Sulphuric sentence example

sulphuric
  • Iridium sesquichloride, IrC1 31 is obtained when one of the corresponding double chlorides is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, the mixture being then thrown into water.
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  • It decomposes steam at a red heat, and slowly dissolves in dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, but more readily in nitric acid.
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  • By heating a mixture of cobalt oxalate and sal-ammoniac in air, it is obtained in the form of minute hard octahedra, which are not magnetic, and are only soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • It is a black amorphous powder soluble in concentrated sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, and when in the moist state readily oxidizes on exposure.
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  • By dissolving it in concentrated sulphuric acid and warming the solution, the anhydrous salt is obtained.
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  • Hot concentrated sulphuric acid also decomposes allantoin, with production of ammonia, and carbon monoxide and dioxide.
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  • On the addition, well stirred, of a small quantity of dilute sulphuric acid, a precipitate of sulphur slowly forms, and during its growth manifests exceedingly well the phenomena under consideration.
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  • Their produce has gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced.
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  • It readily condenses with aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of sulphuric acid.
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  • Heated with sulphuric acid and with nitric acid it is oxidized to boric acid, whilst on fusion with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it gives a borate of the alkali metal.
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  • Thenard and is best obtained by heating a mixture of the trioxide and fluorspar with concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • Sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming a deepred solution.
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  • The electromotive force of each cell is i 07 volts and the resistance 3 ohms. The Fuller bichromate battery consists of an outer jar containing a solution of bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid, in which a plate of hard carbon is immersed; in the jar there is also a porous pot containing dilute sulphuric acid and a small quantity (2 oz.) of mercury, in which stands a stout zinc rod.
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  • Cadmium sulphate, CdSO 4, is known in several hydrated forms; being deposited, on spontaneous evaporation of a concentrated aqueous solution, in the form of large monosymmetric crystals of composition 3CdSO 4.8H 2 O, whilst a boiling saturated solution, to which concentrated sulphuric acid has been added, deposits crystals of composition CdSO 4 4H 2 0.
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  • The chief products are sulphuric acid:
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  • It is soluble in dilute nitric acid, and in concentrated sulphuric acid; in the XVIII.
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  • The molybdates may be recognized by the fact that they give a white precipitate on the addition of hydrochloric or nitric acids to their solutions, and that with reducing agents (zinc and sulphuric acid) they give generally a blue coloration which turns to a green and finally to a brown colour.
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  • The basis of __________ these methods consists in causing a swelling of the cell-wall by means of sulphuric acid or zinc chloride, and ___________________ subseauent staining with Hoffmanns ~a:~
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  • When distilled over lead oxide, it forms diphenylene oxide, (C 6 H 4) 2 O: and when heated with oxalic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, it forms aurin, C19H1403.
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  • Phenol dissolves readily in concentrated sulphuric acid, a mixture of phenol-orthoand -para-sulphonic acids being formed.
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  • The mixture is then cooled, acidified by means of sulphuric acid, and titrated with decinormal sodium thiosulphate solution.
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  • Coprolite is reduced to powder by powerful mills of peculiar construction, furnished with granite and buhrstones, before being treated with concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • It should be noted that the oxidation of sulphur itself by atmospheric influence may give rise to sulphuric acid, which in the presence of limestone will form gypsum: thus the sulphur-deposits of Sicily suffer alteration of this kind, and have their outcrop marked by a pale earthy gypseous rock called briscale.
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  • Concentrated sulphuric acid also decomposes it: H 2 SO 4 +H 2 S = 2H 2 0 +S02+S.
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  • It is prepared on the industrial scale for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, for the preparation of sodium sulphate by the Hargreaves process, and for use as a bleaching-disinfecting agent and as a preservative.
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  • This solution possesses reducing properties,and gradually oxidizes to sulphuric acid on exposure.
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  • When heated in a sealed tube to 180° C. it is transformed into sulphuric acid, with liberation of sulphur.
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  • When perfectly dry this oxide has no caustic properties; it combines rapidly, however, with water to form sulphuric acid, with the development of much heat.
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  • It combines directly with concentrated sulphuric acid to form pyrosulphuric acid, H 2 S 2 0 7.
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  • It is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 152-153° C. When heated under pressure it decomposes, forming sulphuric acid, sulphuryl chloride, &c. (Ruff, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 35 0 9).
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  • It is a colourless, oily, fuming liquid which is decomposed by water into sulphuric and hydrochloric acids.
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  • It is readily decomposed by water with formation of sulphurous, sulphuric and thiosulphuric acids, with simultaneous liberation of sulphur.
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  • Water decomposes it with formation of sulphuric acid and oxygen: 25207 + 4H 2 0 = 4H 2 SO 4 + 02.
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  • A solution of the free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with dilute sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution in vacuo until it attains a density of about 1.35 (approximately), further concentration leading to its decomposition into sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid.
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  • The free acid is obtained (in dilute aqueous solution) by the addition of dilute sulphuric acid to an aqueous solution of the barium salt.
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  • It is only stable in dilute aqueous solution, for on concentration the acid decomposes with formation of sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide and sulphur.
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  • This acid may also be prepared by the electrolysis of concentrated sulphuric acid, and it is distinguishable from persulphuric acid by the fact that it immediately liberates iodine from potassium iodide.
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  • For example, when metallic zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid with production of zinc sulphate (in solution) and hydrogen gas, a definite quantity of heat is produced for a given amount of zinc dissolved, provided that the excess of energy in the initial system appears entirely as heat.
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  • Thus if concentrated instead of dilute sulphuric acid acts upon zinc, the action takes place to a great extent not according to the equation given above, but according to the equation Zn +2H 2 SO 4 = ZnS04+S02+2 H20, sulphur dioxide and water being produced instead of hydrogen.
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  • Besides the petroleum refineries the town possesses oil-works (for fuel), flour-mills, sulphuric acid works and tobacco factories.
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  • Thus in cows' butter, tributyrin, C 3 H 5 (O C 4 H 7 0) 3, and the analogous glycerides of other readily volatile acids closely resembling butyric acid, are present in small quantity; the production of these acids on saponification and distillation with dilute sulphuric acid is utilized as a test of a purity of butter as sold.
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  • Nitrate of soda, Peruvian guano and superphosphate of lime in the form of bones dissolved by sulphuric acid were now added to the list of manures, and the practice of analysing soils became more general.
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  • Salivary glands are present, and in some carnivorous forms (Dolium) these secrete free sulphuric acid (as much as 2% is present in the secretion), which assists the animal in boring holes by means of its FIG.
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  • The solution obtained is neutralized, concentrated on the water-bath, acidified by sulphuric acid and extracted with ether.
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  • Citric acid digested at a temperature below 40° C. with concentrated sulphuric acid gives off carbon monoxide and forms acetone dicarboxylic acid.
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  • The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.
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  • The distillates obtained are usually purified by treatment, successively, with sulphuric acid and solution of caustic soda, followed by washing with water.
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  • Eichler, of Baku, is stated to have been the first to introduce, in Russia, the use of sulphuric acid, followed by that of soda lye, and his process is in universal use at the present time.
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  • The rationale of this treatment is not fully understood, but the action appears to consist in the separation or decomposition of the aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty and other acids, phenols, tarry bodies, &c., which lower the quality of the oil, the sulphuric acid removing some, while the caustic soda takes out the remainder, and neutralizes the acid which has been left in the oil.
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  • Carbon bisulphide slowly oxidizes on exposure to air, but by the action of potassium permanganate or chromic acid it is readily oxidized to carbon dioxide and sulphuric acid.
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  • The peroxide, Ru04, is formed when a solution of potassium ruthenate is decomposed by chlorine, or by oxidizing ruthenium compounds with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, or with potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid.
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  • Its solution in concentrated sulphuric acid is of a yellow colour and shows a marked blue fluorescence.
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  • For example, positive iron combined with negative oxygen to form positive ferrous oxide; positive sulphur combined with negative oxygen to form negative sulphuric acid; positive ferrous oxide combined with negative sulphuric acid to form neutral ferrous sulphate.
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  • An acid is said to be monobasic, dibasic, tribasic, &c., according to the number of replaceable hydrogen atoms; thus HNO 3 is monobasic, sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 dibasic, phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 tribasic.
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  • When this oxide is brought into contact with water it combines with it forming sulphuric acid, H2S04.
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  • For instance, sulphuric acid is usually represented by the formula S0 2 (OH) 2, which indicates that it may be regarded as a compound of the group SO 2 with twice the group OH.
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  • Among the Arabian and later alchemists we find attempts made to collate compounds by specific properties, and it is to these writers that we are mainly indebted for such terms as "alkali," " sal," &c. The mineral acids, hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, and also aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) were discovered, and the vitriols, alum, saltpetre, sal-ammoniac, ammonium carbonate, silver nitrate (lunar caustic) became better known.
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  • Glauber showed how to prepare hydrochloric acid, spiritus salis, by heating rock-salt with sulphuric acid, the method in common use to-day; and also nitric acid from saltpetre and arsenic trioxide.
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  • Libavius obtained sulphuric acid from many substances, e.g.
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  • In the same year Berzelius discovered selenium in a deposit from sulphuric acid chambers, his masterly investigation including a study of the hydride, oxides and other compounds.
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  • Serullas and Roscoe; Davy and Stadion investigated chlorine peroxide, formed by treating potassium chlorate with sulphuric acid.
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  • For example: nitric acid and sulphuric acid readily react with benzene and its homologues with the production of nitro derivatives and sulphonic acids, while in the aliphatic series these acids exert no substituting action (in the case of the olefines, the latter acid forms an addition product); another distinction is that the benzene complex is more stable towards oxidizing agents.
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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
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  • For many years it had been known that a mixture of potassium chlorate and hydrochloric or sulphuric acids possessed strong.
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  • Carius showed that potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid oxidized benzene to trichlorphenomalic acid, a substance afterwards investigated by Kekule and 0.
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  • Bamberger opposed Claus' formula on the following grounds: - The molecule of naphthalene is symmetrical, since 2.7 dioxynaphthalene is readily esterified by methyl iodide and sulphuric acid to a dimethyl ether; and no more than two mono-substitution derivatives are known.
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  • Boyle recognized many reagents which gave precipitates with certain solutions: he detected sulphuric and hydrochloric acids by the white precipitates formed with calcium chloride and silver nitrate respectively; ammonia by the white cloud formed with the vapours of nitric or hydrochloric acids; and copper by the deep blue solution formed by a solution of ammonia.
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  • If it possesses an alkaline or acid reaction, it must be tested in the first case for ammonia, and in the second case for a volatile acid, such as sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, &c.
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  • The solution is evaporated with a little sulphuric acid and well cooled.
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  • An approximate normal sulphuric acid is prepared from 30 ccs.
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  • A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid.
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  • Horbaczewski's method, which consists in boiling the substance with strong potash, saturating the cold solution` with chlorine, adding hydrochloric acid, and boiling till no more chlorine is liberated, and then testing for sulphuric acid with barium chloride.
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  • In 1855 C. Brunner described a method for oxidizing the carbon to carbon dioxide, which could be estimated by the usual methods, by heating the substance with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
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  • The oxidation, which is effected by chromic acid and sulphuric acid, is conducted in a flask provided with a funnel and escape tube, and the carbon dioxide formed is swept by a current of dry air, previously freed from carbon dioxide, through a drying tube to a set of potash bulbs and a tube containing soda-lime; if halogens are present, a small wash bottle containing potassium iodide, and a U tube containing glass wool moistened with silver nitrate on one side and strong sulphuric acid on the other, must be inserted between the flask and the drying tube.
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  • The oxidation with nitric acid in sealed tubes at a temperature of 150° to 200° for aliphatic compounds, and 250° to 260° for aromatic compounds, is in common use, for both the sulphur and phosphorus can be estimated, the former being oxidized to sulphuric acid and the latter to phosphoric acid.
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  • Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and water; and potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid to chloranil.
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  • Ethyl salicylate, C 6 H 4 (OH) CO 2 C 2 H 5j is obtained by boiling salicylic acid with alcohol and a little sulphuric acid, or by dropping an alcoholic solution of salicylic acid into 13-naphthalene sulphonic acid at a temperature of 140-150° C. (German Patent 76,574).
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  • Acetophenoneoxime, C 6 H 5 C(:NOH) CH3, melts at 59° C. In glacial acetic acid solution, on the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid, it is converted into acetanilide.
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  • Priestley, who obtained it by reducing nitrogen peroxide with iron, may be prepared by heating ammonium nitrate at 170-260° C., or by reducing a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid with zinc. It is a colourless gas, which is practically odourless, but possesses a sweetish taste.
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  • In a purer condition it may be obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferrous sulphate, or of hydrochloric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferric chloride.
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  • It is also formed by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on sodium nitrite in the presence of mercury.
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  • It is exceedingly soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • It combines with sulphuric acid to form nitro-sulphonic acid, SO 2 (OH) (N02).
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  • The silver salt is a bright yellow solid, soluble in dilute sulphuric and nitric acids, and may be crystallized from concentrated solutions of ammonia.
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  • It is decomposed by sulphuric acid, with evolution of nitrous oxide.
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  • The reagents in common use are: Millon's reagent, a solution of mercuric nitrate containing nitrous acid, this gives a violet-red coloration; nitric acid, which gives a yellow colour, turning to gold when treated with ammonia (xanthoproteic reaction); fuming sulphuric acid, which gives violet solutions; and caustic potash and copper sulphate, which, on warming, gives a red to violet coloration (biuret reaction).
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  • Now this ratio is the same as that which gives the relative chemical equivalents of hydrogen and copper, for r gramme of hydrogen and 31.8 grammes of copper unite chemically with the same weight of any acid radicle such as chlorine or the sulphuric group, SO 4.
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  • If the current be so strong that new hydrogen and hydroxyl ions cannot be formed in time, other substances are liberated; in a solution of sulphuric acid a strong current will evolve sulphur dioxide, the more readily as the concentration of the solution is increased.
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  • Thus the osmotic pressure, or the depression of the freezing point of a solution of potassium chloride should, at extreme dilution, be twice the normal value, but of a solution of sulphuric acid three times that value, since the potassium salt contains two ions and the acid three.
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  • If sulphuric acid be added to the vessel containing the zinc, these conditions are unaltered and still no zinc is dissolved.
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  • When one gramme of zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, 1670 thermal units or calories are evolved.
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  • The acid employed may be hydrochloric, which gives the best results, or sulphuric, which is used in Germany; sulphuric acid is more readily separated from the product than hydrochloric, since the addition of powdered chalk precipitates it as calcium sulphate, which may be removed by a filter press.
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  • In 1861, while conducting a spectroscopic examination of the residue left in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, he observed a bright green line which had not been noticed previously, and by following up the indication thus given he succeeded in isolating a new element, thallium, a specimen of which was shown in public for the first time at the exhibition of 1862.
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  • Dilute sulphuric acid (say an acid of 20% H 2 SO 4 or less) has no action on lead even when air is present, nor on boiling.
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  • Boiling concentrated sulphuric acid converts lead into sulphate, with evolution of sulphur dioxide.
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  • - Lead contaminated with small proportions of antimony is more highly proof against sulphuric acid than the pure metal.
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  • If a suspension of lead dichloride in hydrochloric acid be treated with chlorine gas, a solution of lead tetrachloride is obtained; by adding ammonium chloride ammonium plumbichloride, (NH 4) 2 PbC1 6, is precipitated, which on treatment with strong sulphuric acid yields lead tetrachloride, PbC1 4, as a translucent, yellow, highly refractive liquid.
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  • Lead sulphate, PbSO 4, occurs in nature as the mineral anglesite (q.v.), and may be prepared by the addition of sulphuric acid to solutions of lead salts, as a white precipitate almost insoluble in water (1 in 21,739), less soluble still in dilute sulphuric acid (1 in 36,504) and insoluble in alcohol.
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  • Strong sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming an acid salt, Pb(HS04)2, which is hydrolysed by adding water, the normal sulphate being precipitated; hence the milkiness exhibited by samples of oil of vitriol on dilution.
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  • Solutions of lead salts (colourless in the absence of coloured acids) are characterized by their behaviour to hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and potassium chromate.
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  • When heated to 250° C. with red phosphorus and hydriodic acid it gives a hydride It is nitrated by nitric acid and sulphonated by sulphuric acid.
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  • The aldehydes may be prepared by the careful oxidation of primary alcohols with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid,-3R�CH OH+K Cr 07+4H SO = K2S04+ Cr (SO) +7H O+3R�CHO; by distilling the calcium salts of the fatty acids with calcium formate; and by hydrolysis of the acetals.
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  • Miller (Ber., 1892, 25, p. 2864; 1896, 29, p. 59) have shown that in the presence of aniline and sulphuric acid they give substituted quinolines.
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  • It is prepared by oxidizing ethyl alcohol with dilute sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, and is a colourless liquid of boiling point 20�8° C., possessing a peculiar characteristic smell.
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  • Paraldehyde is moderately soluble in water, and when distilled with sulphuric acid is reconverted into the ordinary form.
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  • It oxidizes readily: exposure to air giving acrylic acid, nitric acid giving oxalic acid, bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid giving carbon dioxide and formic acid.
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  • The presence of sulphuric acid in potash alum was known to the alchemists.
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  • In the roasting process, sulphuric acid is formed and acts on the clay to form aluminium sulphate, a similar condition of affairs being produced during weathering.
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  • In the preparation of alum from clays or from bauxite, the material is gently calcined, then mixed with sulphuric acid and heated gradually to boiling; it is allowed to stand for some time, the clear solution drawn off and mixed with acid potassium sulphate and allowed to crystallize.
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  • The precipitate is then dissolved in sulphuric acid, the requisite amount of potassium sulphate added and the solution allowed to crystallize.
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  • It burns on heating in air; and is scarcely attacked by hydrochloric or nitric acids, or by aqua regia; it is soluble in warm concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • It burns when heated in air, and is soluble in warm concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • Nitromethane, CH 3 NO 2, is a colourless oil which boils at 101° C. Fuming sulphuric acid decomposes it into carbon monoxide and hydroxylamine.
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  • Tetranitromethane, C(N02)4, obtained by adding nitroform to a hot mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, is a crystalline solid which melts at 13° C. Chlorpicrin, CC1 3 NO 2, is a liquid of suffocating odour obtained by the action of nitric acid and chloride of lime on many organic compounds.
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  • The reaction is generally carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid, which is used to absorb the water formed during the process of nitration.
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  • Berzelius about 1823 found that the yellow oxide, when treated with excess of sulphuric acid, gave a sulphate not unlike the ferric salt.
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  • In one process the purified ore is disintegrated with hot nitric acid to produce nitrates, which are then converted into sulphates by evaporation with sulphuric acid.
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  • Dilute sulphuric acid attacks it but slowly; hydrochloric acid, especially if strong, dissolves it readily, with the formation, more immediately, of a hyacinthcoloured solution of U 2 C1 6, which, however, readily absorbs oxygen from the air, with the formation of a green solution of UC1 4, which in its turn gradually passes into one of yellow uranyl salt, U02.
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  • It is manufactured by heating pitchblende with lime, treating the resulting calcium uranate with dilute sulphuric acid, and adding sodium carbonate in excess.
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  • Dilute sulphuric acid precipitates uranium yellow, Na 2 U 2 0 7.6H 2 O, from the solution so obtained.
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  • The iron plates, having been carefully cleaned with sand and hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, and lastly with water, are plunged into heated tallow to drive away the water without oxidation of the metal.
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  • Metastannic acid is distinguished from orthostannic acid by its insolubility in nitric and sulphuric acids.
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  • Bottger of Frankfort and Otto and Knop, all of whom added to our knowledge of the subject, the last-named introducing the use of sulphuric along with nitric acid in the nitration process.
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  • Guncotton is made by immersing cleaned and dried cotton waste in a mixture of strong nitric and sulphuric acids.
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  • Strong sulphuric acid in contact with it liberates first nitric acid and later oxides of nitrogen, leaving a charred residue or a brown solution according to the quantity of acid.
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  • It sometimes fires on contact with strong sulphuric acid, especially when slightly warmed.
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  • Guncottons are examined for degree of nitration by the nitrometer, in which apparatus they are decomposed by sulphuric acid in contact with mercury, and all the nitrogen is evolved as nitric oxide, NO, which is measured and the weight of its contained nitrogen calculated.
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  • The making of ether by the action of sulphuric acid on alcohol was known in about the 13th century; and later Basil Valentine and Valerius Cordus described its preparation and properties.
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  • Ether is manufactured by the distillation of 5 parts of 90% alcohol with 9 parts of concentrated sulphuric acid at a temperature of 140°-145° C., a constant stream of alcohol being caused to flow into the mixture during the operation.
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  • Watery solution of iodine imparts to it a deep mahogany-brown colour; iodine and sulphuric acid occasionally, but not always, an azure-blue, methylviolet, a brilliant rose-pink and methyl-green gives a reaction very much like that of methyl-violet, but not so vivid.
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  • The name "amyloid " was applied to it by Virchow on account of the blue reaction which it gives occasionally with iodine and sulphuric acid, resembling that given with vegetable cellulose.
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  • Iodine gives usually a dark brown reaction, sometimes a deep blue; iodine and sulphuric acid almost always call forth an intense deep blue reaction; and methyl-violet usually a brilliant pink, quite resembling that of true amyloid.
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  • The reaction proceeds in several stages, mono-, diand finally tri-nitrate being produced, the final stage requiring sulphuric acid as a dehydrator.
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  • In recent practice some sulphin trioxide, or fuming sulphuric acid, is added, so that the mixture of acids contains less than I% of water.
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  • Shaken with mercury and sulphuric acid, nitroglycerin yields its nitrogen as nitric oxide; the measurement of the volume of this gas is a convenient mode of estimating nitroglycerin.
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  • It may be separated by shaking out with dilute sulphuric acid, and then precipitating the sulphuric acid solution with potassium bichromate, the resulting acridine bichromate being decomposed by ammonia.
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  • Silicon fluoride, SiF4, is formed when silicon is brought into contact with fluorine (Moissan); or by decomposing a mixture of acid potassium fluoride and silica, or of calcium fluoride and silica with concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • Silicofluoric acid, H2SiF6, is obtained as shown above, and also by the action of sulphuric acid on barium silicofluoride, or by absorbing silicon fluoride in aqueous hydrofluoric acid.
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  • Aqueous Sulphuric or Hydrochloric Acid readily dissolves groups I and 2, with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides or sulphates.
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  • Tin dissolves readily in strong hot hydrochloric acid as SnC12; aqueous sulphuric acid does not act on it appreciably in the cold; at 150° it attacks it more or less quickly, according to the strength of the acid, with evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen or, when the acid is stronger, of sulphurous acid gas and deposition of sulphur (Calvert and Johnson).
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  • Hot (concentrated) sulphuric acid does not attack gold, platinum and platinum-metals generally; all other metals (including silver) are converted into sulphates, with evolution of sulphur dioxide.
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  • The fractions are agitated with strong sulphuric acid, and then washed with a caustic soda solution.
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  • The toluene fraction requires a more thorough washing with sulphuric acid in order to eliminate the thiotolene, which is sulphonated much less readily than thiophene.
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  • Manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize it to benzoic and o-phthalic acid; potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid breaks the ring; and ozone oxidizes it to the highly explosive white solid named ozo-benzene, C 6 H 6 O 6.
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  • It is readily nitrated to nitrobenzene, two, and even three nitro groups being introduced if some dehydrator such as concentrated sulphuric acid be present.
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  • Sulphuric acid gives a benzene sulphonic acid.
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  • - The cyanhydrins on hydrolysis give monocarboxylic acids, which yield lactones; these compounds when reduced by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar containing one more carbon atom.
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  • Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.
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  • Other forms are: d- and l-gulose, prepared from the lactones of the corresponding gulonic acids, which are obtained from d- and /-glucose by oxidation and inversion; d- and l-idose, obtained by inverting with pyridine d- and l-gulonic acids, and reducing the resulting idionic acids; d- and l-galactose, the first being obtained by hydrolysing milk sugar with dilute sulphuric acid, and the second by fermenting inactive galactose (from the reduction of the lactone of d, l-galactonic acid) with yeast; and d- and l-talose obtained by inverting the galactonic acids by pyridine into d- and l-talonic acids and reduction.
    0
    0
  • When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.
    0
    0
  • Maltose, malt-sugar, maltobiose, C12H22011, is formed, together with dextrine, by the action of malt diastase on starch, and as an intermediate product in the decomposition of starch by sulphuric acid, and of glycogen by ferments.
    0
    0
  • On solution in sulphuric acid, followed by dilution with water, it yields acetophenone.
    0
    0
  • When sulphuric or sulphurous acid is to be collected, it is important to keep the fuel gas from admixture with the sulphur gases, and kilns for this purpose require some modification.
    0
    0
  • A rod of perfectly pure zinc, when immersed in dilute sulphuric acid, is so very slowly attacked that there is no visible evolution of gas; but, if a piece of platinum, copper or other more electro-positive metal be brought into contact with the zinc, it dissolves readily, with evolution of hydrogen and formation of the sulphate.
    0
    0
  • Zinc sulphate, ZnS04+7H20, or white vitriol, is prepared by dissolving the metal in dilute sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • The filtrate is acidified with a little sulphuric acid and evaporated to crystallization.
    0
    0
  • Numerous sulphonic acids of anthracene are known, a monosulphonic acid being obtained with dilute sulphuric acid, whilst concentrated sulphuric acid produces mixtures of the anthracene disulphonic acids.
    0
    0
  • It combines directly with the halogens, and dissolves in cold dilute sulphuric acid, in hot strong hydrochloric acid and in aqua regia, but less readily in nitric acid.
    0
    0
  • It is insoluble in all acids, except in hot concentrated sulphuric, when finely powdered.
    0
    0
  • If the sulphuric acid solution be evaporated to dryness the residue, after cooling, dissolves in cold water.
    0
    0
  • Titanium sesquisulphate, T12(S04)3.8H20, obtained by concentrating the violet solution formed when the metal is dissolved in sulphuric acid, is interesting since it forms a caesium alum, CsTi(S04)2.12H20.
    0
    0
  • When heated with concentrated sulphuric acid for some time, they are sulphonated.
    0
    0
  • Manganese dioxide and dilute sulphuric acid oxidize it to quinone.
    0
    0
  • Nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, all more or less impure, were better studied; and many ethereal oils were discovered.
    0
    0
  • Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
    0
    0
  • Glass stills heated by a sand bath are sometimes employed in the final distillation of sulphuric acid; platinum, and an alloy of platinum and iridium with a lining of gold rolled on (a discovery due to Heraeus), are used for the same purpose.
    0
    0
  • Strontium sulphate, SrSO 4, found in the mineral kingdom as celestine, is formed when sulphuric acid or a soluble sulphate is added to a solution of a strontium salt.
    0
    0
  • It is a colourless, amorphous solid, which is almost insoluble in water, its solubility diminishing with increasing temperature; it is appreciably soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • There are neither sulphuric exhalations nor escapes of steam at present, and it would seem that this great volcano is permanently extinct.
    0
    0
  • These lakes contain free sulphuric acid, mixed with iron and alum.
    0
    0
  • Theoretical conceptions were revived by Stahl, who held that acids were the fundamentals of all salts, and the erroneous idea that sulphuric acid was the principle of all acids.
    0
    0
  • In Berzelius' system + potassium sulphate is to be regarded as K 2 0.S0 3; electrolysis should simply effect the disruption of the positive and negative components, potash passing with the current, and sulphuric acid against the current.
    0
    0
  • In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • It is also obtained by the action of hydrogen peroxide on hydrocyanic acid, or of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid on potassium cyanide.
    0
    0
  • It is insoluble in hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, but dissolves in aqua regia - a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids - and when very finely divided in a heated mixture of strong sulphuric acid and a little nitric acid; dilution with water, however, precipitates the metal as a violet or brown powder from this solution.
    0
    0
  • Gold is also attacked when strong sulphuric acid is submitted to electrolysis with a gold positive pole.
    0
    0
  • Sodium aurosulphide, NaAuS 4H 2 O, is prepared by fusing gold with sodium sulphide and sulphur, the melt being extracted with water, filtered in an atmosphere of nitrogen, and evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • By subsequent treatment with sulphuric acid the gold could be recovered.
    0
    0
  • Subsequent treatment with sulphuric acid renders the copper soluble in water as sulphate, and the final residue contains only gold and silver, which is parted or refined in the ordinary way.
    0
    0
  • Chlorine, generally prepared by the interaction of pyrolusite, salt and sulphuric acid, is led from a suitable generator beneath the false bottom, and rises through the moistened ore, which rests on a bed of broken quartz; the gold is thus converted into a soluble chloride, which is afterwards removed by washing with water.
    0
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  • Chlorine is generated within the barrel from sulphuric acid and chloride of lime.
    0
    0
  • In the case of ferrous sulphate, prepared by dissolving iron in dilute sulphuric acid, the reaction follows the equation AuCl 3 +3FeS04 = FeC13-I-Fe2(S04)3+Au.
    0
    0
  • At the same time any lead, calcium, barium and strontium present are precipitated as sulphates; it is therefore advantageous to remove these metals by the preliminary addition of sulphuric acid, which also serves to keep any basic iron salts in solution.
    0
    0
  • The precipitated gold is washed, treated with salt and sulphuric acid to remove iron salts, roughly dried by pressing in cloths or on filter paper, and then melted with salt, borax and nitre in graphite crucibles.
    0
    0
  • Sulphur dioxide, generated by burning sulphur, is forced into the solution under pressure, where it interacts with any free chlorine present to form hydrochloric and sulphuric acids.
    0
    0
  • Sulphuretted hydrogen, obtained by treating iron sulphide or a coarse matte with dilute sulphuric acid, is forced in similarly.
    0
    0
  • After well washing with water, the slimes are roughly dried in bag-filters or filter-presses, and then treated with dilute sulphuric acid, the solution being heated by steam.
    0
    0
  • In the " dry " methods the silver is converted into sulphide or chloride, the gold remaining unaltered; in the " wet " methods the silver is dissolved by nitric acid or boiling sulphuric acid; and in the electrolytic processes advantage is taken of the fact that under certain current densities and other circumstances silver passes from an anode composed of a gold-silver alloy to the cathode more readily than gold.
    0
    0
  • Miller's chlorine process is of any importance, this method, and the wet process of refining by sulphuric acid, together with the electrolytic process, being the only ones now practised.
    0
    0
  • It is especially suitable to gold containing little silver and base metals - a character of Australian gold - but it yields to the sulphuric acid and electrolytic methods in point of economy.
    0
    0
  • The separation of gold from silver in the wet way may be effected by nitric acid, sulphuric acid or by a mixture of sulphuric acid and aqua regia.
    0
    0
  • It is now rarely practised, although in some refineries both the nitric acid and the sulphuric acid processes are combined, the alloy being first treated with nitric acid.
    0
    0
  • Refining by sulphuric acid, the process usually adopted for separating gold from silver, was first employed on the large scale by d'Arcet in Paris in 1802, and was introduced into the Mint refinery, London, by Mathison in 1829.
    0
    0
  • It is based upon the facts that concentrated hot sulphuric acid converts silver and copper into soluble sulphates without attacking the gold, the silver sulphate being subsequently reduced to the metallic state by copper plates with the formation of copper sulphate.
    0
    0
  • The process embraces four operations: (1) the preparation of an alloy suitable for parting; (2) the treatment with sulphuric acid; (3) the treatment of the residue for gold; (4) the treatment of the solution for silver.
    0
    0
  • The bullion with about twice its weight of sulphuric acid of 66° Be is placed in the pot, and the whole gradually heated.
    0
    0
  • Generally the reaction mixture is allowed to cool, and the residue, which settles to the bottom of the pot, consists of gold together with copper, lead and iron sulphates, which are insoluble in strong sulphuric acid; silver sulphate may also separate if present in sufficient quantity and the solution be sufficiently cooled.
    0
    0
  • Pettenkofer, it is impossible to remove all the silver by means of sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Fusion with an alkaline bisulphate converts the silver into the sulphate, which may be extracted by boiling with sulphuric acid and then with water.
    0
    0
  • Another process consists in treating a mixture of the residue with one-quarter of its weight of calcined sodium sulphate with sulphuric acid, the residue being finally boiled with a large quantity of acid.
    0
    0
  • The silver present in the solution obtained in the sulphuric acid boiling is recovered by a variety of processes.
    0
    0
  • The electrolytic parting of gold and silver has been shown to be more economical and free from the objections - such as the poisonous fumes - of the sulphuric acid process.
    0
    0
  • The most important is naphthionic acid, I-amino-4sulphonic acid, produced by heating a-naphthylamine and sulphuric acid to 170-180° C. with about 3% of crystallized oxalic acid.
    0
    0
  • In the wet process the ores, in which the bismuth is present as oxide or carbonate, are dissolved out with hydrochloric acid, or, if the bismuth is to be extracted from a matte or alloy, the solvent employed is aqua regia or strong sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Bismuth combines directly with the halogens, and the elements of the sulphur group. It readily dissolves in nitric acid, aqua regia, and hot sulphuric acid, but tardily in hot hydrochloric acid.
    0
    0
  • Bismuth sulphate, B12(S04)3, is obtained as a white powder by dissolving the metal or sulphide in concentrated sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Small quantities are occasionally met with in iron pyrites, and hence tellurium is found with selenium in the flue dust, or chamber deposits of sulphuric acid works.
    0
    0
  • The element is insoluble in water, but dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid forming a deep red solution.
    0
    0
  • The free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution, when a crystalline mass of composition H 2 Te04.2H 2 O separates.
    0
    0
  • It is obtained from potassium tantalofluoride by heating with sulphuric acid to 400°, boiling out with water, and decomposing the residual compound of the oxide and sulphuric acid by ignition, preferably with the addition of ammonium carbonate.
    0
    0
  • Pertantalic acid, HTaO 4, is obtained in the hydrated form as a white precipitate by adding sulphuric acid to potassium pertantalate, K 3 Ta0 5.
    0
    0
  • The composition of the ash of true coal approximates to that of a fire-clay, allowance being made for lime, which may be present either as carbonate or sulphate, and for sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Caesium sulphate, Cs 2 SO 4, may be prepared by dissolving the hydroxide or carbonate in sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • In contact with nascent hydrogen it builds up ethylene; ethylene acted upon by sulphuric acid yields ethyl sulphuric acid; this can again be decomposed in the presence of water, to yield alcohol, and it has also been proposed to manufacture sugar from this body.
    0
    0
  • Picric acid can also be obtained from it by first treating acetylene with sulphuric acid, converting the product into phenol by solution in potash and then treating the phenol with fuming nitric acid.
    0
    0
  • The sulphate, Sm 2 (SO 4) 3.81120, is obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on the nitrate.
    0
    0
  • After this treatment, the mixture is run into lead-lined vats and treated with sulphuric acid, steam is blown through the mixture in order to bring it to the boil, and the anthracene is rapidly oxidized to anthraquinone.
    0
    0
  • Dioxyand tetraoxy-anthraquinones are obtained when meta-oxyand dimeta-dioxy-benzoic acids are heated with concentrated sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • The amount of methyl alcohol present in wood spirit is determined by converting it into methyl iodide by acting with phosphorus iodide; and the acetone by converting it into iodoform by boiling with an alkaline solution of iodine in potassium iodide; ethyl alcohol is detected by giving acetylene on heating with concentrated sulphuric acid, methyl alcohol, !under the same circumstances, giving methyl ether.
    0
    0
  • Methyl chloride CH 3 C1, is a gas, boiling at - 23°, obtained by chlorinating methane, or better, from methyl alcohol; wood spirit is treated with salt and sulphuric acid, or hydrochloric acid gas conducted into the boiling spirit in the presence of zinc chloride, the evolved gas being washed with potash and dried by sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Kehrmann showed that aposafranine could be diazotized in the presence of cold concentrated sulphuric acid, and the diazonium salt on boiling with alcohol yielded phenylphenazonium salts.
    0
    0
  • Perkin by heating crude aniline with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • After fusion, the mass is finely powdered and treated with cold dilute hydrochloric acid; and when action has finished, nitric and sulphuric acids are added, the precipitated barium sulphate removed, the liquid distilled and the osmium precipitated as sulphide.
    0
    0
  • The double fluoride is decomposed with hot concentrated sulphuric acid; the mixed sulphate is dissolved in water; and the zirconia is precipitated with ammonia in the cold.
    0
    0
  • Zirconia can be obtained crystalline, in a form isomorphous with cassiterite and rutile, by fusing the amorphous modification with borax, and dissolving out with sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • The anhydrous oxide is with difficulty soluble even in hydrofluoric acid; but a mixture of two parts of concentrated sulphuric acid and one of water dissolves it on continued heating as the sulphate, Zr(S04)2.
    0
    0
  • The sulphate, Zr(S04)2, is a white mass obtained by dissolving the oxide or hydroxide in sulphuric acid, evaporating and heating the mass to nearly a red heat.
    0
    0
  • Marcasite readily oxidizes on exposure to moist air, with the production of sulphuric acid and a white fibrous efflorescence of ferrous sulphate, and in course of time specimens in collections often became completely disintegrated.
    0
    0
  • This is removed by solution in hot dilute sulphuric acid and a layer of pure frosted silver is left on the surface, which appears dead white in colour, and has lost its metallic lustre.
    0
    0
  • Orthophosphoric acid, H3P04, a tribasic acid, is obtained by boiling a solution of the pentoxide in water; by oxidizing, red phosphorus with nitric acid, or yellow phosphorus under the surface of water by bromine or iodine; and also by decomposing a mineral phosphate with sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • It usually forms a Chin syrup which on concentration in a vacuum over sulphuric: acid deposits hard, transparent, rhombic prisms which melt at 41.7°.
    0
    0
  • Glauber (De natura salium, 1658), who prepared it by the action of oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid on common salt, and, ascribing to it many medicinal virtues, termed it sal mirabile Glauberi.
    0
    0
  • The pipe was fixed in a horizontal position, and along the top wall ran a platinum wire wetted with sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • The whole current supplied to the house flows through an electrolytic cell consisting of a glass tube containing two platinum electrodes; the electrolyte is dilute sulphuric acid covered with a thin layer of oil to prevent evaporation.
    0
    0
  • The artificial manure known as "superphosphate of lime" consists of this salt and calcium sulphate, and is obtained by treating ground bones, coprolites, &c., with sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Sulphuric acid gives a white precipitate of calcium sulphate with strong solutions; ammonium oxalate gives calcium oxalate, practically insoluble in water and dilute acetic acid, but readily soluble in nitric or hydrochloric acid.
    0
    0
  • The disulphonate is more readily obtained by moistening the nitrilosulphonate with dilute sulphuric acid and letting it stand for twenty-four hours, after which it is recrystallized from dilute ammonia.
    0
    0
  • The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.
    0
    0
  • Only one compound of hydrogen and fluorine is known, namely hydrofluoric acid, HF or H 2 F 2, which was first obtained by C. Scheele in 1771 by decomposing fluor-spar with concentrated sulphuric acid, a method still used for the commercial preparation of the aqueous solution of the acid, the mixture being distilled from leaden retorts and the acid stored in leaden or gutta-percha bottles.
    0
    0
  • Fluorides can be readily detected by their power of etching glass when warmed with sulphuric acid; or by warming them in a glass tube with concentrated sulphuric acid and holding a moistened glass rod in the mouth of the tube, the water apparently gelatinizes owing to the decomposition of the silicon fluoride formed.
    0
    0
  • When dissolved in water it yields some NaOH and H202; on crystallizing a cold 'solution Na202.8H20 separates as large tabular hexagonal crystals, which on drying over sulphuric acid give Na 2 0 2.2H 2 0; the former is also obtained by precipitating a mixture of caustic soda and hydrogen peroxide solutions with alcohol.
    0
    0
  • The acid sulphate, NaHSO 4, also known as bisulphate of soda, is obtained as large asymmetric prisms by crystallizing a solution of equivalent quantities of the normal sulphate and sulphuric acid above 50°.
    0
    0
  • The olefines may be synthetically prepared by eliminating water from the alcohols of the general formula CnH2n+1 OH, using sulphuric acid or zinc chloride generally as the dehydrating agent, although phosphorus pentoxide, syrupy phosphoric acid and anhydrous oxalic acid may frequently be substituted.
    0
    0
  • In this method of preparation it is found that the secondary alcohols decompose more readily that the primary alcohols of the series, and when sulphuric acid is used, two phases are present in the reaction, the first being the building up of an intermediate sulphuric acid ester, which then decomposes into sulphuric acid and hydrocarbon: C2H 5 OH->C 2 H 5 HSO 4 ->C 2 H 4 +-H 2 SO 4.
    0
    0
  • They combine with hypochlorous acid to form chlorhydrins; and are easily soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid, giving rise to sulphuric acid esters; consequently if the solution be boiled with water, the alcohol from which the olefine was in the first place derived is regenerated.
    0
    0
  • The higher members of the series readily polymerize in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid, zinc chloride, &c. For the first member of the series see Ethylene.
    0
    0
  • It may also be prepared by heating formic and oxalic acids (or their salts) with concentrated sulphuric acid (in the case of oxalic acid, an equal volume of carbon dioxide is produced); and by heating potassium ferrocyanide with a large excess of concentrated sulphuric acid, K 4 Fe(CN) 6 -i-6H2S04+6H20=2K2S04+FeS04+3(NH4)2S04+6C0.
    0
    0
  • It is also formed by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on the isocyanic esters, 2CONC 2 H 5 +H 2 S=COS+CO(NHC 2 H 5) 2, by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on the isothiocyanic esters, Rncs H 2 O = Cos Rnh 2, Or Of Dilute Sulphuric Acid On The Thiocyanates.
    0
    0
  • Benzoquinone (para) or ordinary quinone, C 6 H 4 0 2, is formed by the oxidation of aniline with sodium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • The commercial salt usually has an alkaline reaction; it may be purified by dissolving in the minimum amount of water, and neutralizing with dilute sulphuric acid; alcohol is now added to precipitate the potassium sulphate, the solution filtered and crystallized.
    0
    0
  • Iodine dissolves in an aqueous solution of the salt to form a dark brown liquid, which on evaporation over sulphuric acid gives black acicular crystals of the tri-iodide, K1 3.
    0
    0
  • The salt K2S03 2H20 is obtained as oblique rhombic octahedra by crystallizing the solution over sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • It was obtained as a by-product in many chemical reactions, and subsequently used to be extracted from kainite, one of the Stassfurt minerals, but the process is now given up because the salt can be produced cheaply enough from the chloride by decomposing it with sulphuric acid and calcining the residue.
    0
    0
  • The acid sulphate or bisulphate, Khso 4, is readily produced by fusing thirteen parts of the powdered normal salt with eight parts of sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Similar is the behaviour of the fused dry salt at a dull red heat; it acts on silicates, titanates, &c., as if it were sulphuric acid raised beyond its natural boiling point.
    0
    0
  • Sulphuric acid is now added to the liquid, and any alkaline sulphides and sulphites present are decomposed, while iodides and bromides are converted into sulphates, and hydriodic and hydrobromic acids are liberated and remain dissolved in the solution.
    0
    0
  • Iodine may also be prepared by the decomposition of an iodide with chlorine, or by heating a mixture of an iodide and manganese dioxide with concentrated sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • The acid cannot be prepared by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on an iodide on account of secondary reactions taking place, which result in the formation of free iodine and sulphur dioxide.
    0
    0
  • Nitrous acid and chlorine readily decompose them with liberation of iodine; the same effect being produced when they are heated with concentrated sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide.
    0
    0
  • Iodic Acid, H10 3, can be prepared by dissolving iodine pentoxide in water; by boiling iodine with fuming nitric acid, 61+10HN03= 6H10 3 +10N0+2H 2 O; by decomposing barium iodate with the calculated quantity of sulphuric acid, previously diluted with water, or by suspending iodine in water and passing in chlorine, 12+5C12+ 6H 2 0=2H10 3 +10HC1.
    0
    0
  • It is detected by heating with ordinary alcohol and sulphuric acid, which gives rise to acetic ester or ethyl acetate, recognized by its" fragrant odour; or by heating with arsenious oxide, which forms the pungent and poisonous cacodyl oxide.
    0
    0
  • When fused with potassium carbonate it yields potassium cyanide; warmed with dilute sulphuric acid it yields hydrocyanic acid, but with concentrated sulphuric acid it yields carbon monoxide: 6H 2 O + K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + 6H 2 SO 4 = 2K 2 SO 4 + FeSO 4 + 3(NH4)2S04 + 6C0.
    0
    0
  • It dissolves unchanged in concentrated sulphuric acid, and oxidizes readily in moist air, forming Prussian blue.
    0
    0
  • The free acid forms dark red deliquescent crystals and is obtained by decomposing the silver salt with hydrochloric acid, or the barium salt with dilute sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • The free acid, when heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, is decomposed into water and pure carbon monoxide; when heated with nitric acid, it is oxidized first to oxalic acid and finally to carbon dioxide.
    0
    0
  • Concentrated sulphuric acid converts them into sulphates, with simultaneous liberation of carbon monoxide.
    0
    0
  • The esters of the acid may be obtained by distilling a mixture of the sodium or potassium salts and the corresponding alcohol with hydrochloric or sulphuric acids.
    0
    0
  • The portion distilling at about 200° C. is then methylated by means of methyl alcohol and methyl iodide at loo-i io C., the excess of methyl alcohol removed and the product obtained decolorized by sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Its nauseous bitter taste may to some extent be concealed by acidifying the solution with dilute sulphuric acid, and in some cases where full doses have failed the repeated administration of small ones has proved effectual.
    0
    0
  • Wohler reduced the sesquioxide by zinc, and obtained a shining green powder of specific gravity 6.81, which tarnished in air and dissolved in hydrochloric acid and warm dilute sulphuric acid, but was unacted upon by concentrated nitric acid.
    0
    0
  • Chromium as prepared by the Goldschmidt process is in a passive condition as regards dilute sulphuric acid and dilute hydrochloric acid at ordinary temperatures; but by heating the metal with the acid it passes into the active condition, the same effect being produced by heating the inactive form with a solution.
    0
    0
  • Chromic acid and its salts, the chromates and bichromates, can be detected by the violet coloration which they give on addition of hydrogen peroxide to their dilute acid solution, or by the fact that on distillation with concentrated sulphuric acid and an alkaline chloride, the red vapours of chromium oxychloride are produced.
    0
    0
  • Several forms of hydrated chromium sesquioxide are known; thus on precipitation of a chromic salt, free from alkali, by ammonia, a light blue precipitate is formed, which after drying over sulphuric acid, has the composition Cr 2 0 3 -7H 2 0, and this after being heated to zoo° C. in a current of hydrogen leaves a residue of composition CrO.
    0
    0
  • Chromium trioxide, Cr03, is obtained by adding concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium bichromate, when it separates in long red needles; the mother liquor is drained off and the crystals are washed with concentrated nitric acid, the excess of which is removed by means of a current of dry air.
    0
    0
  • Heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid it liberates chlorine, and with sulphuric acid it liberates oxygen.
    0
    0
  • Chromous sulphate, CrS04 7H 2 0, isomorphous with ferrous sulphate, results on dissolving the metal in dilute sulphuric acid or, better, by dissolving chromous acetate in dilute sulphuric acid, when it separates in blue crystals on cooling the solution.
    0
    0
  • Oxyhalogen derivatives of chromium are known, the oxychloride, CrO 2 C1 21 resulting on heating potassium bichromate and common salt with concentrated sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • 10 a Analogous bromine and iodine compounds are unknown, since bromides and iodides on heating with potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid give free bromine or free iodine.
    0
    0
  • Chromic sulphate, Cr2(S04)3, is prepared by mixing the hydroxide with concentrated sulphuric acid and allowing the mixture to stand, a green solution is first formed which gradually changes to blue, and deposits violet-blue crystals, which are purified by dissolving in water and then precipitating with alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Investigation has shown that the change is due to the splitting off of sulphuric acid during the process, and that green-coloured chromsulphuric acids are formed thus - ii?
    0
    0
  • By the action of concentrated sulphuric acid it is transformed into chromium ammonium sulphate.
    0
    0
  • Chromic thiocyanate, Cr(SCN) 3, an amorphous deliquescent mass, is formed by dissolving the hydroxide in thiocyanic acid and drying over sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • The principal industries are the smelting of zinc and the manufacture of cement, rolled zinc, bricks, sulphuric acid and clocks; in 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $3,158,173.
    0
    0
  • Hydrochloric acid converts it into chloraniline, nitrogen being eliminated; whilst boiling sulphuric acid converts it into aminophenol.
    0
    0
  • On standing with 60% sulphuric acid for some time, it is converted into the isomeric acetaldehyde-phenylhydrazone, C 6 H 5 NH N: CH CH 3 (Ber., 1896, 2 9, P. 794).
    0
    0
  • The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.
    0
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  • By the alchemists the word was used principally to distinguish various highly volatile, mobile and inflammable liquids, such as the ethers, sulphuric ether and acetic ether having been known respectively as naphtha sulphurici and naphtha aceti.
    0
    0
  • Boric acid is also obtained from boronatrocalcite by treatment with sulphuric acid, followed by the evaporation of the solution so obtained.
    0
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  • In small quantities, it may be prepared by the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of borax.
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  • In this field he contributed to our knowledge of the manufacture of iron and steel, sulphuric acid, glass and paper, and in particular worked at the saponification of fats with sulphuric acid and the utilization of palmitic acid for candle-making.
    0
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  • To explain the electrical properties of sulphuric acid in aqueous solution, the supposition of three ions, two of hydrogen and one of the chemical group S04, is necessary.
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  • Under the influence of the heat the atmospheric oxygen unites with the hydrogen of the ammonia, and when the excess of the latter is removed with sulphuric acid, the gas properly desiccated should be pure nitrogen, derived in part from the ammonia, but principally from the air.
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  • Oil of vitriol is concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • For experimental purposes it is usually obtained by distilling potassium or sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • On the large scale it is obtained by distilling Chile saltpetre with concentrated sulphuric acid in horizontal cast iron stills, the vapours being condensed in a series of stoneware Woulfe's bottles.
    0
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  • Fuming nitric acid consists of a solution of nitrogen peroxide in concentrated nitric acid and is prepared by distilling dry sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • They may be recognized by the fact that on the addition of a solution of ferrous sulphate, followed by that of concentrated sulphuric acid (the mixture being kept quite cold), the ferrous sulphate solution becomes of a deep brown colour, owing to the reducing action of the ferrous sulphate on the nitric acid which is liberated by the action of the sulphuric acid on the nitrate.
    0
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  • As an alternative method the nitrate may be warmed with some fragments of copper and sulphuric acid which has been diluted with its own volume of water, when characteristic brown vapours will be seen.
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  • Nitric acid finds extensive application in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, certain coal-tar colouring matters, explosives, and in the production of various nitrates.
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  • Aluminium sulphate, known commercially as "concentrated alum" or "sulphate of alumina," is manufactured from kaolin or china clay, which, after roasting (in order to oxidize any iron present), is heated with sulphuric acid, the clear solution run off, and evaporated.
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  • They are most quickly available when dissolved in sulphuric acid.
    0
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  • Horn, hoof-parings, woollen rags, fish, blubber and blood, after treatment with sulphuric acid, are all good manures, and should be utilized if readily obtainable.
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  • The urine should be allowed to putrefy, as in its decomposition a large amount of ammonia is formed, which should then be fixed by sulphuric acid or gypsum; or it may be applied to the growing crops after being freely diluted with water or absorbed in a compost heap. Liquid manures can be readily made from most of the solid manures when required, simply by admixture with water.
    0
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  • Another kind of alteration which pyrites may suffer has been termed "vitriolization," since the products are ferrous sulphate, with free sulphuric acid and sometimes a basic ferric sulphate.
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  • Pyrites is largely worked for sake of the sulphur which it contains, and in many cases it has displaced brimstone in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.
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  • Pyrites low in sulphur is incapable of sustaining its own combustion without the aid of an external source of heat, and 45% of sulphur is, for economic reasons, usually regarded as the lowest admissible for sulphuric acid manufacture.
    0
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  • It is also important for this purpose that the ore should be as free as possible from arsenic (see Sulphuric Acid).
    0
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  • Two monosulphonic acids (a and 0) result by acting with sulphuric acid on the hydrocarbon, the a-acid predominating at low temperatures (80° C. and under) and the 0-acid at higher temperatures (170°-200° C.).
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  • Though it contains far too much sulphur to be used in iron manufacture without first being desulphurized, yet great quantities of slightly cupriferous pyrite, after yielding nearly all their sulphur in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, and most of the remainder in the wet extraction of their copper, are then used under the name of " blue billy " or " purple ore," as an ore of iron, a use which is likely to increase greatly in importance with the gradual exhaustion of the richest deposits of the oxidized ores.
    0
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  • Concentrated hydrochloric acid decomposes it with formation of C6H 6 N OH HO'N'H chloranilines and elimination of nitrogen, whilst on boiling with sulphuric acid it is converted into aminophenols.
    0
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  • It explodes in contact with concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • Cavendish, who showed that it was formed when various metals were acted upon by dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acids.
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  • In preparing the gas by the action of metals on acids, dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid is taken, and the metals commonly used are zinc or iron.
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  • The above methods give a dilute aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, which may be concentrated somewhat by evaporation over sulphuric acid in vacuo.
    0
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  • The solution is filtered, and the barium precipitated by sulphuric acid.
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  • Dixon); by passing air through solutions of strong bases in the presence of such metals as do not react with the bases to liberate hydrogen; by shaking zinc amalgam with alcoholic sulphuric acid and air (M.
    0
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  • Traube, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 659); in the oxidation of zinc, lead and copper in presence of water, and in the electrolysis of sulphuric acid of such strength that it contains two molecules of water to one molecule of sulphuric acid (M.
    0
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  • Potassium permanganate, in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid, is rapidly reduced by hydrogen peroxide, oxygen being given off, 2KM7,04+ 3H2S04+5H202= K2S04+2MnS04+8H20+502.
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  • It may be recognized by the violet coloration it gives when added to a very dilute solution of potassium bichromate in the presence of hydrochloric acid; by the orange-red colour it gives with a solution of titanium dioxide in concentrated sulphuric acid; and by the precipitate of Prussian blue formed when it is added to a solution containing ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide.
    0
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  • Now in oxidizing, or introducing more oxygen, for instance, by means of a mixture of sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, and admitting that oxygen acts on both compounds in analogous ways, the two alcohols may give (as they lose two atoms of hydrogen) CH 3 CH 2 COH and CH 3 C0 CH 3.
    0
    0
  • The ester is separated from the solution by means of its barium salt, and the salt decomposed by the addition of the calculated amount of sulphuric acid.
    0
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  • It is a colourless oily liquid of strongly acid reaction; its aqueous solution decomposes on standing and on heating it forms diethyl sulphate and sulphuric acid.
    0
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  • Diamond is insoluble in acid and alkalis, but is oxidised on heating with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
    0
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  • With concentrated sulphuric acid, fuming nitric acid,.
    0
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  • It is soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid with a green colour.
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  • In a fine state of division it takes fire on heating in air, but is permanent at ordinary temperatures in oxygen or air; it is readily attacked by hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, but scarcely acted on by nitric acid.
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  • The mineral is fused with potassium carbonate, and, on cooling, the product is treated with sulphuric acid, the excess of which is removed by evaporation; water is then added and the silica is filtered off.
    0
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  • The sulphate is obtained by dissolving the oxide in sulphuric acid; if the solution be not acid, it separates in pyramidal crystals of composition BeSO 4.4H 2 0, while from an acid solution of this salt, crystals of composition BeS04.7H 2 O are obtained.
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  • Several basic carbonates are known, being formed by the addition of beryllium salts to solutions of the alkaline carbonates; the normal carbonate is prepared by passing a current of carbon dioxide through water containing the basic carbonate in suspension, the solution being filtered and concentrated over sulphuric acid in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide.
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  • In organic chemistry he published papers on the decomposition of ammonium oxalate, with formation of oxamic acid, on amyl alcohol, on the cyanides, and on the difference in constitution between nitric and sulphuric ether.
    0
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  • Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and acetic acid, while alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide.
    0
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  • There is, however, considerable variation in the nature of the membrane in different species; thus the cell-wall of Oedogonium, treated with sulphuric acid and iodine, turns a bright blue, while the colour is very faint in the case of Spirogyra, the wall of which is said to consist for the most part of pectose.
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  • Besides having a considerable share in the commerce of the port of New York, Bayonne is an important manufacturing centre; among its manufactures are refined petroleum, refined copper and nickel (not from the ore), refined borax, foundry and machine-shop products, tubular boilers, electric launches and electric motors, chemicals (including ammonia and sulphuric and nitric acids), iron and brass products, wire cables and silk goods.
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  • The mixed chlorides are boiled down to dryness with sulphuric acid to convert them into sulphates, which are then separated by boiling water, which dissolves only the thallium salt.
    0
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  • It is readily soluble in nitric and sulphuric acids, but less so in hydrochloric.
    0
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  • It unites with sulphuric acid giving an acid salt, T1HSO 4.3H 2 O, and with aluminium, chromium and iron sulphates to form an "alum."
    0
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  • Hydrochloric acid gives thallous chloride and chlorine; sulphuric acid gives off oxygen; and on heating it first gives the trioxide and afterwards the monoxide.
    0
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  • The sulphate decomposes into sulphuric acid and the trioxide on warming with water, and differs from aluminium sulphate in not forming alums.
    0
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  • With nitric acid in the presence of sulphuric acid it yields a nitro derivative.
    0
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  • Oxygen may be prepared by heating mercuric oxide; by strongly heating manganese dioxide and many other peroxides; by heating the oxides of precious metals; and by heating many oxy-acids and oxy-salts to high temperatures, for example, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, nitre, lead nitrate, zinc sulphate, potassium chlorate, &c. Potassium chlorate is generally used and the reaction is accelerated and carried out at a lower temperature by previously mixing the salt with about one-third of its weight of manganese dioxide, which acts as a catalytic agent.
    0
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  • Wahl [German patent 70773 (1893)] prepare a 97% manganese from pyrolusite by heating it with 30% sulphuric acid, the product being then converted into manganous oxide by heating in a current of reducing gas at a dull red heat, cooled in a reducing atmosphere, and finally reduced by heating with granulated aluminium in a magnesia crucible with lime and fluorspar as a flux.
    0
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  • The pure metal readily evolves hydrogen when acted upon by sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, and is readily attacked by dilute nitric acid.
    0
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  • When heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid it yields chlorine, and with concentrated sulphuric acid it yields oxygen.
    0
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  • This acid is also formed by decomposing barium or lead permanganate with dilute sulphuric acid.
    0
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  • Manganous Sulphate, MnSO 4, is prepared by strongly heating a paste of pyrolusite and concentrated sulphuric acid until acid fumes cease to be evolved.
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  • The sulphate, Mn2(S04)3, is prepared by gradually heating at 138° C. a mixture of concentrated sulphuric and manganese dioxide until the whole becomes of a dark green colour.
    0
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  • With potassium sulphate in the presence of sulphuric acid it forms potassium manganese alum, K2S04 Mn2(S04)3.24H20.
    0
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  • It completely decomposes hydrogen peroxide in sulphuric acid solution 2KMn04+5H202-I-3H2S04 = K2S04+2MnS04+8H20+502.
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  • By the action of nitric acid on guanidine in the presence of sulphuric acid, nitroguanidine, HN: C(NH 2) NH NO 2 (a substance possessing acid properties) is obtained; from which, by reduction with zinc dust, amidoguanidine, HN :C(NH 2) NH NH 2, is formed.
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  • The crude oxide of the metal is obtained from cerite, by evaporating the mineral with strong sulphuric acid, removing excess of acid and dissolving the residue in ice-cold water; sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through the solution, which is then filtered, acidified with hydrochloric acid, and precipitated as oxalate by oxalic acid; the oxalate is then converted into oxide by ignition.
    0
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  • Cold concentrated nitric and sulphuric acids are without action on the metal, but it reacts rapidly with dilute nitric and hydrochloric acids.
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  • Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves this oxide, forming a yellowish solution and ozone.
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  • By suspending the precipitated cerous hydroxide in water and passing chlorine through the solution, a hydrated form of the dioxide, 2CeO 2.3H 2 O, is obtained, which is readily soluble in nitric and sulphuric acids, forming ceric salts, and in hydrochloric acid, where it forms cerous chloride, with liberation of chlorine.
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  • A hydrated chloride of composition 2CeC1 3.15H 2 O is also known, and is obtained when a solution of cerous oxide in hydrochloric acid is evaporated over sulphuric acid.
    0
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  • The sulphate, Ce(SO 4) 2.4H 2 O, is formed when the basic sulphate is dissolved in sulphuric acid; or when the dioxide is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, and evaporated in vacuo over sulphuric acid.
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  • - This is commercially known as salt-cake, and is made by decomposing common salt with sulphuric acid of about 80%, the reaction being 2NaC1+H 2 SO 4 =Na 2 SO 4 +2HC1.
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  • This means that the previous manufacture of sulphuric acid in the vitriol-chambers is done away with, but this apparently great simplification is balanced by the great cost of the Hargreaves plant, and by the fact that the whole of the hydrochloric acid is mixed with nine or ten times its volume of inert gases.
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  • Formerly, instead of free hydrochloric acid a mixture of common salt and sulphuric acid was sometimes employed, but this is never done on a manufacturing scale now.
    0
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  • The sulphuric acid present is mostly precipitated as calcium sulphate.
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  • Where (as is the more usual case) the chlorine has to serve for the manufacture of bleaching-powder, it must first be deprived of the great amount of moisture which it contains, by means of coke-towers fed with moderately strong sulphuric acid.
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  • The hydrochloric acid from the calcining-furnaces or "roasters" cannot be employed immediately for the Deacon process, as the sulphuric acid always contained in the roaster gases soon " poisons " the contact-substance and renders it inoperative.
    0
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  • Hasenclever has overcome this drawback by running this impure acid into moderately strong sulphuric acid (r40° Twaddell), blowing in air at the same time.
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  • The sulphuric acid, of which 6 or 7 parts are used to one of impure liquid hydrochloric acid, is always reserved for usein the same process, by driving off the excess of water in a lead pan, fired from the top, so that the principal expense of the process is that of the fuel required for the last operation.
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  • \ wagons, similar to those which are employed for carrying sulphuric acid, holding ro tons each.
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  • They may be prepared by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on the alcohols, alkyl sulphuric acids being first formed, which yield ethers on heating with alcohols.
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  • The process may be made a continuous one by running a thin stream of alcohol continually into the heated reaction mixture of alcohol and sulphuric acid.
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  • It is best prepared by heating methyl alcohol and sulphuric acid to 140° C. and leading the evolved gas into sulphuric acid.
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  • It is a pleasant-smelling gas, which burns when ignited, and may be condensed to a liquid which boils at 23.6° C. It is somewhat soluble in water and readily soluble in alcohol, and concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • It is then oxidized to anthraquinone by means of sodium dichromate and sulphuric acid in leaden vats, steam heated so that the mixture can be brought to the boil.
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  • The anthraquinone so obtained is then heated for some hours at about 150-160° C. with fuming sulphuric acid (containing about 40-50% SO 3), and by this treatment is converted into anthraquinone-O-monosulphonic acid.
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  • The melt is dissolved in water and the dyestuff is liberated from the sodium salt by hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, or is converted into the calcium salt by digestion with hot milk of lime, then filtered and the calcium salt decomposed by acid.
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  • This is dissolved in cold concentrated sulphuric acid, in which it forms a yellowish red solution, but on heating to ioo° C. the colour changes to red and violet, and on pouring out upon ice, the monomethyl ether of alizarin is precipitated.
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  • 43 is produced, and this on heating /CO"/N02 with sulphuric acid and glycerin is converted into alizarin blue.
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  • Anthragallol is synthetically prepared by the condensation of benAoic and gallic acids with sulphuric acid OH i [[Cooh + I 10h - 2h20+ Hooc /Oh]] or from pyrogallol and phthalic anhydride in the presence of sulphuric acid or zinc chloride.
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  • Baeyer in 1890, by heating alizarin with fuming sulphuric acid for 24-48 hours at 35-40° C., obtained a product, which after treatment with caustic soda gave a sulphuric acid ester of quinalizarin, and this after acidification and boiling was converted into quinalizarin (Alizarin Bordeaux) or 1.2.6.9 tetra-oxyanthraquinone.
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  • His services to industry included his improvements in the processes for the manufacture of sulphuric acid (1818) and oxalic acid (1829); methods of estimating the amount of real alkali in potash and soda by the volume of standard acid required for neutralization, and for estimating the available chlorine in bleaching powder by a solution of arsenious acid; directions for the use of the centesimal alcoholometer published in 1824 and specially commended by the Institute; and the elaboration of a method of assaying silver by a standard solution of common salt, a volume on which was published in 1833.
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  • Thorium sulphate, Th(S04)2, is obtained by dissolving the oxide in sulphuric acid.
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  • Hydrochloric and sulphuric acids are almost without action on the metal, but it dissolves readily in dilute nitric acid.
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  • The heptahydrate is obtained by dissolving the metal or its oxide, hydroxide or carbonate in dilute sulphuric acid (preferably in the presence of a small quantity of nitric acid), and allowing the solution to crystallize between 15° and 20° C. It crystallizes in emerald-green rhombic prisms and is moderately soluble in water.
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  • Cyanogen iodide and iodine monoand tri-chloride effect similar decompositions with simultaneous liberation of iodine; sulphuric acid reacts slowly, forming nickel sulphate and liberating hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
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  • In another research dealing with the nature of alum he showed that one of the constituents of that substance, alumina, is contained in common clay, and further that the salt cannot be prepared by the action of sulphuric acid on alumina alone, the addition of an alkali being necessary.
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  • For his time he was a skilful chemical analyst; he knew how to distinguish potash and soda by the different colorations they produce in flame, and how to test for iron with prussiate of potash: he was aware that sulphate of potash, gypsum and heavy spar, in spite of their different appearances, all contain sulphuric acid; and he recognized that there are different varieties of urinary calculi.
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  • It is soluble in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids, and the powdered metal, in aqua regia, but slowly attacked by sulphuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids separately; it is also soluble in boiling potash solution, giving a tunstate and hydrogen.
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  • It is slightly soluble in hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, giving purple solutions.
    0
    0
  • Metatungstic acid, H2W4013.7H20, is obtained by decomposing the barium salt with sulphuric acid or the lead salt with hydrochloric acid.
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  • A nitride, W2N3, is obtained as a black powder by acting with ammonia on the oxytetrachloride or hexachloride; it is insoluble in sodium hydroxide, nitric and dilute sulphuric acids; strong sulphuric acid, however, gives ammonia and tungstic acids.
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  • Silver and sulphuric acid are the other chief products; nickel and gold are also found in small quantities.
    0
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  • Corrosive sublimate in an acid solution is the best disinfectant, but sulphuric acid, 1 in 250, is efficient and cheaper.
    0
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  • Chlorine may also be obtained by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on bleaching powder.
    0
    0
  • The commercial acid is usually yellow in colour and contains many impurities, such as traces of arsenic, sulphuric acid, chlorine, ferric chloride and sulphurous acid; but these do not interfere with its application to the preparation of bleaching powder, in which it is chiefly consumed.
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  • All the metallic chlorides, with the exception of those of the alkali and alkaline earth metals, are reduced either to the metallic condition or to that of a lower chloride on heating in a current of hydrogen; most are decomposed by concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  • They can be distinguished from the corresponding bromides and iodides by the fact that on distillation with a mixture of potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid they yield chromium oxychloride, whereas bromides and iodides by the same treatment give bromine and iodine respectively.
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  • It is a very powerful oxidant; a mixture of potassium chlorate and sugar in about equal proportions spontaneously inflames when touched with a rod moistened with concentrated sulphuric acid, the chlorine peroxide liberated setting fire to the sugar, which goes on burning.
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  • Berthollet, and is best prepared by decomposing barium chlorate with the calculated amount of dilute sulphuric acid.
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  • The aqueous solution can be concentrated in vacuo over sulphuric acid until it contains 40% of chloric acid.
    0
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  • Perchloric acid is best prepared by distilling potassium perchlorate with concentrated sulphuric acid.
    0
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  • It may be distinguished from chloric acid by the fact that it does not give chlorine peroxide when treated with concentrated sulphuric acid, and that it is not reduced by sulphurous acid.
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  • In the production of pyrite, which is found in Louisa county and is used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid employed in the treatment of wood pulp for paper-making and in the manufacture of superphosphates from phosphate rock, Virginia took first rank in 1902 with an output valued at $501,642, or 64.7% of the total yield of this mineral in the United States; and this rank was maintained in 1908, when the product was 116,340 long tons, valued at $435,522.
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  • The delay attendant on this method of purification is avoided by treating the crude oil with 1 to 2% of a somewhat strong sulphuric acid, which chars and carries down the bulk of the impurities.
    0
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  • They are all decomposed on heating, with evolution of oxygen; and in contact with concentrated sulphuric acid with liberation of chlorine peroxide.
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  • Claussen's process consisted in steeping flax fibre or tow for twenty-four hours in a weak solution of caustic soda, next boiling it for about two hours in a similar solution, and then saturating it in a solution containing 5% of carbonate of soda, after which it was immersed in a vat containing water acidulated with z% of sulphuric acid.
    0
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  • After the reaction is completed, the liquid is acidified with dilute sulphuric acid (1:5) and then shaken with salt solution, separated from the salt solution, washed, dried and fractionated.
    0
    0
  • Sulphuric and hydrochloric acids have little or no action upon it at ordinary temperatures, even when in a fine state of division; but on heating, copper sulphate and sulphur dioxide are formed in the first case, and cuprous chloride and hydrogen in the second.
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  • Shaft furnaces are in use for ores rich in sulphur, and where it is desirable to convert the waste gases into sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Ores in which the copper is present as oxide or carbonate are soluble in sulphuric or hydrochloric acids, ferrous chloride, ferric sulphate, ammoniacal compounds and sodium thiosulphate.
    0
    0
  • The choice of sulphuric or hydrochloric acid depends mainly upon the cost, both acting with about the same rapidity; thus if a Leblanc soda factory is near at hand, then hydrochloric acid would most certainly be employed.
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  • Ferrous chloride is not much used; the Douglas-Hunt process uses a mixture of salt and ferrous sulphate which involves the formation of ferrous chloride, and the new Douglas-Hunt process employs sulphuric acid in which ferrous chloride is added after leaching.
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  • Sulphuric acid may be applied as such on the ores placed in lead, brick, or stone chambers; or as a mixture of sulphur dioxide, nitrous fumes (generated from Chile saltpetre and sulphuric acid), and steam, which permeates the ore resting on the false bottom of a brick chamber.
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  • Hydrochloric acid is applied in the same way as sulphuric acid; it has certain advantages of which the most important is that it does not admit the formation of basic salts; its chief disadvantage is that it dissolves the oxides of iron, and accordingly must not be used for highly ferriferous ores.
    0
    0
  • The ore is first treated with dilute sulphuric acid, and then ferrous or calcium chloride added, thus forming copper chlorides.
    0
    0
  • Copper sulphide may be converted either into the sulphate, which is soluble in water; the oxide, soluble in sulphuric or hydrochloric acid; cupric chloride, soluble in water; or cuprous chloride, which is soluble in solutions of metallic chlorides.
    0
    0
  • The electrolyte was used until the accumulation of iron in it was too great, but was mixed from time to time with a little water acidulated by sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • It was obtained in 1644 by Van Helmont, who heated copper with sulphur and moistened the residue, and in 1648 by Glauber, who dissolved copper in strong sulphuric acid.
    0
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  • The tannin of oak, C/9H16010, which is found, mixed with gallic acid, ellagic acid and quercite, in oak bark, is a red powder; its aqueous solution is coloured dark blue by ferric chloride, and boiling with dilute sulphuric acid gives oak red or phlobaphene.
    0
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  • In the bottom of the vessel is placed some sulphuric acid, and a platinum wire attached to the suspended needle dips into this acid.
    0
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  • Finally, these observers traced the variation to the fact that the wire supporting the aluminium needle as well as the wire which connects the needle with the sulphuric acid in the Leyden jar in the White pattern of Leyden jar is enclosed in a metallic guard tube to screen the wire from external action.
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  • Among the non-metallic minerals are nitrate of soda, borate of lime, coal, salt and sulphur, together with various products derived from these minerals, such as iodine, sulphuric acid, &c. Guano is classed among the mineral products and still figures as an export, though the richest Chilean deposits were exhausted long before the war with Peru.
    0
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  • For the preparation of the acid the crude argol is boiled with hydrochloric acid and afterwards precipitated as calcium tartrate by boiling with milk of lime, the calcium salt being afterwards decomposed by sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • It carbonizes when heated with strong sulphuric acid, giving, among other products, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
    0
    0
  • A small crystal of oxalic acid added to concentrated sulphuric acid containing about 1 per cent.
    0
    0
  • Scheele, in examining a specimen of pyrolusite, found a new substance to be present in the mineral, for on treatment with sulphuric acid it gave an insoluble salt which was afterwards shown to be identical with that contained in heavy spar.
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  • It is practically insoluble in water, and is only very slightly soluble in dilute acids; it is soluble to some extent, when freshly prepared, in hot concentrated sulphuric acid, and on cooling the solution, crystals of composition BaSO 4 H 2 SO 4 are deposited.
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  • In cases where diarrhoea is very obstinate and lasts for weeks, sulphuric acid is sometimes more efficacious than alkalis; and in chronic colics it may be necessary to treat the mucous membrane by local application of astringent solutions.
    0
    0
  • Dilute hydrochloric acid is without action on it, but on warming with the concentrated acid, antimony trichloride is formed; it dissolves in warm concentrated sulphuric acid, the sulphate Sb2(S04)3 being formed.
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  • It is a white powder, almost insoluble in water, and when volatilized, condenses in two crystalline forms, either octahedral or prismatic. It is insoluble in sulphuric and nitric acids, but is readily soluble in hydrochloric and tartaric acids and in solutions of the caustic alkalies.
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  • The corresponding hydroxide, orthoantimonious acid, Sb(OH) 31 can be obtained in a somewhat impure form by precipitating tartar emetic with dilute sulphuric acid; or bet::er by decomposing antimonyl tartaric acid with sulphuric acid and drying the precipitated white powder at too° C. Antimony tetroxide is formed by strongly heating either the trioxide or pentoxide.
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  • The amorphous variety may be obtained from the crystalline form by dissolving it in caustic potash or soda or in solutions of alkaline sulphides, and precipitating the hot solution by dilute sulphuric acid.
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  • The mercury should be drawn from underneath, for which purpose an arrangement similar to a chemical wash bottle is suitable, and it may be poured into watch-glasses, previously dipped into strong sulphuric acid, rinsed in distilled water, and dried over a Bunsen flame.
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