The town was captured by the Swabian League in 1519, by Turenne in 1647, and again in 1688 by the French, who destroyed the walls.
These watchwords are said to have arisen in Germany during the disputed succession of the empire between 1135 and 1152, when the Welfs of Bavaria opposed the Swabian princes of Waiblingen origin.
Under the imperial rule of Lothar the Saxon (1125-1137) and Conrad the Swabian (1138I I 52), these civil wars increased in violence owing to the absence of authority.
His glove was carried to his cousin Constance, wife of Peter of Aragon, the last of th great Norman-Swabian family.
When they might have won national independence, after their warfare with the Swabian emperors, they let the golden opportunity slip. Pampered with commercial prosperity, eaten to the core with inter-urban rivalries, they submitted to despots, renounced the use of arms, and offered themselves in the hour of need, defenceless and disunited to the shock of puissant nations.
It is romantically situated in a wild and deep valley of the Swabian Alps at an altitude of 1600 ft.
(c. 850-913), archbishop of Mainz, belonged to a Swabian family, and was probably educated at the monastery of Reichenau, of which be became abbot in 888.
The Swabian lands of the Habsburgs went to the South German states (allies of Napoleon), while Bavaria also received Tirol and Vorarlberg.
Previous attempts at concord had been made at the request of different rulers, especially by Jacob Andrea with his Swabian Concordia in 1573, and Abel Scherdinger with the Maulbronn Formula in 1575.
Thus, when his duties called him to Constance in 1414, he employed his leisure in exploring the libraries of Swiss and Swabian convents.
His descent from the Hohenstaufen through his mother, a daughter of the emperor Philip, gave him claims to represent the Swabian line.
ULM, a fortress-city of Germany, in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, situated on the left bank of the Danube, in a fertile plain at the foot of the Swabian Alps, 58 m.
The cathedral contains some fine stained glass, the largest organ in Germany (1856), and a number of interesting old paintings and carvings by Jorg Syrlin the elder, Jorg Syrlin the younger, Burkhard Engelberger, and other masters of the Swabian school.
Towards the close of the middle ages it appears several times at the head of leagues of the Swabian towns.
The manufacture of white goods was introduced by Swabian, or Swiss, immigrants about 1570.
NECKAR, a river of Germany, and a right-bank tributary of the Rhine, rises between the Black Forest and the Swabian Alb, near Schwenningen, in Wurttemberg, at an altitude of 2287 ft.
AALEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, pleasantly situated on the Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Alps, about 50 m.
The inhabitants of Baden are of various origin - those to the north of the Murg being descended from the Alemanni and those to the south from the Franks, while the Swabian plateau derives its name and its population from another race.
M.H.G gagen, gugen, to sway to and fro " (gugen, gagen, the rocking of a cradle), the Swabian gigen, gagen, in the same sense, the Tirolese gaiggern, to sway, doubt, or the old Norse geiga, to go astray or crooked.
The influence of the Swabian branch of the Hohenzollerns was weakened by several partitions of its lands; but early in the 16th century it rose to some eminence through Count Eitel Frederick II.
Among the Germans, who are most numerous in the north-east, Low German dialects are spoken, except in a Swabian colony round Kulmsee.
In 1331 it was a member of the league of Swabian towns; in 1530 it was one of the four towns which presented the Confessio Tetrapolitana to the emperor Ferdinand I.; and a few years later it joined the league of Schmalkalden.
He was not pleased when he heard that his uncle, Welf, had bequeathed his Italian and Swabian lands to the emperor, and the crisis came after Frederick's check before Alessandria in 1175.
Finally, the dependence of the Swabian and Bavarian peoples on the Frankish empire paved the way for Christianity in those provinces also.
Assuming the title of king of Jerusalem and Sicily, he raised an army by pledging his Swabian estates and marched to Italy in 1251, where with the help of his illegitimate half-brother, Manfred, he overran Apulia and took Capua and Naples.
HOHENSTAUFEN, the name of a village and ruined castle near Lorsch in Swabia, now in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, which gave its name to a celebrated Swabian family, members of which were emperors or German kings from 1138 to 1208, and again from 1214 to 1254.
The Alamannic and Swabian dialects are now spoken in German Switzerland, the southern parts of Baden and Alsace, Wurttemberg and a small portion of Bavaria.
Most likely they were descendants of the Marcomanni, Quadi and Narisci, tribes of the Suevic or Swabian race, with possibly a small intermixture of Gothic or Celtic elements.
In the Hohlefels in the Swabian Achthal there is still no trace of earthenware, and we find the skull of a reindeer skilfully turned into a drinking-vessel.
In September 1273 the electors met and raised to the throne a Swabian noble, Rudolph, count of Habsburg, who proved to possess more energy than they had imagined possible.
In 1376 some Swabian towns formed a league which, in spite of the imperial prohibition, soon became powerful in south-west Germany and defeated the forces of the count of Wurttemberg at Reutlingen in May 1377.
Following the example set by the electors at Rense both parties formed associations for protection, prominent among these being the Swabian League on the one side and the League of the Lion (Lowenbund)1 on the other.
However, they minimized this handicap by joining league to league; in 1381 the Swabian and the Rhenish cities formed an alliance for three years, while the Swabian League obtained promises of help from the Swiss.
Attacked by the Habsburgs they defeated and killed Duke Leopold of Austria at Sempach in July 1386 and gained another victory at Ngfels two years later; but their allies, the Swabian cities, ~~eF In were not equally prompt or equally fortunate.
Perhaps the most famous of these was one between a confederation of Franconian and Swabian cities under the leadership of Nuremberg on the one side, and Albert Achilles, afterwards elector of Brandenburg, and a number of princes on the other.
Partly at the instance of the emperor a great Swabian confederation was formed in 1488.
Munzer and his followers were defeated at Frankenhausen in May, the Swabian League gained victories in the area under its control, successes were gained elsewhere by the princes, and with much cruelty the revolt of the peasants was suppressed.
The rights of the Swabian house were now held to pass to Peter (Pedro), king of Aragon, husband of Manfred's daughter Constance.
But as early as 1377, this portion of the abbots' domains formed an alliance with the Swabian free imperial cities and adopted a constitution of its own.
Disasters of the war of the Swabian League in the 14th century.
His father was a Swabian baron, Count Hartwig von Calw, and his own baptismal name was Gebhard.
The Peasants' War also raged within the see in 1525 and 1526, and was only quelled with the aid of the Swabian League.
In 1274, or earlier, it became a free imperial town; in 1331 it joined the Swabian league, and in 1531 became a member of the league of Schmalkalden, having just previously accepted the reformed doctrines.
Five cases at least are known: a follower of the count of Hapsburg, in a skirmish with the Bernese in 1271; Stulinger of Ratisbon (Regensburg) in 1332, in the war of the count of Kyburg against the men of Bern and Solothurn; Conrad Royt of Lucerne, at Nancy in 1477; Henri Wolleben, at Frastanz in 1499, in the course of the Swabian War; and a man at the battle of Kappel in 1531.
ANNO, or [[Hanno, Saint]] (c. TOT 0-1 075),archbishop of Cologne, belonged to a Swabian family, and was educated at Bamberg.
The chief mountains are the Black Forest on the west, the Swabian Jura or Rauhe Alb stretching across the middle of the country from south-west to north-east, and the Adelegg Mountains in the extreme south-east, adjoining the Algau Alps in Bavaria.
A few years later Ulrich quarrelled with the Swabian League, and its forces, helped by William IV., duke of Bavaria, who was angered by the treatment meted out by Ulrich to his wife Sabina, a Bavarian princess, invaded Wurttemberg, expelled the duke and sold his duchy to the emperor Charles V.
In 1381 the city joined the Stadtebund, or league of Swabian towns, and about a century later it rendered efficient aid to the Swiss confederates at Granson and Nancy.
Intellectual interests of a high order have always characterized, Leipzig, and what Karl von Holtei once said of it is true to-day: "There is only one city in Germany that represents Germany; only a single city where one can forget that he is a Hessian, a Bavarian, a Swabian, a Prussian or a Saxon; only one city where, amid the opulence of the commercial world with which science is so gloriously allied, even the man who possesses nothing but his personality is honoured and esteemed; only one city, in which, despite a few narrownesses, all the advantages of a great, I may say a world-metropolis, are conspicuous !
Belonging thus to an old and distinguished Swabian family, he was born on the 10th of November 1547, and after studying at the universities of Ingolstadt, Perugia, Louvain and elsewhere began his ecclesiastical career at Augsburg.
But before long, as the Swabian power declined in Italy, the Guelf party was again predominant.