal librarian, Johannes Bure or Buraeus (1568-1652), formed a link between the age of the Petri and that of Stjernhjelm.
This play is the Ralph Roister Doister of Swedish literature.
He wrote abundantly in prison; his magnum opus was a history of Sweden in Latin, but he has also left, in Swedish, two important rhyme-chronicles.
Andreas Prytz, who died in 1655 as bishop of Linkoping, produced several religious chronicle plays from Swedish history.
1662) wrote a curious " Christian tragi-comedy " of Judas redivivus, which contains some amusing scenes from daily Swedish life.
The chancellor Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie (1622-1686) did much to promote the study of Swedish antiquities.
The title of " the Father of Swedish poetry " hass tjerfhtelm.
His master, Buraeus, had written a few Swedish hexameters by way of experiment.
The claim of Stjernhjelm to be the first Swedish poet may be contested by a younger man, but a slightly earlier writer, Rosenhane.
Rosenhane printed in 1658 a " Complaint of the Swedish Language " in thirteen hundred rattling rhyming lines, and in 1682 a collection of eighty songs.
Each wrote copiously in verse, but Johan (1640-1684), who was professor of poetry at Upsala, almost entirely in Latin, while Samuel (1642-1679), especially in his Odae sveticae, showed himself an apt and fervid imitator of the Swedish hexameters of Stjernhjelm, to whom he was at one time secretary, and whose Hercules he dramatized.
In 1690 he translated Guarini's Pastor Fido, and in or just after 1697 published, in a folio volume without a date, his Kunga-Skald, the first original poem in ottava rima produced in Swedish.
Talent had been shown by certain individuals, but no healthy school of Swedish poetry had been founded, and the latest imitators of Stjernhjelm had lost every vestige of taste and independence.
His Atland (or Atlantika) appeared in four folio volumes, in Latin and Swedish, in 1675-1698; it was an attempt to summon all the authority of the past, all the sages of Greece and the bards of Iceland, to prove the inherent and indisputable greatness of the Swedish nation, in which the fabulous Atlantis had been at last discovered.
Nevertheless this was a period of great intellectual stimulus and activity, and Swedish literature took a solid shape for the first time.
Atterbom pronounces Frese the best Swedish poet between Stjernhjelm and Dalin.
He was the first Swedish satirist, and introduced Boileau to his countrymen.
As a prose writer Dalin is chiefly memorable for his History of the Swedish Kingdom (4 vols., 1746-1762).
His great epic, Swedish Freedom (1742) was written in alexandrines of far greater smoothness and vigour than had previously been attempted.
When in 1737 the new Royal Swedish Theatre was opened, Dalin led the way to a new school of dramatists with his Brynhilda, a regular tragedy in the style of Crebillon pere.
She was called " The Swedish Sappho," and scandal has been needlessly busy in giving point to the allusion.
Count Gustaf Philip Creutz (q.v.; 1731-1785) was a Finlander who achieved an extraordinary success with his idyllic poems, and in particular with the beautiful pastoral of Atis och Camilla, long the most popular of all Swedish poems. His friend Count Gustaf Fredrik Gyllenborg.
He wrote fables, allegories, satires, and a successful comedy of manners, The Swedish Fop. He outlived his chief contemporaries so long that the new generation addressed him as " Father Gyllenborg."
The first Swedish novelist was Jakob Henrik Mork (1714-1763).
The two great Swedish chemists, Torbern Olof Bergman (1735-1784) and Karl Vilhelm Scheele (1742-1786), flourished at this time.
But these and other distinguished savants whose names might be enumerated scarcely belong to the history of Swedish literature.
The same may be said about that marvellous and many-sided genius, Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), who, though the son of a Swedish poet, preferred to prophesy to the world in Latin.
Journalism began to develop; the Swedish Academy was founded; the drama first learned to flourish in Stockholm; and literature began to take a characteristically national shape.
(1746-1792), the founder of the Swedish Academy and of the Swedish theatre, was himself a playwright of no mean ability.
In 1786 Gustavus created the Swedish Academy, on the lines of the French Academy, but with eighteen members instead of forty.
But Karl Mikael Bellman (q.v.; 1 74 0 - 1 795), the most original and one of the most able of all Swedish writers, an improvisatore of the first order, had nothing academical in his composition.
She was less French and more national than most of her contemporaries; she is a Swedish Mrs Hemans.
Rosen von Rosenstein embraced the principles of the encyclopaedists while he was attached to the Swedish embassy in Paris.
As the first secretary of the Swedish Academy he exercised great influence over Swedish literature and thought.
Vexio, the greatest of Swedish writers.
The Gothic Society eventually included certain younger men than these - Arvid August Afzelius (1785-1871), the first editor of the Swedish folk-songs; Gustaf Vilhelm Gumaelius (1789-1877), who has been somewhat pretentiously styled " The Swedish Walter Scott," author of the historical novel of Tord Bonde; Baron Bernhard von Beskow (q.v.; 1796-1868), lyrist and dramatist; and Karl August Nicander (1799-1839), a lyric poet who approached the Phosphorists in manner.
From 1810 to 1840 was the blossoming-time in Swedish poetry, and there were several writers of distinguished merit who could not be included in either of the groups enumerated above.
His mystical lyrics, entitled Liljor i Saron (" Lilies in Sharon "; 1820), and his sonnets, which are the best in Swedish, may be recommended as among the most delicate products of the Scandinavian mind.
His chief work was Svenska vitterheten (1818, &c.) a history of Swedish literature.
one in which Swedish prose shone with any special lustre.
As an historian of Swedish literature Per Wieselgren (1800-1877) composed a valuable work, and made other valuable contributions to history and bibliography.
In history we meet again with the great name of Geijer, with that of Jonas Hallenberg (1748-1834), and with that of Anders Magnus Strinnholm (1786-1862), whose labours in the field of Swedish history were extremely valuable.
Geijer and Strinnholm prepared the way for the most popular of all Swedish historians, Anders Fryxell (1795-1881), whose famous Berdttelser ur svenska historien appeared in parts during a space of nearly sixty years, and awakened a great interest in Swedish history and legend.
A volume of elegies, Angelika (1840), established his fame, and two volumes of poems published in 1845 and 1847 contain a number of ballads, romances and lyrics which keep their hold on Swedish literature.
The other leading verse-writers were Karl Vilhelm Bottiger (1807-1878), the son-in-law and biographer of Tegner, who, in addition to his lyrical poetry, chiefly of the sentimental kind, wrote an admirable series of monographs on Swedish men of letters; Johan Borjesson (1790-1866), the last of the Phosphorists, author of various romantic dramas; Vilhelm August Detlof von Braun (1813-1860), a humorous lyrist; " Talis Qualis," whose real name was Karl Vilhelm August Strandberg (1818-1877); Oscar Patrick Sturzen-Becker (181'- 1869), better known as " Orvar Odd," a lyrical poet who was also the author of a series of amusing sketches of everyday life; and August Teodor Blanche (1811-1868), the popular dramatist.
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