Sur- Sentence Examples

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  • The doctrine of " Emboitement " is contained in the Considerations sur le principe de vie (1705); the preface to the Theodicee (1710); and the Principes de la nature et de la grace (§ 6) (1718).

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  • Tieghem published his great work, Sur Ia Racine, Ann.

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  • The Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants, which sketches out Lamarck's doctrines, was published in 1802; but the full development of his views in the Philosophic zoologique did not take place until 1809.

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  • Lesagef has shown that the height of certain plants is decreased by cultivation in a saline soil, and that the leaves of iLesage, Recherches exphrimentales sur les modifications de, feuilles chez les plantes maritimes, in Rev. gen.

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  • It would be interesting to know what brought about the change of opinion manifested in the Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants, published only seven years later.

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  • In 1866 he published Une troupe de comediens, and afterwards Essai sur la restauration de nos monuments historiques devant fart et devant le budget, which deals particularly with the restoration of the cathedral of Evreux.

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  • In 1741 he received his first public distinction in being admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences, to which he had previously presented several papers, including a Memoire sur le calcul integral (1739).

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  • This discovery was followed by that of the calculus of partial differences, the first trials of which were published in his Reflexion sur la cause generale des vents (1747).

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  • Eckard's Memoires historiques sur Louis XVII.

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  • In 1752 he published an Essai d'une nouvelle theorie sur la resistance des / g uides, which contains a large number of original ideas and new observations.

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  • In 1746 and 1748 he published in the Memoirs of the Academy of Berlin "Recherches sur le calcul integral," a branch of mathematical science which is greatly indebted to him.

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  • His Essai sur la societe des gens de lettres avec les grands was a worthy vindication of the independence of literary men, and a thorough exposure of the evils of the system of patronage.

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  • A treatise, Sur la destruction des Jesuites (1765), involved him in a fresh controversy, his own share in which was rendered very easy by the violence and extravagance of his adversaries.

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  • See also Kuenen's National Religions and Universal Religions (Hibbert lectures) and Lagrange's Etudes sur les religions simitiques (2nd ed.).

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  • History had always been a favourite study with him, and Mably's Observations sur l'histoire appears to have had considerable influence in determining him to the choice of some special period for historic research.

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  • At this early period he seems already to have adopted in some degree the plan of study he followed in after life and recommended in his Essai sur l'etude - that is, of letting his subject rather than his author determine his course, of suspending the perusal of a book to reflect, and to compare the statements with those of other authors - so that he often read portions of many volumes while mastering one.

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  • In 1761 Gibbon, at the age of twenty-four, after many delays, and with many flutterings of hope and fear, gave to the world, in French, his maiden publication, an Essai sur l'etude de la litterature, which he had composed two years before.

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  • In 1826, in his Memoire sur les roues hydrauliques a aubes courbes, he brought forward improvements in the construction of water-wheels, which more than doubled their efficiency.

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  • His wild extravagance, however, forced his father to forestall his creditors by securing his detention in semi-exile in the country, where he wrote his earliest extant work, the Essai sur le despotisme.

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  • Romilly was introduced to Mirabeau by Sir Francis D'Ivernois (1757-1842), and readily undertook to translate into English the Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus, which Mirabeau had written in 1785.

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  • The Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus which Romilly translated was the only important work Mirabeau wrote in the year 1785, and it is a good specimen of his method.

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  • His first literary work, except the bombastic but eloquent Essai sur le despotisme (Neufchatel, 1 775), was a translation of Robert Watson's Philip II., done in Holland with the help of Durival; his Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus (London, 1788) was based on a pamphlet by Aedanus Burke (1743-1802), of South Carolina, who opposed the aristocratic tendencies of the Society of the Cincinnati, and the notes to it were by Target;, his financial writings were suggested by the Genevese exile, Claviere.

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  • He published his Avis sur l'assiette et la repartition de la taille (1762-1770), and as president of the Societe d'agriculture de Limoges offered prizes for essays on the principles of taxation.

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  • In 1769 he wrote his Memoire sur les prrts a interet, on the occasion of a scandalous financial crisis at Angouleme, the peculiar interest of which is that in it the question of lending money at interest was for the first time treated scientifically, and not merely from the ecclesiastical point of view.

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  • Among other works written during Turgot's intendancy were the Memoire sur les mines et carrieres, and the Memoire sur la marque des fers, in which he protested against state regulation and interference and advocated free competition.

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  • It was in 1770 that he wrote his famous Lettres sur la liberte du commerce des grains, addressed to the comptroller-general, the abbe Terray.

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  • Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.

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  • The opposition was now continued by Linguet and Necker, who in 1 775 published his treatise Sur la legislation et le commerce des grains.

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  • His own plan is to be found in his Memoire sur les municipalites, which was submitted informally to the king.

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  • See also the Fragments inidits de critique sur Pierre et Thomas Corneille of Alfred de Vigny, published in 1905.

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  • The incident reawakened the interest which had early been aroused in the young Corsican by converse with the savant Volney, author of Les Ruines, ou meditation sur les revolutions des empires.

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  • The views of neither of these systematizers pleased Temminck, who in 1817 replied rather sharply to Vieillot in some Observations sur la classification methodique des oiseaux, a pamphlet published at Amsterdam, and prefixed to the second edition m i nd.

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  • Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.

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  • Abich (Sur la structure et la geologic du Daghestan, 1862), the successive folds of Jurassic limestones and slates, all nearly parallel to the Caucasus, which form lofty, narrow plateaus.

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  • Oberlin published several manuals on archaeology and ancient geography, and made frequent excursions into different provinces of France to investigate antiquarian remains and study provincial dialects, the result appearing in Essai sur le patois Lorrain (1775); Dissertations sur les Minnesingers (1782-1789); and Observations concernant le patois et les mceurs des gens de la campagne (1791).

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  • Schlumberger has written on the coins and seals of the Latin East in various publications; while Rey has written an Etude sur les monuments de l'architecture militaire (Paris, 1871).

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  • After the revolution of 1830 he founded the Pantheon litteraire, in which he published a Choix d'ouvrages mystiques (1843), a Choix de monuments primitifs de l'eglise chretienne (1837), a Choix des historiens grecs (1837), a collection of Chroniques etrangeres relatives aux expeditions francaises pendant XIII' siècle (1840), and, most important of all, a Choix de chroniques et memoires sur l'histoire de France (1836-1841).

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  • Under the pseudonym of La Motte Josseval, Amelot subsequently published a Discours politique sur Tacite, in which he analysed the character of Tiberius.

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  • The chief event in the history of Brielle is its capture by the Gueux sur Mer, a squadron of privateers which raided the Dutch coast under commission of the prince of Orange.

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  • Other works by him were Reponse au livre de P. Nouet sur l'eucharistie (1668); CEuvres posthumes (Amsterdam, 1688), containing the Traite de la composition d'un sermon, translated into English in 1778.

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  • He wrote a Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages du comte de Lanjuinais, which was prefixed to an edition of his father's Ouvres (4 vols., 1832).

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  • Antoine Cesar Becquerel (1788-1878), was born at Chatillon sur Loing on the 8th of March 1788.

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  • After fresh trouble with the clergy, he returned to Paris and published a defence of his theories in a work entitled Ides sur la politique de Platon et d'Aristole.

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  • Here in 1682 he published his famous Pensees diverses sur la comete de 1680 and his critique of Maimbourg's work on the history of Calvinism.

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  • Picot, Notice sur Anthim d'Ivir (Paris, 1886).

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  • In the following year he published the first volume of his famous work Essai sur la metaphysique d'Aristote, to which in 1846 he added a supplementary volume.

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  • The first course was published in the Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses; and here also appeared instalments of his commentary on St John's Gospel, his critically important Notes sur la Genese, and a Chronique biblique unmatched in its mastery of its numberless subjects and its fearless yet delicate penetration.

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  • On the 1st of October Loisy published three new books, Autour d'un petit livre, Le Quatrieme Evangile and Le Discours sur la Montagne.

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  • Le Discours sur la Montagne is a fragment of a coming enlarged commentary on the synoptic Gospels.

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  • Simples Reflexions sur le decret Lamentabili et sur l'encyclique Pascendi, 12m0, 277 pages, was published from Ceffonds a few days after the commentary.

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  • In the appended treatise Sur la Cause de la pesanteur, he rejected gravitation as a universal quality of matter, although admitting the Newtonian theory of the planetary revolutions.

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  • Cardinal Siffrein, who is known as the Abbe Maury (1746-1817), resumed all the known artifices of sermon-style in a volume which has a permanent historical value, the well-known Essai sur l'eloquence de la chaire (1810); he was himself rather a fiery politician than a persuasive divine.

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  • Elie de Beaumont's name is widely known to geologists in connexion with his theory of the origin of mountain ranges, first propounded in a paper read to the Academy of Sciences in 1829, and afterwards elaborated in his Notice sur le systeme des montagnes (3 vols., 1852).

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  • His archaeological and mythological Memoire sur Venus (1775),(1775), which has been ranked with similar works of Heyne and Winckelmann, gained him admission to the Academie des Inscriptions (1778).

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  • The first volume of its memoirs,' published in the following year, contained a paper by Lagrange entitled Recherches sur la nature et la propagation du son, in which the power of his analysis and his address in its application were equally conspicuous.

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  • Besides the separate works already named are Resolution des equations numeriques (1798, 2nd ed., 1808, 3rd ed., 1826), and Lecons sur le calcul des fonctions (1805, 2nd ed., 1806), designed as a commentary and supplement to the first part of the Theorie des fonctions.

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  • Luchaire, Manuel des instituticns francaises (Paris, 1892); P. Guilhiermoz, Essai sur l'origine de la noblesse en France au moyen age (Paris, 1902); Brunner, Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte, Band ii.

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  • His Recherches historiques et geographiques sur l'Inde appeared in 1786, and formed part of Thieffenthaler's Geography of India.

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  • He published first a collection of Dissertations sur l'histoire civile et ecclesiastique de Paris (3 vols., 1739-1743), then an Histoire de la ville et de tout le diocese de Paris (15 vols., 1745-1760), which is a mine of information, mostly taken from the original sources.

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  • The analytical tournament closed with the communication to the Academy by Laplace, 1 "Recherches sur le calcul integral," Mélanges de la Soc. Roy.

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  • This tract, the Discours sur les causes de l'extreme cherte qui est aujourdhuy en France (1574), and the disquisition on public revenues in the sixth book of the Republique, entitle Bodin to a distinguished position among the earlier economists.

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  • In the last year of his life he became acquainted with Mesmer, and published a Lettre sur le magnetisme animal.

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  • But it was by his Nouveaux Dialogues des morts (1683) that Fontenelle established a genuine claim to high literary rank; and that claim was enhanced three years later by the appearance of the Entretiens sur la pluralite des mondes (1686), a work which was among the very first to illustrate the possibility of being scientific without being either uninteresting or unintelligible to the ordinary reader.

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  • To the following year (1688) belongs his Digression sur les anciens et les modernes, in which he took the modern side in the controversy then raging; his Doutes sur le systeme physique des causes occasionnelles (against Malebranche) appeared shortly afterwards.

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  • In the middle of this period, however, in 1733, two important books, the Lettres philosophiques sur les Anglais and the Temple du gout appeared.

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  • She wrote Institutions dehysique (1740), Dissertation sur la nature et la propagation du feu (1 744), Doutes sur les religions reculees (1792), and in 1756 published a translation of Newton's Principia.

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  • The principal literary results of his early years here were the Discours en vers sur l'homme, the play of Alzire and L'Enfant prodigue (1736), and a long treatise on the Newtonian system which he and Madame du Chatelet wrote together.

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  • At Colmar he was not safe, especially when in January 1754 a pirated edition of the Essai sur les me urs, written long before, appeared.

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  • But even in these books defects are present, which appear much more strongly in the singular olla podrida entitled Essai sur les me urs, in the Annales de l'empire and in the minor historical works.

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  • In literary criticism pure and simple his principal work is the Commentaire sur Corneille, though he wrote a good deal more of the same kind - sometimes (as in his Life and notices of Moliere) independently sometimes as part of his Siecles.

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  • Henri, comte de La Rochejacquelein, born at Dubertien, near Chatillon, sur Sevres, on the 10th of August 1772, did not emigrate with his father.

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  • His Son, Auguste Arthur Beugnot (1797-1865), was an historian and scholar, who published an Essai sur les institutions de Saint Louis (1821), Histoire de la destruction du paganisme en occident (2 vols., 1885), and edited the Olim of the parlement of Paris, the Assizes of Jerusalem, and the Coutumes de Beauvoisis of Philippe de Beaumanoir.

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  • In the hands of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) hydrostatics assumed the dignity of a science, and in a treatise on the equilibrium of liquids (Sur l'equilibre des liqueurs), found among his manuscripts after his death and published in 1663, the laws of the equilibrium of liquids were demonstrated in the most simple manner, and amply confirmed by experiments.

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  • These equations were found by d'Alembert from two principles - that a rectangular canal, taken in a mass of fluid in equilibrium, is itself in equilibrium, and that a portion of the fluid, in passing from one place to another, preserves the same volume when the fluid is incompressible, or dilates itself according to a given law when the fluid is elastic. His ingenious method, published in 1752, in his Essai sur la resistance des fluides, was brought to perfection in his Opuscules mathematiques, and was adopted by Leonhard Euler.

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  • Following in the steps of the Abbe Charles Bossut (Nouvelles Experiences sur la resistance des fluides, 1777), he published, in 1786, a revised edition of his Principes d'hydraulique, which contains a satisfactory theory of the motion of fluids, founded solely upon experiments.

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  • In 1785 appeared his Recherches theoriques et experimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'elasticite des fils de metal, &c. This memoir contained a description of different forms of his torsion balance, an instrument used by him with great success for the experimental investigation of the distribution of electricity on surfaces and of the laws of electrical and magnetic action, of the mathematical theory of which he may also be regarded as the founder.

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  • His best legal treatise is Memoire pour le comte de Morangies (Paris, 1772); Linguet's imprisonment in the Bastille afforded him the opportunity of writing his Memoires sur la Bastille, first published in London in 1789; it has been translated into English (Dublin, 1783, and Edinburgh, 1884-1887), and is the best of his works, though untrustworthy.

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  • At the Ecole des Chartes, where his career was remarkably brilliant, his valedictory thesis was an Essai sur les revenus publics en Normandie au XII' siècle (1849), and it was to the history of his native province that he devoted his early works.

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  • Of these the Etudes sur la condition de la classe agricole et l'Nat de l'agriculture en Normandie au moyen dge (1851), condensing an enormous mass of facts drawn from the local archives, was reprinted in 1905 without change, and remains authoritative.

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  • Of his purely historical works special mention must be made of his Memoire sur les actes d'Innocent III (1857), and his Memoire sur les operations financieres des Templiers (1889), a collection of documents of the highest value for economic history.

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  • In addition to other medical works he published anonymously Conjectures sur les memoires originaux dont it parait que Moyse s'est servi pour composer le livre de la Genese, (1753), in which he pointed out that two main sources can be traced in the book of Genesis; and two dissertations on the immateriality and immortality of the soul,.

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  • Boudard's Etudes sur l'alphabet iberien (Paris, 1852), and Numismatique iberienne (Beziers, 1859); Aloiss Heiss, Notes sur les monnaies celtiberiennes (Paris, 1865), and Descriptionenerale des monnaies antiques de l'Espagne (Paris, 1870); Phillips, O Ober das iberische Alphabet (Vienna, 1870), Die Einwanderung der Iberer in die pyren.

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  • It contains numerous illustrations; maps of the routes of the ancient aqueducts and the city of Rome in the time of Frontinus; a photographic reproduction of the only MS. (the Monte Cassino); several explanatory chapters, and a concise bibliography, in which special reference is made to P. d Tissot, E tude sur la condition des agrimensores (1879).

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  • London and New York, 1896); Discours sur l'esprit positif (Paris, 1844; Eng.

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  • In 1519, in spite of wise counsels, ' On this point see Paulin Paris, Etudes sur le reine de Francois I".

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  • In the Observations sur les ecrits modernes (1735-1743) Desfontaines held the gates of Philistia for eight years against the Encyclopaedists, and even the redoubtable Voltaire himself.

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  • The name of Freron, perhaps the most vigorous enemy Voltaire ever encountered, was long connected with Lettres sur quelques ecrits de ce temps (1749-1754), followed by L'Annee litteraire (1754-1790).

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  • Among the contributors of Freron was another manufacturer of criticism, the abbe de la Porte, who, having quarrelled with his confrere, founded Observations sur la litterature moderne (1749-1752) and L'Observateur litteraire (1758-1761).

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  • Near the town are the ruins of three famous castles, Ulrichsburg, Girsberg and Hohrappoltstein, which formerly belonged to the lords of Rappoltstein._ See Bernhard, Recherches sur l'histoire de la vine de Rappoltsweiler (Colmar, 1888); and Kube, Rappoltsweiler, das Carolabad and Umgebung (Strassburg, 1905).

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  • During his lifetime only his Jett de paume (1791) and Hymne sur les Suisses (1792) had been given to the world.

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  • Lieby, Etude sur le thedtre de Marie-Joseph Chenier (1902).

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  • Rapin was also the author of a Dissertation sur les Whigs et les Torys (1717).

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  • Villele, who before the promulgation of the charter had written some Observations sur le projet de constitution opposing it, as too democratic in character, naturally took his place on the extreme right with the ultra-royalists.

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  • In 1745 Diderot adapted or reproduced the Inquiry concerning Virtue in what was afterwards known as his Essai sur le Merite et la Vertu.

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  • The only work he published was his Reflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu et sur les machines propres a developper cette puissance (Paris, 1824).

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  • He was very hostile to the king, furnished a Rapport sur les crimes imputes a Louis Ca pet (loth of December 1792), and voted for the death of Louis without appeal or respite.

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  • Makaroff, The Yermak in the Ice (in Russian) (St Petersburg, 1901); The Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition (on the " Voringen "), 1876-1878 (Christiania, 1880-1900); Expeditions scientifiques du " Travailleur " et du " Talisman," 1880-1883 (Paris, 1891 et seq.); Die Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition, 1889 (Kiel, 1892 et seq.); Resultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert I e ' Prince Souverain de Monaco (Monaco, from 1889); The Danish " Ingolf " Expedition, 1806 (Copenhagen, 1900); Prof. Luksch, Expeditionen S.M.

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  • Systematic detailed descriptions of the French coalfields appear from time to time under the title of Etudes sur les gites mineraux de la France from the ministry of public works in Paris.

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  • His scientific work covered a wide range, but his name is best known for the classical researches he carried out on animal fats, published in 1823 (Recherches sur les corps gras d'origine animate).

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  • In that year appeared Waddington's Mdmoire sur la chronologie de la vie du rheteur Aelius Aristide, in which it was shown from a most acute combination of circumstances that the Quadratus whose name is mentioned in the Martyrium was proconsul of Asia in 155-156, and that consequently Polycarp was martyred on the 23rd of February 155.

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  • Several letters from Farini to Mr Gladstone and Lord John Russell were reprinted in a Memoire sur les affaires d'Italie (1859), and a collection of his political correspondence was published under the title of Lettres sur les affaires d'Italie (Paris, 1860).

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  • It was about this time that Grimm extolled Garrick as the first and only actor who came up to the demands of his imagination; and it was in a reply to a pamphlet occasioned by Garrick's visit that Diderot first gave expression to the views expounded in his Paradoxe sur le comedien.

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  • Weil, Etudes sur l'antiquite grecque (1900), and C. Giarratani, Tirteo e i suoi carmi (1905).

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  • The archbishop wrote several treatises of considerable value, including an Essai sur les hiProglyphes egyptiens (Paris, 1834), in which he showed that Champollion's system was insufficient to explain the hieroglyphics.

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  • He had then just published his first work, an Essai sur les machines en general.

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  • He published two books on English history - Essai sur les causes qui, en 1649, amenerent en Angleterre l'etablissement de la republique (Paris, 1799), and Tableau politique des regnes de Charles II et Jacques II, derniers rois de la maison de Stuart (The Hague, 1818) - which contained much indirect criticism of the Directory and the Restoration governments.

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  • His best-known papers, however, deal with prime numbers; in one of these (" Sur les nombres premiers," 1850) he established the existence of limits within which must be comprised the sum of the logarithms of the primes inferior to a given number.

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  • Schlosser Sudarabiens (2 parts, Vienna, 1879-1881) (especially for chronology and antiquities); Mordtmann and Muller, Sabdische Denkmdler (Vienna, 1883); Derenbourg, Etudes sur l'epigraphie du Yemen (Paris, 1884); Id., Nouv.

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  • He published in 1810 a translation of the Parthenais of the Danish poet Baggesen, with a preface on the various kinds of poetry; in 1823 translations of two tragedies of Manzoni, with a preface "Sur la the orie de l'art dramatique"; and in 1824-1825 his translation of the popular songs of modern Greece, with a "Discours preliminaire" on popular poetry.

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  • His other writings were the article "` Evidence" in the Encyclopedie, and Recherches sur l'evidence des verites geometriques, with a Projet de nouveaux elements de geometrie, 1773.

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  • It is agreed that the idea was suggested when Rousseau went to pay a visit to Diderot, who was in prison at Vincennes for his Lettre sur les aveugles.

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  • In the same year, however, a letter Sur la musique francaise again had a great vogue.

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  • The system of notation (by figures) concerning which he read a paper before the Academie des Sciences, August 22, 1742, was ingenious, but practically worse than useless, and failed to attract attention, though the paper was published in 1 743 under the title of Dissertation sur la musique moderne.

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  • In 1835 he published his principal work, Sur l'homme et le developpement de ses facultes, ou essai de physique sociale (2nd ed., 1869), containing a resume of his statistical researches on the development of the physical and intellectual qualities of man, and on the "average man" both physically and intellectually considered.

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  • The results of his leisure were in 1787 a new translation of Newton's Optics, and in 1788 his Memoires academiques, ou nouvelles decouvertes sur la lumiere.

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  • He wrote an epic, Charlemagne, ou l'Eglise delivree (2 vols., 1814), also La Verite sur les Cent _Tours and Memoirs, which were not completed.

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  • Lajard, Recherches sur le Culte de Mithra, p. 605.

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  • Beugnot, "Sur la spoliation des biens du clerge attribuee a Charles Martel," in the Mem.

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  • In 1782 he received the prize from the Berlin Academy for his Dissertation sur la question de balistique," a memoir relating to the paths of projectiles in resisting media.

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  • He also, about this time, wrote his " Recherches sur la figure des planetes," published in the Memoires of the French Academy, of which he was elected a member in succession to le Rond d'Alembert in 1783.

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  • The first edition of the former appeared in 1798 under the title Essai sur la theorie des nombres; there was a second edition in 1808; a first supplement was published in 1816, and a second in 1825.

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  • The symbol (alp) which is known as Legendre's symbol, and denotes the positive or negative unit which is the remainder when au s (-1) is divided by a prime number p, does not appear in this memoir, but was first used in the Essai sur la theorie des nombres.

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  • In the first of these, entitled " Recherches sur l'attraction des spheroides homogenes," published in the Memoires of the Academy for 1785, but communicated to it at an earlier period, Legendre introduces the celebrated expressions which, though frequently called Laplace's coefficients, are more correctly named after Legendre.

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  • In a somewhat similar fashion, Lamennais (in the first stage of his speculations, represented by the Essai sur l'indiference en matiere religieuse, 1817-18 21) endeavoured to destroy all rational certitude in order to establish the principle of authority; and the same profound distrust of the power of the natural reason to-arrive at truth is exemplified (though the allegation has been denied by the author) in Cardinal Newman.

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  • His Essai sur la theorie des satellites de Jupiter (1766), an expansion of a memoir presented to the Academy in 1763, showed much original power; and it was followed up in 1771 by a noteworthy dissertation Sur les inegalites de la lumiere des satellites de Jupiter.

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  • The first attempt of this kind is that of a French Catholic physician, Jean Astruc. In a work published anonymously in 1 753 under the title of Conjectures sur les mdmoires A sfrrc..

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  • A version of Abd-Allatif, Relation arabe sur l'Egypte, and essays on the history of the law of property in Egypt since the Arab conquest (1805-1818).

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  • The treatise which laid the foundation for all subsequent invertebrate palaeontology was his memoir, Sur les fossiles des environs de Paris..

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  • Early trained as a comparative anatomist, the discovery of Upper Eocene mammals in the gypsum quarries of Montmartre found him fully prepared (1798), and in 1812 appeared his Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, brilliantly written and constituting the foundation of the modern study of the extinct vertebrates.

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  • His joint memoirs with Brongniart, Essai sur la geographie des environs de Paris avec une carte geognostique et des coupes de terrain (1808) and Description geologique des environs de Paris (1835) were based on the wonderful succession of Tertiary faunas in the rocks of the Paris basin.

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  • Following Cuvier's Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, the rich succession of Tertiary mammalian life was gradually revealed to France through the explorations and descriptions of such authors as Croizet, Jobert, de Christol, Eymar, Pomel and Lartet, during a period of rather dry, systematic work, which included, however, the broader generalizations of Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1778-1850), and culminated in the comprehensive treatises on Tertiary palaeontology of Paul Gervais (1816-1879).

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  • Near the 10th parallel the great chain again divides, the eastern part crossing the southern end of the plateau, and the western, or Sierra Madre del Sur, following the shore line closely to Tehuantepec. The Sierra Madre Occidental has but few noteworthy elevations, its culminating points being the Nevado de Colima (14,363 ft.) and Volcan de Colima (12,750 ft.) in the state of Jalisco.

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  • The Distrito del Norte is credited with a population of 7583 and has its capital at Ensenada (pop. 1026); the Distrito del Sur has a population of 40,041 and has its capital at La Paz.

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  • In 1828 he was awarded the prize offered by the Societe d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale for a process of making artificial ultramarine with all the properties of the substance prepared from lapis lazuli; and six years later he resigned his official position in order to devote himself to the commercial production of that material, a factory for which he established at Fleurieux sur Saone.

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  • He wrote Lettres sur l'Algerie (1877) and Promenades japonaises (1880), and also some musical compositions, including a grand opera, Tai-Tsoung (1894).

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  • See Leo Africanus, and Paul Lambert's detailed description in Notice sur la y ille de Maroc (Paris, 1868).

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  • As on his outward voyage, Leif was again driven far out of his course by contrary weather - this time to lands (in America) "of which he had previously had no knowledge," where "self-sown" wheat grew, and vines, and "m&sur" (maple?) wood.

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  • With the exception of his description of the French Revolution, which was chiefly a political manifesto, all his early works refer to the middle ages - De La feodalite, des institutions de Saint Louis et de l'influence de la legislation de ce prince (1822); La Germanic au vin e et au ix' siecle, sa conversion au christianisme, et son introduction dans la societe civilisee de l'Europe occidentale (1834); Essai sur la formation territoriale et politique de la France depuis la fin du xi e siècle jusqu'et la fin du xv e (1836); all of these are rough sketches showing only the outlines of the subject.

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  • It is picturesquely situated on both banks of the Mur,, just where this river enters a broad and fertile valley, and the beauty of its position has given rise to the punning French description, La Ville des graces sur la riviere del' amour.

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  • The ethics of these principles were worked out in Discours sur le bonheur, La Volupte, and L' Art de jouir, in which the end of life is found in the pleasures of the senses, and virtue is reduced to self-love.

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  • The shell-gland, sk, is later stage, in which a flattened out, and a delicate second invagination has beshell, s, appears on its sur gun - namely, that of the face.

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  • The French Academy charged de Quatrefages, Decaisne and Peligot with the study of the disease, and they issued two elaborate reports - Etudes sur les maladies actuelles des vers soie (18J9) and Nouvelles Recherches sur les maladies actuelles des vers a soie (1860); but the suggestions they were able to offer had not the effect of stopping the march of the disease.

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  • Similarly, in Notre Dame de Lorette; etude critique sur l'authenticite de la Santa Casa (1906), he dissipated by the aid of authentic documents the legend which had embellished and falsified the primitive history of that sanctuary.

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  • A treatise on the analysis of thought (Sur la decomposition de la pensee), although sent to press, was never printed.

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  • The Essai sur les fondements de la psychologie represents the second or completest stage of his philosophy, the fragments of the Nouveaux essa y s d'anthropologie the third.

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  • He survived until the 13th of October 1629, leaving a Discours sur l'occurrence des affaires.

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  • Chalandon, Essai sur le regne d'Alexis I.

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  • His political tracts were collected by himself as, Collection complete des ouvrages publies sur.

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  • In 1820 Abel Remusat published his Recherches sur les langues tartares, a chapter of which was devoted to Tibetan.

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  • In 1685 he published Sentimens de quelques theologiens de Hollande sur l'histoire critique du Vieux Testament composee par le P. Richard Simon, in which, while pointing out what he believed to be the faults of that author, he undertook to make some positive contributions towards a right understanding of the Bible.

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  • As an historian he published Origines de l'institution des intendants de provinces (1884), which is the authoritative study on the intendants; Etudes historiques sur les X VI e et X VIP siecles en France (1886); Histoire de Richelieu (2 vols., 1888); and Histoire de la Troisieme Republique (1904, &c.), the standard history of contemporary France.

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  • The I An excellent and critical account of Philo's work is given by Lagrange, Etudes sur les rel.

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  • For physiognomy of disease, besides the usual medical handbooks, see Cabuchet, Essai sur l'expression de la face dans les maladies (Paris, 1801); Mantegazza, Physiology of Pain (1893), and Polli, Saggio di fisiognomonia e potognomonia (1837).

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  • The Epp. of Paul written after he became a Prisoner (New York, 1887); Plummer, Expositor's Bible (1888); Bourquin, Etude critique sur les past.

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  • A fuller analysis, and some notice of the predecessors of Grotius, will be found in Hely, Etude sur le droit de la guerre de Grotius (Paris, 1875).

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  • His writings against Malebranche were collected under the title Dissertations sur la recherche de la verite, 1693.

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  • Double grafting (French, greffe sur greffe) is sufficiently explained by its name.

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  • When the Committee of Public Safety made an appeal to the savants to assist in producing the materiel required for the defence of the republic, he applied himself wholly to these operations, and, distinguished himself by his indefatigable activity therein; he wrote at this time his Description de fart de fabriquer les canons, and his Avis aux ouvriers fer sur la fabrication de l'acier.

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  • The I, Oogonium (og) with the an5, Fertilized oogonium sur theridial branch (az) applied rounded by two layers of to its surface.

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  • In 1756 he presented a Memoire sur le mouvement des projectiles to the Academy of Sciences, who elected him a member.

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  • This event was celebrated by Delavigne in a Dithyrambe sur la naissance du roi de Rome, which secured for him a sinecure in the revenue office.

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  • A third, but of inferior merit, Sur le besoin de s'unir apres le depart des etrangers, was afterwards added.

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  • That entitled Developpemens sur diferents points de la theorie des perturbations (1841), was translated in part xviii.

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  • His Discours sur les passions, de l'amour, a striking and characteristic piece, not very long since discovered and printed, has also been assigned to this period, and has been supposed to indicate a hopeless passion for Charlotte de Roannez, the duke's sister.

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  • Among editions the first is of 1619, by Gretser; the best, that of 1877, by Tobler, in Itinera et Descriptiones Terrae Sanctae; we may also mention that of 1870, by Delpit, in his Essai sur les anciens pelerinages a Jerusalem; see also Delpit's remarks upon Arculf in the same work, pp. 260-304; Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, i.

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  • At one time he edited La Republique francaise, and after his retirement from public life he wrote Le Retour a la terre et la sur production industrielle, tout en faveur de l'agriculture (1905).

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  • Two of his bestknown works were written at this time - Considerations sur l'etat present du corps politique de l'Euro pe and his Anti-Macchiavel.

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  • Blanc (2nd ed., 1859); Comtesse de Choiseul-Gouffier, Memoires historiques sur l'empereur Alexandre (1829), and Reminiscences sur l'empereur Alexandre I., &c. (Paris, 1862); Rulemann Friedrich Eylert, Charakterziige and historische Fragmente aus dem Leben Konig Friedrich Wilhelm's III.

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  • Dangeard, " Recherches sur les algues inferieures," Ann.

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  • Records of these meetings are given in de Brosse's Lettres sur l'Italie and in the Propositiones Philosophicae, which her father caused to be published in 1738.

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  • An interesting reconstruction is given by Anatole France in Sur la Pierre blanche.

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  • A paper published in 1809 ("Sur une propriete de la lumiere reflechie par les corps diaphanes") contained the discovery of the polarization of light by reflection, which is specially associated with his name, and in the following year he won a prize from the Institute with his memoir, "Theorie de la double refraction de la lumiere dans les substances cristallines."

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  • Abteilung, pp. 216-226 and 440-442; Ludwig Braunfels, Kritischer Versuch fiber den Roman Amadis von Gallien (Leipzig, 1876); Theophilo Braga, Historia das novelas portuguezas de cavalleria (Porto, 1873), Curso de litteratura e arte portugueza (Lisboa, 1881), and Questoes de litteratura e arte portugueza (Lisboa,1885); Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo, Origenes de la novela (Madrid, 1905); Eugene Baret, De l'Amadis de Gaule et de son influence sur les me urs et la litterature au X VI e et au X VII e siecle (Paris, 1873).

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  • Brongniart was also the coadjutor of Cuvier in the admirable Essai sur la geographie mineralogique des environs de Paris (Paris, 1811); originally published in Ann.

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  • In his theses as well as in his early writings - such as De la subrogation Keene, La Bonorum possessio, and Sur la duree des effets de la minorite (1870) - he endeavoured to explain the problems of laws by means of history, an idea which was new to France at that time.

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  • C. von Savigny, Flach studied the teaching of law in the middle ages and the Renaissance, and produced Cujas, les glossateurs et les Bartolistes (1883), and Etudes critiques sur l'histoire du droit romain au moyen age, avec textes inedits (1890) .

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  • After the Franco-Prussian War Lavisse studied the development of Prussia and wrote Etude sur l'une des origines de la monarchie prussienne, ou la Marche de Brandebourg sous la dynastie ascanienne, which was his thesis for his doctor's degree in 1875, and Etudes sur l'histoire de la Prusse (1879).

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  • Trained at the Ecole des Chartes and the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, he made his first appearance in the world of scholarship as the author of an excellent book called Etudes sur l'industrie et la classe industrielle a Paris au XIII e et au XI V e siècle (1877).

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  • The principal shipbuilding centres in the Persian Gulf are now Kuwait, Sur in Oman and Lingeh.

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  • He was sent on a number of special scientific missions, among which may be mentioned one to England, on which he wrote a notable Memoire sur le travail des femmes et des enfants da p s les manufactures de l'Angleterre (1867).

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  • He has published, besides the works already mentioned, Traite de mecanique rationnelle (1858); De l'analyse infinitesimale (1860, revised ed., 1881); Des pentes economiques en chemin de fer (1861); Emploi des eaux d'egout en agriculture (1869); Principes de l'assainissement des villes and Traite d'assainissement industriel (1870); Essai sur la philosophise des sciences (1896); La Question d'Egypte (1905); besides some remarkable "Pensees" contributed to the Contemporain under the pseudonym of "Alceste."

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  • See C. de Perceval, Essai sur l'hist.

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  • His brother, CHARLES AUGUSTIN COQUEREL (1797-1851), was the author of a work on English literature (1828), an Essai sur l'histoire generale du christianisme (1828) and a Histoire des eglises du desert, depuis la revocation de l'edit de Nantes (1841).

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  • Basnage had welcomed the revival of the Protestant church due to the zeal of Antoine Court; but he assured the regent that no danger of active resistance was to be feared from it, and, true to the principles of Calvin, he denounced the rebellion of the Camisards in his Instructions pastorales aux Reformes de France sur l'obeissance due aux souverains (Paris, 1720), which was printed by order of the court and scattered broadcast in the south of France.

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  • There are in the library some volumes written in Latin, which, according to Boot (Notice sur les manuscrits trouves a Herculaneum, Amsterdam, 1845), were found tied up in a bundle apart.

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  • Among the older works relating to Herculaneum, in addition to those already quoted, may be mentioned de Brosses, Lettre sur l'etat actuel de la y ule souterraine d'Heraclea (Paris, 1750); Seigneux de Correvon, Lettre sur la decouverte de l'ancienne ville d'Herculane (Yverdon, 1770); David, Les Antiquites d'Herculaneum (Paris, 1780); D' Ancora Gaetano, Prospetto storico-fisico degli scavi d'Ercolano e di Pompei (Naples, 1803); Venuti, Prime Scoverte di Ercolano (Rome, 1748); and Romanelli, Viaggio ad Ercolano (Naples, 181 I).

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  • In 1777 he published under the title of Discours choisis his panegyrics on Saint Louis, Saint Augustine and Fenelon, his remarks on Bossuet and his Essai sur l'eloquence de la chaire, a volume which contains much good criticism, and remains a French classic. The book was often reprinted as Principes de l'eloquence.

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  • Cotton, the cultivation of which was discouraged by the Spanish government as a means of increasing the cultivation of tobacco, is a very small crop, except in the provinces of Ilocos Norte, and Ilocos Sur on the west coast of north Luzon; in 1902 there were in these provinces about 5525 acres of cotton.

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  • Gay-Lussac, it is said, was nettled at the idea of a foreigner making such a discovery in Paris, and vigorously took up the study of the new substance, the result being the elaborate "Memoire sur 1'iode," which appeared in the Ann.

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  • A certain Baridi, who had carved out for himself a principality in the province of Basra, marched against Bagdad and made himself master of the capital, but was soon driven out by the Dailamite general 1 See Defremery, Memoire sur les Emirs al-Omara (Paris, 1848).

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  • After winning some academic prizes, Rivarol distinguished himself in the year 1784 by a treatise Sur l'universalite de la langue francaise, and by a translation of the Inferno.

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  • See also Memoires sur la vie de l'abbe Barthelemy, ecrits par lui-meme (1824), with a notice by Lalande.

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  • Meanwhile Lamennais had published his Essai sur l'Indiference, - a passionate plea for Christianity and in particular for Roman Catholicism as necessary for the social progress of mankind.

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  • The best edition of Lacordaire's works is the CEuvres completes (6 vols., Paris, 1872-1873), published by C. Poussielgue, which contains, besides the Conferences, the exquisitely written, but uncritical, Vie de Saint Dominique and the beautiful Lettres a un jeune homme sur la vie chretienne.

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  • Pector, Etude economique sur la republique de Nicaragua (Neuchatel, 1893); Bulletins of the Bureau of American Republics (Washington); U.S.A. Consular and British Foreign Office Reports; official reports issued periodically at Managua, in Spanish.

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  • His French thesis for the doctorate of letters, Etude sur les pamphlets politiques et religieux de Milton (1848), showed that he was attracted towards foreign history, a study for which he soon qualified himself by mastering the Germanic and Scandinavian languages.

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  • Benedictus, De observatione in pestilentia, 4to (Venice, 1 493); Nicolaus Massa, De febre pestilentia, 4to (Venice, 1556, &c.); Fioravanti, Regimento della peste, 8vo, Venice, 1556; John Woodall, The Surgeon's Mate, folio (London, 1639); Van Helmont, Tumulus pestis, 8vo (Cologne, 1644, &c.); Muratori, Trattato del governo della peste, Modena, 1714; John Howard, An Account of Lazarettoes in Europe, &c., 4to (London, 1789); Patrick Russell, A Treatise of the Plague, 4to (London, 1791); Thomas Hancock, Researches into the Laws of Pestilence, 8vo (London, 1821); Fodere, Lecons sur les epide'mies, &c., 4 vols.

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  • Besides numerous articles in the Memoirs of the Royal Society of London, the Memoires de l'Institut, the Memoires de la Societe d'Agriculture de Caen, and in other periodical collections, he published separately Essais historiques sur les Bardes, les Jongleurs, et les Trouveres normands et anglo-normands (3 vols., 1834), and Recherches historiques sur la Prairie de Caen (1837); and after his death appeared Memoires historiques sur le palinod de Caen (1841), Recherches sur la tapisserie de Bayeux (1841), and Nouveaux Essais historiques sur la ville de Caen (1842).

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  • In pieces such as Liszt's " Poemes symphoniques," Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne (1848-1856), after a poem by Victor Hugo, and Die Ideale (1853-1857), after a poem by Schiller, the hearer is bewildered by a series of startling orchestral effects which succeed one another apparently without rhyme or reason.

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  • He made his paper the official journal of the reactionists, and being sent by the Directory on a mission of peace to Marseilles he published in 1796 Memoire historique sur la reaction royale et sur les malheurs du midi.

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  • It appears / that if the body be sightly dis turbed from a state of rotation about the principal axis of / greatest or least moment, the invariable cone will closely sur round this axis, which will therefore never deviate far - from the invariable line.

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  • See the edition of L'Estoire de la guerre sainte by Gaston Paris in the Collection des documents inedits sur l'histoire de France (1897); the editor discusses in his introduction the biography of Ambrose, the value of the poem as a historical source, and its relation to the Itinerarium.

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  • During his leisure he wrote a translation of Ariosto (1781), and Memoires sur la vie de Turgot (1782).

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  • Jefferson's high opinion of Du Pont was shown in using him in 1802 to convey to Bonaparte unofficially a threat against the French occupation of Louisiana; and also, earlier, in requesting him to prepare a scheme of national education, which was published in 1800 under the title Sur l'education nationale dans les Etats-Unix d'Amerique.

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  • The discussions on the budget in 1831 gave rise to the publication of his famous series of Lettres sur la lisle civile, which in ten years ran through twenty-five editions.

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  • It was at this period that he published two pamphlets - Sur l'independance de l'Italic. After the coup d'etat of December 2, 1851, Cormenin, who had undertaken the defence of Prince Louis Napoleon after his attempt at Strassburg, accepted a place in the new council of state of the empire.

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  • It was, however, Voltaire and the encyclopaedists who raised Bacon to the pinnacle of his fame in France, and hailed him as " le pere de la philosophie experimentale " (Lettres sur les Anglois).

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  • Among Colbert's papers are Memoires sur les affaires de finance de France (written about 1663), a fragment entitled Particularites secretes de la vie du Roy, and other accounts of the earlier part of the reign of Louis XIV.

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  • Voltaire, in his Siècle de Louis XIV (1751), told the story of the mysterious masked prisoner with many graphic details; and, under the heading of "Ana" in the Questions sur l'encyclopedie (Geneva, 1771), he asserted that he was a bastard brother of Louis XIV., son of Mazarin and Anne of Austria.

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  • Jung (La Verite sur la masque de fer) had brought forward another candidate, with the attractive name of "Marechiel," a soldier of Lorraine who had taken part in a poisoning plot against Louis XIV., and was arrested at Peronne by Louvois in 1673, and said to be lodged in the Bastille and then sent to Pignerol.

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  • Apart from the modern studies by Lair, FunckBrentano, Lang and Barnes, referred to above, there is valuable historical matter in the work of Roux-Fazaillac, Recherches historiques sur l'homme au masque defer (1801); see also Marius Topin, L'Homme au masque de fer (Paris, 1870), and Loiseleur, Trois Enigmes historiques (1882).

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  • Besides the Palingenesie, Ballanche wrote a poem on the siege at Lyons (unpublished); Du sentiment considers dans la littrature et dans les arts (i 80 i); Antigone, a prose poem (1814); Essai sur les institutions sociales (1818), intended as a prelude to his great work; Le Vieillard et le jeune homme, a philosophical dialogue (1819); L'Homme sans nom, a novel (1820).

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  • See Jourdain, Recherches sur les traductions d'Aristote (2nd ed., 1843); Haureau, Philosophie scolastique (2nd ed., 1872), and works appended to art.

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  • His Memoire sur l'etat actuel de l'Allemagne, written at the request of the tsar during the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, was an attack on the German universities, repeated in Coup d'ceil sur les universites de l'Allemagne (Aix, 1818).

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  • Riemann, Recherches archeologiques sur les lies Ioniennes (Paris, 1879-1880); Partsch, Kephallenia and Ithaka (1890); see also CORFU; IONIAN ISLANDS.

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  • Magen's Documents sur Julius Caesar Scaliger et sa famille (Agen, 1873) add important details for the lives of both father and son.

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  • See "Lettres de Catherine de' Medicis," edited by Hector de la Ferriere (1880 seq.) in the Collection de documents inidits sur l'histoire de France.

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  • His latest works of literary importance were La Fontaine et les Fabulistes (1867) and an Etude sur J.-J.

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  • The spreading of drops on the surface of a liquid has formed the subject of a very extensive series of experiments by Charles Tomlinson; van der Mensbrugghe has also written a very complete memoir on this subject (Sur la tension superficielle des liquides, Bruxelles, 1873).

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  • In 1783 he was crowned by the academy of Nancy for his Eloge de la poesie, and in 1788 by that of Metz for an Essai sur la regeneration physique et morale des Juifs.

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  • His "Recherches sur l'accroissement et la reproduction des vegetaux," published in the Memoires du museum d'histoire naturelle for 1821, procured him in that year the French Academy's prize for experimental physiology.

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  • Despagnet the term suzerain is applicable to a case in which a state concedes a fief, in virtue of its sovereignty (Essai sur le protectorat international, p. 46), reserving to itself certain rights as the author of this concession.

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  • But in 1718, in consequence of the political offence given by his Discours sur la polysynodie, he was expelled from the Academy.

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  • Le Noble's Memoires sur les operations des Frangais en Galicie are supposed to have been written from Soult papers.

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  • Voltaire's reply to it in the 18th (Essai sur les mceurs) attacked its limitations on the basis of deism, and its miraculous procedure on that of science.

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  • Professor Cattier in a later work, Etude sur la situation de l'etat independant du Congo (Brussels, 1906), severely criticized the Congo administration.

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  • Legrand, Etude sur Theocrite (1898); (iv.) Textual Questions.

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  • About the same time P. C. Schmerling of Liege was exploring the ossiferous caverns of the valley of the Meuse, and satisfied himself that the men whose bones he found beneath the stalagmite floors, together with bones cut and flints shaped by human workmanship, had inhabited this Belgian district at the same time with the cave-bear and several other extinct animals whose bones were imbedded with them (Recherches sur les ossements fossiles decouverts dans les cavernes de la province de Liege (Liege, 1833-1834)).

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  • Lajard, Recherches sur le culte de Venus (1837), may still be consulted with advantage.

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  • In the next year followed the Considerations sur les richesses et le luxe, combating the opinions of Necker; and in 1788 the more valuable Considerations sur l'esprit et les mceurs, a book which abounds in sententious, but often excessively frank, sayings.

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  • It is now represented by the petty town of Sur (about 5,000 inhabitants), built round the harbour at the north end of a peninsula, which till the time of Alexander's siege was an island, without water or vegetation.

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  • Geslin de Bourgogne he published Etudes sur la revolution en Bretagne in 1858, and between 1855 and 1879 an exhaustive work in six volumes on the Anciens eveches de Bretagne; histoire et monuments.

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  • In 1880 appeared the Choix de documents inedits sur l'histoire de la ligue en Bretagne, by himself alone.

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  • In 1 754 he published an anonymous treatise entitled Histoire des recherches sur la quadrature du cercle, and in 1758 the first part of his great work, Histoire des mathdmatiques, the first history of mathematics worthy of the name.

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  • In 1789 his Observations sur les hopitaux procured him an appointment as administrator of hospitals in Paris, and in 1795 he became professor of hygiene at the medical school of Paris, a post which he exchanged for the chair of legal medicine and the history of medicine in 1799.

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  • Stahl, and in the posthumous work, Lettre sur les causes premieres (1824), the consequences of this opinion became clear.

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  • Chapelain's Sentiments de l'Acaddmie francaise sur la tragi-comddie du Cid (1638), when its arbitration was demanded by Richelieu, and not openly repudiated by Corneille, was virtually unimportant; but it is worth remembering that no less a writer than Georges de Scudery, in his Observations sur le Cid (1637), gravely and apparently sincerely asserted and maintained of this great play that the subject was utterly bad, that all the rules of dramatic composition were violated, that the action was badly conducted, the versification constantly faulty, and the beauties as a rule stolen!

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  • Segall, Corneille and the Spanish Drama (1902); and the recently discovered and printed Fragments sur Pierre et Thomas Corneille of Alfred de Vigny (1905).

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  • Another task to which he set himself immediately after his return to St Petersburg was the preparation of his Lettres a une princesse d'Allemagne sur quelques sujets de physique et de philosophie (3 vols., 1768-1772).

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  • But the ancient "fairs of heathenism" were given up, and the traffic of the pilgrim season, sanctioned by the Prophet in Sur.

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  • The thesis written for his doctorate, Application de l'analyse chimique a la toxicologic (1859), was followed by many papers on chemistry contributed to learned journals, and his Principes de chimie fondes sur les theories modernes (1865) reached its 5th edition in 1890.

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  • The result was a series of reports to the minister, afterwards published as Rapport sur l'etat de l'instruction publique dans quelques pays de l'Allemagne et particulierement en Prusse.

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  • As the results of his work in this line, we have, besides the Des Pensees de Pascal, 1842, Etudes sur les femmes et la societe du X VII e siècle, 1853.

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  • For the Fecamp legend see Leroux de Lincey's Essai sur l'abbaye de Fescamp (1840); for the Volto Santo and kindred legends, Ernest von Dobschiitz, Christus-Bilder (Leipzig, 1899).

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  • The theorem of duality is considered and developed, but chiefly in regard to its metrical applications, by Michel Chasles in the Memoire de geometrie sur deux principes generaux de la science, la dualite et l'homographie, which forms a sequel to the Apercu historique l'origine t.

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  • The theorem of united points in regard to points in a right line was given in a paper, June-July 1864, and it was extended to unicursal curves in a paper of the same series (March 1866), " Sur les courbes planes ou a double courbure dont les points peuvent se determiner individuellement - application du principe de correspondance dans la theorie de ces courbes."

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  • The analytical theory by Cartesian co-ordinates was first considered by Alexis Claude Clairaut, Recherches sur les courbes et double courbure (Paris, 1731).

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  • Andoyer, Lecons sur la theorie des formes et la geome'trie analytique superieure (Paris, 1900); Wieleitner, Theorie der ebenen algebraischen Kurven hoherer Ordnung (Leipzig, 1905).

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  • Wallon, Histoire du tribunal revolutionnaire de Paris (1880-1882) (a work of general interest, but not always exact); George Lecocq, Notes et documents sur Fouquier-Tinville (Paris, 1885).

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  • Chossat (Sur l'inanition, Paris, 1843) to live three times as long as those who were deprived of solids and liquids at the same time.

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  • Besides a little pamphlet upon Danton, he has written a Histoire politique de la Revolution francaise (1901), and a number of articles which have been collected in volumes under the title Etudes et legons sur la Revolution francaise (5 vols., 1893-1908).

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  • His attitude towards Napoleon was not lacking in independence, but in this controversy with the pope, the emperor was able again to secure from him the learned treatise Sur la puissance temporelie du Pape (1809).

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  • His Discours sur l'etat des lettres au XIIIe siecle, in the sixteenth volume of the Histoire litteraire de France, is a remarkable contribution to that vast collection, especially as coming from an author so profoundly learned in the ancient classics.

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  • In 1784 he published his CEuvres, which are of little value, and in 1792 his articles in the Chronique de Paris appeared in book form under the title Lettres choisies sur les principaux evenements de la Revolution.

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  • He had an intimate acquaintance and sympathy with English institutions, and two of his published works - an address, Biographie de Lord Erskine (1866), and Etude sur l'acte du 5 avril 1873 pour l'etablissement d'une cour supreme de justice en Angleterre (1874) - deal with English questions; he also gave a fresh and highly important direction to French policy by the understanding with Russia, which was declared to the world by the visit of the French fleet to Cronstadt in 1891, and which subsequently ripened into a formal treaty of alliance.

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  • Vinet's Chrestomathie francaise (1829), his Etudes sur la litterature francaise au XIX me siècle (1849-51), and his Histoire de la litterature francaise au X VIII me siecle, together with his Etudes sur Pascal, Etudes sur les moralistes aux X VIme ei X VII me siecles, Histoire de la predication parmi les Reformes de France and other kindred works, gave evidence of a wide knowledge of literature, a sober and acute literary judgment and a distinguished faculty of appreciation.

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  • Gassendi's life is given by Sorbiere in the first collected edition of the works, by Bugerel, Vie de Gassendi (1737; 2nd ed., 1770), and by Damiron, Memoire sur Gassendi (1839).

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  • He endeavoured to define his ideas, and in 1833 published his Reveries politiques, suivies d'un projet de constitution, and Considerations politiques et militaires sur la Suisse; in 1836, as a captain, in the Swiss service, he published a Manuel d'artillerie, in order to win popularity with the French army.

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  • Madagascar (Paris, 1894); Rentier, Les droits de la France sur Madagascar (1895) Corlay, Notre campagne a Madagascar(Paris, 1896); Knight,Madagas- car in Wa'-time (London, 1896); Carol, Chez les Hovas (Paris, 1898); Gallieni, Neuf ans a Madagascar (Paris, 1908).

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  • Maraldi), giving zoneobservations of 10,000 stars, and describing fourteen new constellations; "Observations sur 515 etoiles du Zodiaque" (published in t.

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  • Hourst, Sur le Niger et au pays des Touaregs (Paris, 1898), English translation, French Enterprise in Africa.

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  • Leite do Vasconellos, Dialectos beirei (Oporto, I 884), and Sur le dialecte portugais de Macao (Lisbon, 1892).

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  • In 1773 Necker won the prize of the Academie Frangaise for an eloge on Colbert, and in 1775 published his Essai sur la legislation et le commerce des grains, in which he attacked the free-trade policy of Turgot.

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  • He edited several of his brother's works, and was also author of original works on philological and historical subjects, among which may be mentioned Nouvelles recherches sur les patois ou idiomes vulgaires de la France (1809), Annales de Lagides (1819) and Chartes latines sur papyrus du VP e siecle de l'ere chretienne.

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  • His impressions of English dominion in India were conveyed in Letires sur l'Inde (1888).

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  • Blondel, Etude sur la politique de l'empereur Frederic II.

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  • Among his chief works were The Apostle Paul (3rd ed., 1896); Memoire sur la notion hebraique de l'Esprit (1879); Les Origines litteraires de l'Apocalypse (1888); The Vitality of Christian Dogmas and their Power of Evolution (1890); Religion and Modern Culture (1897); Historical Evolution of the Doctrine of the Atonement (1903); Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion (1897); and his posthumous Religions of Authority and the Religion of the Spirit (1904), to which his colleague Jean Reville prefixed a short memoir.

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  • Jannettaz, Etude sur Semo Sancus Fidius (Paris, 1885), according to whom he was a Sabine fire god.

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  • These are mainly embodied in his three great treatises, Cours d'analyse de l'Ecole Polytechnique (1821); Le Calcul infinitesimal (1823); Lecons sur les applications du calcul infinitesimal a la g'ometrie (1826-1828); and also in his courses of mechanics (for the Ecole Polytechnique), higher algebra (for the Faculte des Sciences), and of mathematical physics (for the College de France).

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  • The true chemical constitution of oils and fats was first expounded by the classical researches of Chevreul, embodied in his work, Recherches sur les corps Bras d'origine animale (1823, reprinted 1889).

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  • He was the author of a Traite des aliments (1702), and of a Dissertation sur la nature des os (1704),.

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  • After having taken some part in minor controversies he threw himself with energy into the dispute which had arisen as to the Gallican liberties; for his Traite historique sur les prerogatives de l'Eglise de Rome (1682) he was by command of Innocent XI.

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  • This article was sent to the SUR in English in June 2003 who then withdrew this advert from future editions.

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  • From Nice toward Monaco drive along the beautiful corniches of the Riviera and visit St Jean Cap Ferrat, Villefranche and Beaulieu sur Mer.

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  • Jose Martinez was breathtaking in the series of multiple pirouettes which he executed ' sur place ' without budging a little.

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  • You see a stone plaza, in a landscape vaguely reminiscent of Big Sur.

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  • Then continue south by Big Sur o­n Highway 1, where you will experience some of the most incredible coastal scenery in America.

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  • To earn his freedom Lucas must learn how to live among the colony and sur vive the perils of the insect world.

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  • Besides the work cited above and his political pamphlets, he was the author of Coup d'ceil philosophique sur le regne de St Louis (1786); L'Annee francaise (1788); La Bastille devoilee (1789); La Police de Paris devoilee (1791); and Lettres sur la Revolution (1792).

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  • His investigations on the synthesis of organic compounds were published in numerous papers and books, including Chimie organique fondee sur la synthese (1860) and Les Carbures d'hydrogene (1901).

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  • This branch of study naturally conducted him to the investigation of explosives, and on the theoretical side led to the results published in his work Sur la force de la poudre et des matieres explosives (1872), while on the practical side it enabled him to render important services to his country as president of the scientific defence committee during the siege of Paris in 1870-71 and subsequently as chief of the French explosives committee.

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  • Plessis, Etudes critiques sur Properce et ses elegies (1886), and the sections on the poet in Teuffel's and Schanz's Histories of Roman Literature.

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  • From 1810 to 1812 he travelled in France, Switzerland and Italy, and on his return to Paris published an Essai critique sur la topographic de Syracuse (1812), designed to elucidate Thucydides.

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  • Arrhenius is specially associated with the development of the theory of electrolytic dissociation, and his great paper on the subject, Recherches sur la conductibilite galvanique des electrolytes - (1) conductibilite galvanique des solutions aqueuses extremement diluees, (2) theorie chimique des electrolytes, was presented to the Stockholm Academy of Sciences in 1883.

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  • Already antiquated, it could not resist the wit and raillery with which Voltaire, in his Lettres sur les Anglais (1728), brought against it the principles and results of Locke and Newton.

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  • There Flechier wrote his curious Meinoires sur les Grand Jours tenus d Clermont, in which he relates, in a half romantic, half historical form, the proceedings of this extraordinary court of justice.

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  • His principal works are Traite des sources de la corruption qui rbgne aujourd'hui parmi les Chretiens (1700), translated into English, Dutch and German, practically a plea for a more ethical and less doctrinal type of Christianity; Catechisme ou instruction dans la religion chretienne (1702), also translated into English, Dutch and German; Traite contre l'impurete (1707); Sermons sur divers textes (1722-1724); Theologiae compendium (1739); and Traduction de la Bible (1724).

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  • In 1729 he published Essai d'optique sur la gradation de la lumiere, the object of which is to define the quantity of light lost by passing through a given extent of the atmosphere.

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  • In 1816 he published a work on the Evidences and Authority of Divine Revelation, and in 1819 the, substance of his theological prelections in a Commentaire sur l'Epitre aux Romains.

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  • In 1868 he was awarded the Steiner prize of the Berlin Academy for a geometrical memoir, Sur quelques problemes cubiques et biquadratiques.

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  • Linko, " Observations sur les meduses de la mer Blanche," Tra y.

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  • The vast authority of Cuvier was employed in support of the traditionally respectable hypotheses of special creation and of catastrophism; and the wild speculations of the Discours sur les revolutions de la surface du globe were held to be models of sound scientific thinking, while the really much more sober and philosophical hypotheses of the Hydrogeologie were scouted.

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  • Ecology and Physiology.Whilst our knowledge of the nature and effect of habitat is still in a very rudimentary condition, much progress has been made in recent years in the study of plant communities; but even here the questions insolved in relating the facts of the distribution of plant communities to the i Humboldt and Bonpland, Essai sur la giographie des plantes (Paris, 1807).

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  • He was unmolested, however, and during the First Empire lived in literary retirement at Lyons with his wife and family, producing for the Lyons academy occasional papers on the Influence reciproque de l'eloquence sur la Revolution et de la Revolution sur l'eloquence; Etudes sur Klopstock, &c. At the restoration in 1814 he again emerged into public life.

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  • In his Memoire sur le refraction des corps solides (1741) he was the first to give a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon which is witnessed when a body passes from one fluid to another more dense in a direction not perpendicular to the surface which separates the two fluids.

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  • In his Recherches sur differents points importants du systeme du monde (1754-1756) he perfected the solution of the problem of the perturbations of the planets, which he had presented to the academy some years before.

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  • For accounts of Mirkhond's life see De Sacy's "Notice sur Mirkhond" in his Memoires sur diverses antiquates de la Perse (Paris, 1 793); Jourdain's "Notice de l'histoire universelle de Mirkhond" in the Notices et extraits, vol.

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  • Forel and C. Emery in various Swiss and German periodicals, and especially by C. Janet in his Etudes sur les fourmis, les guepes et les abeilles (Paris, &c., 18 931904).

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  • Besides many papers communicated to the academy of sciences, of which he became a member in 1714, he published Memoires pour servir d l'histoire et au progres de l'astronomie (St Petersburg, 1738), in which he gave the first method for determining the heliocentric co-ordinates of sun-spots; Memoire sur les nouvelles decouvertes au nord de la mer du sud (Paris, 1752), &c.

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  • In 1753 he translated the Questions sur la commerce from the English of Josias Tucker, and wrote his Lettre sur la tolerance, and a pamphlet, Le Conciliateur, in support of religious tolerance.

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  • After the revolution of 1830 he founded the Pantheon litteraire, in which he published a Choix d'ouvrages mystiques (1843), a Choix de monuments primitifs de l'eglise chretienne (1837), a Choix des historiens grecs (1837), a collection of Chroniques etrangeres relatives aux expeditions francaises pendant XIII' siècle (1840), and, most important of all, a Choix de chroniques et memoires sur l'histoire de France (1836-1841).

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  • Yanoski, De l'abolition de l'esclavage ancien au moyen age et de sa transformation en servitude de la glebe (Wallon and Yanoski had jointly composed a memoir to compete for a prize offered by the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in 1837; Wallon's portion of the memoir became the foundation of his Histoire de l'esclavage dans l'antiquite above mentioned; Yanoski's part, the expansion of which was prevented by his early death, was posthumously published in 1860; it is no more than a slight sketch); Benjamin Gubrard, Prolegomenes au Polyptyque d'Irminon (1844); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France (2nd ed., 1877), and Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1885) (the latter work contains an admirable discussion of the whole subject of the colonatus, founded throughout on the original texts); Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (3 vols., 1874-1878).

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  • In the summer she returned to Coppet and wroth a pamphlet (Reflexions sur le proces de la refine) on the queen's execution.

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  • In Bode's Jahrbuch (1776-1780) he discusses nutation, aberration of light, Saturn's rings and comets; in the Nova acta Helvetica (1787) he has a long paper "Sur le son des corps elastiques," in Bernoulli and Hindenburg's Magazin (1787-1788) he treats of the roots of equation and of parallel lines; and in Hindenburg's Archiv (1798-1799) he writes on optics and perspective.

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  • Giry himself published Les Etablissements de Rouen (1883-1885), a study, based on very minute researches, of the charter granted to the capital of Normandy by Henry II.; king of England, and of the diffusion of similar charters throughout the French dominions of the Plantagenets; a collection of Documents sur les relations de la royaute avec les villes de France de 1180 a 1314 (1885); and Etude sur les origines de la commune de Saint-Quentin (1887).

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  • He undoubtedly instigated D'Alembert to include a censure of the prohibition in his Encyclopedic article on "Geneva," a proceeding which provoked Rousseau's celebrated Lettre a D'Alembert sur les spectacles.

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  • Amongst these are Estat des fideles apres la mort; Sur l'oraison dominicale; Du mdrite des oeuvres; Traits de la justification; and paraphrases of books of the Old and New Testament.

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  • At the Ecole des Chartes, where his career was remarkably brilliant, his valedictory thesis was an Essai sur les revenus publics en Normandie au XII' siècle (1849), and it was to the history of his native province that he devoted his early works.

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  • In the meantime he orated at the Feuillants Club, and contributed frequently to the Journal de Paris from November 1791 to July 1792, when he wrote his scorching Iambes to Collot d'Herbois, Sur les Suisses revoltes du regiment de Chdteauvieux.

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  • The list of his works includes hymns and national songs - among others, the famous Chant du depart; odes, Sur la mort de Mirabeau, Sur l'oligarchie de Robespierre, &c.; tragedies which never reached the stage, Brutus et Cassius, Philippe deux, Tibere; translations from Sophocles and Lessing, from Gray and Horace, from Tacitus and Aristotle; with elegies, dithyrambics and Ossianic rhapsodies.

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  • Morin (see Notice sur divers appareils dynamometriques, Paris, 1841), in his classical experiments on traction, arranged his appar atus so that the change in form of the spring was continuously recorded on a sheet of paper drawn under a style.

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  • In 1877 he received the degree of docteur es lettres with two remarkable theses, a dissertation De Macario magnete, and an Etude sur le Liber pontificalis, in which he explained with unerring critical acumen the origin of that celebrated chronicle, determined the different editions and their interrelation, and stated precisely the value of his evidence.

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  • In 1841 he published a valuable paper, "Sur la convergence de la serie de Taylor," in Crelle's Journal.

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  • In the famous "guerre des buffons," he took the part of the "buffonists," so named in consequence of their attachment to the Italian "opera buffa," as opposed to the true French opera; and, in his Lettre sur la musique francaise, published in 1753, he indulged in a violent tirade against French music, which he declared to be so contemptible as to lead to the conclusion "that the French neither have, nor ever will have, any music of their own, or at least that, if they ever do have any, it will be so much the worse for them."

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  • Blavignac, Armorial genevois (Geneva, 1849), and Etudes sur Geneve depuis l'antiquite jusqu'a nos jours (2 vols., Geneva, 1872-1874); Fr.

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  • Caussin de Perceval published (1828) a useful Grammaire arabe vulgaire, which passed through several editions (4th ed., 1858), and edited and enlarged Elie Bocthor's 1 Dictionnaire francais-arabe (2 vols., 1828; 3rd ed., 1864); but his great reputation rests almost entirely on one book, the Essai sur l'histoire des Arabes avant l'Islamisme, pendant l'epoque de Mahomet (3 vols., 1847-1849), in which the native traditions as to the early history of the Arabs, down to the death of Mahommed and the complete subjection of all the tribes to Islam, are brought together with wonderful industry and set forth with much learning and lucidity.

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  • Studien aus Wurttemberg (1888), p. 36 seq.; Nardin, "Essai sur les prophetes de l'eglise primitive," Thesis, (Paris, 1888); Weinel, "Die Wirkungen des Geistes and der Geister im nachapostolischen Zeitalter bis auf I renaeus," (1899); Selwyn, "The Christian Prophets 1 See Lucian's story about Peregrinus, and that chapter of the OcSax,i where the author labours to establish criteria for distinguishing false prophets from true.

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  • As Cuvier founded the palaeontology of mammals and reptiles, so Louis Agassiz's epoch-making works Recherches sur les poissons fossiles (1833-1845) laid the secure foundations of palaeichthyology, and were followed by Christian Heinrich Pander's (1794-1865) classic memoirs on the fossil fishes of Russia.

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  • With the exception of his description of the French Revolution, which was chiefly a political manifesto, all his early works refer to the middle ages - De La feodalite, des institutions de Saint Louis et de l'influence de la legislation de ce prince (1822); La Germanic au vin e et au ix' siecle, sa conversion au christianisme, et son introduction dans la societe civilisee de l'Europe occidentale (1834); Essai sur la formation territoriale et politique de la France depuis la fin du xi e siècle jusqu'et la fin du xv e (1836); all of these are rough sketches showing only the outlines of the subject.

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  • See Notice sur Mayotte et les Comores, by Emile Vienne, one of the memoirs on the French colonies prepared for the Paris Exhibition of 190o; Le Sultanat d'Anjouan, by Jules Repiquet (Paris, 1901), a systematic account of the geography, ethnology and history of Johanna; Les colonies franraises (Paris, 1900), vol.

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  • In 1687 he presented to the Academy of Sciences an hygrometer of his own invention, and in 1695 he published his only book, Remarques et experiences physiques sur la construction d'une nouvelle clepsydre, sur les barometees, les thermometres et les hygrometres.

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  • Laurent (1626-1681) became a pastor, and was the author of Sonnets chretiens sur divers sujets (1677); Charles (1633-1697) was professor of physic at the university of Leiden, and physician to the prince of Orange; Peter (1644-1722) was ordained a priest in the Church of England, and became dean of Armagh.

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  • In 1647 he published his Nouvelles experiences sur le vide, and in the next year the famous experiment with the barometer on the Puy de Dome was carried out for him by his brother-in-law Perier, and repeated on a smaller scale by himself at Paris, to which place by the end of 1647 he and his sister Jacqueline had removed, to be followed shortly by their father.

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  • Pluquet, in his Essai historique sur la vale de Bayeux (Caen, 1829), was the first to reject this belief, and to connect it with the Conqueror's half-brother Odo, bishop of Bayeux, and this view, which is now accepted, is confirmed by the fact that three of the bishop's followers mentioned in Domesday Book are among the very few named figures on the tapestry.

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