He carried few books to Holland with him, but a Bible and the Summa of Thomas Aquinas were amongst them.'
The Summa is divided into three great parts, which shortly may be said to treat of God, Man and the God-Man.
The third part of the Summa is also divided into two parts, but by accident rather than by design.
On his theology: C. Frassen, Scotus Academicus (1744, new edition, 1900); Hieronymus de Montefortino (Jerome de Fortius), Scoti summa theologica (1728-1738, new edition, 1900); L.
The Romana, or, as he himself calls it, De summa temporum vel origine actibusque gentis Romanorum, was composed in 551.
Quodlibeta theologica (Paris, 1518; Venice, 1608 and 1613); Summa theologiae (Paris, 1520; Ferrara, 1646); De scriptoribus ecciesiasticis (Cologne, 1580).
As for the influence he exercised on posterity, it is enough to say that Luca Pacioli, about 1500, in his celebrated Summa, leans so exclusively to Leonardo's works (at that time known in manuscript only) that he frankly acknowledges his dependence on them, and states that wherever no other author is quoted all belongs to Leonardus Pisanus.
The country of Cutch was invaded about the 13th century by a body of Mahommedans of the Summa tribe, who under the guidance of five brothers emigrated from Sind, and who gradually subdued or expelled the original inhabitants, consisting of three distinct races.
Nevertheless Hugo, by the composition of his Summa sententiarum, endeavoured to give a methodical or rational presentation of the content of faith, and was thus the first of the so-called Summists.
His De arte seu de articulis catholicae fidei is a Summa of Christian theology, but with a greater infusion than usual of philosophical reasoning.
He was more of a theologian than a philosopher; and in his chief work, of Summa universae theologiae, he simply employs his increased philosophical knowledge in the demonstration of theological doctrines.
This was Lucas Paciolus (Lucas de Burgo), a Minorite friar, who, having previously written works on algebra, arithmetic and geometry, published, in 1494, his principal work, entitled Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalita.
Innocent was also a notable patron of learning; he encouraged Alexander of Hales to write his Summa universae theologiae, did much for the universities, notably the Sorbonne, and founded law schools at Rome and Piacenza.
One of these, Summa de assumpto homine, is of a theological character, dealing with the humanity of Christ; the other, Summa de matrimonio, is a legal argument, to the effect that the essential fact in marriage is neither, as Gratian maintains, the copula, nor, as Peter Lombard, consent by verba de praesenti, but mutual traditio.
Pp. 133, 270 (1897), gives a full account of the Cambridge MSS., printing in extenso the Summa de matrimonio.
In this spirit he wrote commentaries upon portions of Aristotle, and upon the Summa of Aquinas, and towards the end of his life made a careful translation of the Old and New Testaments, excepting Solomon's Song, the Prophets and the Revelation of St John.
In his Summa he declares that as there are seven chief sins, either original or of act, so there must be seven sacraments to remedy them; but he only enumerates six, namely baptism and the sacraments of confirmation, of the altar, of penance, last unction and matrimony.
Bodin defines the state thus: "Respublica est familiarum rerumque inter ipsas communium, summa potestate ac ratione moderata multitudo."
According to Bodin, there is in the state unlimited one power: "Majestas est summa in cives ac subditos legibusque soluta potestas" (i.
There exists a central force from which are derived all the powers which make or give effect to laws; a power which he describes sometimes as "majestas summa potestas summum imperium."
His principal theological works are a commentary in three volumes on the Books of the Sentences of Peter Lombard (Magister Sententiarum), and the Summa Theologiae in two volumes.
Being uncatechetical in form and addressed to the clergy rather than to the people, it missed its intention, and was superseded by others of less exalted origin, especially by those of the Jesuit Peter Canisius, whose Summa Doctrinae et Institutionis Christianae (1554) and its shorter form (1556) were already in the field.
His Summa Conciliorum et Pontificum (Venice, 1546) has been often reprinted (as late as 1821), and has permanent value.
On this account it is our duty, in memory of the saints, to pay due honour to their relics and especially to their bodies, which were the temples and dwellings of the Holy Ghost in which He dwelt and worked, and which in the resurrection are to be made like to the body of Christ; and in likewise because God honours them, in that He works wonders in their presence (Summa theol.
In the middle ages there was an extravagance of speculation on this subject, which may be seen in the last division of Aquinas' Summa Theologiae.
To this list Echard adds several other works, such as a defence of the Dominicans, printed at Venice in 1504, and a Summa virtutum et vitiorum Guillelmi Peraldi, a Dominican who died about 1250.
So, for example, Augustine, l.c., Thomas, Summa (Prima Secundae, qu.
The medieval theologians followed in the same line, recognizing all the precepts of the Decalogue as moral precepts de lege naturae, though the law of the Sabbath is not of the law of nature, in so far as it prescribes a determinate day of rest (Thomas, summa, Ima IIaae, qu.
He refused, and maintained his refusal by publishing his Summa doctrinae Lutheri.
Into his services he introduced many peculiar alterations: he drew up a "Primitive Liturgy," in which he substituted for the Nicene and Athanasian creeds two creeds taken from the Apostolical Constitutions; for his "Primitive Eucharist" he made use of unleavened bread and mixed wine; he distributed at the price of one shilling medals of admission to his oratory, with the device of a sun rising to the meridian, with the motto Ad summa, and the words Inveniam viam aut faciam below.
Entwurf einer reinbiblischen Theologie appeared in 1792 (2nd ed., 1801), Summa Theologiae Christianae in 1803 (other editions, 1808, 1816, 1830); Das Leben Jesu in 1842, and Die wahre and falsche Orthodoxie in 1849.
He graduated at Amherst, at the head of his class, in 1872;ï¿½ and between 1873 and 1876 he studied political science, history and economics at GÃ¶ttingen, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, receiving the degree of Ph.D.at Heidelberg in 1876, with the highest honours (summa cum laude).
Bracton fits his definition of villenage into the Romanesque scheme of Azo's Summa of the Institutes, and the judges of the royal courts made sweeping inferences from this general position.
Summa genera and groups below infimae species are indefinable.
1844); Thomas Aquinas, The Summa (Eng.
The art with which these threads are woven together was recognized by Wolf himself, who admitted the difficulty of applying his theory to the " admirabilis summa et compages " of the poem.
13; Aquinas, Summa Theol.
For this the Stoics substituted four summa genera, all subordinate, so that each in turn is more precisely determined by the next.
The name Geber has long been used to designate the author of a number of Latin treatises on alchemy, entitled Summa perfectionis magisterii, De investigatione perfectionis, De inventione veritatis, Liber fornacum, Testamentum Geberi Regis Indiae and Alchemia Geberi, and these writings were generally regarded as translations from the Arabic originals of Abu Abdallah Jaber ben Hayyam (Haiyan) ben Abdallah al-Kufi, who is supposed to have lived in the 8th or 9th century of the Christian era.
Taking the six treatises enumerated above he concluded, after critical examination, that the two last may be disregarded as of later date than the others, and that the De investigatione perfectionis, the De inventione and the Liber fornacum are merely extracts from or summaries of the Summa perfectionis with later additions.
The Summa he therefore regarded as representative of the work of the Latin Geber, and study of it convinced him that it contains no indication of an Arabic origin, either in its method, which is conspicuous for clearness of reasoning and logical co-ordination of material, or in its facts, or in the words and persons quoted.
In style these treatises are entirely different from the Summa of Geber.
(Orlando Bandinelli), pope from 1159 to 1181, was a Siennese, and as a teacher of canon law in Bologna composed the Stroma or the Summa Magistri Rolandi, one of the earliest commentaries on the Decretum Gratiani.
Beside the theological and political works above quoted, Occam wrote Summa Logices (Paris, 1488, Oxford, 1675) commentaries on Porphyry's Isagoge, on the Categoriae, De Interpretatione and Elenchi of Aristotle.
Besides other works he wrote Liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis, divina praescientia, providentia, praedestinatione et reprobatione, concordia (4to, Lisbon, 1588); a commentary on the first part of the Summa of Thomas Aquinas (2 vols., fol., Cuenca, 1 593); and a treatise De justitia et jure (6 vols., 1 593160 9).
His most celebrated work was the Summa Theologiae (Nuremberg, 1452; Venice, 1576; Cologne, 1611), undertaken by the orders of Pope Innocent IV.
He had formed a new and close friendship with Luca Pacioli of Borgo San Sepolcro, the great mathematician, whose Summa de aritmetica, geometrica, &c., he had eagerly bought at Pavia on its first appearance, and who arrived at the Court of Milan about the moment of the completion of the "Cenacolo."
1 Edited by Schulte, Die Summa des Paucapalea (Giessen, 1890).
2 Edited by Thaner, Die Summa Magistri Rolandi (Innsbruck, 1874); later by Gietl, Die Sentenzen Rolands (Freiburg im B., 1891).
Singer, Die Summa Decretorum des Magister Rufinus (Paderborn, 1902).
6 He made a Summa of his own collection, ed.
Laspeyres, Bernardi Papiensis Summa Decretalium (Mainz, 1860).
In the Summa Theologiae of Thomas Aquinas the technical sense is fully established.
All this time he was preaching every day, writing homilies, disputations, lectures, and finding time to work hard at his great work the Summa Theologiae.
All the many writings of Thomas are preparatory to his great work the Summa Theologiae, and show us the progress of his mind training for this his life work.
In the Summa Catholicae Fidei contra Gentiles he shows how a Christian theology is the sum and crown of all science.
Fortified by this exhaustive preparation, Aquinas began his Summa Theologiae, which he intended to be the sum of all known learning, arranged according to the best method, and subordinate to the dictates of the church.