It also supervises secondary and superior education, issues patents, and provides federal courts for the trial of cases amenable to federal laws.
The superintendent of the southern Shan States supervises thirty-nine, of which ten are sawbwaships.
A board of state charities and corrections, established in 1869, supervises and controls all of the penal, charitable and correctional institutions of the state at large and also the local almshouses.
It supervises and audits the accounts of state departments, directs the taking of the census, transfers cities from one class to another in accordance with census returns, constitutes the board for canvassing election returns, classifies railways, assesses railway and other companies, constitutes the state board of equalization for adjusting property valuations between the several counties for taxing purposes, supervises the incorporation of building and loan associations, appoints the board of examiners of mine inspectors and has many other powers.
The former supervises the labour laws and endeavours to deal with unemployment; the latter has done much practical teaching, inspection, &c. Butter, cheese and New Zealand hemp are by law graded and branded by departmental inspectors before export.
The lord mayor is clerk of the markets and supervises weights and measures and deals with cases of adulteration.
The office of the accountant-general of the empire (RechnungsIzof), which controls and supervises the expenditure of the sums voted by the legislative bodies, and revises the accounts of the imperial bank (Reichsbank).
The provinces are further divided into districts, each of which is under a mamur, who in his turn supervises and controls the omda, mayor or head-man, of each village in his district.
The administrative head of the system fs the director of education, who is appointed by the commission, and who arranges the course of study, approves the plans for school houses, determines in what towns secondary schools shall be established and in what towns American teachers shall teach, divides the archipelago into school divisions and appoints a division superintendent in each, and supervises the examination of teachers and the application of insular school funds.
In 1910 the commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean was appointed inspector-general of the overseas forces other than those in India, and the inspector-general in London supervises therefore only the forces in the home establishment.
The former decides all controversies arising under the school law, and exercises a general supervision over the public schools; the latter has the control of a number of special state educational institutions, appoints the county superintendents and supervises the execution of the school laws of the state.
A state board of charities has supervision over all philanthropic and penal institutions in the state, including hospitals, which numbered 103 in 1907; and the board visits the almshouses supported by seventy-eight (of the 168) towns of the state, and investigates and supervises the provision made for the town poor in the other ninety towns of the state; some, as late as 1906, were, with the few paupers maintained by the state, cared for in a private almshouse at Tariffville, which was commonly known as the " state almshouse.
The prefect supervises the execution of the laws; has wide authority in regard to policing, public hygiene and relief of pauper children; has the nomination of various subordinate officials; and is in correspondence with the subordinate functionaries in his department, to whom he transmits the orders and instructions of the government.