Sultans sentence example

sultans
  • It was occupied by the Egyptian sultans until 1517, when the Turks under Selim I.
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  • But if he was the most cruel, Murad was also one of the most manly, of the later sultans.
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  • From time to time the emperors of Trebizond paid tribute to the Seljuk sultans of Iconium, to the grand khans of the Mongols, to Timur the Tatar, to the Turkoman chieftains, and to the Ottomans; but by means of skilful negotiations they were enabled practically to secure their independence.
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  • There are also several Albanian settlements in European Turkey and Asia Minor, some founded by military colonists who received grants of land from successive sultans, others owing their origin to enforced migrations after insurrections in Albania.
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  • Notwithstanding the abandonment of Christianity by a large section of the population after the Turkish conquest, the authority of the sultans was never effectively established, and succeeding centuries present a record of interminable conflicts between the tribesmen and the Turks, between the Christians and the converts to Islam, or between all combined and the traditional Montenegrin enemy.
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  • The Zeirids had before that date lost Algiers, which in 1159 was occupied by the Almohades, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Abd-elWahid, sultans of Tlemcen.
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  • References to Palmyra in later times have been collected by Quatremere, Sultans Mamlouks, ii.
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  • Under the rule of their sultans, who assumed the role of mayors of the palace in Bagdad about the middle of the 11th century, they pushed westwards towards the caliphate of Egypt and the East Roman empire.
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  • The Seljukian sultans had only achieved a military occupation of the country which they had conquered.
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  • Thus, although Alexius had been able, in the wake of the crusading armies, to recover a large belt of land round the whole coast of Asia Minor, - the interior remaining subject to the sultans of Konia (Iconium) and the princes of Sivas, - he left the territories to the east of the western boundary of Cilicia in the hands of the Latins when he died in 1118.
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  • The Shiite caliphs of Egypt were by this time the playthings of contending viziers, as the Sunnite caliphs of Bagdad had long been the puppets of Turkish sultans or amirs; and in 1164 Amalric I.
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  • Between 1883 and 1887 treaties with Somali sultans gave France possession of the whole of the Gulf of Tajura.
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  • Bosnia was regarded by successive sultans as the Turkish gateway into Hungary; hatred of the Hungarians and their religion was hereditary among the Bogomils.
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  • In reward for the brilliant services rendered him by Ertoghrul (the father of Osman) and by Osman himself, Ala-ud-din, the last of the Seljuk sultans, conferred certain provinces in fief upon these two great warriors.
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  • Expenditure, as under the Seljuk sultans, was defrayed partly in cash, partly in " assignations " (havale).
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  • Then came forced loans and debased currency (1788), producing still more acute distress until, in 1791, at the close of the two years' war with Russia, in which the disaster which attended Ottoman arms may be largely ascribed to the penury of the Ottoman treasury, Selim III., the first of the " reforming sultans, " attempted, with but little practical success, to introduce radical reforms into the administrative organization of his empire.
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  • These endeavours were continued with scarcely better result by each of the succeeding sultans up to the time of the Crimean War, and during the whole of the period the financial embarrassment of the empire was extreme.
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  • Though Yahsha Bey, grandson of Mahommed Karaman Oghlu, had declared himself the successor of the Seljukian sultans, the princes of Aidin, Sarukhan, Menteshe, Kermian, Hamid, Tekke and Karassi declined to recognize his authority, and considered themselves independent, each in his own dominions.
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  • In the same year Bey Shehr and other portions of the Hamid principality were acquired by purchase from their ruler Hussein Bey, as the Karamanian princes were beginning to cast covetous eyes on them; but the Karamanians were unwilling to resign their claims to be heirs of the Seljukian sultans, and not until the reign of Mahommed II.
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  • After the conquest of the imperial city the sultans began to adopt the pomp and splendour of eastern sovereigns, and largely copied the system, ready to hand, of the Byzantine emperors.
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  • Towards the middle of Suleiman's reign even this practice was abandoned, and the sultans henceforth attended the divans only on the distribution of pay to the troops or the reception of a foreign ambassador, which occasions were usually made to coincide.
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  • Its terms were the most onerous as yet imposed on the Ottoman sultans.
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  • It was one of the chief towns of the kingdom of Trebizond and of the Seljuks, one of whose sultans, Kaikobad I., enriched it with fine buildings and restored the castle, which was thus enabled to stand a seven months' siege by Timur.
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  • It was also much favoured by the early Osmanli sultans, one of whom, Selim I., was born there.
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  • It argued no ordinary foresight thus to recognize that Hungary's strategy in her contest with the Turks must be strictly defensive, and the wisdom of Sigismund was justified by the disasters which almost invariably overcame the later Magyar kings whenever they ventured upon aggressive warfare with the sultans.
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  • George Rakoczy II., who succeeded his father in 1648, the Turkish empire, misruled by a series of incompetent sultans and distracted by internal dissensions, was unable to intervene in Hungarian politics.
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  • The town was founded at the close of the 15th century and named after Ghazi Khan, son of Haji Khan, a Baluch chieftain, who after holding the country for the Langah sultans of Multan had made himself independent.
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  • The eldest, Thuweni, with British support, finally obtained the throne, and in 1862 an engagement was entered into by the French and English governments respecting the independence of the sultans of Oman.
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  • The palace of the sultans and the mosque of Ala ed-din Kaikobad formerly covered great part of the Acropolis hill in the northern part of the city.
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  • The heirs of Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi) were favoured by the Osmanli sultans until 1516, when Selim was on the point of destroying the Mevlevi establishment as hostile to the Osmanli and the faith; and though he did not do so the Mevlevi and their chiefs were deprived of influence and dignity.
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  • In 1337 the power of the Abd-el-Wahid was temporarily extinguished by the Marinide sultans of Morocco.
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  • When the French entered Algeria the sultans of Morocco were disputing the possession of Tlemcen with the Kuluglis, who fought first for themselves and afterwards for France.
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  • Since 1648 it has been the custom of Moorish sultans to despatch superfluous sons and daughters to Tafilalt, and as the males are all sharifs, the fanaticism against Europeans is comprehensible.
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  • In the 13th century the sultans of Adel enjoyed great power.
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  • The fort is supposed to have been built by the Golconda sultans; it stands on a hill 500 ft.
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  • The Sunnites insist that the office belongs to the tribe of Koreish (Quraish) to which Mahomet himself belonged, but this condition would vitiate the claim of the Turkish sultans, who have held the office since its transference by the last caliph to Selim I.
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  • Of earlier buildings, the most distinguished are the Eski Serai, an ancient and half-ruined palace of the sultans; the bazaar of Ali Pasha; and the 16th-century mosque of the sultan Selim II., a magnificent specimen of Turkish architecture.
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  • Adrianople was the residence of the Turkish sultans from 1361, when it was captured by Murad I., until 1453, when Constantinople fell.
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  • The court dignitaries and their titles were manifold; not less manifold were the royal prerogatives, in which the sultans followed the example set by their predecessors, the Buyids.
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  • But Izz ed-din, intriguing with the Mameluke sultans of Egypt to expel his brother and gain his independence, was defeated by a Mongol army and obliged to flee to the imperial court.
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  • The petty sultans who exercised authority were notorious slave traders.
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  • In 1886 the sultans of the other three islands were placed under French protection, France fearing that otherwise the islands would be taken by Germany.
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  • Owing to the timely submission of the monks to the Turks after the capture of Salonica (1430), their privileges were respected by successive sultans: a tribute is paid to the Turkish government, which is represented by a resident kaimakam, and the community is allowed to maintain a small police force.
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  • Since Mesopotamia finally came into the power of the Ottoman sultans considerable changes in the population have occurred.
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  • After the division of the empire, Lemnos passed under the Byzantine emperors; it shared in the vicissitudes of the eastern provinces, being alternately in the power of Greeks, Italians and Turks, till finally the Turkish sultans became supreme in the Aegean.
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  • Aali Pasha was one of the most zealous advocates of the introduction of Western reforms under the sultans Abdul Mejid and Abdul Aziz.
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  • Under the prosperous rule of the Mameluke sultans this great tract was filled with habitations; a large suburb to the north, the Hoseynia, was added; and the town of Bulak was founded.
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  • This was the last time that the Ilkhans gave the Egyptian sultans serious trouble; and in the letter written in the sultans name to the Ilkhan announcing the victory, the former suggested that the caliphate of Bagdad should be restored to the titular Abbasid caliph who had accompanied the Egyptian expedition, a suggestion which does not appear to have led to any actual steps being taken.
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  • The amirs Salr and Bibars having usurped the whole of the sultans authority, he, after some futile attempts to free himself of them, under the pretext of pilgrimage to Mecca, retired in March 1309 to Kerak, whence he sent his abdication to Cairo; in consequence of which, on the 5th of April 1309, Bibars Jashengir was proclaimed sultan, with the title Malik al-Mozajar.
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  • Like other Egyptian sultans he made considerable use of the Assassins, 124 of whom were sent by him into Persia to execute Kara Sonkor, at one time governor of Damascus, and one of the murderers of Malik al-Ashraf; but they were all outwitted by the exile, who was finally poisoned by the Ilkhan in recompense for a similar service rendered by the Egyptian sultan.
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  • After the sultans return they soon rebelled, but were again brought into subjection by Sheiks son Ibrahim; his victories excited the envy of his father, who is said to have poisoned him.
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  • His reign was marked by friendly relations with the Ottoman sultan Mahommed II., whose capture of Constantinople (1453) was the cause of great rejoicings in Egypt, but also by violent excesses on the part of the Mamelukes, who dictated the sultans policy.
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  • The P4JrJy dispute began with a struggle over the succession in relations the principality of Karaman, where the two sultans favored rival candidates, and the Ottoman sultan ur ey.
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  • The register by which a great portion of the land was a fief of the Mamelukes was left unchanged, and it is said that a proposal made by the sultans vizier to appropriate these estates was punished with death.
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  • Egyptian lands were divided in it into four classesthe sultans domain, fiefs, land for the maintenance of the army, and lands settled on religious foundations.
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  • Of many of the Mameluke sultans there are special chronicles preserved in various European and Oriental libraries.
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  • He forced back the Darfurians near Dara on the 26th of December, routed Zayid in a second battle, entered El Fasher, and, in 1888, became complete master of the situation, the two sultans being killed.
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  • In 1876 Danu Hassan, a descendant of the sultans of Jilolo, raised an insurrection in the island for the purpose of throwing off the authority of the sultans of Tidore and Ternate; and his efforts would probably have been successful but for the intervention of the Dutch.
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  • The various dynasties of sultans (Buyids, Ghaznevids, Seljuks, and finally the Mongols) never paid heed to the caliphs, and at length abolished them; but the fall of the theocracy only increased the influence of the clergy, the expounders and practical administrators of that legislation of Koran and Sunna which had become part of the life of the Mahommedan world.
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  • He was the most fortunate of the sultans.
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  • The Khwarizmians and Egyptians afterwards quarrelled, and the former were compelled to retire, leaving Palestine under the rule of the Mameluke 2 sultans of Egypt.
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  • Meanwhile the remote provinces of the empire began to throw off their allegiance to the sultans of Delhi.
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  • For at least two centuries its sway over the south was undisputed, and its rajas waged wars and concluded treaties of peace with the sultans of the Deccan on equal terms.
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  • Despite frequent internal strife, the sultans of the Deccan retained their independence until conquered by the Mogul emperor Aurangzeb in the latter half of the 17th century.
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  • In 1570 he obtained possession of Oudh and Gwalior, In 1572 he marched in person into Gujarat, defeated r the last of the independent sultans of Ahmedabad, and formed the province into a Mogul viceroyalty or subah.
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  • He was the first to conquer the independent sultans of the Deccan, and to extend his authority to the extreme south.
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  • In 1908 the two descendants of the old sultans of Cheribon still resided there in their respective Kratons or palaces, and each received an annual income of over X1500 for the loss of his privileges.
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  • A country residence belonging to one of the sultans is situated close to Cheribon and is much visited on account of its fantastic architecture.
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  • It is generally supposed that the order for a general war can only be given by the caliph (an office now claimed by the sultans of Turkey).
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  • Since then more and more territory has been ceded by the sultans of Brunei to the raja of Sarawak and to British North Borneo, and to-day the merest remnant of his once extensive state is left within the jurisdiction of the sultan.
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  • The empire, which at one time included nearly the whole of Asia Minor, with portions of Armenia and Syria, passed to the Mongols when they defeated the sultan of Rum in 1243, and the sultans became vassals of the Great Khan.
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  • The Seljuk sultans were liberal patrons of art, literature and science, and the remains of their public buildings and tombs are amongst the most beautiful and most interesting in the country.
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  • From these disasters the country never recovered, and the last traces of Western civilization disappeared with the enforced use of the Turkish language and the wholesale conversions to Islam under the earliest Osmanli sultans.
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  • During the wars with Persia the Turkish sultans settled them in these districts.
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  • In the latter half of the 15th century it became subject to the sultans of Tlemcen, and reached the height of its prosperity.
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  • Moreover, they required of their rulers that they should live in the fashion of their country, practise arms and the chase, and appear as Oriental sultans, not as Grecian kings.
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  • In the Travels of a Merchant in Persia the story of Yaqubs death is supplemented by the statement that the great lords, hearing of their kings decease, had quarrels among themselves, so that for five or six years all Persia was in a state of civil war, first one and then another of the nobles becoming sultans.
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  • Abbas, held possession of Khorasan; on the west the sultans troops again entered Azerbaijan and took Tabriz.
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  • He had addressed letters to all the military chiefs of the country, calling upon them for support; he had sent an envoy to Constantinople insisting upon the sultans restora.
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  • Its rule over the other groups it carries on through the sultans of Ternate and Tidore (q.v.).
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  • While the Greek empire lasted the emperors had a right of investiture on the election of a new patriarch, and this right was retained by the Turkish sultans after the conquest of Constantinople.
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  • The ruins include the remains of the former pepper warehouses, the old factory, called Fort Speelwijk, belonging to the company, the fortified palace of the former sultans and a well-preserved mosque thought to have been built by the third Mahommedan ruler of Bantam about 1562-1576, and containing the tombs of various princes of Bantam.
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  • The Turkish conquest of Egypt transferred the supremacy to the Ottoman sultans (1517), who treated Mecca with much favour, and during the 16th century executed great works in the sanctuary and temple.
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  • In the time of the first crusades the main power was in the hands of the Arslan family, which, however, suffered so severely in wars with the Franks, that it was superseded by the Tnuhs, who, holding Beirut and nearly all the Phoenician coast, came into conflict with the sultans of Egypt.
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  • When Aurungzeb overthrew the Bijapur sultans in 1686, Belgaum passed to the Moguls.
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  • The Turbehs containing the tombs of the sultans and members of their families are often beautiful specimens of Turkish art.
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  • After the battle of Kossovo Servia existed for some seventy years (1389-1459) as a country tributary to the sultans but governing itself under its own rules, who assumed the Greek title of " despot."
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  • At that time the sultans of Darfur (q.v.) in the west and the sultans or kings of Sennar (the Funj rulers) in the east were the most powerful of the Mahommedan potentates.
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  • On the break up of the Songhoi empire the north-eastern part of Hausaland became more or less subject to Bornu, whose sultans in the 17th century claimed to rule over Katsena and Kano.
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  • The frequent coarseness of tone is proper to the condition of Egyptian society under the Mameluke sultans, and would not have been tolerated in Bagdad in the age to which so many of the tales refer.
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  • The Arabian Ayyubite princes fortified the town, as did the Egyptian Mameluke sultans.
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  • In the following century the Turks themselves relinquished their conquests in Yemen, and the sultan of Sana established a supremacy over Aden, which was maintained until the year 1735, when the sheikh of Lahej, throwing off his allegiance, founded a line of independent sultans.
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  • The British, therefore, provided successive Sultans with political and military support to keep them in position.
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  • The dignity with which the Ottoman sultans have thereby become invested lends them that prestige throughout the Mussulman world which is of such importance to the present day, and which has thrown into oblivion the condition that the caliph ought to be an Arab of the tribe of Koreish.
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  • The sultans of Egypt were stirred to fresh activity by the attacks of the Mongols; and as Syria became the battleground of the two, the Latin principalities of Syria were fated to fall as the prize of victory to one or other of the combatants.
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  • The Oriental point of view for the 13th century appears in Jelaleddin's history of the Ayyubite sultans of Egypt, written towards the end of the 13th century; in Maqrizi's history of Egypt, written in the middle of the 15th century; and in the compendium of the history of the human race by Abulfeda (f1332); while the omniscient Abulfaragius (whom Rey calls the Eastern St Thomas) wrote, in the latter half of the 13th century, a chronicle of universal history in Syriac, which he also issued, in an Arabic recension, as a Compendious History of the Dynasties.
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  • The towns on the eastern seaboard, of which Mukdishu and Brava were the chief, formed part of the Zenj " empire " (see Zanzibar) and shared its fate, being conquered in turn by the Portuguese (16th century), the imans of Muscat (17th century), and the sultans of Zanzibar (1866).
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  • By treaties with Somali sultans in 1889 and by subsequent agreements with Great Britain, Zanzibar and Abyssinia, the coast east of the British Somali protectorate fell within the Italian sphere of influence (see Africa, § 5).
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  • The Osmanli sultans, as also the Mamelukes and the Seljuks, were accustomed to give largesse to their military forces on their accession to the throne, or on special occasions of rejoicing, a custom which still is practised in form, as for instance on the first day of the year, or the birthday of the Prophet (mevlud).
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  • But the change of sultans brought no relief to the troubled state: Servia and Montenegro declared war, and in less than three months it had become evident that Murad was incapable of governing.
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  • The Indian Mussulmans indeed were rapidly degenerating into a mere sect of Hindus before the Wahabi revival, and the more recent political propaganda in support of the false caliphate of the sultans of Turkey; and we therefore find the religious use of incense among them more general than among the Mahommedans of any other country.
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  • After the capture of Nicaea by the Crusaders (1097), Konia became the capital of the Seljuk Sultans of Rum (see Seljuks and Turks).
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  • It was at this epoch also that there flourished at Konia the founder of the order of the Mevlevis or Mawlawis, Jelal ed-din Rumi (see RuMi), and that the dervish fraternities spread throughout the whole country and became powerful bodies, often discontented with the liberal principles of the sultans, who granted privileges to the Christian merchants and held frequent intercourse with them.
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  • It had become the practice of the Egyptian sultans to bestow all offices of importance on their own freedmen (Mamelukes) to the exclusion of the older amirs, whom they could not trust so well, but who in turn became still more disaffected.
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  • But, as the power of the `Abbasids declined (see article Caliphate, ad fin.) and external authority fell in the provinces into the hands of the governors and in the capital into those of the amir al-omard, the distinction became more and more palpable, especially when the Buyids, who were disposed to Shi`ite views, proclaimed themselves sultans, i.e.
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  • The same sort of ecclesiastical character came also to be attached to the tsars 1 of Russia, who - especially in their relations with the Orthodox Eastern Church - ma y vindicate for themselves (though the sultans of Turkey have disputed the claim) the succession to the East Roman emperors (see Empire).
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  • One striking alteration in the appearance of the city was the conversion of the territory extending from the head of the promontory to within a short distance of St Sophia into a great park, within which the buildings constituting the seraglio of the sultans, like those forming the palace of the Byzantine emperors, were ranged around three courts, distinguished by their respective gates - Bab-i-Humayum, leading into the court of the Janissaries; Orta Kapu, the middle gate, giving access to the court in which the sultan held state receptions; and Bah-i-Saadet, the gate of Felicity, leading to the more private apartments of the palace.
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  • Most subjects were Hindus but the Muslim sultans showed complete religious tolerance so their paintings reflect all aspects of Persian and Hindu art.
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  • But the piratical acts of these traders, in which the knights themselves sometimes joined, and the strategic position of the island between Constantinople and the Levant, necessitated its reduction by the Ottoman sultans.
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  • On the other hand, the khans of the Crimea were able, partly from their geographical position and partly from having placed themselves under the protection of the sultans of Turkey, to resist annexation for more than two centuries and to give the Muscovites a great deal of trouble, not only by frequent raids and occasional invasions, but also by allying themselves with the Western enemies of the tsars.
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  • In the latter part of the 18th century and the first years of the 19th it was constantly the scene of bloody dissensions between two rival parties, one led by the local janissaries, the other by the sherifs (religious); and the Ottoman governors took the side, now of one, now of the other, in order to plunder a distracted city, too far removed from the centre to be controlled by the sultans, and too near the rebellious pashalik of Acre and the unsettled district of Lebanon not to be affected by the disorders natural to a frontier province.
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