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sulphur

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sulphur

sulphur Sentence Examples

  • This is the "sulphur showers" we hear of.

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  • Barren Island was last in eruption in 1803, but there is still a thin column of steam from a sulphur bed at the top and a variable hot spring at the point where the last outburst of lava flowed into the sea.

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  • Knit goods are manufactured, but the importance of the place is due to its sulphur springs, the waters of which are used for the treatment of skin diseases, gout, rheumatism, etc., and to the tonic air and fine scenery.

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  • The Trinity--the three elements of matter--are sulphur, mercury, and salt.

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  • The whole of the lead and sulphur of the sulphide was found to be present in the sulphate; in other words, the combining ratio of the lead and sulphur was not altered by the addition of the oxygen.

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  • The streets are lined with trees, and water from the neighbouring sulphur springs flows along them in open channels.

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  • On the shore below is the little village of Sermione, with sulphur baths.

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  • Iridium sulphide, IrS, is obtained when the metal is ignited in sulphur vapour.

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  • The materials required are iron borings, sal-ammoniac and sulphur; these are mixed together, moistened with water, and rammed into the socket, which is previously half filled with yarn, well caulked.

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  • A pentasulphide B2S5 is prepared, in an impure condition, by heating a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide with boron iodide, and forms a white crystalline powder which decomposes under the influence of water into sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen and boric acid.

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  • During the summer it is a place of considerable resort for the sake of its waters - saline, chalybeate and sulphur - and it possesses the usual accessories of pump-rooms, baths and a recreation ground.

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  • The chief minerals are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined.

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  • The bulk of the sulphur mines are in Sicily, while the majority of the lead and zinc mines are in Sardinia; much of the lead smelting is done at Pertusola, near Genoa, the company formed for this purpose having acquired many of the Sardinian mines.

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  • Sulphur mining M h 1 supplies large industries of sulphur-refining and grinding, - in spite of American competition.

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  • The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.

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  • His first original paper (1799) was on the compounds of arsenic and antimony with oxygen and sulphur, and of his other separate investigations one of the most important was that on the compound ethers, begun in 1807.

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  • Molybdenum disulphide, MoS 2, is found as the mineral molybdenite, and may be prepared by heating the trioxide with sulphur or sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • The disulphide, IrS2, is formed when powdered iridium is heated with sulphur and an alkaline carbonate.

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  • Sulphur is present to the extent of more than i %, whence the smell of suiphuretted hydrogen when the resin is heated.

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  • Their produce has gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced.

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  • Boron sulphide B 2 S 3 can be obtained by the direct union of the two elements at a white heat or from the tri-iodide and sulphur at 44 0 ° C., but is most conveniently prepared by heating a mixture of the trioxide and carbon in a stream of carbon bisulphide vapour.

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  • It is a brown powder which on heating in air loses sulphur and leaves a residue of the disulphide.

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  • Ferric thiocyanate has been suggested, and sulphur is said to have been detected in the mineral.

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  • as crystals, and as stalactitic, encrusting, reniform, massive, earthy and occasionally pulverulent forms as "sulphur meal."

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  • It seems rather doubtful whether the unstable monoclinic modification of sulphur (0 - sulphur) is ever found in a native state.

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  • The most common of these sulphides is cobaltous sulphide, CoS, which occurs naturally as syepoorite, and can be artificially prepared by heating cobaltous oxide with sulphur, or by fusing anhydrous cobalt sulphate with barium sulphide and common salt.

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  • The ammonium cobalto-cobaltisulphite is prepared by saturating an air-oxidized ammoniacal solution of cobaltous chloride with sulphur dioxide.

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  • The "stinking fermentations" occasionally experienced in breweries probably arise from this, the free sulphur being derived from the hops.

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  • The sulphur springs, I m.

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  • 2 2 a latter case with the formation of a blue solution which on heating, becomes colourless, molybdenum trioxide being formed with the liberation of sulphur dioxide.

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  • Germanium compounds on fusion with alkaline carbonates and sulphur form salts known as thiogermanates.

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  • SULPHUR [[[symbol]] S, atomic weight 32.07 (0 = 16)], a non-metallic chemical element, known from very remote times and regarded by the alchemists, on account of its inflammable nature, as the principle of combustion; it is also known as brimstone.

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  • Free or native sulphur, known also as "virgin sulphur," occurs in connexion with volcanoes and in certain stratified rocks in several modes, viz.

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  • Crystals of sulphur are transparent or translucent and highly refractive with strong birefringence; they have a resinous or slightly adamantine lustre, and present the characteristic sulphur-yellow colour.

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  • Sulphur containing selenium, such as occurs in the isle of Vulcano in the Lipari Isles, may be orange-red; and a similar colour is seen in sulphur which contains arsenic sulphide, such as that from La Solfatara near Naples.

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  • The presence of tellurium in native sulphur is rare, but is known in certain specimens from Japan.

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  • Volcanic sulphur usually occurs as a sublimate around or on the walls of the vents, and has probably been formed in many cases by the interaction of sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide.

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  • Sublimed sulphur also results from the spontaneous combustion of coal seams containing pyrites.

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  • Deposits of sulphur are frequently formed by the decomposition of hydrogen sulphide, on exposure to the atmosphere: hence natural sulphureous waters, especially hot springs, readily deposit sulphur.

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  • Free sulphur may also result from the decomposition of pyrites, as in pyritic shales and lignites, or from the alteration of galena: thus crystals of sulphur occur, with anglesite, in cavities in galena at Monteponi near Iglesias in Sardinia; whilst the pyrites of Rio Tinto in Spain sometimes yield sulphur on weathering.

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  • It should be noted that the oxidation of sulphur itself by atmospheric influence may give rise to sulphuric acid, which in the presence of limestone will form gypsum: thus the sulphur-deposits of Sicily suffer alteration of this kind, and have their outcrop marked by a pale earthy gypseous rock called briscale.

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  • Some of the most important deposits of sulphur in the world are worked in Sicily, chiefly in the provinces of Caltanisetta and Girgenti, as at Racalmuto and Cattolica; and to a less extent in the provinces of Catania, Palermo (Lercara) and Trapani (Gibellina).

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  • The sulphur occurs in Miocene marls and limestone, associated with.

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  • It was formerly believed that the sulphur had a volcanic origin, but it is now generally held that it has either been reduced from gypsum by organic agencies, or more probably deposited from sulphur-bearing waters.

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  • Liquid occasionally enclosed in the sulphur and gypsum has been found by 0.

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  • Sulphur is occasionally found crystallized in Carrara marble; and the mineral occurs also in Calabria.

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  • Fine crystals occur at Conil near Cadiz; whilst in the province of Teruel in Aragon, sulphur in a compact form replaces fresh-water shells and plant-remains, suggesting its origin from sulphur-springs.

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  • Nodular forms of sulphur occur in Miocene marls near Radoboj in Croatia, and near Swoszowic, south of Cracow.

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  • Russia possesses large deposits of sulphur in Daghestan in Transcaucasia, and in the Transcaspian steppes.

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  • Important deposits of sulphur are worked at several localities in Japan, especially at the Kosaka mine in the province of Rikuchiu, and at Yatsukoda-yama, in the province of Mutsu.

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  • Sulphur is worked in Chile and Peru.

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  • A complete list of localities for sulphur would include all the volcanic regions of the world.

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  • In the United States, sulphur occurs in the following states, in many of which the mineral has been worked: Louisiana (q.v.),Utah,Colorado, California, Nevada, Alaska, Idaho, Texas and Wyoming.

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  • In the British Islands native sulphur is only a mineralogical rarity, but it occurs in the Carboniferous Limestone of Oughterard in Co.

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  • Sulphur dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen are present in volcanic exhalations and in many mineral waters.

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  • As quarried or mined free sulphur is always contaminated with limestone, gypsum, clay, &c.; the principle underlying its extraction from these impurities is one of simple liquation, i.e.

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  • In the simplest and crudest method, as practised in Sicily, a mass of the ore is placed in a hole in the ground and fired; after a time the heat melts a part of the sulphur which runs down to the bottom of the hole and is then ladled out.

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  • This exceptionally wasteful process, in which only one-third of the sulphur is recovered, has been improved by conducting the fusion in a sort of kiln.

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  • This outlet having been closed by small stones and sulphate of lime cement, the pit is filled with sulphur ore, which is heaped up considerably beyond the edge of the pit and covered with a layer of burnt-out ore.

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  • For Japanese sulphur see T.

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  • by the combustion of the least sufficient quantity of sulphur, the rest is liquefied.

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  • The molten sulphur accumulates on the sole, whence it is from time to time run out into a square stone receptacle, from which it is ladled into damp poplar-wood moulds and so brought into the shape of truncated cones weighing 110 to 130 lb each.

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  • burns for about two months, and yields about 200 tons of sulphur.

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  • For example, in the Gritti and Orlando processes the ore is charged into retorts and the fusion effected by superheated steam, the sulphur being run off as usual; or as was suggested by R.

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  • Crude sulphur, as obtained from kilns, contains about 3% of earthy impurities, and consequently needs refining.

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  • The following apparatus (invented originally by Michel of Marseilles and improved subsequently by others) enables the manufacturer to produce either of two forms of "refined" sulphur which commerce demands.

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  • The retorts are charged with molten sulphur from an upper reservoir, which is kept at the requisite temperature by means of the lost heat of the retort fires.

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  • The chamber has a safety value at the top of its vault, which is so balanced that the least surplus pressure from within sends it up. The first puff of sulphur vapour which enters the chamber takes fire and converts the air of the chamber into a mixture of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide.

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  • The next following instalments of vapour, getting diffused throughout a large mass of relatively cold gas, condense into a kind of "snow," known in commerce and valued as "flowers of sulphur" (fibres sulphuris).

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  • If compact ("roll") sulphur is wanted the distillation is made to go on at the quickest admissible rate.

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  • The temperature of the interior of the chamber soon rises to more than the fusing-point of sulphur (113° C.), and the distillate accumulates at the bottom as a liquid, which is tapped off from time to time to be cast into the customary form of rods.

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  • to melt the sulphur.

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  • The sulphur so obtained is 98% pure.

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  • in some places sulphur is extracted from iron pyrites by one of two methods.

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  • Onethird of the sulphur is volatilized-3FeS 2 = Fe3S4 -12S-and obtained as a distillate.

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  • Such pyrites sulphur is usually contaminated with arsenic, and conse- quently is of less value than Sicilian sulphur, which is characteristically free from this impurity.

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  • The substance known as "milk of sulphur" (lac sulphuris) is very finely divided sulphur produced by the following, or some analogous, chemical process.

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  • One part of quicklime is slaked with 6 parts of water, and the paste produced diluted with 24 parts of water; 2.3 parts of flowers of sulphur are added; and the whole is boiled for about an hour or longer, when the sulphur dissolves.

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  • The mixed solution of poiysulphides and thiosulphate of calcium thus produced is clarified, diluted largely, and then mixed with enough of pure dilute hydrochloric acid to produce a feebly alkaline mixture when sulphur is precipitated.

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  • The addition of more acid would produce an additional supply of sulphur (by the action of the H2S203 on the dissolved H 2 S); but this thiosulphate sulphur is yellow and compact, while the polysulphide part has the desired qualities, forming an extremely fine, almost white, powder.

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  • Properties.-Sulphur exists in several allotropic modifications, but before considering these systematically we will deal with the properties of ordinary (or rhombic) sulphur.

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  • The density of solid sulphur is 2 062 to 2'070, and the specific heat 0.1712; it is a bad conductor of electricity and becomes negatively electrified on friction.

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  • rend., 1903, 1 37, p. 547), burning with a characteristic blue flame and forming much sulphur dioxide, recognized by its pungent odour.

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  • At the same time a little trioxide is formed, and, according to Hempel (Ber., 1890, 2 3, p. 1 455), half the sulphur is converted into this oxide if the combustion be carried out in oxygen at a pressure of 40 to 50 atmospheres.

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  • Sulphur also combines directly with most of the elements to form sulphides.

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  • Rhombic sulphur may be obtained artificially by slowly crystallizing a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide, or, better, by exposing pyridine saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen to atmospheric oxidation (Ahrens, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2708).

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  • It is insoluble in water,' but readily soluble in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride and oil of turpentine.

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  • The common monoclinic variety is obtained by allowing a crust to form over molten sulphur by partially cooling it, and then breaking the crust and pouring off the still liquid portion, whereupon the interior of the vessel will be found coated with long needles of this variety.

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  • rend., 188 4, 9 8, p. 1 44) obtained a form which he termed nacre (or pearly) sulphur; the same modification was obtained by Sabatier (ibid., 1885, 100, p. 1346) on shaking hydrogen persulphide with alcohol or ether.

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  • It is readily transformed into rhombic sulphur.

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  • Another form, mixed with the variety just described, is obtained by adding 3 to 4 volumes of alcohol to a solution of ammonium sulphide saturated with sulphur and exposing the mixture to air at about 5°.

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  • soc. chim., 1879, 32, p. 14) on subliming ordinary sulphur.

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  • 1 It is a common practice of keepers of dogs to place a piece of roll sulphur in the animal's water but this serves no useful purpose owing to this property.

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  • Amorphous sulphur or Sy exists in two forms, one soluble in carbon bisulphide, the other insoluble.

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  • It gradually transforms itself into rhombic sulphur.

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  • The colloidal sulphur, Ss, described by Debus as a product of the interaction of sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphur dioxide in aqueous solution, is regarded by Spring (Rec. tra y.

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  • The "blue sulphur," described by Orloff, has been investigated by Paterno and Mazzucchelli (Abs.

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  • Molten Sulphur.

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  • - Several interesting phenomena are witnessed when sulphur is heated above its melting point.

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  • If the viscous variety be rapidly cooled, or the more highly heated mass be poured into water, an elastic substance is obtained, termed plastic sulphur.

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  • The character of molten sulphur has been mainly elucidated by the researches of A.

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  • sulphur dioxide and hydrochloric acid, and accelerated by others, e.g.

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  • Sulphuretted hydrogen, H 2 S, a compound first examined by C. Scheele, may be obtained by heating sulphur in a current of hydrogen, combination taking place between 200° C. and 358° C., and being complete at the latter temperature, dissociation taking place above this temperature (M.

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  • It is also produced during the putrefaction of organic substances containing sulphur and is found among the products obtained in the destructive distillation of coal.

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  • It burns with a pale blue flame, forming sulphur dioxide and water.

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  • This solution is not very stable, since on exposure to air it slowly oxidizes and becomes turbid owing to the gradual precipitation of sulphur.

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  • It is decomposed by the halogens, with liberation of sulphur.

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  • Oxidizing agents rapidly attack sulphuretted hydrogen, the primary products of the reaction being water and sulphur.

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  • Hofmann, who obtained it by saturating an alcoholic solution of ammonium sulphide with sulphur and mixing the product with an alcoholic solution of strychnine, considered the resulting product to be H2S3; while P. Sabatier by fractionating the crude product in vacuo obtained an oi l which boiled between 60° and 85° C. and possessed the composition H4S5.

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  • Several halogen compounds of sulphur are known, the most stable of which is sulphur fluoride, SF 6, which was first prepared by H.

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  • rend., 1900, 130, p. 865) by fractionally distilling the product formed in the direct action of fluorine on sulphur.

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  • It may be condensed and yields a solid which melts at - 55° C. Sulphuretted hydrogen decomposes it with formation of hydrofluoric acid and liberation of sulphur.

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  • Sulphur chloride, S2C12, is obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride from carbon bisulphide and chlorine, and may also be prepared on the small scale by distilling sulphur in a chlorine gas, or by the action of sulphur on sulphuryl chloride in the presence of aluminium chloride (0.

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  • It is gradually decomposed by water: 2S 2 C1 2 + 3H 2 0 = 4HC1 + 2S + H2S203, the thiosulphuric acid produced in the primary reaction gradually decomposing into water, sulphur and sulphur dioxide.

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  • Sulphur chloride dissolves sulphur with great readiness and is consequently used largely for vulcanizing rubber; it also dissolves chlorine.

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  • Sulphur bromide, S 2 Br 2, is a dark red liquid which boils with decomposition at about 200° C. The products obtained by the action of iodine on sulphur are probably mixtures, although E.

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  • Four oxides of sulphur a.re known, namely sulphur dioxide, S02, sulphur trioxide, S03, sulphur sesquioxide, S203, and persulphuric anhydride, S 2 0 7.

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  • It is formed when sulphur is burned in air or in oxygen, or when many metallic sulphides are roasted.

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  • It may also be obtained by heating carbon, sulphur and many metals with concentrated sulphuric acid: C + 2H 2 SO 4 = 2SO 2 }- CO 2 + 2H 2 O; S + 2H 2 SO 4 = 3S0 2 + 2H 2 0; Cu + 2H 2 SO 4 = SO 2 -fCuSO 4 + 2H 2 0; and by decomposing a sulphite, a thiosulphate or a thionic acid with a dilute mineral acid.

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  • Walden (ibid.) has shown that certain salts dissolve in liquid sulphur dioxide forming additive compounds, two of which have been prepared in the case of potassium iodide: a yellow crystalline solid of composition, KI 14 S0 2, and a red solid of composition, KI 4S0 2.

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  • The free acid has not been isolated, since on evaporation the solution gradually loses sulphur dioxide.

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  • When heated in a sealed tube to 180° C. it is transformed into sulphuric acid, with liberation of sulphur.

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  • The sulphites are prepared by the action of sulphur dioxide on the oxides, hydroxides or carbonates of the metals, or by processes of precipitation.

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  • Thionyl chloride, SOC1 21 may be obtained by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on sodium sulphite; by the action of sulphur trioxide on sulphur dichloride at 75 -80° C. (Journ.

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  • Soc., 1903, p. 420); and by the action of chlorine monoxide on sulphur at low temperature.

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  • Sulphur trioxide, SO 3, mentioned by Basil Valentine in the 15th century, was obtained by N.

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  • Fluorsulphonic acid, SO 2 F OH, is a mobile liquid obtained by the action of an excess of hydrofluoric acid on well-cooled sulphur trioxide.

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  • Soc., 1856, 7, p. 11) by the direct union of sulphur trioxide with hydrochloric acid gas, may also be obtained by distilling concentrated sulphuric acid with phosphorus oxychloride: 2H 2 SO 4 +POC1 3 =2SO 2 C1.

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  • Disulphuryl chloride, S 2 O 5 C1 2, corresponding to pyrosulphuric acid, is obtained by the action of sulphur trioxide on sulphur dichloride, phosphorus oxychloride, sulphuryl chloride or dry sodium chloride: 650 3- + 2POC1 3 = P 2 O 5 + 3S 2 O 5 C1 2; S2C12+ 5503 = S 2 0 5 C1 2 + 550 2; SO 3 + SO 2 C1 2 = S 2 0 5 C1 2; 2NaC1 + 3SO 3 = S 2 0 5 C1 2 -1 Na 2 SO 4.

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  • Sulphur sesquioxide, S203, is formed by adding well-dried flowers of sulphur to melted sulphur trioxide at about 12-15° C. The sulphur dissolves in the form of blue drops which sink in the liquid and finally solidify in blue-green crystalline crusts.

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  • It is readily decomposed by water with formation of sulphurous, sulphuric and thiosulphuric acids, with simultaneous liberation of sulphur.

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  • Hyposulphurous acid, H 2 S 2 0 4, was first really obtained by Berthollet in 1789 when he showed that iron left in contact with an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide dissolved without any evolution of gas, whilst C. F.

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  • This solution is yellow in colour, and is very unstable decomposing at ordinary temperature into sulphur and sulphur dioxide.

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  • A pure zinc salt has been prepared by Nabl (Monats., 1899, 20, p. 679) by acting with zinc on a solution of sulphur dioxide in absolute alcohol, whilst H.

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  • rend., 1902, 135, p. 647) has also obtained salts by the action of dry sulphur dioxide on various metallic hydrides.

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  • Persulphuric anhydride, S207, is a thick viscous liquid obtained by the action of the silent discharge upon a mixture of sulphur trioxide and oxygen.

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  • It is decomposed readily into sulphur trioxide and oxygen when heated.

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  • Thiosulphuric acid, formerly called hyposulphurous acid, H2S203, cannot be preserved in the free state, since it gradually decomposes with evolution of sulphur dioxide and liberation of sulphur: H 2 S 2 O 3 = S+S0 2 +H 2 O.

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  • This salt may be prepared by digesting flowers of sulphur with sodium sulphite solution or by boiling sulphur with milk of lime.

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  • The thiosulphates are readily decomposed by mineral acids with liberation of sulphur dioxide and precipitation of sulphur: Na 2 S 2 0 3 + 2HC1 = 2NaC1 + S + SO 2 + H 2 O.

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  • They form many double salts and give a dark violet coloration with ferric chloride solution, this colour, however, gradually disappearing on standing, sulphur being precipitated.

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  • Gay-Lussac in 181q, is usually obtained in the form of its barium salt by suspending freshly precipitated hydrated manganese dioxide in water and passing sulphur dioxide into the mixture until all is dissolved; the barium salt is then precipitated by the careful addition of barium hydroxide.

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  • A solution of the free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with dilute sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution in vacuo until it attains a density of about 1.35 (approximately), further concentration leading to its decomposition into sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid.

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  • The dithionates are all soluble in water and when boiled with hydrochloric acid decompose with evolution of sulphur dioxide and formation of a sulphate.

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  • Trithionic acid, H2S306, is obtained in the form of its potassium salt by the action of sulphur dioxide on a solution of potassium thiosulphate: 2K 2 S 2 0 3 -f3S0 2 = 2K 2 S 3 0 6 -{- S; or by warming a solution of silver potassium thiosulphate KAgS 2 0 3 = Ag 2 S K 2 S 3 0 6; whilst the sodium salt may be prepared by adding iodine to a mixture of sodium thiosulphate and sulphite: Na 2 S0 3 -fNa 2 S 2 0 3 -f12 = Na 2 S 3062NaI.

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  • It is only stable in dilute aqueous solution, for on concentration the acid decomposes with formation of sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide and sulphur.

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  • Soc., 1888, 53, p. 278) is prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen gas into a nearly saturated aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide at about o° C. The solution is then allowed to stand for 48 hours and the process repeated many times until the sulphur dioxide is all decomposed.

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  • The reactions taking place are complicated, and the solution contains ultimately small drops of sulphur in suspension, a colloidal sulphur (which Spring (Rec. tra y.

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  • chim., 1906, 2 5, p. 2 53) considers to be a hydrate of sulphur of composition S $ H 2 0), sulphuric acid, traces of trithionic acid, tetraand pentathionic acids and probably hexathionic acid.

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  • The solution on the addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate behaves similarly to that of potassium pentathionate, but differs from it in giving an immediate precipitate of sulphur with ammonia, whereas the solution of the pentathionate only gradually becomes turbid on standing.

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  • The per-acids of sulphur were first obtained in 1898 by Caro (Zeit.

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  • - The sources of all sulphur preparations used in medicine (except calx sulphurata) are native virgin sulphur and the sulphides of metals.

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  • Those contained in the British Pharmacopoeia are the following: (1) Sulphur sublimatum, flowers of sulphur (U.S.P.), which is insoluble in water.

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  • From it are made (a) confectio sulphuris; (b) unguentum sulphuris; (c) sulphur praecipitatum, milk of sulphur (U.S.P.) which has a sub-preparation trochiscus sulphuris each lozenge containing 5 grs.

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  • of precipitated sulphur and 1 gr.

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  • of potassium acid tartrate; (d) potassa sulphurata (liver of sulphur), a mixture of salts of which the chief are sulphides of potassium; (e) sulphuris iodidum (U.S.P.), which has a preparation unguentum sulphuris iodidi, strength 1 in 25.

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  • - Externally, sulphur is of use in skin affections.

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  • Internally, sulphur is a mild laxative, being converted in the intestine into sulphides.

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  • Milk of sulphur, the confection and the lozenge, is used for this purpose.

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  • Sulphur and sulphur waters such as those of Harrogate, Aix-la-Chapelle and Aix-les-Bains, have a powerful effect in congested conditions of the liver and intestines, haemorrhoids, gout and gravel.

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  • Sulphur is of use in chronic bronchial affections, ridding the lungs of mucus and relieving cough.

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  • In chronic rheumatism sulphur waters taken internally and used as baths are effectual.

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  • Sulphur in some part escapes unchanged in the faeces.

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  • When sulphur is burned in air or oxygen, sulphur dioxide is produced, which is a powerful disinfectant, used to fumigate rooms which have been occupied by persons suffering from some infectious disease.

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  • In 1903 and 1907 Nevada ranked second among the American states in the production of sulphur, but its output is very small in comparison with that of Louisiana.

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  • are the famous sulphur baths of Schinznach, just above which is the ruined castle of Habsburg, the original home of that great historical house.

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  • Mosquitoes in the house may be destroyed by the fumes of burning sulphur or tobacco smoke.

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  • Thus if concentrated instead of dilute sulphuric acid acts upon zinc, the action takes place to a great extent not according to the equation given above, but according to the equation Zn +2H 2 SO 4 = ZnS04+S02+2 H20, sulphur dioxide and water being produced instead of hydrogen.

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  • In the above instance the sulphur is supposed to be in the solid rhombic modification, the oxygen and sulphur dioxide being in the gaseous state, and the initial and final systems being at the ordinary temperature.

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  • He thus writes S+02=S02+7110o cal., which expresses the fact that the intrinsic energy of the quantities of sulphur and oxygen considered exceeds that of the sulphur dioxide derived from them by 71100 cal.

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  • In the neighbouring village of Salinetas de Elda there are warm sulphur and saline baths.

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  • Recent experiments lead to the conclusion that iron, lead, manganese, lignite and sulphur exist in considerable abundance.

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  • Michoacan is essentially a mining region, producing gold, silver, lead and cinnabar, and having rich deposits of copper, coal, petroleum and sulphur.

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  • Large quantities of mineral water, sulphur, chalybeate and lithia, bottled at Meridian, Raymond and elsewhere, are sold annually.

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  • The population is chiefly occupied in connexion with the sulphur, copper, silver and other mines in the neighbourhood.

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  • On account of its sulphur springs Harrodsburg became early in the 19th century a fashionable resort, and continues to attract a considerable number of visitors.

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  • (See SULPHUR.)

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  • Small quantities of quicksilver, sulphur and iron are obtained.

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  • Sulphur, salt and copper are the most important of the minerals.

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  • Then he treated oil of vitriol in the same way, but got nothing until by accident he dropped some mercury into the liquid, when "vitriolic acid air" (sulphur dioxide) was evolved.

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  • Even prior to the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a number of chemists had made determinations of the chemical composition of several different varieties, and these investigations, supplemented by those of a later date, show that petroleum consists of about 84% by weight of carbon with 12% of hydrogen, and varying proportions of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.

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  • Silver Spring and Blue Spring in Marion county, Blue Spring and Orange City Mineral Spring in Volusia county, Chipola Spring near Marianna in Jackson county, Espiritu Santo Spring near Tampa in Hillsboro county, Magnolia Springs in Clay county, Suwanee Springs in Suwanee county, White Sulphur Springs in Hamilton county, the Wekiva Springs in Orange county, and Wakulla Spring, Newport Sulphur Spring and Panacea Mineral Spring in Wakulla county are the most noteworthy.

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  • The hot sulphur springs of Pultamarca, called the Banos del Inca (Inca's baths) are a short distance east of the city and are still frequented.

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  • Among the principal varieties are those which contain carbolic acid and other ingredients of coal tar, salicylic acid, petroleum, borax, camphor, iodine, mercurial salts, sulphur and tannin.

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  • Useful combinations are: borax 10%, carbolic acid 5%, ichthyol 5%, sublimed sulphur 10%, thymol 22%, &c.

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  • Warmbad Villach, a watering-place with hot sulphur baths, and Mittewald, a favourite summer resort, whence the ascent of the Dobratsch can be made, are in the neighbourhood of Villach.

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  • The prima materia thus obtained had to be treated with sulphur (or with sulphur and arsenic) to confer upon it the desired qualities that were missing.

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  • This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.

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  • This is briefly the doctrine that the metals are composed of mercury and sulphur, which persisted in one form or another down to the 17th century.

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  • Thus in the Speculum Naturale of Vincent of Beauvais (c. 1250) it is said that there are four spirits - mercury, sulphur, arsenic and sal ammoniac - and six bodies - gold, silver, copper, tin, lead and iron.

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  • Later, as in the works attributed to Basil Valentine, sulphur, mercury and salt are held to be the constituents of the metals.

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  • Though an alchemist, Boyle, in his Sceptical Chemist (1661), cast doubts on the " experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their salt, sulphur and mercury to be the true principles of things," and advanced towards the conception of chemical elements as those constituents of matter which cannot be further decomposed.

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  • It may be more conveniently prepared by passing the vapour of sulphur over red hot charcoal, the unccndensed gases so produced being led into a tower containing plates over which a vegetable oil is allowed to flow in order to absorb any carbon bisulphide vapour, and then into a second tower containing lime, which absorbs any sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • It burns with a pale blue flame to form carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide.

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  • It is a good solvent for sulphur, phosphorus, wax, iodine, &c. It dissociates when heated to a sufficiently high temperature.

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  • Amongst the mineral springs worth mentioning are the sulphur springs at Ullersdorf, the saline ones at Luhatschowitz and the alkaline springs at TOplitz.

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  • It may be obtained direct from pure and bright coloured portions of the native ore cinnabar, or, artificially, by subliming a mixture of mercury and sulphur.

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  • are the baths of Szkleno with springs of sulphur and lime.

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  • It has a small spa, and its sulphur baths are resorted to for the cure of rheumatism and gout.

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  • Coal is also found in large quantities near Kelung and sulphur springs exist in the north of the island.

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  • In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of matter were Aristotle's four elements; the proximate constituents were a " sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different colour.

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  • Georg Ernst Stahl, following in some measure the views held by Johann Joachim Becher, as, for instance, that all combustibles contain a " sulphur " (which notion is itself of older date than Becher's terra pinguis), regarded all substances as capable of resolution into two components,.

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  • Straight lines and semicircles were utilized for the non-metallic elements, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur!

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  • 4 The following are the symbols employed by Dalton: which represent in order, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, magnesia, lime, soda, potash, strontia, baryta, mercury; iron, zinc, copper, lead, silver, platinum, and gold were represented by circles enclosing the initial letter of the element.

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  • For example, positive iron combined with negative oxygen to form positive ferrous oxide; positive sulphur combined with negative oxygen to form negative sulphuric acid; positive ferrous oxide combined with negative sulphuric acid to form neutral ferrous sulphate.

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  • From a study of the free elements Cannizzaro showed that an element may have more than one molecular weight; for example, the molecular weight of sulphur varied with the temperature.

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  • eilos, like), strictly belongs to certain elements which do not possess the properties of the true metals, although they more closely resemble them than the non-metals in many respects; thus, selenium and tellurium, which are closely allied to sulphur in their chemical properties, although bad conductors of heat and electricity, exhibit metallic lustre and have relatively high specific gravities.

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  • The following, however, are negative towards the remaining elements which are more or less positive:-Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium.

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  • alum, vitriol, sulphur and nitric acid, by distillation.

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  • A masterly device, initiated by him, was to collect gases over mercury instead of water; this enabled him to obtain gases previously only known in solution, such as ammonia, hydrochloric acid, silicon fluoride and sulphur dioxide.

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  • Another element occurring in allotropic forms is sulphur, of which many forms have been described.

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  • A modification known as " black sulphur," soluble in water, was announced by F.

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  • The dynamical equilibrium between rhombic, liquid and monosymmetric sulphur has been worked out by H.

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  • Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.

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  • Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, water and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds were referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid type, the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the alcohols, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the analogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the amines, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic compounds.

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  • Sulphur analogues of these oxygen compounds are known.

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  • Here we meet with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as compound radicals.

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  • The elements which go to form heterocyclic rings, in addition to carbon, are oxygen, sulphur, selenium and nitrogen.

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  • It is remarkable that sulphur can replace two methine or CH groups with the production of compounds greatly resembling the original one.

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  • The three primary members are furfurane, thiophene and pyrrol, each of which contains four methine or CH groups, and an oxygen, sulphur and imido (NH) member respectively; a series of compounds containing selenium is also known.

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  • Thiophene yields a similar series: isothiazole (only known as the condensed ring, isobenzothiazole), thiazole, diazosulphides, piazthioles, azosulphimes and thiobiazole (the formulae are easily derived from the preceding series by replacing oxygen by sulphur).

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  • Six-membered ring systems can be referred back, in a manner similar to the above, to pyrone, penthiophene and pyridine, the substances containing a ring of five carbon atoms, and an oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen atom respectively.

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  • Methods for the estimation of the halogens and sulphur were worked out by L.

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  • Sulphur dioxide, recognized by its smell and acid reaction, results from the ignition of certain sulphites, sulphates, or a mixture of a sulphate with a sulphide.

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  • A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur - reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine - violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds - metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds - metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating.

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  • The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.

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  • The elements which play important parts in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen.

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  • The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added.

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  • Sulphur is detected by heating the substance with sodium, dissolving the product in water, and adding sodium nitroprusside; a bluish-violet coloration indicates sulphur.

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  • The same absorbent' quantitatively takes up any halogen and sulphur which may be present.

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  • The process is therefore adapted to the simultaneous estimation of carbon,hydrogen, the halogens and sulphur.

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  • 16, p. 2546) uses a mixture of soda-lime, stannous chloride and sulphur for nitroand azo-compounds, and C. Arnold (Ber.

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  • The oxidation with nitric acid in sealed tubes at a temperature of 150° to 200° for aliphatic compounds, and 250° to 260° for aromatic compounds, is in common use, for both the sulphur and phosphorus can be estimated, the former being oxidized to sulphuric acid and the latter to phosphoric acid.

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  • 19, p. 1910) determines sulphur and the halogens by oxidizing the substance in a current of oxygen and nitrous fumes, conducting the vapours over platinum foil, and absorbing the vapours in suitable receivers.

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  • Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali, or by potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid.

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  • A comparison of the various methods for estimating sulphur has been given by O.

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  • 38, p. 1 434) has devised a method in which the oxidation is effected by sodium peroxide; the halogens,phosphorus and sulphur can be determined by one operation.

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  • Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .

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  • The above may be illustrated by considering the equilibrium between rhombic and monoclinic sulphur.

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  • The former, which is deposited from solutions, is transformed into monoclinic sulphur at about 96°, but with great care it is possible to overheat it and even to fuse it (at 113.5°) without effecting the transformation.

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  • Monoclinic sulphur, obtained by crystallizing fused sulphur, melts at I 19.5°, and admits of undercooling even to ordinary temperatures, but contact with a fragment of the rhombic modification spontaneously brings about the transformation.

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  • 6), be the axes of temperature and pressure, and A corresponds to the transition point (95.6°) of rhombic sulphur, we may follow out the line AB which shows the elevation of the transition point with increasing pressure.

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  • The overheating curve of rhombic sulphur extends along the curve AC, where C is the melting-point of monoclinic sulphur.

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  • The line BC, representing the equilibrium between monoclinic and liquid sulphur, is thermodynamically calculable; the point B is found to correspond to 131° and 400 atmospheres.

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  • From B the curve of equilibrium (BD) between rhombic and liquid sulphur proceeds; and from C (along CE) the curve of equilibrium between liquid sulphur and sulphur vapour.

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  • Of especial interest is the 0 curve BD; along this line liquid and rhombic sulphur are in equilibrium, which means that at above 131° and 400 atmospheres the rhombic (and not the monoclinic) variety would separate from liquid sulphur.

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  • are included sulphur and ammonium nitrate; monotropy is exhibited by aragonite and calcite.

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  • Now consider the effect of replacing sulphur by selenium.

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  • If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.

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  • If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the horizontal parameters.

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  • It has been famous for its sulphur and saline waters since the middle of the 18th century, and also enjoys great vogue as a holiday resort.

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  • The raw materials used in the manufacture are: (I) iron-free kaolin, or some other kind of pure clay, which should contain its silica and alumina as nearly as possible in the proportion of 2SiO 2: Al203 demanded by the formula assigned to ideal kaolin (a deficit of silica, however, it appears can be made up for by addition of the calculated weight of finely divided silica); (2) anhydrous sulphate of soda; (3) anhydrous carbonate of soda; (4) sulphur (in the state of powder); and (5) powdered charcoal or relatively ash-free coal, or colophony in lumps.

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  • "Ultramarine poor in silica" is obtained by fusing a mixture of soft clay, sodium sulphate, charcoal, soda and sulphur.

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  • The product is at first white, but soon turns green ("green ultramarine") when it is mixed with sulphur and heated.

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  • The sulphur fires, and a fine blue pigment is obtained.

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  • "Ultramarine rich in silica" is generally obtained by heating a mixture of pure clay, very fine white sand, sulphur and charcoal in a muffle-furnace.

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  • Hydrochloric acid at once bleaches it with liberation of sulphuretted hydrogen and milk of sulphur.

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  • Seleniumand tellurium-ultramarine, in which these elements replace the sulphur, have also been prepared.

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  • Froissart relates that he was burned to death through his bedclothes catching fire; Secousse says that he died in peace with many signs of contrition; another story says he died of leprosy; and a popular legend tells how he expired by a divine judgment through the burning of the clothes steeped in sulphur and spirits in which he had been wrapped as a cure for a loathsome disease caused by his debauchery.

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  • received the Copley medal from the Royal Society "for his various memoirs on electricity, and particularly for those on the production of metallic sulphurets and sulphur by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension," which it was hoped would lead to increased knowledge of the "recomposition of crystallized bodies, and the processes which may have been employed by nature in the production of such bodies in the mineral kingdom."

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  • The mineral wealth of the Cyclades has hitherto been much neglected; iron ore is exported from Seriphos, manganese and sulphur from Melos, and volcanic cement (pozzolana) from Santorin.

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  • The important mineral products are salt, sulphur, petroleum and natural gas.

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  • Near Lake Charles, at Sulphur, are very extraordinary sulphur deposits.

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  • The sulphur is dissolved by superheated water forced down pipes, and the water with sulphur in solution is forced upward by hot air pressure through other pipes; the sulphur comes, 99% pure, to the surface of the ground, where it is cooled in immense bins, and then broken up and loaded directly upon cars for shipment.

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  • These mines divide with the Sicilian mines the control of the sulphur market of the world.

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  • The value of the sulphur taken from the mines of Louisiana in 1907 was a little more than $5,000,000.

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  • A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.

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  • The iron ores mined at Daiquiri near Santiago are mainly rich hematites running above 60% of iron, with very little sulphur or phosphorus admixture.

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  • Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.

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  • pharm., 1835, 21, p. 315) by the action of ammonia on sulphur chloride, has been investigated by 0.

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  • Geisel (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1 573; 1905, 38, p. 2659), who also obtained it by dissolving sulphur in liquid ammonia.

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  • When heated with CS 2 to 1 00° C. under pressure, it forms liquid nitrogen sulphide, N 2 S 5, a mobile red liquid which solidifies to an iodine-like mass of crystals which melt at Io-I I° C. Water, alkalis and acids decompose it into sulphur and ammonia (W.

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  • north of the city, at what was formerly called Botetourt Springs (there is a sulphur spring), is Hollins Institute (1842) for girls; and in the city are the National Business College, the City Hospital (1899), private hospitals, and St Vincent's Orphan Asylum (1893) for boys, under the Sisters of Charity.

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  • Sulphur, arsenic, asphalt and petroleum exist.

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  • - These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.

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  • Sulphur is found in abundance on the top of Mount Kalamo and elsewhere.

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  • The albumins contain in all cases the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen; their composition, however, varies within certain limits: C= 50-55%, H = 6.9-7'.3%,N = 15-19%,S =0.32.4%7 0=1 92 4%, General char- crystallized albumin is C = 51.48%, H = 6.76%, N= acters.

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  • paas, black), substances which differ very considerably in composition, the sulphur and iron content being by no means constant; they do not give the reactions of albumins.

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  • Hofmann, Ber., 1880, 13, p. 1224); by heating the acid anilides with sulphur or by the oxidation of thio-anilides.

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  • If the current be so strong that new hydrogen and hydroxyl ions cannot be formed in time, other substances are liberated; in a solution of sulphuric acid a strong current will evolve sulphur dioxide, the more readily as the concentration of the solution is increased.

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  • Thus neither a chlorate, which contains the ion C103, nor monochloracetic acid, shows the reactions of chlorine, though it is, of course, present in both substances; again, the sulphates do not answer to the usual tests which indicate the presence of sulphur as sulphide.

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  • Sulphur when warmed with caoutchouc combines with it, and on this fact the vulcanization of rubber depends, and also the production, with an excess of sulphur, of the hard black material known as vulcanite or ebonite.

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  • Caoutchouc, like other "unsaturated" molecules, forms compounds with chlorine, bromine, iodine and sulphur.

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  • It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.

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  • Most articles made of cut sheet rubber would, however, be of very limited utility were they not hardened or vulcanized by the action of sulphur or some compound of that element.

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  • It must, however, be distinctly understood that it is not the mere admixture but the actual combination of sulphur with indiarubber that causes vulcanization.

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  • If an article made of cut sheet be immersed for a few minutes in a bath of melted sulphur, maintained at a temperature of 120 0 C., the rubber absorbs about one-tenth of its weight of that element, and, although somewhat yellowish in colour from the presence of free sulphur, it is still unvulcanized, and unaltered as regards general properties.

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  • When a manufactured article has been saturated with sulphur in the melted sulphur bath, the heat necessary for vulcanization may be obtained either by highpressure steam, by heated glycerin, or by immersion in a sulphur bath heated to about 140° C. In this last case absorption of the sulphur and its intimate combination with the rubber occur simultaneously.

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  • Cut sheets, or articles made from them, may be saturated by being laid in powdered sulphur maintained for some hours at about 110° C. Sheets sulphured in this way can be made up into articles and joined together either by warming the parts to be united, or by means of indiarubber solution; after which the true vulcanization, or " curing," as it is termed, can be brought about in the usual way.

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  • Another method of vulcanizing articles made from cut sheet rubber consists in exposing them to the action of chloride of sulphur.

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  • Either they are placed in a leaden cupboard into which the vapour is introduced, or they are dipped for a few seconds in a mixture of one part of chloride of sulphur and forty parts of carbon disulphide or purified light petroleum.

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  • Vulcanization takes place in this instance without the action of heat; but it is usual to subject the goods for a short time to a temperature of 40° C. after their removal from the solution, in order to drive off the liquid which has been absorbed, and to ensure a sufficient action of the chloride of sulphur.

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  • Most of the rubber now manufactured is not combined with sulphur when in the form of sheets, but is mechanically incorporated with about one-tenth of its weight of that substance by means of the mixing rollers - any required pigment or other matter, such as whiting or barium sulphate, being added.

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  • Rubber mixed in the usual way with about WA of sulphur is now softened by heat, forced into the mould, and retained there by pressure during the operation of curing, which is usually effected in an iron box heated over a gas burner to 140° C.

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  • The articles are first fashioned by joining the soft material; they are then varnished, and afterwards cured in ovens heated to about 135° C. The fine vulcanized " spread sheets " are made by spreading layers of indiarubber solution, already charged with the requisite proportion of sulphur, on a textile base previously prepared with a mixture of paste, glue and treacle.

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  • Uncombined sulphur is injurious, and often leads to the decay of vulcanized goods, but an excess of sulphur is generally required in order to ensure perfect vulcanization.

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  • Sometimes the excess is partially removed by boiling the finished goods with a solution of caustic soda, or some other solvent of sulphur.

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  • In other cases the injurious effects of free sulphur are obviated by using instead of it a metallic sulphide, - generally the orange sulphide of antimony; but, for the best results, it is necessary that this should contain from 20 to 30% of uncombined sulphur.

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  • Such articles contain varying proportions of rubber (12-60%), about 1-2% of combined sulphur, and from 25-70% of mineral matter.

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  • When the vulcanization of rubber is carried too far, from the presence of a very large proportion of sulphur and an unduly long action of heat, the caoutchouc becomes hard, horn-like, and often black.

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  • It is usually made by incorporating about 40% of sulphur with purified Borneo rubber by means of the usual mixing rollers, shaping the required articles out of the mass thus obtained, and heating for six, eight or ten hours to from 135° to 150°.

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  • Of its mineral springs, the best known are the sulphur springs of Baden, the iodine springs of Deutsch-Altenburg, the iron springs of Pyrawarth, and the thermal springs of Voslau.

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  • heated in the presence of atmospheric oxygen) until all the sulphur is burned away and the lead left.

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  • The first effect of the roasting is the elimination of sulphur as sulphurdioxide, with formation of oxide and sulphate of lead.

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  • In practice this oxidation process is continued until the whole of the oxygen is as nearly as possible equal in weight to the sulphur present as sulphide or as sulphate, i.e.

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  • In Carinthia the oxidizing process from the first is pushed on so far that metallic lead begins to show, and the oxygen introduced predominates over the sulphur left.

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  • Ores are smelted raw if the fall of matte (metallic sulphide) does not exceed 5%; otherwise they are subjected to a preliminary oxidizing roast to expel the sulphur, unless they run too high in silver, say 100 oz.

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  • It puts through 9-12 tons of ore in twenty-four hours, reducing the percentage of sulphur to 2-4%, and requires four to six men and about 2 tons of coal.

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  • In small works the cupellation is finished in one furnace, and the resulting low-grade silver fined in a plumbago crucible, either by overheating in the presence of air, or by the addition of silver sulphate to the melted silver, when air or sulphur trioxide and oxygen oxidize the impurities.

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  • Boiling concentrated sulphuric acid converts lead into sulphate, with evolution of sulphur dioxide.

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  • Heating or exposure to sunlight reduces it to the red oxide; it fires when ground with sulphur, and oxidizes ammonia to nitric acid, with the simultaneous formation of ammonium nitrate.

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  • It may be artificially prepared by leading sulphur vapour over lead, by fusing litharge with sulphur, or, as a black precipitate, by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of a lead salt.

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  • It burns when heated in air, forming the pentoxide and sulphur dioxide.

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  • These pipes are made up in small bundles, bleached in sulphur fumes in a closed chest, assorted into sizes, and so prepared for the plaiters.

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  • The pipes are assorted into sizes by passing them through graduated openings in a grilled wire frame, and those of good colour are bleached by the fumes of sulphur.

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  • Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.

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  • It abolished the conception of life s an entity above and beyond the common properties of matter, and led to the conviction that the marvellous and exceptional qualities of that which we call " living " matter are nothing more nor less than an exceptionally complicated development of those chemical and physical properties which we recognize in a gradually ascending scale of evolution in the carbon compounds, containing nitrogen as well as oxygen, sulphur and hydrogen as constituent atoms of their enormous molecules.

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  • Mieres is the chief town of a mountainous, fertile and well-wooded region in which coal, iron, and copper are extensively mined and sulphur and cinnabar are obtained in smaller quantities.

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  • To extract the metal, the pitchblende is first roasted in order to remove the arsenic and sulphur.

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  • It burns in oxygen at 170°, in chlorine at 180°, in bromine at 210°, in iodine at 260°, in sulphur at 50o, and combines with nitrogen at about iooa.

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  • Solutions of uranyl salts (nitrate, &c.) behave to reagents as follows: sulphuretted hydrogen produces green uranous salt with precipitation of sulphur; sulphide of ammonium in neutral solutions gives a black precipitate of UO 2 S, which settles slowly and, while being washed in the filter, breaks up partially into hydrated UO 2 an sulphur; ammonia gives a yellow precipitate of uranate of ammonia, characteristically soluble in hot carbonate of ammonia solution; prussiate of potash gives a brown precipitate which in appearance is not unlike the precipitate produced by the same reagent in cupric salts.

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  • The minerals chiefly mined besides gold are diamonds and coal, but the country possesses also silver, iron, copper, lead, cobalt, sulphur, saltpetre and many other mineral deposits.

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  • The place is chiefly noted for its sulphur and chalybeate springs, the former being the strongest of the kind in Wales.

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  • The medicinal properties of the sulphur water were discovered, or perhaps rediscovered, in 1732 by a famous Welsh writer, the Rev. Theophilus Evans, then vicar of Llangammarch (to which living Llanwrtyd was a chapelry till 1871).

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  • Brewing, distilling, cooperage, iron-founding, hatmaking and machine construction are carried on, and there are flour-mills, brick-works, saw-mills, sulphur refineries and leather and paper works.

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  • The department imports coal, lime, stone, salt, raw sulphur, skins and timber and exports agricultural and mineral products, bricks and tiles, and other manufactured goods.

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  • Its disintegration for analytical purposes can be effected by fusion with caustic alkali in silver basins, with the formation of soluble stannate, or by fusion with sulphur and sodium carbonate, with the formation of a soluble thiostannate.

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  • Stannous sulphide, SnS, is obtained as a lead-grey mass by heating tin with sulphur, and as a brown precipitate by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannous solution; this is soluble in ammonium polysulphide, and dries to a black powder.

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  • Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.

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  • Stannous salt solutions yield a brown precipitate of SnS with sulphuretted hydrogen, which is insoluble in cold dilute acids and in real sulphide of ammonium, (NH 4) 2 S; but the yellow, or the colourless reagent on addition of sulphur, dissolves the precipitate as SnS 2 salt.

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  • The principal minerals are gold, copper, iron, sulphur, coal, asphalt and petroleum.

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  • Sulphur is mined near Carupano, and salt in Zulia and on the peninsula of Araya.

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  • It has a strong and characteristic odour, and a hot sweetish taste, is soluble in ten parts of water, and in all proportions in alcohol, and dissolves bromine, iodine, and, in small quantities, sulphur and phosphorus, also the volatile oils, most fatty and resinous substances, guncotton, caoutchouc and certain of the vegetable alkaloids.

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  • It was considered to be a sulphur compound, hence its name sulphur ether; this idea was proved to be erroneous by Valentine Rose in about 1800.

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  • This substance differs from the mucins by being precipitated by tannic acid but not by acetic acid, and being endowed with a higher proportion of sulphur.

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  • Calcium or potassium sulphides and potassium hydrosulphides completely reduce nitroglycerin to glycerin, some of the sulphur being oxidized and some precipitated.

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  • He regarded all bodies, organic and inorganic, as composed of the three elements - spirit, sulphur and salt, the first being only found abundantly in animal bodies.

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  • In 1893, as the result of an attempt to make diamond by the action of sulphur on highly carburetted cast iron at 450°-500° C. he obtained a black powder too small in quantity to be analysed but hard enough to scratch corundum.

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  • The energy with which Ulysses, after the slaughter of the suitors, calls to Euryclea for "fire and sulphur" to purge (literally "fumigate") the dininghall from the pollution of their blood (Od.

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  • The Warm Sulphur Springs (about 98° F.) are 5 m.

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  • The vast works for the refining of sulphur in the volcanic district of Solfatara were erected under his direction.

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  • It has been suggested that the colour is due to sulphur, but the effect can be produced with a glass mixture containing no sulphur, free or combined, and by increasing the proportion of charcoal the intensity of the colour can be increased until it reaches black opacity.

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  • Silicon sulphide, SiS 2, is formed by the direct union of silicon with sulphur; by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on crystallized silicon at red heat (P. Sabatier, Comptes rendus, 1880, 90, p. 819); or by passing the vapour of carbon bisulphide over a heated mixture of silica and carbon.

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  • Tin dissolves readily in strong hot hydrochloric acid as SnC12; aqueous sulphuric acid does not act on it appreciably in the cold; at 150° it attacks it more or less quickly, according to the strength of the acid, with evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen or, when the acid is stronger, of sulphurous acid gas and deposition of sulphur (Calvert and Johnson).

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  • Hot (concentrated) sulphuric acid does not attack gold, platinum and platinum-metals generally; all other metals (including silver) are converted into sulphates, with evolution of sulphur dioxide.

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  • Sulphur.-Amongst the better known metals, gold and aluminium are the only ones which, when heated with sulphur or in sulphur vapour remain unchanged.

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  • The metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, also magnesium, burn in sulphur vapour as they do in oxygen.

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  • Of the heavy metals, copper is the one which exhibits by far the greatest avidity for sulphur, its subsulphide Cu 2 S being the stablest of all heavy metallic sulphides in opposition to dry reactions.

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  • It is an excellent solvent for gums, resins, fats, &c.; sulphur, phosphorus and iodine also dissolve in it.

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  • The means which have proved most efficacious, both as a remedy and a preventive of this disease, is to scatter flowers of sulphur over mthe vines, before the morning dew has evaporated.

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  • Massee recommends that the shoots should be dredged with flowers of sulphur at intervals of ten days, while the disease continues to spread, a small quantity of quicklime in a finely powdered con FIG.

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  • quantity of lime being increased at to exceed the sulphur, however.

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  • It is then treated with sulphurous acid gas, for the purpose of decolorization, again limed to neutralize the acid, and then passed through a third saturator wherein all traces of lime and sulphur are removed.

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  • Reduction with hydriodic acid gives dibenzyl, and heating with sulphur gives tetraphenylthiophene or thionessal.

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  • It has been found by experiment that plants need for their nutritive process and their growth, certain chemical elements, namely, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron.

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  • The sulphur exists in the soil chiefly in the form of sulphates of magnesium, calcium and other metals; the phosphorus mainly as phosphates of calcium, magnesium and iron; the potash, soda and other bases as silicates and nitrates; calcium and magnesium carbonates are also common constituents of many soils.

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  • Gas-lime is a product obtained from gasworks where quicklime is used to purify the gas from sulphur compounds and other objectionable materials.

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  • As some of these sulphur compounds have a poisonous effect on plants, gas-lime cannot be applied to land directly without great risk or rendering it incapable of growing crops of any sort - even weeds - for some time.

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  • Heated with many metals it converts them into oxides, and with combustible substances, such as charcoal, sulphur, &c., a most intense conflagration occurs.

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  • Zinc blende, however, being zinc sulphide, is not directly reducible by charcoal; but it is easy to convert it into oxide by roasting: the sulphur goes off as sulphur dioxide whilst the zinc remains in the (infusible) form of oxide, ZnO.

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  • Neither mechanical nor magnetic concentration can effect much in the way of separation when, as in many complex ores, carbonates of iron, calcium and magnesium replace the isomorphous zinc carbonate, when some iron sulphide containing less sulphur than pyrites replaces zinc sulphide, and when gold and silver are contained in the zinc ore itself.

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  • For the desulphurization of zinc blende where it is not intended to collect and save the sulphur there are many mechanical kilns, generally classified as straight-line, horse-shoe, turret and shaft kilns; all of these may be made to do good work on moderately clean ores which do not melt at the temperature of desulphurization.

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  • But the problem of saving the sulphur is yearly becoming more important.

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  • of zinc enough sulphur is liberated to produce one ton of strong sulphuric acid, and unless this is collected not only are poisonous gases discharged, but the waste is considerable.

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  • When sulphuric or sulphurous acid is to be collected, it is important to keep the fuel gas from admixture with the sulphur gases, and kilns for this purpose require some modification.

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  • The anhydrous salt, when exposed to a red heat, breaks up into oxide, sulphur dioxide and oxygen.

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  • Rejecting the old notion that plants derive their nourishment from humus, he taught that they get carbon and nitrogen from the carbon dioxide and ammonia present in the atmosphere, these compounds being returned by them to the atmosphere by the processes of putrefaction and fermentation - which latter he regarded as essentially chemical in nature - while their potash, soda, lime, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., come from the soil.

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  • Farther north the Misti volcano rises over the city of Arequipa in a perfect cone to a height of over 20,013 ft., and near its base are the hot sulphur and iron springs of Yura.

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  • Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.

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  • Sulphur deposits exist in the Sechura desert region, on the coast, and extensive borax deposits have been developed in the department of Arequipa.

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  • The Alexandrians prepared oil of turpentine by distilling pine-resin; Zosimus of Panopolis, a voluminous writer of the 5th century A.D., speaks of the distillation of a "divine water" or "panacea" (probably from the complex mixture of calcium polysulphides, thiosulphate, &c., and free sulphur, which is obtained by boiling sulphur with lime and water) and advises "the efficient luting of the apparatus, for otherwise the valuable properties would be lost."

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  • of sulphur.

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  • Sometimes reagents are placed in the combustion tube, for example lead oxide (litharge), which takes up bromine and sulphur.

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  • When the vapours readily condense to a solid form the condensing plant may take the form of large chambers; such conditions prevail in the manufacture of arsenic, sulphur and lampblack: in the latter case (which, however, is not properly one of distillation) the chamber is hung with sheets on which the pigment collects.

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  • of Tibur, the water of which is bluish, strongly impregnated with sulphur and carbonate of lime, and rises at a temperature of about 75° F.

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  • It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air, and burns when heated in air, oxygen, chlorine, bromine or sulphur vapour.

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  • The staple exports are beans, pulse and peas, marine products, sulphur, furs and timber; the staple imports, comestibles (especially salted fish), kerosene and oil-cake.

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  • The mineral wealth of Baden is not great; but iron, coal, zinc and lead of excellent quality are produced, and silver, copper, gold, cobalt, vitriol and sulphur are obtained in small quantities.

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  • It is now chiefly visited by reason of its hot sulphur springs, which are mentioned by Tacitus (Hist.

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  • It may conveniently be extended to similar mixtures of sulphur and selenium or tellurium, of bismuth and sulphur, of copper and cuprous oxide, and of iron and carbon, in fact to all cases in which substances can be made to mix in varying proportions without very marked indication of chemical action.

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  • He constructed two equal condensers, each consisting of a metal ball enclosed in a hollow metal sphere, and he provided also certain hemispherical shells of shellac, sulphur, glass, resin, &c., which he could so place in one condenser between the ball and enclosing sphere that it formed a condenser with solid dielectric. He then determined the ratio of the capacities of the two condensers, one with air and the other with the solid dielectric. This gave the dielectric constant K of the material.

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  • 76, and sulphur K = 2.24.

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  • Sodium aurosulphide, NaAuS 4H 2 O, is prepared by fusing gold with sodium sulphide and sulphur, the melt being extracted with water, filtered in an atmosphere of nitrogen, and evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.

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  • This method of bringing gold into solution is mentioned by Stahl in his Observationes ChymicoPhysico-Medicae; he there remarks that Moses probably destroyed the golden calf by burning it with sulphur and alkali (Ex.

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  • It is very unstable, decomposing into gold and sulphur at 200°.

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  • Thus by adding acid sodium sulphite to, or by passing sulphur dioxide at 50° into, a solution of sodium aurate, the salt, 3Na 2 SO 3 Au 2 SO 3.3H20 is obtained, which, when precipitated from its aqueous solution by alcohol, forms a purple powder, appearing yellow or green by reflected light.

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  • It appears that amalgamation is often impeded by the tarnish found on the surface of the gold when it is associated with sulphur, arsenic, bismuth, antimony or tellurium.

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  • The precipitants in use are: ferrous sulphate, charcoal and sulphuretted hydrogen, either alone or mixed with sulphur dioxide; the use of copper and iron sulphides has been suggested, but apparently these substances have achieved no success.

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  • Precipitation with sulphur dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen proceeds much more rapidly, and has been adopted at many works.

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  • Sulphur dioxide, generated by burning sulphur, is forced into the solution under pressure, where it interacts with any free chlorine present to form hydrochloric and sulphuric acids.

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  • The conversion of silver into the sulphide may be effected by heating with antimony sulphide, litharge and sulphur, pyrites, or with sulphur alone.

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  • The sulphur and litharge, or Pfannenschmied, process was used to concentrate the gold in an alloy in order to make it amenable to " quartation," or parting with nitric acid.

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  • Fusion with sulphur was used for the same purpose as the Pfannenschmied process.

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  • There are hot sulphur springs here.

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  • are sulphur mines (product in 1907 about 362,000 tons), which with those of Sicily produce a large part of the total product of the world.

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  • The slight variations in specific gravity are due to the presence of small amounts of arsenic, sulphur or tellurium, or to enclosed impurities.

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  • The crude metal obtained by the preceding processes is generally contaminated by arsenic, sulphur, iron, nickel, cobalt and antimony, and sometimes with silver or gold.

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  • Hampe prepared chemically pure bismuth by fusing the metal with sodium carbonate and sulphur, dissolving the bismuth sulphide so formed in nitric acid, precipitating the bismuth as the basic nitrate, redissolving this salt in nitric acid, and then precipitating with ammonia.

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  • Bismuth combines directly with the halogens, and the elements of the sulphur group. It readily dissolves in nitric acid, aqua regia, and hot sulphuric acid, but tardily in hot hydrochloric acid.

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  • Bismuth combines directly with sulphur to form a disulphide, B12S2, and a trisulphide, B12S3, the latter compound being formed when the sulphur is in excess.

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  • Though he lived in an atmosphere of alchemy, he derided the notion of the alkahest or universal solvent, and denounced the deceptions of the adepts who pretended to effect the transmutation of metals; but he believed mercury to be a constituent of all metals and heavy minerals, though he held there was no proof of the presence of "sulphur comburens."

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  • Lead and zinc are mined in much smaller quantities, alum and sulphur are also.

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  • Laurviks Bad is a favourite spa, with mineral and sulphur springs and mud-baths.

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  • Troost made it available for specially high temperatures by employing porcelain vessels, sealing them with the oxyhydrogen blow-pipe, and maintaining a constant temperature by a vapour bath of mercury (3500), sulphur (4400), cadmium (860°) and zinc (1040°).

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  • Vapour baths of iron are used in connexion with boiling anthracene (335°), anthraquinone (368°),sulphur(444°),phosphoruspentasulphide(518°); molten lead may also be used.

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  • The crude element is treated with aqua regia and then evaporated with an excess of hydrochloric acid, the solution diluted and the tellurium precipitated by a current of sulphur dioxide.

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  • An amor phous form is obtained when tellurium is precipitated from its solutions by sulphur dioxide, this variety having a specific gravity 6.015.

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  • Like sulphur and selenium, tellurium combines directly with hydrogen to form telluretted hydrogen, TeH2, an extremely objectionable smelling and highly poisonous gas, which was first prepared by Sir H.

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  • The tetrachloride is a white crystalline solid which is formed by the action of chlorine on the dichloride or by sulphur chloride on the element.

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  • It combines directly with sulphur trioxide to form a complex of composition TeC1 4.2SO 3.

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  • These substances, and also carbon, sulphur, selenium and tellurium, render the metal very brittle.

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  • The elements in addition to oxygen which exist in largest amount in sea salt are chlorine, bromine, sulphur, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium.

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  • Sulphur is derived mainly from iron Sulphur p p }' in coal.

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  • An indication of the character of the ash of a coal is afforded by its colour, white ash coals being generally freer from sulphur than those containing iron pyrites, which yield a red ash.

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  • There are, however, several striking exceptions, as for instance in the anthracite from Peru, given in Table I., which contains more than io% of sulphur, and yields but a very small percentage of a white ash.

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  • In this coal, as well as in the lignite of Tasmania, known as white coal or Tasmanite, the sulphur occurs in organic combination, but is so firmly held that it can only be very partially expelled, even by exposure to a very high and continued heating out of contact with the air.

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  • An anthracite occurring in connexion with the old volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat,Edinburgh, which contains a large amount of sulphur in proportion to the Caking coals.

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  • Under ordinary conditions, from s to 4 of the whole amount of sulphur in a coal is volatilized during combustion, the remaining 4 to being found in the ash.

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  • Under the same conditions it becomes incandescent in the vapour of sulphur, yielding calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide; the vapour of phosphorus will also unite with it at a red heat.

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  • Mourlot has shown that aluminium sulphide, zinc sulphide and cadmium sulphide are the only sulphur compounds which can resist the heat of the electric furnace without decomposition or volatilization, and of these aluminium sulphide is the only one which is decomposed by water with the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • Nisyros (pop. about 2500) possesses hot sulphur springs.

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  • Fergusson Island clearly shows remains of extinct craters, and possesses numerous hot springs, saline lakes and solfataras depositing sulphur and alum.

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  • It has numerous sulphur springs (68°-145° F.) used as baths by sufferers from rheumatism and maladies of the lungs.

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  • Not far from it is the watering-place of Szkto with sulphur springs.

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  • Lead, copper, sulphur, orpiment, also lignite, have been found within the confines of the province; also a kind of beautiful, variegated, translucent marble, which takes a high polish, is used in the construction of palatial buildings, tanks, baths, &c., and is known as Maragha, or Tabriz marble.

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  • Zirconium combines with sulphur to form a sulphide, and with carbon to form several carbides.

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  • It exported iron from Elba, mosaics, pottery, manufactured locally with earth from Ischia (which was in considerable demand until 1883), sulphur (which indeed was extracted in the neighbourhood until the 18th century), probably alum (which is still worked), perfumes, pozzolana earth (taking its name from the place), cretaceous earth for mixing with grain (alica) from the Leucogaean hills, glass cups engraved with views of Puteoli, mineral dyes (the blue invented.

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