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surface

surface

surface Sentence Examples

  • The last time he went to the surface, it had rained huge raindrops.

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  • Yet, wasn't it better if the issue didn't surface for a while?

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  • The agonizing memories ruptured to the surface at last, forcing a long overdue reaction.

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  • Maybe he simply wasn't capable of having a relationship deeper than surface friendship.

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  • The surface of the water ruptured, spewing a colorful fish into the air.

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  • If it sank up there, it'd most likely float up to the surface after a few days or a week and then drift back down this way with the tide.

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  • The surface of the pond was as smooth as glass, reflecting a small fluffy cloud as it floated across the inky sky.

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  • You're always testing because surface changes, by the season, the time of day, how many climbers hack away at it, sometimes by the hour.

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  • The mother dragon probably knows the road to the earth's surface, and if she went the other way then we have come the wrong way, said the Wizard, thoughtfully.

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  • "I need to go to the surface," he said.

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  • Yet in reality, five individuals, some joined by love, some nearly strangers and others with a history, that might surface and run amuck.

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  • "I'll be rotating to the surface this afternoon," Elise said.

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  • The sounds of fighting grew faint and then disappeared.  The stream wound through the jungle until it reached a small waterfall that fed into a massive lake whose black surface reflected the stars and moon.  Katie slid down the hill beside the waterfall to the lake's edge, uncertain what to do.  Gabriel hadn't mentioned the stream ending or the lake.

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  • The surface of the earth consists of the hydrosphere and the lithosphere.

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  • More precisely, we will probably teach machines to teach themselves how to process it for us and surface findings to us.

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  • He watched as Mansr expertly organized the evacuations and aligned the space battle to keep the Yirkins' attention off the ships fleeing the planet's surface for the nearest moon, Kiera.

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  • Her emotions still felt too close to the surface; exhaustion would only make them worse.

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  • The machines surface this information.

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  • She maneuvered the car around washed out places and eased it over rocks that erupted from the surface of the dusty road.

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  • Breaking through the surface, Gabriel gasped in a few breaths before swimming towards the shore with powerful strokes.

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  • Long-dead instincts were near the surface, waiting for Eden to slip up, so he could take her out next.

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  • Its whole surface consisted of drops closely pressed together, and all these drops moved and changed places, sometimes several of them merging into one, sometimes one dividing into many.

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  • Later, the serendipitous drippings were augmented by additional piping, carrying excess water to spray even more surface of the rock walls.

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  • As he rode, problems bobbed to the surface of his mind like driftwood released from quicksand – ready to be plucked from the surface and worked into something useable.

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  • To her own surprise a power of life and hope of happiness rose to the surface and demanded satisfaction.

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  • Ashley's bead was lighter red in color, its surface glazed to give it a subtle reflecting quality.

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  • He traced his fingers along the barrel's rough surface before dipping his hand into the water.

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  • The general conclusion would appear to be that, while as seen from the earth's surface much of the light from the sky is due to comparatively gross suspended matter, yet an appreciable proportion is attributable to the molecules of air themselves, and that at high elevations where the blue is purer, the latter part may become predominant.

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  • The pod dropped fast toward the surface, the sight of the spinning world beneath her sickening.

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  • The stone cliffs that walled the road on the opposite side wept icicles from every crevice, covering the surface in massive clusters of crystal spikes that sparkled in the dazzling sunlight.

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  • "Your message came up to the surface," the woman said after identifying herself as a state worker and named a department he didn't catch.

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  • It was surprising to see how serenely he sailed off with unruffled breast when he came to the surface, doing all the work with his webbed feet beneath.

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  • All seemed to be in perilously dangerous situations, clinging to the sheer walls with outstretched arms and spread legs, somehow adhered to the clear surface before them.

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  • A wave of anger came out of nowhere, surging through her veins and washing the resentment to the surface of her consciousness.

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  • They saw a landscape with mountains and plains, lakes and rivers, very like those upon the earth's surface; but all the scene was splendidly colored by the variegated lights from the six suns.

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  • At that moment, the bobber plunged under the surface of the water.

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  • A wave of anger came out of nowhere, surging through her veins and washing the resentment to the surface of her consciousness.

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  • When he had joined the Freemasons he had experienced the feeling of one who confidently steps onto the smooth surface of a bog.

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  • There were no stairs in their houses, because they did not need them, but on a level surface they generally walked just as we do.

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  • He must have reached an arm across the warmth next to him and her nearly soundless mewl began his slow but steady rise to the surface of consciousness.

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  • The temperature of the Boiling Spring the same day was 45º, or the warmest of any water tried, though it is the coldest that I know of in summer, when, beside, shallow and stagnant surface water is not mingled with it.

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  • It was a pretty game, played on the smooth surface of the pond, a man against a loon.

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  • I found that it was as well for me to rest on my oars and wait his reappearing as to endeavor to calculate where he would rise; for again and again, when I was straining my eyes over the surface one way, I would suddenly be startled by his unearthly laugh behind me.

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  • Elsewhere local surface currents are developed, either drifts due to the direct action of the winds, or streams produced by wind action heaping water up against the land; but these nowhere rise to the dignity of a distinct current system, although they are often sufficient to obliterate the feeble tidal action characteristic of the Mediterranean.

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  • "Now then, all together--shove!" cried the voices, and the huge surface of the wall, sprinkled with snow and creaking with frost, was seen swaying in the gloom of the night.

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  • Even if we should come to unpleasant places on our way it is necessary, in order to reach the earth's surface, to keep moving on toward it.

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  • Plunging through drifts, leaping hollows, swooping down upon the lake, we would shoot across its gleaming surface to the opposite bank.

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  • But now the kind October wind rises, rustling the leaves and rippling the surface of the water, so that no loon can be heard or seen, though his foes sweep the pond with spy-glasses, and make the woods resound with their discharges.

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  • At the advent of each individual into this life, may we not suppose that such a bar has risen to the surface somewhere?

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  • across, also belongs to this group. It grows in the backwaters of the Amazon, often covering the surface for miles; the seeds are eaten under the name water maize.

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  • across, also belongs to this group. It grows in the backwaters of the Amazon, often covering the surface for miles; the seeds are eaten under the name water maize.

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  • In this country, as in all others they had visited underneath the earth's surface, there was no night, a constant and strong light coming from some unknown source.

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  • His regard was casual on the surface, but something in his eyes suggested an undertone of tension.

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  • As soon as he trotted out upon the surface of the river he found himself safe from pursuit, and Zeb was already running across the water toward Dorothy.

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  • They heard a crunching, grinding sound, a loud snap, and the turn-table came to a stop with its broadest surface shutting off the path from which they had come.

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  • A specimen in the Zoological Gardens of London had the back and tail dark grey, the tail tipped with black, and a rufous wash on the cheeks, shoulders, flanks and outer surface of the limbs, with the under surface white.

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  • On the surface, what he offered her wasn't bad.

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  • On the surface, what he offered her wasn't bad.

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  • Yet he appeared to know his course as surely under water as on the surface, and swam much faster there.

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  • From a hilltop you can see a fish leap in almost any part; for not a pickerel or shiner picks an insect from this smooth surface but it manifestly disturbs the equilibrium of the whole lake.

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  • She clung to it as an escape from the turbid waters below the surface of their conversation.

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  • Once a little fish swam too near the surface, and the kitten grabbed it in her mouth and ate it up as quick as a wink; but Dorothy cautioned her to be careful what she ate in this valley of enchantments, and no more fishes were careless enough to swim within reach.

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  • Like a sunken object freed from the ocean floor, Dean began to ascend to the surface of wakefulness.

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  • Like a sunken object freed from the ocean floor, Dean began to ascend to the surface of wakefulness.

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  • And it grows, merges, disappears from the surface, sinks to the depths, and again emerges.

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  • Kisolm was killed on the planet surface, and Romas will now inherit the planet from his father, if there's anything left to inherit.

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  • GALVANIZED IRON, sheet iron having its surface covered with a thin coating of zinc. In spite of the name, galvanic action has often no part in the production of galvanized iron, which is prepared by dipping the iron, properly cleaned and pickled in acid, in a bath of molten zinc. The hotter the zinc the thinner the coating, but as a high temperature of the bath is attended with certain objections, it is a common practice to use a moderate temperature and clear off the excess of zinc by passing the plates between rollers.

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  • Though the sky was by this time overcast, the pond was so smooth that I could see where he broke the surface when I did not hear him.

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  • "Why did you leave the surface of the earth?" enquired the Wizard.

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  • He watched explosions wrack his planet until they rose high enough that the toxic dust storm he'd started marred the surface of the planet from view.

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  • Standing on the smooth sandy beach at the east end of the pond, in a calm September afternoon, when a slight haze makes the opposite shore-line indistinct, I have seen whence came the expression, "the glassy surface of a lake."

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  • White Pond and Walden are great crystals on the surface of the earth, Lakes of Light.

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  • A billion consciences sitting under the serene surface of the water.

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  • In the extreme west the salinity of the surface water is about 36 3 per mille, and it increases eastwards to 37 6 east of Sardinia and 39 0 and upwards in the Levant.

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  • It is a mirror which no stone can crack, whose quicksilver will never wear off, whose gilding Nature continually repairs; no storms, no dust, can dim its surface ever fresh;--a mirror in which all impurity presented to it sinks, swept and dusted by the sun's hazy brush--this the light dust-cloth--which retains no breath that is breathed on it, but sends its own to float as clouds high above its surface, and be reflected in its bosom still.

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  • She ran her hand over the smooth clean surface of the baler.

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  • So, also, every one who has waded about the shores of the pond in summer must have perceived how much warmer the water is close to the shore, where only three or four inches deep, than a little distance out, and on the surface where it is deep, than near the bottom.

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  • liquids is a well-known phenomenon and common to all micro-organisms. A free still surface with a direct access of air are the necessary conditions.

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  • Another bank i ioo fathoms from the surface runs south from the east end of Crete, separating the Pola Deep from the depths of the Levant basin, in which a depth of 1960 fathoms was recorded near Makri on the coast of Asia Minor.

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  • He dived again, but I miscalculated the direction he would take, and we were fifty rods apart when he came to the surface this time, for I had helped to widen the interval; and again he laughed long and loud, and with more reason than before.

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  • And suddenly thoughts and feelings again swam to the surface of his mind with peculiar clearness and force.

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  • Several pretty large logs may still be seen lying on the bottom, where, owing to the undulation of the surface, they look like huge water snakes in motion.

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  • In order to see how nearly I could guess, with this experience, at the deepest point in a pond, by observing the outlines of a surface and the character of its shores alone, I made a plan of White Pond, which contains about forty-one acres, and, like this, has no island in it, nor any visible inlet or outlet; and as the line of greatest breadth fell very near the line of least breadth, where two opposite capes approached each other and two opposite bays receded, I ventured to mark a point a short distance from the latter line, but still on the line of greatest length, as the deepest.

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  • But the wind slides eastward over its opaque surface in vain, till it reaches the living surface beyond.

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  • The surface of the earth is soft and impressible by the feet of men; and so with the paths which the mind travels.

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  • Above him was a clear blue sky, and the sun's vast orb quivered like a huge hollow, crimson float on the surface of that milky sea of mist.

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  • Nothing so fair, so pure, and at the same time so large, as a lake, perchance, lies on the surface of the earth.

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  • A balloon meant to her some other arrival from the surface of the earth, and she hoped it would be some one able to assist her and Zeb out of their difficulties.

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  • It was en route that a nagging thought rose to the surface of his cluttered consciousness.

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  • It was en route that a nagging thought rose to the surface of his cluttered consciousness.

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  • Most have not delved six feet beneath the surface, nor leaped as many above it.

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  • That meant that their world--the real world--was not very far away, and that the succession of perilous adventures they had encountered had at last brought them near the earth's surface, which meant home to them.

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  • Though the surface of the sea of history seemed motionless, the movement of humanity went on as unceasingly as the flow of time.

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  • His assessment tore through her mind, digging up memories and laying them bare on the surface.

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  • She leaned forward, examining the lurking figures under the surface.

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  • The clouds far above were starting to swirl with hypnotic slowness, the rain beginning to fall again, and the sea beneath their feet rippling and shifting beneath the rubbery surface.

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  • Gabriel said nothing, sensing the half-demon's explosive temper was close to the surface.

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  • A gem bubbled to the top of the lake then dropped down, rejoining the rest of them beneath the surface.

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  • A few seconds later, Deidre's blond head bobbed to the surface.

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  • The strange sound continued for several minutes, and she trembled, trying hard not to think of what happened if she made it unscathed to the planet's surface.

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  • Ice is an incredible surface.

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  • You get into mixed rock and ice and there's often snow to clear away to get to a hard surface.

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  • Cynthia asked, her deep hatred of the man bubbling to the surface.

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  • Greene, Arnie, and me, as the VP's representative on the surface.

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  • Finally, it caught, and she kicked her feet as it pulled her towards the surface.

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  • The water was icy and she gasped as she came to the surface.

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  • She sat down, leaning her back against the tree, and watched shadows from puffy clouds drift across the surface.

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  • Something buzzed by her head and hit the pond, skipping across the smooth surface.

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  • Some scars stay just below the surface.

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  • How can you swim in that water when you know snakes might be lurking under the surface?

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  • Plucking one from the bush, she rolled the berry in her hand, removing the powdery haze from its surface.

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  • It is obvious that the aerial particles are illuminated not only by the direct solar rays, but also by light dispersed from other parts of the atmosphere and from the earth's surface.

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  • Above the level plain of absolutely smooth surface, devoid of houses or vegetation, the equipotential surfaces under normal conditions would be strictly horizontal, and if we could determine the potential at one metre above the ground we should have a definite measure of the potential gradient at the earth's surface.

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  • A cylinder condenser has its inner surface insulated and charged to a high positive or negative potential.

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  • from the surface.

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  • Less manure is used in these cellars than we generally see in the mushroom-houses of England, and the surface of each bed is covered with about an inch of fine white stony soil.

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  • The beds are kept artificially moist by the application of water brought from the surface, and the different galleries bear crops in succession.

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  • As one is exhausted another is in full bearing, so that by a systematic arrangement a single proprietor will send to the surface from 300 lb to 3000 lb of mushrooms per day.

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  • The beds remain in bearing for six or eight months, and then the spent manure is taken to the surface again for garden and field purposes.

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  • A layer of fine earth is then placed over the whole, and well beaten down, and the surface is covered with a thick coat of straw.

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  • The beds are to be spawned when the heat moderates, and the surface is then covered with a sprinkling of warmed loam, which after a few days is made up to a thickness of 2 in., and well beaten down.

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  • The surface is to be afterwards covered with hay or litter.

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  • If the beds require watering, water of about 80° should be used, and it is preferable to moisten the covering of litter rather than the surface of the beds themselves.

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  • is water surface.

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  • rudis, a staff), properly a rod or pole, and so used as the name of a surface measure of land.

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  • The roof must not be quite flat, for a slight fall is necessary in its upper surface to allow water to drain away into gutters placed at convenient points.

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  • The joists are covered with a waterproof material such as asphalt, lead, zinc or copper, the three last materials being usually laid upon boarding, which stiffens the structure and forms a good surface to fix the weatherproof covering upon.

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  • 9) touches lightly on the inner surface of the lid of the box.

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  • The plane surfaces and XX are composed of a bronze of very close texture, which appears capable of receiving a finish having almost the truth and polish of an optical surface.

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  • Extraordinary care has evidently been bestowed in adjusting the parallelism and distance of the planes and A, so that the movable wires shall almost, but not quite, touch the surface T.

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  • The varnish to fix the webs is applied, not on the surface T as is usual, but on a bevel for the purpose,' the position of the webs depending on their tension to keep them in their furrows.

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  • a convenient feature in Repsolds' micrometer that the webs are very near the inner surface of the top of the box, so that the eye is not brought inconveniently close to the plate when high powers are used.

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  • 14) - its upper surface being nearly in the plane of the wires.

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  • apart, and another similar system of lines at right angles to the first, thus dividing the silvered surface of the plate into squares 5 mm.

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  • Now, if CD is pressed by its weight or by a spring on the surface AB, the effect of wear will be to produce a symmetrical grinding away of both surfaces, which may be represented thus, fig.

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  • The narrow tongues of the silvered surface will now reflect corresponding parts of the star-spectrograph, and will obliterate corresponding parts of the solar spectrograph - as shown in figs.

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  • Its width is as a rule about 24 ft.; at present its surface is formed of rough cobbling, upon which there was probably a gravel layer, now washed away.

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  • below the surface; while towards the Ravi wells are less than 20 ft.

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  • The oil when brought to the surface has the appearance of a whitish-blue water, which gives out brilliant straw-coloured rays, and emits a strong pungent odour.

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  • As the small filings produced by friction seek to pass through the interstices between the rapidly revolving spherical particles in the vortex, they are detained and become twisted and channelled in their passage, and when they reach the edge of the inner ocean of solar dust they settle upon it as the froth and foam produced by the agitation of water gathers upon its surface.

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  • The surface of the department consists of undulating and well-wooded plains, intersected by numerous valleys, and diversified in the north-east by hilly ground which forms a part of the mountain system of the Ardennes.

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  • Central Albania differs from the northern and southern regions in the more undulating and less rugged character of its surface; it contains considerable lowland tracts, such as the wide and fertile plain of Musseki, traversed by the river Simen.

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  • The surface of Manitoba is somewhat level and monotonous.

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  • To obtain a larger heating surface than a pipe affords, radiators are connected with the pipes where desired, and the water passing through them warms the surrounding air.

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  • Compared with heating by hot water, steam-heating requires less piping, which, further, may be of much smaller diameter to attain a similar result, because of the higher temperature of the heat yielding surface.

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  • Ventilating radiators are similar, but have an inlet arrangement at the base to allow external air to pass over the heating surface before passing out through the perforations.

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  • The table given below will be useful in calculating the size of the radiating surface necessary to raise the temperature to the extent required when the external air is at freezing point (32° Fahr.): - At the city of Lockport in New York state, America, an interesting example of the direct app of Lockport.

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  • The lake is nowhere of great depth, and about midway numerous mud-banks, marshes, islands and dense growths of aqueous plants stretch across its surface.

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  • Rivers.The greater part of the surface of France is divided between four principal and several secondary basins.

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  • The most important French lake is that of Grand-Lieu, between Nantes and Pairnbceuf (Loire-Infrieure), which presents a surface of 17,300 acres.

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  • Of the former the remnants are now seen in Brittany and the Ardennes; of the latter the Cvennes and the Montagne Noire are the last traces visible on the surface.

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  • The earlier deposits of that sea now rise to the surface in Brittany, the Ardennes, the Montagne Noire and the Cvennes, and in all these regions they arc intensely folded.

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  • or about 18% of the entire surface of the country.

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  • Enough of the rocky surface is covered with a thin coating of soil to enable the natives to grow yams, taro, bananas, &c., for their support; cotton thrives well, and has even been exported in small quantities, but there is no space available for its cultivation on any considerable scale.

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  • Among its many small tributaries are the Catuche, Caroata and Anauco, which flow down through the city from the north and give it a natural surface drainage.

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  • In the upper jaw the first two with crowns having a triangular free surface; the last small, simple, narrow and placed transversely.

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  • Tail long, its apical half-clothed on the dorsal surface with long hairs.

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  • The latter, which covers an area of about moo acres, has at the present time a fairly uniform surface and slopes gradually from the north to the south and east.

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  • The surface is a slightly undulating plain.

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  • This mixture burns with a green flame forming boron trioxide; whilst boron is deposited on passing the gas mixture through a hot tube, or on depressing a cold surface in the gas flame.

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  • The island is diversified in its surface, and is traversed from north to south by an elevated mountain range, the highest point of which is called Atairo (anc. Atabyris or Atabyrium) (4560 ft.).

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  • Beneath these hills the surface of the island falls lower, and several hills in the form of amphitheatres extend their bases as far as the sea.

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  • This underground network of old river-beds underlying the great alluvial plains must be filled to repletion before flood waters will flow over the surface.

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  • The clays of the Rolling Downs formation overlie a series of sands and drifts, saturated with water under high pressure, which discharges at the surface as a flowing well, when a borehole pierces the impermeable cover.

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  • They present to the fierce play of the sun almost a level surface, so that during the day that surface becomes intensely heated and at night gives off its heat by radiation.

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  • The surface on the whole is hilly and is partly occupied by offshoots of the Thuringian Forest; the highest summits are found in the eastern half, where the Kieferle reaches 2849 ft.

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  • Lastly, to pass over unnecessary details, the markings of various kinds to be observed on the lobes of the livers of freshly-slaughtered animals, which are due mainly to the traces left by the subsidiary hepatic ducts and hepatic veins on the liver surface, were described as "holes," "paths," "clubs" and the like.

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  • Sammetblende or przibramite is a variety, from Przibram in Bohemia, consisting of delicate acicular or capillary crystals arranged in radiating groups with a velvety surface and yellow colour.

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  • Malarial fevers make their appearance in places where the forest has been recently felled, or where the surface earth has been disturbed.

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  • Vermont is a portion of the plateau-like New England upland, broken by mountain ranges, individual mountains and high hills, rising above the general upland surface, and by deep narrow valleys, cut below that surface.

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  • The most prominent feature of the surface is the Green Mountains, which extend nearly N.

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  • Its surface is hilly, and its appearance (in many parts) somewhat sterile, though in the main, and especially in the neighbourhood of Lough Erne, it is picturesque and attractive.

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  • But the most distinguishing features of Fermanagh are the Upper and Lower Loughs Erne, which occupy a great extent of its surface, stretching for about 45 m.

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  • The leaves are large, often irregular in form, usually with a few deep lobes dilated at the end; they are of a bright light green on the upper surface, but whitish beneath; they turn to a violet tint in autumn.

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  • Ilex, usually a smaller tree, frequently of rather shrub-like appearance, with abundant glossy dark-green leaves, generally ovate in shape and more or less prickly at the margin, but sometimes with the edges entire; the under surface is hoary; the acorns are oblong on short stalks.

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  • It stands at the mouth of the Veveyse and commands fine views of the snowy mountains seen over the glassy surface of the lake.

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  • The heat equator, or line of maximum mean surface temperature, starts from the African coast in about 5° N.

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  • From the surface to 500 fathoms the general form of the isothermals remains the same, except that instead of an equatorial maximum belt there is a focus of maximum temperature off the eastern coast of the United States.

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  • The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.

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  • The isothermals of mean surface temperature in the South Atlantic are in the lower latitudes of an cn- shape, temperatures being higher on the American than on the African side.

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  • Below the surface a focus of maximum temperature appears off the coast of South America in about 30 S.

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  • Its saltest waters are found at the surface in two belts, one extending east and west in the North Atlantic between 20° and 30 N.

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  • In the higher latitudes of the South Atlantic the salinity diminishes steadily and tends to be uniform from east to west, except near the southern extremity of South America, where the surface waters are very fresh.

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  • Our knowledge of the salinity of waters below the surface is as yet very defective, large areas being still unrepresented by a single observation.

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  • The part of this atmospheric circulation which is steadiest in its action is the trade winds, and this is, therefore, the most effective in producing drift movement of the surface waters.

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  • These branches are separated from one another at the surface by currents moving southwards: one passes east of Iceland; the second, the Greenland current, skirts the east coast of Greenland; and the third, the Labrador current already mentioned, follows the western side of Davis Strait.

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  • In the central parts of the two high-pressure areas there is practically no surface circulation.

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  • Where surface water is banked up against the land, as by the equatorial and Gulf Stream drift currents, it appears to penetrate to very considerable depths; the escaping stream currents are at first of great vertical thickness and part of the water at their sources has a downward movement.

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  • The surface of the vilayet is generally mountainous, except in the central valley of the Maritza, and along the banks of its tributaries, the Tunja, Arda, Ergene, &c. On the west, the great Rhodope range and its outlying ridges extend as far as the Maritza, and attain an altitude of more than 7000 f t.

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  • But the city, as a superficial inspection of the site shows, must have existed as a settlement long before Omri, as potsherds of earlier date lie scattered on the surface.

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  • It is probable that the wind pressure is not strictly proportional to the extent of the surface exposed.

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  • ft., are round or square, and for these sizes, and shapes, and of course for a flat surface, the relation P = .003 is fairly correct.

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  • In order to be sure that the heat was not due to the action of the air upon the newly exposed metallic surface, the cylinder and the end of the boring bar were immersed in 18-77 lb.

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  • Beneath the epidermis is a longitudinal layer of muscle-fibres which are separated into four distinct groups by the dorsal, ventral and lateral areas; these are occupied by a continuation of the epidermic layer; in the lateral areas run two thin-walled tubes with clear contents, which unite in the anterior part of the body and open by a pore situated on the ventral surface usually about a quarter or a third of the body length from the anterior end.

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  • Similarly the giant cells are produced at their periphery into a number of branching processes which bear similar end-organs on their surface and in some cases terminate in them.

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  • s, Opening of segmental tubes (placed by mistake on the dorsal instead of the ventral surface).

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  • Transporters can only move the load to any point on a vertical surface (generally a plane surface); they have a lifting Trans- motion and a movement of translation.

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  • The deposits are superficial, resulting from the opening out of veins at the surface, and consist chiefly of haematite.

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  • The advantage of the high conducting power which copper possesses Over- is of especial value in moist climates (like that of the United Kingdom), since the effect of leakage over the surface of the damp insulators is much less noticeable when the conducting power of the wire is high than when it is low, especially when the line is a long one.

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  • below the surface of the roadway.

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  • Whilst it is being paid out the portion between the surface of the water and the bottom of the sea lies along a straight line, the component of the weight at right angles to its length being supported by the frictional resistance to sinking in the water.

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  • The ship is then stopped, and the cable gradually hove up towards the surface; but in deep water, unless it has been caught near a loose end, the cable will break on the grapnel before it reaches the surface, as the catenary strain on the bight will be greater than it will stand.

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  • Grappling will be recommenced so as to hook the cable near enough to the end to allow of its being hove to the surface.

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  • The grappling of the cable and raising it to the surface from a depth of 2000 fathoms seldom occupy less than twenty-four hours, and since any extra strain due to the pitching of the vessel must be avoided, it is clear that the state of the sea and weather is the predominating factor in the time necessary for effecting the long series of operations which, in the most favourable circumstances, are required for a repair.

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  • Suppose, for instance, the paper ribbon to be soaked in a solution of iodide of potassium and a light contact spring made to press continuously on its surface as it is pulled forward by the mechanism.

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  • A ray of light from a lamp is thrown on the mirror, whence it is reflected upon a white surface or scale set at a distance of about 3 ft., forming a bright spot on the surface; the slightest angular deflexion of the mirror, owing to its distance from the scale, moves the spot of light a very appreciable distance to the right or left according to the direction of the angular movement.

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  • The indicator was connected with a Ruhmkorff coil or other equivalent apparatus, designed to cause a continual succession of sparks to pass between the indicator and a metal plate situated beneath it and having a plane surface parallel to its line of motion.

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  • Over the surface of the plate and between it and the indicator there was passed, at a regularly uniform speed, in a direction perpendicular to the line of motion of the indicator, a material capable of being acted on physically by the sparks, through either their chemical action, their heat, or their perforating force.

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  • The short leg of the siphon tube dips into an insulated ink-bottle, so' that the ink it contains becomes electrified, while the long leg has its open end at a very small distance from a brass table, placed with its surface parallel to the plane in which the mouth of the leg moves, and over which a slip of paper may be passed at a uniform rate, as in the spark recorder.

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  • 1434 of 1899) it is sought to overcome this difficulty by causing the point of a contact-arm, representing the siphon in the ordinary form of recorder, to traverse the cylindrical surface of a rapidly rotating drum.

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  • If the current is interrupted or alternating, and if a telephone receiver has its terminals connected to a separate metallic circuit joined by earth plates at two other places to the earth, not on the same equipotential surface of the first circuit, sounds will be heard in the telephone due to a current passing through it.

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  • Canal system of flow lines of current through the sea, and these might be detected by any other ships furnished with two plates dipping into the sea at stem and stern, and connected by a wire having a telephone in its circuit, provided that the two plates were not placed on the same equipotential surface of the original current flow lines.

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  • Heaviside in 1887 succeeded in communicating by telephonic speech between the surface of the earth and the subterranean galleries of the Broomhill collieries, 350 feet deep, by laying above and below ground two complete metallic circuits, each about 24 m.

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  • The method of induction between insulated primary and secondary circuits laid out flat on the surface of the earth proves to be of limited application, and in his later experiments Preece returned to a method which unites both conduction and induction as the means of affecting one circuit by a current in another.

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  • At each signalling station was erected an insulated metallic surface facing and near to the ordinary telegraph wires.

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  • plate E and the other to a plate or wire insulated at the upper end and elevated above the surface of the earth.

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  • When the discharge takes place the ends of the lines of electric force abutting on the wire run down it and are detached in the form of semiloops of electric force which move outwards with their ends on the surface of the earth.

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  • It was also recognized that what is required at the transmitting end is the establishment of powerful electric oscillations in the sending antenna, which create and radiate their energy in the form of electric waves having their magnetic force component parallel to the earth's surface and their electric component perpendicular to it.

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  • In any case the antenna serves as one surface of a condenser, the other surface of which is the earth.

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  • A third class of electric wave detector depends upon the power of electric oscillations to annul the electrolytic polarization of electrodes of small surface immersed in an electrolyte.

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  • All of them make use of Marconi's antenna in some form both at the transmitting and at the receiving end, all of them make use of an earth connexion, or its equivalent in the form of a balancing capacity or large surface having capacity with respect to the earth, which merely means that they insert a condenser of large capacity in the earth connexion.

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  • All of them couple the transmitting antenna directly or inductively to a capacity-inductive circuit serving as a storage of energy, and all of them create thereby electric waves of the same type moving over the earth's surface with the magnetic force of the wave parallel to it.

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  • Starting from an observation of Marconi's, a number of interesting facts have been accumulated on the absorbing effect of sunlight on the propagation of long Hertzian waves through space, and on the disturbing effects of atmospheric electricity as well as upon the influence of earth curvature and obstacles of various kinds interposed in the line between the sending and transmitting stations.4 Electric wave telegraphy has revolutionized our means of communication from place to place on the surface of the earth, making it possible to communicate instantly and certainly between places separated by several thousand miles, whilst The Electrician, 1904, 5 2, p. 407, or German Pat.

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  • The diaphragm was itself used as the rubbing surface, and it was either mounted and rotated or the fingers were moved over it.

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  • The microphonic portion of the transmitter is contained in a thin cylindrical box or case of brass A, the inner curved surface of which is covered with an insulating layer of paper.

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  • The space enclosed between the front and rear faces of the box is filled about three-quarters full of finely granulated hard carbon, which therefore lies in contact with the front and rear carbon disks of the apparatus, and also fills up the space lying between the lower edge of these disks and the curved surface of the case.

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  • Manholes are placed at intervals in the line of ducts to facilitate the drawing in and jointing of the cables, and surface boxes are placed in the footways for distributing purposes.

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  • A, Honey-gland from attractive C, Transverse section of the surface of lid.

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  • The mouth of the pitcher has a corrugated rim (peristome) formed by incurving of the margin, the convex surface of which is firm and shining.

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  • A, Attractive surface of lid; B, conducting; C, glandular; and D, detentive surface; magnified.

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  • The cavity of the pitcher is in some species lined throughout with a smooth glistening surface over which glands are uniformly distributed; these glands secrete a liquid which is found in the pitcher even in the young state while it is still hermetically closed by the lid.

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  • other species the glands are confined to the lower portion of the cavity surface, while the upper part bear a smooth waxy secretion on which it is impossible, or at any rate extremely difficult, for insects to secure a foothold.

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  • The surface of the leaf, especially the laminar wing, bears glands which in spring exude large glistening dr„ r, s of nectar.

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  • Then come the glandular surface (C), which is formed of smooth polished epidermis with numerous glands that secrete the fluid contents of the pitcher, and finally the detentive surface (D), of which the cells are produced into long and strong bristles which point A FIG.

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  • Comparison with monstrous forms shows that the pitcher of Cephalotus arises by a calceolate pouching from the upper surface of the ordinary spathulate leaves, the lid here arising from the proximal side of the pitcher-orifice.

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  • It is, however, as "the ship of the desert," without which vast tracts of the earth's surface could scarcely be explored, that the camel is specially valuable.

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  • Its waters have been in great part carried off by an artificial channel, and more than half its surface laid bare.

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  • We are therefore forced to pause awhile, and probe beneath the surface.

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  • They are not, however, to be used in the disinfection of instruments, nor where any large abraded surface would favour absorption.

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  • But every antiseptic, however good is more or less toxic and irritating to a wounded surface.

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  • of the Andamans are the dangerous Western Banks and Dalrymple Bank, rising to within a few fathoms of the surface of the sea and forming, with the two Sentinel Islands �, the tops of a line of submarine hills parallel to the Andamans.

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  • The fossil shells, pottery and rude stone implements, found alike at the base and at the surface of these middens, prove that the habits of the islanders have not varied since a remote past, and lead to the belief that the Andamans were settled by their present inhabitants some time during the Pleistocene period, and certainly no later than the Neolithic age.

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  • pelagic organisms, floating on the surface of the open sea, propelling themselves feebly by the pumping movements of the umbrella produced by contraction of the sub-umbral musculature, and capturing their prey with their tentacles.

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  • on the pelagic mollusc Phyllirrhoe, attached to it by the subumbral surface, and its tentacles have become rudimentary or absent.

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  • outer surface of the jellyCartilaginous margin of the like disk; six of these are disk covered by thread perradial, six interradial, cells.

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  • external epithelium is flat on the ex-umbral surface, more columnar on the sub-umbral surface, where it forms the muscular tissue of the sub-umbrella and the velum.

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  • The muscle-fibres arise as processes from the bases of the epithelial cells; such cells may individually become sub-epithelial in position, as in the polyp; or, in places where muscular tissue is greatly developed, as in the velum or sub-umbrella, the entire muscular epithelium may be thrown into folds in order to increase its surface, so that a deeper sub-epithelial muscular layer becomes separated completely from a more superficial bodyepithelium.

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  • The circular system is developed continuously over the entire subumbral surface, and the velum represents a special local development of this system, at a region where it is able to act at the greatest mechanical advantage in producing the contractions of the umbrella by which the animal progresses.

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  • The nervous system of the medusa consists of sub-epithelial ganglion-cells, which form, in the first place, a diffuse plexus of nervous tissue, as in the polyp, but developed chiefly on the subumbral surface; and which are concentrated, in the second place, to form a definite central nervous system, never found in the polyp. In Hydromedusae the central nervous system forms two concentric nerverings at the margin of the umbrella, near the base of the velum.

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  • The uppermost is a purely muscular cell from the sub-umbrella; the two lower are epidermo-muscular cells from the base of a tentacle; the upstanding nucleated portion forms part of the epidermal mosaic on the free surface of the body.

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  • Here the medusoid, attached by the centre of its ex-umbral surface, has lost its velum and sub-umbral muscles, its sense organs and mouth, though still retaining rudimentary tentacles.

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  • vulgaris) is brown in colour, and produces a bun-shaped egg, spiky on the convex surface, and attached to a water-weed or some object by its flattened side.

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  • - View of the Oral Surface of one of the Leptomedusae (Irene pellucida, Haeckel), to show the numerous tentacles and the otocysts.

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  • The coenosteum increases in size by new growth at the surface; and in the deeper, older portions of massive forms the tissues die off after a certain time, only the superficial region retaining its vitality down to a certain depth.

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  • The living tissues at the surface are cut off from the underlying dead portions by horizontal partitions termed tabulae, which are formed successively as the coenosteum increases in age and size.

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  • - Enlarged view of the surface of a living Millepora, showing five dactylozooids surrounding a central gastrozooid.

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  • The sense-organs are tentaculocysts which are usually enclosed in vesicles and may be sunk far below the surface.

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  • The tentacles are not inserted on the margin of the umbrella, but arise high up on the ex-umbral surface, and the umbrella is prolonged into lobes corresponding to the interspaces between the tentacles.

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  • - Porpita, seen from above, keeps the cormus at or showing the pneumatophore and exnear the surface of the panded palpons.

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  • Haeckel regarded the whole structure as a glandular ectodermal pit formed on the exumbral surface of a medusa-person.

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  • Haeckel regards it as the equivalent of the manubrium, and as it is implanted on the blind end of the pneumatophore, such a view leads necessarily to the air-sack and gland being a development on the ex-umbral surface of the medusa-person.

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  • Chun and Woltereck, on the other hand, regard the stem as a stolo prolifer arising from the aboral pole, that is to say, from the ex-umbrella, similar to that which grows out from the ex-umbral surface of the embryo of the Narcomedusae and produces buds, a view which is certainly supported by the embryological evidence to be adduced shortly.

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  • It is the same thought which collected in the cosmic space the divided masses into spheres, and combined these to solar systems; the same which caused the weather-beaten dust on the surface of our metallic planet to spring forth into living forms."

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  • No truths brought to light by biological investigation were better calculated to inspire distrust of the dogmas intruded upon science in the name of theology than those which relate to the distribution of animals and plants on the surface of the earth.

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  • The sea-worn amber has lost its crust, but has often acquired a dull rough surface by rolling in sand.

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  • In some species of Rana and Staurois inhabiting mountainous districts in south-eastern Asia, the larvae are adapted for life in torrents, being provided with a circular adhesive disk on the ventral surface behind the mouth, by means of which they are able to anchor themselves to stones.

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  • He defined them as possessing radial instead of bilateral symmetry, and as apparently destitute of nervous system and sense organs, as having the circulatory system rudimentary or absent, and the respiratory organs on or coextensive with the surface of the body; he included under this title and definition five classes, - Echinodermata, Acalepha, Entozoa, Polypi and Infusoria.

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  • Aube is an agricultural department; more than one-third of its surface consists of arable land of which the chief products are wheat and oats, and next to them rye, barley and potatoes; vegetables are extensively cultivated in the valleys of the Seine and the Aube.

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  • The ANGIOSFERMS, which are much the larger class, derive their name from the fact that the carpel or carpels form a closed chamber, the ovary, in which the ovules are developedassociated with this is the development of a receptive or stigmatic surface on which the pollen grain is deposited.

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  • The basal cell has less chlorophyll than the others, and is expanded and fixed firmly to the rock on which the plant grows by the basal surface, rh, thus forming a rudimentary rhizoid.

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  • ax., Green axis creeping on the surface of damp soil; rh., colorless rhizoids penetrating the soil; asc. ax., ascending axes of green cells.

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  • con.) green assimilating cortical branches, which are the ends of branches from the medulla and fit tightly together, forming the continuous surface of the plant.

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  • F, Section through the surface tissue of the Brown Alga Cutleria multifida, showing the surface layer of assimilating cells densely packed with phaeoplasts.

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  • Note thick walls and oblique slit-like pits with opposite inclination on the two sides of the cell seen in surface view.

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  • This may have a radial stem-like organization, a central cell-thread giving off from every side a number of short sometimes unicellular branches, which together form a cortex round the central thread, the whole structure having a cylindrical form which only branches when one of the short cell-branches from the central thread grows out beyond the general surface and forms in its turn a new central thread, from whose cells arise new short branches.

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  • The latter are often swollen at the ends, so that the cross-wall separating two successive cells has a larger surface than if the cells were of uniform width along their entire length.

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  • In many Laminariaceae the thallus also grows regularly in thickness by division of its surface layer, adding to the subjacent permanent tissue and thus forming a secondary meristem.

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  • In the Bryophytes water is still absorbed, not only from the soil but also largely from rain, dew, &c., through the general surface of the subaerial body (thallus), or in the more differentiated forms through the leaves.

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  • In a few cases there is a special surface or epidermal layer, but usually all the outer layers of the stem are composed of brown, thick-walled, lignified, prosenchymatous, fibre-like cells forming a peripheral stereom (mechanical or supporting tissue) which forms the outer cortex.

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  • In the aquatic, semi-aquatic, and xerophilous types, where the whole surface of the plant absorbs water, perpetually in the first two cases and during rain in the last, the hydrom strand is either much reduced or altogether absent.

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  • The surface layer of the rhizome bears rhizoids, and its whole structure strikingly resembles that of the typical root of a vascular plant.

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  • The root differs from the shoot in the characters of its surface tissues, in the absence of the green assimilative pigment chlorophyll, in the arrangement of its vascular system and in the mode of growth at the apex, all features which are in direct relation to its normally subterranean life and its fixative and absorptive functions.

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  • From the primitive uniform Systems. mass of undifferentiated assimilating cells, which we may conceive of as the starting-point of differentiation, though such an undifferentiated body is only actually realized in the thallus of the lower Algae, there is, (1) on the one hand, a specialization of a surface layer regulating the immediate relations of the plant with its surroundings.

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  • This surface layer in the typically subaerial shoot of the sporophyte in Pteridophytes and Phanerogams is known as the epidermis, though the name is restricted by some writers, on account of developmental differences, to the surface layer of the shoot of Angiosperms, and by others extended to the surface layer of the whole plant in both these groups.

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  • Stomata are often situated at the bottom of pits in the surface of the leaf.

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  • Other hairs consist of a chain of cells; others, again, are branched in various ways; while yet others have the form of a flat plate of cells placed parallel to the leaf surface and inserted on a stalk.

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  • The surface layer of the root, sometimes included under tht term epidermis, is fundamentally different from the epidermis of the stem.

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  • In correspondence with its water-absorbing epidermis function it is not cuticularized, but remains usually thinof Root, walled; the absorbing surface is increased by its cell~

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  • The root-hair end~ blindly and is simply an outgrowth from a surface cell, havin~ no cross-walls.

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  • At the apex of a root, covering and protecting th~ delicate tissue of the growing point, is a special root-cap consistinf of a number of layers of tissue whose cells break down into mucilagi towards the outer surface, thus facilitating the passage of the ape~ as it is pushed between the particles of soil.

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  • The cortex, as has been said, is in its origin the remains of th~ primitive assimilating tissue of the plant, after differentiatioi of the surface layer and the conducting system.

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  • 2, A), which has distinct upper and lower faces, are placed mainly or exclusively on the lower side of the leaf, where the water vapour that escapes from them, being lighter than air, cannot pass away from the surface 01 the leaf, but remains in contact with it and thus tends to check further transpiration.

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  • The main assimilating tissue, on the other hand, is under the upper epidermis, where it is well illuminated, and consists of oblong cells densely packed with chloroplasts and with their long axes perpendicular to the surface (palisade tissue).

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  • The peculiar substance called callose, chemically allied to cellulose, is frequently formed over the surface of the perforated end-walls.

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  • the xylem coming to the surface of the cylinder, ~dS;

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  • In other species, however, a peculiar type of polystely is met with, in which the original diarch stele gives rise to se-called dorsal and ventral stelar cords which at first lie on the surface of the primary stele, but eventually at a higher level separate from it and form distinct secondary steles resembling the primary one.

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  • This usually has the form of a tetrahedron, with its points base occupying the surface of the body of the axis and its apex pointing towards the interior.

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  • The epidermis in the stair and the surface layer of the root soon becomes differentiated froit the underlying tissue.

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  • A lenticel appears to the naked eye as a rounded or elongated scar, often forming a distinct prominence on the surface of the organ.

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  • The rough surface of the bark of many trees is due to the successive phellogens not arising in regular concentric zones, but forming in arcs which join with the earlier-formed arcs, and thus causing the bark to come off in flakes or thick chunks.

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  • This is evident from the consideration that the growth of the cells is attended by the growth in surface of the cell wall, and as the latter is a secretion from the protoplasm, such a decomposition cannot readily take place unless oxygen is admitted to it.

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  • The increase in surface of the cell wall is thus duefirstly to the stretching caused by turgidity, and secondly to the formation and deposition of new substance upon the old.

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  • If we consider a leaf of the common fern we find that in its young condition it is closely rolled up, the upper or ventral surface being quite concealed.

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  • But some stems grow parallel to the surface of the soil, while the branches both of stems and roots tend to grow at a definite angle to the main axis from which they come.

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  • Six sensitive hairs spring from the upper surface of the lobes, three from each; when one of these is touched the two lobes rapidly close, bringing their upper surfaces into contact and imprisoning anything which for the moment is between them.

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  • It should be remembered that a single complete defoliation of a herbaceous annual may so incapacitate the assimilation that no stores are available for seeds, tubers, &c., for another year, or at most so little that feeble plants only come up. In the case of a tree matters run somewhat differently; most large trees in full foliage have far more assimilatory surface than is immediately necessary, and if the injury is confined to a single year it may be a small event in the life of the tree, but if repeated the cambium, bud-stores and fruiting may all suffer.

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  • The next change observable after some hours is that the untouched cells below the cut grow larger, push tip the dead surface, and divide by walls tangential to it, with the formation of tabloid cork-cells.

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  • it is from the actively growing callus developed at the surface of the wounded tissues of cuttings, buddings, prunings, &c., that the healing and .renewal of tissues occur of which advantage is taken in the practice of what might well be termed plant surgery.

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  • Worms bring spores to the surface of soil, ducks and other birds convey them on their muddy feet.

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  • The former is concerned with the division of the earths surface into major districts characterized by particular plants or taxonomic groups of plants, with the subdivision of these floristic districts, and with the geographical distribution (both past and present) of the various taxonomic units, such as species, genera, and families.

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  • Submerged leaves are usually filamentous or narrowly ribbonshaped, thus exposing a large amount of surface to the water, some of the dissolved gases of which they must absorb, and into which they must also excrete certain gases.

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  • The transpiring surface of xerophytes is frequently reduced.

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  • Their stomata are frequently not limited to the underside of the leaves, but may occur scattered all over the epidermal surface.

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  • The problem, then, which plantdistribution presents is twofold: it has first to map out the earths surface into regions or areas of vegetation, and secondly to trace the causes which have brought them about and led to their restriction and to their mutual relations.

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  • From this point of view it is not sufficient, in attempting to map out the earths surface into regions of vegetation, to have regard alone to adaptations to physical conditions.

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  • the effect must be to produce a sort of furrowed surface.

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  • The furrows are the great ocean basins, and these would still persist even if the land surface were enlarged to the 1400 fathoms contour.

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  • The furrowed surface of the earth gives the land-area a star-shaped figure, which may from time to time have varied in outline, but in the main has been permanent.

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  • the later period of the Mesozoic era saw the almost sudden advent of a fully developed angiospermous vegetation which rapidly occupied the earths surface, and which it is not easy to link on with any that preceded it.

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  • Ball found the temperature one inch below the surface to be 83, and he collected over forty species in flower.

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  • Palaeontological evidence conclusively proves that the surface of the earth has been successively occupied by vegetative forms of increasing complexity, rising from the simplest algae to the most highly organized flowering plant.

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  • In the attempt that has been made to map out the land surface of the earth, probable community of origin has been relied upon more than the possession of obvious characters.

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  • yA, earth, and yp64&v, to write), the exact and organized knowledge of the distribution of phenomena on the surface of the earth.

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  • The distribution of the mass of the atmosphere over the surface of the earth is also controlled by the relief of the crust, its greater or lesser density at the surface corresponding to the lesser or greater elevation of the surface.

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  • The physical and natural sciences are concerned in geography only so far as they deal with the forms of the earth's surface, or as regards the distribution of phenomena.

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  • of the surface of the sphere was clearly recognized.

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  • Aristotle left no work on geography, so that it is impossible to know what facts he associated with the science of the earth's surface.

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  • Each country is described with particular regard to its people as well as to its surface, and the prominence given to the human element is of special interest.

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  • He divides geography into The Spherical Part, or that for the study of which mathematics alone is required, and The Topical Part, or the description of the physical relations of parts of the earth's surface, preferring this division to that favoured by the ancient geographers - into general and special.

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  • It is a plain, straightforward description of the globe, and of the various phenomena of the surface, dealing only with definitely ascertained facts in the natural order of their relationships, but avoiding any systematic classification or even definitions of terms.

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  • His monumental Vergleichende Geographie, which was to have made the whole world its theme, died out in a wilderness of detail in twenty-one volumes before it had covered more of the earth's surface than Asia and a portion of Africa.

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  • The conception of the development of the plan of the earth from the first of cooling of the surface of the planet throughout the long geological periods, the guiding power of environment on the circulation of water and of air, on the distribution of plants and animals, and finally on the movements of man, give to geography a philosophical dignity and a scientific completeness whici it never previously possessed.

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  • precision on the surface and angular observations of the graphy positions of the heavenly bodies.

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  • The angle which the earth's axis makes with the plane in which the planet revolves round the sun determines the varying seasonal distribution of solar radiation over the surface and the mathematical zones of climate.

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  • Another important consequence of rotation is the deviation produced in moving bodies relatively to the surface.

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  • In the form known as Ferrell's Law this runs: " If a body moves in any direction on the earth's surface, there is a deflecting force which arises from the earth's rotation which tends to deflect it to the right in the northern hemisphere but to the left in the southern hemisphere."

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  • Granting that the geoid or mean surface of the ocean is a uniform spheroid, the distribution of land and water approximately indicates a division of the surface of the globe into two areas, one of elevation and one of depression.

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  • We know that the earth's surface if unveiled of water would exhibit a great region of elevation relief.

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  • So far only is it possible to speak with certainty, but it is permissible to take a few steps into the twilight of dawning knowledge and indicate the chief subdivisions which are likely to be established in the great crust-hollow and the great crust-heap. The boundary between these should obviously be the mean surface of the sphere.

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  • (or 71.4% of the surface), he found that the volume of the land above sea-level was 23,450,000 cub.

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  • Murray, as the result of his study, g divided the earth's surface into three zones - the continental to Al d ay.

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  • The area of the dry land was taken as 28.3% of the surface of the globe, and that of the oceans as 71.7%.

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  • earth's surface was above and° 57% below the mean level.

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  • By the device of a hypsographic curve co-ordinating the vertical relief and the areas of the earth's surface occupied by each zone of elevation, according to the system introduced by Supan, 2 Wagner showed his results graphically.

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  • Wagner subdivides the earth's surface, according to elevation, into the following five regions: Wagner's Divisions of the Earth's Crust.

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  • He says: " The surface of each of our great continental masses of land resembles that of a long and broad arch-like form, of which we see the simplest type in the New World.

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  • The Lap- surface of the North American arch is sagged down- worth's wards in the middle into a central depression which fold= lies between two long marginal plateaus, and these theory.

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  • plateaus are finally crowned by the wrinkled crests which form its two modern mountain systems. The surface of each of our ocean floors exactly resembles that of a continent turned upside down.

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  • Taking the Atlantic as our simplest type, we may say that the surface of an ocean basin resembles that of a mighty trough or syncline, buckled up more or less centrally in a medial ridge, which is bounded by two long and deep marginal hollows, in the cores of which still deeper grooves sink to the profoundest depths.

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  • The relief of the surface typically includes a central plain, Homology sometimes dipping below sea-level, bounded by lateral Homology of con- h i ghlands or mountain ranges, loftier on one side than.

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  • An elevation of small extent is distinguished as a " dome " when it is more than 100 fathoms from the surface, a " bank " when it is nearer the surface than 100 fathoms but deeper than 6 fathoms, and a " shoal " when it comes within 6 fathoms of the surface and so becomes a serious danger to shipping.

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  • These may be looked The six upon as being all derived by various modifications or elementa ry arrangements of the single form-unit, the slope or inclined land forms. plane surface.

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  • The plain or gently inclined uniform surface.

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  • The mount, composed of a surface falling away on every side from a particular place.

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  • The hollow or form produced by a land surface sloping inwards from all sides to a particular lowest place, the converse of a mount.

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  • A mountain may be described (it cannot be defined) as an elevated region of irregular surface rising comparatively abruptly from lower ground.

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  • The first and simplest function of the land surface is that of guiding loose material to a lower level.

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  • The loose material may, and in an arid region does, consist only of portions of the higher parts of the surface detached by the expansion and contraction produced by heating and cooling due to radiation.

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  • vapour of the atmosphere is caused in part by vertical movements of the atmosphere involving heat changes and apparently independent of the surface upon which precipitation occurs; but in greater part it is dictated by the form and altitude of the land surface and the direction of the prevailing winds, which itself is largely influenced by the land.

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  • Excellent examples of the indecisive drainage of a new land surface, on which the river system has not had time to impress itself, are to be seen in northern Canada and in Finland, where rivers are separated by scarcely perceptible divides, and the numerous lakes frequently belong to more than one river system.

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  • By a re-elevation of a peneplain the rivers of an old land surface may be restored to youthful activity, and resume their shaping action, deepening the old valleys and initiating new ones, starting afresh the whole course of the geographical cycle.

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  • These basins of internal drainage are calculated to amount to 22% of the land surface.

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  • The percentages of the land surface draining to the different oceans are approximately - Atlantic, 34'3%; Arctic sea, 26.5%; Pacific, 14.4%; Indian Ocean, 12.8%.'

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  • been estimated that the whole mass of living substance in existence at one time would cover the surface of the earth to a depth of one-fifth of an inch. ?

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  • In this way the surface of the land is divided into numerous natural regions, the flora and fauna of each of which include some distinctive species not shared by the others.

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  • The classification of the land surface into areas inhabited by distinctive groups of plants has been attempted by many phytogeographers, but without resulting in any scheme of general acceptance.

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  • The first requisites of all human beings are food and protection, in their search for which men are brought into intimate relations with the forms and productions of the earth's surface.

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  • In countries of uniform surface or faint relief, roads and railways may be constructed in any direction without regard to the configuration.

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  • Commercial geography may be defined as the description of the earth's surface with special reference to the discovery, production, transport and exchange of commodities.

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  • But apart from the applied science, there is an aspect of pure geography which concerns the theory of the relation of economics to the surface of the earth.

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  • The solution is then acidified, and the phenols are'liberated and form an oily layer on the surface of the acid.

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  • Internally they are found to consist of a lamina twisted upon itself, and externally they generally exhibit a tortuous structure, produced, before the cloaca was reached, by the spiral valve of a compressed small intestine (as in skates, sharks and dog-fishes); the surface shows also vascular impressions and corrugations due to the same cause.

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  • The Cambridgeshire coprolites are either amorphous or finger-shaped; the coprolites from the Greensand are of a black or dark-brown colour; while those from the Gault are greenish-white on the surface, brownish-black internally.

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  • The ethmoid frequently appears on the dorsal surface between the frontals.

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  • The premaxilla is always unpaired, but each half has three long processes directed backwards; one fuses with the maxillary bone, another helps to form the anterior part of the palate, while the third, together with its fellow, forms the " culmen " and extends backwards to the frontals, or rather to the ethmoid which there crops up on the surface.

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  • 8) or saddle-shaped; the anterior surface is concave in a transverse, but convex in a vertical direction, which on posterior surface shows the conditions reversed.

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  • Its upper end forms the acrocoracoid process, against the inner surface of which leans the proximal portion of the clavicle.

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  • When the wing is folded the long glenoid surface of the head of the humerus is bordered above by the tuberculum externum or superius, in the middle and below by the tuberculum medium or inferius for the insertion of the coraco-brachialis posterior muscle.

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  • The ulna is curved and rather stout; it articulates with both carpal bones; the cubital quills often cause rugosities on its dorsal surface.

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  • The posterior patagium, the fold between trunk and inner surface of the upper arm, is stretched by the metapatagialis muscle, which is composed of slips from the serratus, superficialis, latissimus dorsi and the expansor secundariorum muscles.

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  • The flexor digitorum sublimis muscle arises fleshy from the long elastic band which extends from the inner humeral condyle along the ventral surface of the ulna to the ulnar carpal bone, over which the tendon runs to insert itself on the radial anterior side of the first phalanx of the second digit.

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  • This, when fully developed, consists of two parts, but inserted by a single ribbon-like tendon upon the hinder surface of the femur, near the end of its first third; the caudal part, femoro-caudalis, expressed by Garrod by the symbol A, arises from transverse processes of the tail; the iliac part (accessorofemoro-caudal of Garrod, with the symbol B), arises mostly from the outer surface of the postacetabular ilium.

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  • One of these, broad and fleshy, is inserted upon the posterior surface of the distal third of the femur.

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  • There is very little grey matter in the cortex of the hemispheres, the surface of which is devoid of convolutions, mostly quite smooth; in others, for instance pigeons, fowls and birds of prey, a very slight furrow might be compared with the Sylvian fissure.

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  • One, the quadratus or bursalis muscle, arises from the hinder surface of the eyeball, and forms with its narrow margin, which is directed towards the optic nerve, a pulley for the long tendon of the pyramidalis muscle.

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  • This arises from the nasal surface of the ball, and its tendon passes into the somewhat imperfectly transparent nictitating membrane.

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  • The whole ventral surface of the pericardium is exposed when the sternum is removed.

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  • (I) The right and left carotids converge towards the middle and extend up the neck, imbedded in a furrow along the ventral surface of the cervical vertebrae.

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  • The left hepatica magna receives also the umbilical vein, which persists on the visceral surface of the abdominal wall, often anastomosing with the epigastric veins.

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  • There is only one right and one left lobe, each traversed through its whole length by a mesobronchium, whence arise about ten secondary bronchia; these send off radially arranged parabronchia, which end blindly near the surface.

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  • It may be safely deemed the most peculiar area of the earth's surface, while from the richness and multifariousness of its animal, and especially of its ornithic population, New Zealand cannot be 'compared with it.

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  • It prefers clear streams flowing over a gravelly bottom, and deep, still water, keeping close to the bottom in winter but disporting itself near the surface in the sunshine of summer.

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  • The surface of the summit (the highest point is variously stated at 3549, 35 82 and 3850 ft.) is broken into small valleys and hills, and is covered with luxuriant vegetation, its flora including the superb orchid Disa grandiflora and the well-known silver tree.

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  • In consequence of this composite formation, amethyst is apt to break with a rippled fracture, or to show "thumb markings," and the intersection of two sets of curved ripples may produce on the fractured surface a pattern something like that of "engine turning."

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  • In this part of its course the Euphrates runs through an open, treeless and sparsely peopled country, in a valley a few miles wide, which it has eroded in the rocky surface.

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  • speed to 60 fathoms for 20 knots, the pull of the line and rotator is borne by coned rollers, having their outlines tapering to a common point in their rotation, thus giving a broad rolling surface.

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  • In scabies (itch) it is the best remedy, killing the male parasite, which remains on the surface of the skin.

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  • In addition to this, the unfinished surface of the walls and the rough bosses left on many XXII.

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  • The state lies wholly within the great Brazilian plateau region, but its surface is much broken towards the N.

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  • The surface of the plateau is generally open campo and scrubby arboreal growth called caatingas, but the streams are generally bordered with forest, especially in the deeper valleys.

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  • When the latter is reached and the pit completed, the larva settles down at the bottom, buried in the soil with only the jaws projecting above the surface.

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  • A good deal of the seaboard is dangerous by reason of the sharp rocks which lie near the surface.

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  • Although there are patches of marsh - generally the swampy bottoms of valleys - the whole surface of Liberia inclines to be hilly or even mountainous at a short distance inland from the coast.

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  • Force kills argument and drives doubt below the smooth surface of a nominal conformity.

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  • The upper surface of the elytron is sharply folded inwards at intervals, so as to give rise to a regular series of external longitudinal furrows (striae) and to form a set of supports between the two chitinous layers forming the elytron.

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  • The upper surface often shows a number of impressed dots (punctures).

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  • Sometimes the glands are found beneath the disk of the elytron, opening by pores on the surface.

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  • Hence we find that beetles of some kind can hold their own anywhere on the earth's surface.

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  • The file may be on the head - either upper or lower surface - and the scraper formed by the front edge of the prothorax, as in various wood-boring beetles (Anobium and Scolytus).

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  • They breathe by piercing the surface film with the tail, where a pair of spiracles are situated.

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  • The pupal stage is passed in an earthen cell, just beneath the surface of the ground.

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  • They are flattened oval in form, circling with gliding motion over the surface film of the water, and occasionally diving, when they carry down with them a bubble of air.

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  • When Hydrophilus dives it carries a supply of air between the elytra and the dorsal surface of the abdomen, while air is FIG.

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  • side, being scooped in bubbles by the terminal segments of the feelers when the insect rises to the surface.

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  • That of Hydrophilus is attached to a floating leaf, and is provided with a hollow, tapering process, which projects above the surface and presumably conveys air to the enclosed eggs.

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  • All that do not happen to attach themselves to a bee of the genus Anthophora perish, but those that succeed in reaching the right host are carried to the nest, and as the bee lays an egg in the cell the triungulin slips off her body on to the egg, which floats on the surface of the honey.

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  • m., or one-sixth of the land surface of the globe (one twenty-third of its whole superficies).

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  • At the beginning of the Mesozoic era the whole country became land, bearing upon its surface the salt lakes in which the Trias was laid down.

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  • Being concealed, however, by more recent deposits, the deposits appear on the surface only in N.W.

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  • The Devonian dolomites, limestones and red sandstones cover immense tracts and appear on the surface over a much wider area.

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  • Russia witness the formation of numerous miniature canons, or ovraghi (deep ravines), the summits of which rapidly advance and ramify in the loose surface deposits.

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  • above the sea, the surface slopes gently in all directions to a level of 300 to 500 ft.

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  • Vast areas in Russia are quite unfit for cultivation, 19% of the aggregate surface of European Russia (apart from Poland and Finland) being occupied by lakes, marshes, sand, &c., 39% by forests, 16% by prairies, and only 26% being under cultivation.

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  • The distribution of all these is, however, very unequal, and the five following subdivisions may be established: - (T) the tundras; (2) the forest region; (3) the middle region, comprising the surface available for agriculture and partly covered with forests; (4) the black-earth (chernozyom) region; and (5) the steppes.

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  • The surface is undulatory; marshy meadow lands no longer exist on the flat watersheds, and only a few in the deeper and broader river valleys.

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  • In Finland the population is composed of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Protestants; the Baltic provinces are inhabited by German-speaking, Lettspeaking and Esth-speaking Lutherans; the inhabitants of the south-western provinces are chiefly Polish-speaking Roman Catholics and Yiddish-speaking Jews; in the Crimea and on the Middle Volga there are a considerable number of Tatarspeaking Mahommedans; and in the Caucasus there is a conglomeration of races and languages such as is to be found on no other portion of the earth's surface.

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  • It may be supposed that originally the public roads, when worn by the cartage of the coal, were repaired by laying planks of timber at the bottom of the ruts, and that then the planks were laid on the surface of special roads or ways' formed between the collieries and the river.

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  • But as it was laid in cast-iron chairs the lower table was exposed to damage under the hammering of the traffic, and thus was liable to be rendered useless as a running surface.

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  • In the second place, except in the unlikely event of all the places on the selected route lying at the same elevation, a line that is perfectly level is a physical impossibility; and from engineering considerations, even one with uniform gradients will be impracticable on the score of cost, unless the surface of the country is extraordinarily even.

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  • An embankment-bank, or fill, is the reverse of a cutting, being an artificial mound of earth on which the railway is taken across depressions in the surface of the ground.

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  • On this surface hurdles were placed, 4 ft.

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  • or rather more under the sleepers, and the materials of the surface layers are often chosen so as to be more or less dustless.

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  • Sometimes a strip of felt is interposed between the chair and the sleeper, and sometimes a serrated surface is prepared on the sleeper for the chair which is forced into its seat by hydraulic pressure.

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  • purposes: they diminish the wear of the sleeper under the rail by providing a larger bearing surface, and they help to support the spikes and so to keep the gauge.

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  • Intermediate stations at the surface level are.

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  • When the railway lies below the surface level the bulk of the offices are often placed on a bridge spanning the lines, access being given to the platforms by staircases or lifts, and similarly when the railway is at a high level the offices may be arranged under the lines.

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  • They may consist of earth with a retaining wall along the tracks and with the surface gravelled or paved with stone or asphalt, or they may be constructed entirely of timber, or they may be formed of stone slabs supported on longitudinal walls.

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  • - One pound of good Welsh coal properly burned in the fire-box of a locomotive yields about 15,000 British thermal units of heat at a temperature high enough to enable from 50 to 80% to flow across the boiler-heating surface to the water, the rest escaping up the chimney with the furnace gases.

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  • Such l i nes are primarily intended to supply quick means of passenger communication within the limits of cities, and are to be distinguished on the one hand from surface tramways, and on the other from those portions of trunk or other lines which lie within city boundaries, although the latter may incidentally do a local or intra-urban business.

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  • A trench was first excavated to the proper depth, then the side walls and arched roof of brick were put in place, earth was filled in behind and over the arch, and the surface of the ground restored, either by paving where streets were followed, or by actually being built over with houses where the lines passed under private property.

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  • below the surface, with an external diameter of 10 ft.

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  • Except at the shafts, which were sunk on proposed station sites, there was no interference with the surface of the streets or with street traffic during construction.

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  • Underground railways are of three general types: the one of extreme depth, built by tunnelling methods, usually with the shield and without regard to the surface topography, where the stations are put at such depth as to require lifts to carry the passengers from the station platform to the street level.

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  • This system has the advantage of the greatest convenience in operation, no lifts being required, since the distance from the street surface to the station platform is about 12 to 15 ft.; it has the disadvantages, however, of necessitating the tearing up of the street surface during construction, and the readjustment of sewer, water, gas and electric mains and other subsurface structures, and of having the gradients partially dependent on the surface topography.

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  • The third type is the intermediate one between those two, followed by the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways, in London, where the railway has an arched roof, built usually at a sufficient distance below the surface of the street to permit the other subsurface structures to lie in the ground above the crown of the arch, and where the station platforms are from 20 to 30 ft.

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  • beneath the surface of the street - a depth not sufficient to warrant the introduction of lifts, but enough to be inconvenient.

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  • - New York Rapid Transit railway, showing also the tracks and conduits of the electric surface tramway.

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  • The Great Basin is not, as its name implies, a topographic cup. Its surface is of varied character, with many independent closed basins draining into lakes or "playas," none of which, however, has outlet to the sea.

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  • He calls to the waters of the sea and pours them on the earth's surface (chap. v.

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  • wide at the base, 150 in the middle and 90 at the top. The uppermost surface is paved with blocks of the same material forming nine concentric circles, the innermost consisting of nine blocks, and that on the outside of eighty-one blocks.

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  • The surface is mostly flat, but on the W.

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  • are water surface.

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  • above its surface.

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  • The surface of this table-land is very rugged, and frequently broken by mountain ranges running N.

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  • Tonopah is at the outcropping of a number of ledges which continue for several hundred feet below the surface for an unknown distance.

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  • The surface of the state resembles in part that of Bahia, with a zone of forested lands near the coast, and back of this a higher zone of rough open country, called agrestes.

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  • avoirdupois); of length, pes (foot: = about 11R in.); of surface, jugerum (= about a acre); of measure, liquid amphora (about 5 5 gal.),, dry modius (about 1 9 - 0 - peck).

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  • It would take 20 tons of coal a day burned on each square foot of the sun's surface to supply the daily radiation.

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  • All those symptoms are referable to spasmodic constriction of the small surface arteries, the pulse at the wrist being itself small, hard and quick.

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  • The feeling of heat is at first an internal one, but it spreads outwards to the surface and to the extremities; the skin becomes warm and red, but remains dry; the pulse becomes softer and more full, but still quick; and the throbbings occur in exposed arteries, such as the temporal.

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  • The larva has no breathing-tube, and floats horizontally at the surface, except when feeding; it does not frequent sewage or foul water.

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  • The ova of Culex, on the other hand, are deposited in any stagnant water, including cesspools, drains, cisterns, or water collected in any vessel; they float in boat-shaped masses on the surface.

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  • Put comprehensively, it involves the control of the subsoil and surface waters by drainage, the regulation of rivers and floods, suitable agriculture, the clearing of forests or jungles, which tend to increase the rainfall and keep the ground swampy.

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  • as the waterpest (Anacharis alsinatrum) which covers the surface of the water and suffocates larvae and nymphae.

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  • Diptera as an order are probably more widely distributed over the earth's surface than are the representatives of any similar division of the animal kingdom.

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  • The most remarkable of these rivers is the Laibach, which rises in the Karst region under the name of Poik, takes afterwards a subterranean course and traverses the Adelsberg grotto, and appears again on the surface near Planina under the name of Unz.

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  • Shortly after this it takes for the second time a subterranean course, to appear finally on the surface near Oberlaibach.

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  • high, with hills rising to 600 ft.; their sides are generally steep. The surface is covered with a rich mould unusual in coral islands, mixed towards the sea with sand, and having a substratum of red or blue clay.

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  • to 32 ft., with the upper surface, the throat, and chest, are of a resplendent golden-green,' while the lower parts are of a vivid scarlet.

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  • The surface is not so level and monotonous as it appears on many maps; for, although there are scarcely any running streams, it is diversified by a few lakes, of which Bacalar and Chichankanab are the largest, as well as by low isolated hills and ridges in the W., and in the E.

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  • The rains are quickly absorbed by the light porous soil and leave only temporary effects on the surface, where arboreal growth is stunted and grasses are commonly thin and harsh.

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  • In central Europe it thrives best in enclosed, preserved waters, with a clayey or muddy bottom and with an abundant vegetation; it avoids clear waters with stony ground, and is altogether absent from rapid streams. The tench is distinguished by its very small scales, which are deeply imbedded in a thick skin, whose surface is as slippery as that of an eel.

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  • The albino variety especially, which is known as the "golden tench," can be recommended for ornamental waters, as its bright orange colours render it visible for some distance below the surface of the water.

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  • portion produce only a general undulating surface but to the westward become higher and steeper until the country assumes a bold and rugged aspect.

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  • The land included in farms amounted in 1900 to 22,745,356 acres or 73% of the total land surface of the state, and the percentage of farm land that was improved increased from 26.5 in 1870 to 36.6 in 1900.

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  • The nests of different kinds of ants are constructed in very different situations; many species (Lasius, for example) make underground nests; galleries and chambers being hollowed out in the soil, and opening by small holes on the surface, or protected above by a large stone.

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  • The colonies of Aphaenogaster occupy nests extending over an area of fifty to a hundred square yards several feet below the surface of the ground.

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  • mould and bacterial growths, and causing the appearance, on the surface of their " mushroom garden," of numerous small white bodies formed by swollen ends of the fungus hyphae.

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  • The surface of Minas Geraes is broken by mountain ranges and deeply eroded rivercourses, the latter forming fertile valleys shut in by partly barren uplands, or campos.

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  • The surface of the country is uneven, being traversed by the Vindhya ranges, a peak of which near Raysen is upwards of 2500 ft.

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  • Below the anther the surface of the column in front is hollowed out into a greenish depression covered with viscid fluid - this is the two united stigmas.

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  • ASIA, the name of one of the great continents into which the earth's surface is divided, embracing the north-eastern portion of the great mass of land which constitutes what is generally known as the Old World, of which Europe forms the northwestern and Africa the south-western region.

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  • 3,641,000 2,873,000 large spherical areas on a flat surface being necessarily continent.

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  • boundaries, from following lines on which the continuity of the land is interrupted, often necessarily indicate important differences in the conditions of adjoining countries, and of their political and physical relations, yet variations of the elevation of the surface above the sea-level frequently produce effects not less marked.

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  • The mountain mass, moreover, is not less important in causing a complete separation between the atmospheric conditions on its opposite flanks, by reason of the extent to which it penetrates that stratum of the atmosphere which is in contact with the earth's surface and is effective in determining climate.

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  • The great plain extends, with an almost unbroken surface, from the most western to the most eastern extremity of British India, and is composed of deposits so finely comminuted, that it is no exaggeration to say that it is possible to go from the Bay of Bengal up the Ganges, through the Punjab, and down the Indus again to the sea, over a distance of 2000 m.

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  • The surface is for the most part a hard stony desert, areas of blown sand occurring but exceptionally.

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  • The rainfall, though not heavy, is sufficient to maintain such vegetation as is compatible with the conditions of temperature, and the surface is often swampy or peaty.

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  • Sumatra, the largest of the islands, is but thinly peopled; the greater part of the surface is covered with dense forest, the cultivated area being comparatively small, confined to the low lands, and chiefly in the volcanic region near the centre of the island.

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  • The population is small, rude and uncivilized; and the surface is rough and mountainous and generally covered with forest except near the coast, to the alluvial lands on which settlers have been attracted from various surrounding countries.

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  • mountains are said to rise to 20,000 ft., having the appear ance of being permanently covered with snow; the surface seems generally to be clothed with thick wood.

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  • interests, the material progress of the Eastern world has appeared to remain stationary, yet large accessions to geographical knowledge have at least been made, and in some instances a deeper knowledge of the surface of the country and modern conditions of life has led to the straightening of many crooked paths in history, and a better appreciation of the slow processes of advancing civilization.

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  • In the summer a great accumulation of solar heat takes place on the dry surface soil, from which it cannot be released upwards by evaporation, as might be the case were the soil moist or covered with vegetation, nor can it be readily conveyed away downwards as happens on the ocean.

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  • In the winter similar consequences ensue, in a negative direction, from the prolonged loss of heat by radiation in the long and clear nights - an effect which is intensified wherever the surface is covered with snow, or the air little charged with vapour.

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  • below the freezing point of water, the summer heat merely thawing the surface to a depth of about 3 ft.

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  • The interior of the province is also thickly sprinkled with lakes, the combined area of which is equal to about one-twentieth of the entire surface.

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  • t, Tactile hairs springing from surface of body.

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