Sugar sentence example

sugar
  • I always bring Diablo a sugar cube.
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  • The Bacterium acidi lacti described by Pasteur decomposes milk sugar into lactic acid.
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  • It's ham with a maple syrup and brown sugar glaze on it.
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  • When a few lumps of sugar are added to a glass of water and stirred, the sugar soon disappears and we are left with a uniform liquid resembling water, except that it is sweet.
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  • One day we were out, so I put some powdered sugar in a bag.
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  • Regardless, Clarissa's sugar coated barbs hit their mark all too often.
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  • Its chief exports are of cotton, hemp, sugar and stone.
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  • The agricultural products are cotton, sugar and tobacco.
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  • Sugar refining and shipbuilding are carried on.
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  • Try some masala chai, a beverage made with tea, milk, sugar and spices.
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  • If we examine such a substance as sugar we find that it can be broken up into fine grains, and these again into finer, the finest particles still appearing to be of the same nature as sugar.
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  • This investigator held that the decomposition of the sugar molecules takes place outside the cell wall.
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  • A good example of a fairly typical case is afforded by Heterodera schachtii, which attacks beetroot and causes great loss to the Continental sugar manufacturers.
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  • In the north the staple products for export are salt, grain, wool and cotton, in the south opium and cotton; while the imports consist of sugar, hardware and piece goods.
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  • Sugar beet is extensively grown to supply the sugar factories.
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  • Glycogen, a substance related to starch and sugar, is found in the Fungi and Cyanophyceae as a food reserve.
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  • The corojo palm (Cocos crispa) rivals the royal palm in beauty and utility; oil, sugar, drink and wood are derived from it.
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  • As regards crops, 47% of the cultivated area was given over to sugar, 11% to sweet potatoes, 9% to tobacco and almost 9% to bananas.
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  • The actual sugar crop of 1899-1900, for example, was not a quarter of that of 1894.
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  • It is the chief point of exportation for a very rich province, which produces sugar, indigo, Indian corn, copra, and especially rice.
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  • Notwithstanding its mountainous character, Morelos is one of the most flourishing agricultural states of Mexico, producing sugar, rice, Indian corn, coffee, wheat, fruit and vegetables.
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  • The principal exports from Maracaibo are coffee, hides and skins, cabinet and dye-woods, cocoa, and mangrove bark, to which may be added dividivi, sugar, copaiba, gamela and hemp straw for paper-making, and fruits.
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  • It has manufactures of cloth, leather, chemicals and optical instruments; large quantities of beetroot sugar are produced in the neighbourhood; and there is a considerable transit trade on the Elbe.
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  • prolonged the quay, and an inferior imitation of Trajan's arch was set up; he also erected a lazaretto at the south end of the harbour, now a sugar refinery, Vanvitelli being the architect-in-chief.
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  • The exports are mahogany, rosewood, cedar, logwood and other cabinet-woods and dye-woods, with cocoanuts, sugar, sarsaparilla, tortoiseshell, deerskins, turtles and fruit, especially bananas.
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  • Sugar, wheat, alfalfa, Indian corn, tobacco and hides are the principal products, and cotton, which was grown here under the Incas, is still produced.
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  • The principal manufactures of the town are sugar, cigars, paper, gloves, chemical products, beer and machinery.
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  • Corn, salt, sugar and fish are brought from the south, whilst skins and manufactured wares, imported from Germany, are sent to the southern governments.
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  • In contact with nascent hydrogen it builds up ethylene; ethylene acted upon by sulphuric acid yields ethyl sulphuric acid; this can again be decomposed in the presence of water, to yield alcohol, and it has also been proposed to manufacture sugar from this body.
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  • Besides the iron furnaces, situated in the south near the Lorraine plateau, there are tanneries, weaving and glove-making factories, paper-mills for all sorts of paper, breweries and distilleries, and sugar refineries.
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  • Sugar.The manufacture of sugar is carried on in the departments of the north, in which the cultivation of beetroot is general Aisne, Nord, Somme, Pas-de-Calais, Oise and Seine-et-Marne, the three first being by far the largest producers.
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  • The group specially described as indirect taxes includes those on alcohol, wine, beer, cider and other alcoholic drinks, on passenger and goods traffic by railway, on licences to distillers, spirit-sellers, &c., on salt and on sugar of home manufacture.
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  • The manufactures of Stralsund are more miscellaneous than extensive; they include machinery, playing cards, sugar, soap, cigars, gloves, furniture, paper, oil and beer.
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  • Among deciduous trees the state is noted for its sugar maples; birch and beech are common on the hills, and oaks, elm, hickory, ash, poplar, basswood, willow, chestnut and butternut on the less elevated areas.
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  • A peculiar kind of sugar called quercite exists in all acorns.
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  • The exports consist principally of sugar, cotton, and rum (aguardiente).
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  • In 1898f 899 there were only four sugar factories, with an output of 5972 tons; In 1905 there were thirty-three, with an output of 93,916 tons.
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  • The former apply principally to successions, stamps, registrations, mortgages, &c.; the latter to distilleries, breweries, explosives, native sugar and matches, though the customs revenue and octrois upon articles of general consumption, such as corn, wine, spirits, meat, flour, petroleum butter, tea, coffee and sugar, may be considered as belonging to thu class.
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  • grain from 270 lb per head in 1884-1885 to 321 lb in 1901-1902 (maize reman~s almost stationary at 158 II,); wine from 73 to 125 litres per head; oil from 12 to 13 lb per head (sugar is almost stationary at 73/4 lb per head, and coffee at about I Ib); salt from 14 to 16 lb per head.
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  • I For example, wheat, the price of which was in 1902 26 lire pe cwt., pays a tax of 74 lire; sugar pays four times its wholesale val,ii in tax; coffee twice its wholesale value.
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  • The policy of fiscal transformation inaugurated by the Left increased revenue from indirect taxation from 17,000,000 in 1876 to more than 24,000,000 in 1887, by substituting heavy corn duties for the grist tax, and by raising the sugar and petroleum duties to unprecedented levels.
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  • The main industries are cotton-spinning, flax-spinning, cottonprinting, tanning and sugar refining; in addition to which there are iron and copper foundries, machine-building works, breweries and factories of soap, paper, tobacco, &c. As a trading centre the city is even more important.
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  • If we examine the seat of active growth in a young root or twig, we find that the cells in which the organic substance, the protoplasm, of the plant is being formed and increased, are not supplied with carbon dioxide and mineral matter, but with such elaborated material as sugar and proteid substances, or others closely allied to them.
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  • Nor is the nature of the first formed sugar certain; the general opinion has been that it is a simple hexose such as glucose or fructose, C6Hi2O,.
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  • We have seen that the starch is preceded by the formation of sugar, and its appearance is now interpreted as a sign of stfrplus manufacture.
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  • As much sugar as is produced in excess of the immediate requirements of the cell is converted into the insoluble form of starch by the plastidsof the chlorophyll apparatus, and is so withdrawn from the sphere of action, thereby enabling the construction of further quantities of sugar to take place.
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  • The presence of too much sugar in solution in the sap of the cell inhibits the activity of the chloroplasts; hence the necessity for its removal.
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  • The readiness with which it is converted into sugar fits it especially to be a reserve or stored material.
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  • This comes in almost all such cases from the decomposition of sugar, which is split up by the protoplasm into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
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  • The decomposition of the complex molecule of the sugar liberates a certain amount of energy, as can be seen from the study of the fermentation set tig by yeast, which is a process of this kind, in that it is intensified by the absence of oxygen.
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  • lime in hot weather is owing to exudations of sugar.
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  • It is probable that most, if not all, the metabolic changes which take place in a cell, such as the transformation of starch, proteids, sugar, cellulose; and the decomposition -of numerous other organic substances which would otherwise require a high temperature or powerful reagents is also due to their activity.
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  • Or to take the small but welldefined group of five-leaved pines, all the species of which may be seen growing side by side at Kew under identical conditions: we have the Weymouth pine (Pinus Strobus) in eastern North America, P. monlicola and the sugar pine (P. Lambertiana) in California, P. Ayacahwite in Mexico, the Arolla pine (P. Cembra) in Switzerland and Siberia, P. Peuce in Greece, the Bhotan pine (P. excelsa) in the Himalayas, and two other species in Japan.
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  • The surrounding country is a fertile sugar and tobacco region.
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  • The chief industries are the making of sugar and shoes, and there are also electrical works and saw-mills.
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  • Pernambuco is chiefly agricultural, the lowlands being devoted to sugar and fruit, with coffee in some of the more elevated localities, the agreste region to cotton, tobacco, Indian corn, beans and stock, and the sertao to grazing and in some localities to cotton.
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  • Sugar, molasses, rum (aguardente or cachaca), tobacco and fruit are largely exported.
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  • Cotton-weaving and cigar-making are the principal manufacturing industries, after the large engenhos devoted to the manufacture of sugar and rum.
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  • It is especially well equipped for handling rice, which is shipped in large quantities; Indian corn, tobacco and sugar are also shipped.
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  • Sugar, rice, indigo and tropical fruits are the chief products of the fertile district in which the town lies; it is widely known for its fish-ponds and its excellent fish, and its principal manufactures are jusi, pina, ilang ilang perfume and sugar.
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  • esculenta), maize, sorghum, sugar cane, rice and eleusine (Eleusine), besides gourds, pumpkins, cabbages and onions.
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  • In the vicinity of Cairns are extensive sugar plantations, with sugar mills and refineries; the culture of coffee and tobacco has rapidly extended; bananas, pine-apples and other fruits are exported in considerable quantities and there is a large industry in cedar.
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  • It contains breweries, tanneries, sugar, tobacco, cloth, and silk factories, and exports skins, cloth, cocoons, cereals, attar of roses, "dried fruit, &c. Sofia forms the centre of a railway system radiating to Constantinople (300 m.), Belgrade (206 m.) and central Europe, Varna, Rustchuk and the Danube, and Kiustendil near the Macedonian frontier.
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  • Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
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  • In consequence of these more favourable conditions there is greater variety in the cropping; a good deal of wheat is grown, as well as beetroot for sugar, fibre plants and oleaginous plants, fruit, and even (W.
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  • Beetroot (6-8 million tons annually) for sugar is especially cultivated in Poland, the governments of Kiev, Podolia, Volhynia, Kharkov, Bessarabia and Kherson.
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  • The growth of the sugar industry is shown by the fact that in 1888-93 the average annual production of sugar was 444,520 tons, in 1902-3 it was 1,180,293 tons.
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  • The external trade of the Russian empire (bullion and the external trade of Finland not included) since the year 1886 is shown in the following table: The exports rank in the following order :- cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat) and flour, 49.2%; timber and wooden wares, 7.2; petroleum, 5.8; eggs, 5.4; flax, 5; butter, 3; sugar, 2-4; cottons and oilcake, 2 each; oleaginous seeds, &c., 1.5; with hemp, spirits, poultry, game, bristles, hair, furs, leather, manganese ore, wool, caviare, live-stock, gutta-percha, vegetables and fruit, and tobacco.
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  • The leading industry of Udine is silk-spinning, but it also possesses manufactures of linen, cotton, hats and paper, tanneries and sugar refineries, and has a considerable trade in flax, hemp, &c. Branch railways lead to Cividale del Friuli and S.
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  • Macabebe's principal industries are the cultivation of rice and sugar cane, the distilling of nipa alcohol, and the weaving of hemp and cotton fabrics.
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  • The principal exports are sugar, oil-seeds and indigo.
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  • These districts are pastoral, and the lower fertile lands are cultivated for sugar, cotton, maize, tobacco, rice, beans, and mandioca - sugar being the principal product.
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  • The only manufacturing industries of importance are cotton mills, sugar factories and distilleries, one of the largest sugar usines in Brazil being located at Riachuelo near Larangeiras.
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  • The observed heat of combustion of sugar is, however, 1354000, so that the error of the rule is here 20 per cent.
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  • different from the observed heat of combustion of sugar.
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  • The principal articles of its trade are rice and cotton, some sugar cane (nai shakar), flax (Katun) and hemp (Kanab) are also grown.
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  • The southern part of this region is well populated, and is covered with coffee and sugar plantations.
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  • Its industrial activity is not great, but there are manufactures of machinery, chemicals, paper, tobacco and sugar; these are made chiefly in or near the large towns, while linen-weaving is practised as a domestic industry.
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  • Glycerin is also a product of certain kinds of fermentation, especially of the alcoholic fermentation of sugar; consequently it is a constituent of many wines and other fermented liquors.
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  • According to Louis Pasteur, about oth of the sugar transformed under ordinary conditions in the fermentation of grape juice and similar saccharine liquids into alcohol and other products becomes converted into glycerin.
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  • Certain kinds of copying inks are greatly improved by the substitution of glycerin, in part or entirely, for the sugar or honey usually added.
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  • The products of the territorial coast lands are sugar, cotton, tobacco, maize, palm oil, coffee, fine woods and medicinal plants.
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  • There are cotton and cigarette factories at the town of Tepic, besides sugar works and distilleries on the plantations.
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  • The principal imports are butter, woollens, timber, cereals, eggs, glass, cottons, preserved meat, wool, sugar and bacon.
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  • carbon from the atmosphere, and produce, besides nitrogenous food materials, a very large amount of the carbohydrate sugar, as respiratory and fat-forming food for the live stock of the farm.
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  • Sugar-canes suffer from the sugar cane borer (Diatioca sacchari) in the West Indies; tobacco from the larvae of hawk moths (Sphingidae) in America; corn and grass from various Lepidopterous pests all over the world.
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  • The small twigs, tied in bundles, are boiled for some time in water with broken biscuit or roasted grain; the resulting decoction is then poured into a cask with molasses or maple sugar and a little yeast, and left to ferment.
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  • At home many industries were suffering from the lack of tropical and colonial produce: cane sugar sold at five, and coffee at seven, shillings the pound.
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  • Sonsonate is the centre of a rich agricultural district, and one of the busiest manufacturing towns in the republic. It produces cotton cloth, pottery, mats and baskets, boots and shoes, sugar, starch, cigars and spirits.
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  • Through Acajutla it exports coffee and sugar, and imports grain for distribution to all parts of the interior.
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  • MALONIC ACID, C 3 H 9 0 4 or CH 2 (000H) 2, occurs in the form of its calcium salt in the sugar beet.
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  • Its principal productions are coffee, sugar, and cacao, and - less important - cotton, tobacco,.
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  • Sugar factories, distilleries, flour-mills, woollen mills, tanneries, potteries, tobacco factories, breweries, candle and soap factories, have an annual output valued at 4,000,000.
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  • Fibres and vegetable grasses, wool, hides and skins, cotton, sugar, iron and steel and their manufactures, chemicals, coal, and leather and its manufactures are the leading imports; provisions, leather and its manufactures, cotton and its manufactures, breadstuffs, iron and steel and.
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  • Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
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  • Greater profits obtained from sugar caused the industry to be abandoned, except in the small island of Carriacou.
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  • In 1900 the Imperial Department of Agriculture and private planters began experiments with the object of reintroducing the cultivation, owing to the decline in value of sugar.
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  • Sugar and maize; lemons, apricots and melons; cotton, muslin and damask; lilac and purple (azure and gules are words derived Fulk of Anjou, = Melisinda Alice = Bohemund II.
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  • The production of sugar, begun by the early Spanish settlers, declined, but that of syrup increased.
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  • This, when cast into forms and allowed to harden and dry slowly, comes out as transparent soap. A class of transparent soap may also be made by the cold process, with the use of coco-nut oil, castor oil and sugar.
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  • Holland is a grain and fruit shipping centre, and among its manufactures are furniture, leather, grist mill products, iron, beer, pickles, shoes, beet sugar, gelatine, biscuit (Holland rusk), electric and steam launches, and pianos.
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  • He was especially interested in questions relating to the polarization of light, and his observations in this field, which gained him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1840, laid the foundations of the polarimetric analysis of sugar.
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  • Camphor, sugar, tea, indigo, ground peanuts, jute, hemp, oil and rattans are all articles of export.
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  • Sugar on the lowlands, coffee on the upper, and tobacco on the lower mountain slopes are the principal crops.
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  • In 1909 there were 185,927 acres of sugar, yielding 2 44, 2 57 tons for exportation, and valued at $18,432,446.
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  • The only manufacturing industries of much importance are the preparation of sugar, coffee and tobacco for market, and the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, straw hats, soap, matches, vermicelli, sash, doors, ice, distilled liquors and some machinery.
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  • It has rather more sugar, viz.
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  • There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
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  • The value of the city's manufactured products increased from $37,376,322 in 1890 to $77,225,116 in 1900, or 106.6%; in 1905 the factory product alone was valued at $75,740,934, an increase of only 3.9% over the factory product in 1900, this small rate of increase being due very largely to a decline in the value of the products of the sugar and molasses refining industry.
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  • The chief imports are cotton piece goods, cotton twist, salt, sugar, provisions, railway materials, raw cotton, metals, coal, tobacco, spices and kerosene oil.
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  • Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
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  • This has led to the estimation of sugar by means of the polarimeter, and of the calorific power of fuels, and the valuation of ores and metals, of coal-tar dyes, and almost all trade products.
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  • of these, according to the calendar, is the " Lesser Festival," called by the Turks Kiitshiik Bairdm (" Lesser Bairam "), or Sheker Bairam (" Sugar Bairam "), and by Arabic-speaking Moslems id al-Fitr (" Festival of Fast-breaking "), or Al-'id as saghir (" Lesser Festival ").
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  • The sound of sh is also sometimes represented by s, as in sure, sugar.
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  • Charlevoix is an important hardwood lumber port, and the principal industries are the manufacture of lumber and of cement; fishing (especially for lake trout and white fish); the raising of sugar beets; and the manufacture of rustic and fancy wood-work.
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  • The soil is fertile and produces rubber, cotton, sugar, coffee, cocoa, tobacco and nutmegs, all of which are exported; pimento (allspice) grows wild in the greatest profusion.
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  • The imports are mainly white longcloth, grey shirting, rice, jowaree, dates and sugar.
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  • It is connected with Ponce by railway (1910), and with the port of Arroyo by an excellent road, part of the military road extending to Cayey, and it exports sugar, rum, tobacco, coffee, cattle, fruit and other products of the department, which is very fertile.
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  • In the town of Raymond is a large beet sugar manufactory, and in the vicinity great quantities of beets are grown by irrigation.
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  • On either side of the canal are the warehouses of wholesale dealers in cotton, wool, sugar, grain and other commodities.
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  • Of the total sugar consumption of the country in1899-1904Louisiana produced somewhat more than a fifteenth.
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  • of the Red river is fairly well suited to sugar-growing, it is still true that sugar cannot, over much of this area, be grown to so great advantage as other crops.
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  • Sugar is grown also in St Landry and the eastern part of Attakapas - a name formerly loosely applied to what are now St Mary, Iberia, Vermilion, St Martin and Lafayette parishes.
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  • Though introduced with success from Santo Domingo about the middle of the T 8th century, the sugar industry practically dates from 1796, when Etienne Bore first succeeded in crystallizing and clarifying the syrup. Steam motive power was first introduced on the plantations in 1822.
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  • A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.
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  • Good work has also been done by the Audubon sugar school of the state university, founded " for the highest scientific training in the growing of sugar cane and in the technology of sugar manufacture."
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  • Manufacturing industries are for the most part closely related to the products of the soil, about two-thirds of the value of all manufactures in Igoo and in 1905 being represented by sugar and molasses refining, lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and rice cleaned and polished.
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  • Tafia rum and a waxy, sticky sugar syrup subsequently became important products; but not until the end of the century were the means found to crystallize sugar and so give real prosperity to the industry.
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  • Woollen fabrics are manufactured, and the sugar industry established in 1890 employs several thousand hands; but the majority of the inhabitants are occupied by the trade in grain, fruit, wine and oil.
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  • There are, owing perhaps to the proximity of Lima, few industrial establishments in the city; among them are a large sugar refinery, some flour-mills, a brewery, a factory for making effervescent drinks, and a number of foundries and repair shops.
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  • Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.
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  • Water and carbonic acid are synthesized, under the action of sunlight, to form sugar, starch or some other carboh y drate and this is then combined with simple nitrogenous salts to form proteid.
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  • They manufacture copper boilers for making sugar and understand several trades, weave ponchos and hammocks and make straw hats.
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  • Its principal imports are coffee (of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique), tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase), wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal.
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  • The dried fruit used for dessert in European countries contains more than half its weight of sugar, about 6% of albumen, and 12% of gummy matter.
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  • Date sugar is a valuable commercial product of the East Indies, obtained from the sap or toddy of Phoenix sylvestris, the toddy palm, a tree so closely allied to the date palm that it has been supposed to be the parent stock of all the cultivated varieties.
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  • The juice, when not boiled down to form sugar, is either drunk fresh, or fermented and distilled to form arrack.
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  • If a solution, let us say of sugar, be confined in a closed vessel through the walls of It is probable that in both these solutions complex ions exist at fairly high concentrations, but gradually gets less in number and finally disappear as the dilution is increased.
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  • Van Hoff pointed out that measurements of osmotic pressure confirmed this value in the case of dilute solutions of cane sugar.
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  • The freezing points and vapour pressures of solutions of sugar are also in conformity with the theoretical numbers.
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  • Results have been obtained for solutions of sugar, where the experimental, number is 1 858, and for potassium chloride, which gives a depression of 3.720.
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  • Sugar, cereals, tobacco, cotton and coffee are produced, and probably fruit may be raised successfully.
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  • It appears to be synthesized in the plant tissues from carbon dioxide and water, formaldehyde being an intermediate product; or it may be a hydrolytic product of a glucoside or of a polysaccharose, such as cane sugar, starch, cellulose, &c. In the plant it is freely converted into more complex sugars, poly-saccharoses and also proteids.
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  • Its taste is somewhat sweet, its sweetening power being estimated at from a to -*- that of cane sugar.
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  • The cyanhydrin is hydrolysable to an acid, the lactone of which may be reduced by sodium amalgam to a glucoheptose, a non-fermentable sugar containing seven carbon atoms. By repeating the process a non-fermentable gluco-octose and a fermentable glucononose may be prepared.
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  • These transformations are fully discussed in the article Sugar.
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  • Of the greatest importance is the alcoholic fermentation brought about by yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae seu vini); this follows the equation CH120 6 =2C 2 H 6 0+2CO 2, Pasteur considering 94 to 95% of the sugar to be so changed.
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  • Of especial note is the transformation of maltose by maltase into glucose, and of cane sugar by invertase into a mixture of glucose and fructose (invert sugar); other instances are: lactose by lactase into galactose and glucose; trehalose by trehalase into glucose; melibiose by melibiase into galactose and glucose; and of melizitose by melizitase into touranose and glucose, touranose yielding glucose also when acted upon by the enzyme touranase.
    0
    0
  • The glucose of commerce, which may be regarded as a mixture of grape sugar, maltose and dextrins, is prepared by hydrolysing starch by boiling with a dilute mineral acid.
    0
    0
  • "Syrup glucose" is the commercial name of the product; by continuing the concentration further solid glucose or grape sugar is obtained.
    0
    0
  • 2.18 Sugar, etc..
    0
    0
  • The surrounding country, which is traversed by gravel roads leading to the principal towns of the province, is fertile and well cultivated, producing sugar, tobacco and rice in abundance.
    0
    0
  • Part of this commerce (textiles, sugar, tobacco, steel goods) is conveyed by sea to the Pacific ports.
    0
    0
  • The industries of Dessau include the production of sugar, which is the chief manufacture, woollen, linen and cotton goods, carpets, hats, leather, tobacco and musical instruments.
    0
    0
  • The import trade consists of timber, maize, paper, crockery, sugar, tobacco, kerosene oil, &c. Gold has been found in the territory, and silver, tin, lead and iron are said to exist.
    0
    0
  • It has an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, and its industries include cloth, sugar and stocking manufactures, besides breweries and tanneries.
    0
    0
  • The principal industries are, the metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches, milling, brewing and chemicals; paper, leather and silk; cloth, objets de luxe and millinery; physical and musical instruments; sugar, tobacco factories and foodstuffs.
    0
    0
  • It thus appears that white lead and sugar of lead were undifferentiated.
    0
    0
  • Lead chromate, PbCrO 4, is prepared industrially as a yellow pigment, chrome yellow, by precipitating sugar of lead solution with potassium bichromate.
    0
    0
  • Lead acetate, Pb(C2H302)2.3H20 (called "sugar" of lead, on account of its sweetish taste), is manufactured by dissolving massicot in aqueous acetic acid.
    0
    0
  • (2) Plumbi Acetas (sugar of lead), dose 1 to 5 grains.
    0
    0
  • long, 27,000 tons) in the German mercantile marine, were built; and also sugar, cement and other factories.
    0
    0
  • He took his place, as a matter of course, among the Conservatives, and delivered his maiden speech in May 1850 on the sugar duties.
    0
    0
  • In 1586 sugar is mentioned as an import, and in 1646 deal boards were brought here from Hamburg.
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    0
  • The industries embrace granite quarries, wood-pulp factories, and factories for sugar, tobacco, curtains, travelling-bags, boots, &c. There are railway communications with Gothenburg and all parts of Sweden and regular coastal and steamer services.
    0
    0
  • The principal exports are sugar, coal, cereals, wool, forage, cement, chalk, phosphates, iron and steel, tools and metal-goods, thread and vegetables.
    0
    0
  • Columbium pentachloride, CbC1 5, is obtained in yellow needles when a mixture of the pentoxide and sugar charcoal is heated in a current of air-free chlorine.
    0
    0
  • It rises on an elevated tableland in the state of Sao Paulo and flows across the state of Rio de Janeiro from west to east, through a broad fertile valley producing coffee in its most elevated districts and sugar on its alluvial bottom-lands nearer the sea.
    0
    0
  • Sugar cane, another exotic, has an equally wide distribution, and cotton is grown along the coast from Maranhao to Sao Paulo.
    0
    0
  • The exports cover a wide range of agricultural, pastoral and natural productions, including coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, cocoa, Brazil nuts, mate (Paraguay tea), hides, skins, fruits, gold, diamonds, manganese ore, cabinet woods and medicinal leaves, roots and resins.
    0
    0
  • No other country has been able to equal Brazil in the production of coffee, and under better labour conditions the country might compete with the foremost in the production of cane sugar, cotton and tobacco.
    0
    0
  • During the colonial period sugar cane was cultivated from Parahyba S.
    0
    0
  • to the vicinity of Santos, and sugar was the principal export of the colony.
    0
    0
  • Sugar plantations were laid out in the vicinity.
    0
    0
  • The same infatuated passion for mining speculation which had characterized the Spanish settlers in South America now began to actuate the Portuguese; labourers and capital were drained off to the mining districts, and Brazil, which had hitherto in great measure supplied Europe with sugar, sank before the competition of the English and French.
    0
    0
  • There are several large tobacco factories, flour mills, boot factories, sugar refineries, tanneries, tallow works, meat-preserving, glue and kerosene-oil factories and soap works.
    0
    0
  • along the coast north of Durban, serves as centre for sugar, tobacco and fruit plantations.
    0
    0
  • Besides fruits of nearly all kinds there are cultivated in the low moist regions the sugar-cane, the tea, coffee and tobacco plants, arrowroot, cayenne pepper, cotton, &c. The area under sugar in 1905 was 45,840 acres and the produce 532,067 cwt.
    0
    0
  • The sugar cane, like tea, was first introduced in 1850, the first canes being brought from Mauritius.
    0
    0
  • The chief exports, not all products of the province, are coal, wool, mohair, hides and skins, wattle bark, tea, sugar, fruits and jams. The import trade is of a most varied character, and a large proportion of the goods brought into the country are in transit to the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Natal affording, next to Delagoa Bay, the shortest route to the Rand.
    0
    0
  • The British settlers soon realized that the coast lands were suited to the cultivation of tropical or semi-tropical products, and from 1852 onward sugar, coffee, cotton and arrow-root were introduced, tea being afterwards substituted for coffee.
    0
    0
  • The sugar industry soon became of importance, and the planters were compelled to seek for large numbers of labourers.
    0
    0
  • The sugar industry has made great strides, the amount of beetroot used having increased tenfold between 1880 and 1905.
    0
    0
  • Indirect taxes amounted in 1904 to £7,363,000, and the chief heads of indirect taxation yielded as follows: taxes on alcoholic drinks, £4,375,000; sugar tax, £1,292,000; petroleum tax, £418,000; meat tax, £375,000.
    0
    0
  • The tubers of Ipomaea Batatas are rich in starch and sugar, and, as the "sweet potato," form one of the most widely distributed foods in the warmer parts of the earth.
    0
    0
  • The chief manufacture is paint ("Schweinfurt green" is a well-known brand in Germany), introduced in 1809; but beer, sugar, machinery, soap and other drysalteries, straw-paper and vinegar are also produced.
    0
    0
  • Stock-raising was for a time the principal industry, but agriculture has been largely developed in several localities, among the chief products of which are cotton - Coahuila is the principal cotton-producing state in Mexico - Indian corn, wheat, beans, sugar and grapes.
    0
    0
  • The surrounding country is very fertile and produces large quantities of rice, as well as Indian corn, tobacco, sugar, coffee and a great variety of fruits.
    0
    0
  • It is situated near the Guanajibo river, in a fertile agricultural region which produces sugar, coffee, fruit, cacao and tobacco.
    0
    0
  • rend., 1896, 122, p. '088), in which the oxide is heated with sugar charcoal in the electric furnace.
    0
    0
  • In the tropical district of the Limpopo valley there is some cultivation of the coffee-tree, and this region is also adapted for the growing of tea, sugar, cotton and rice.
    0
    0
  • The system continued steadily down to 1899, by which time railways, dynamite, spirits, iron, sugar, wool, bricks, jam, paper and a number of other things were all of them articles of monopoly.
    0
    0
  • One grain of saffron rubbed to powder with sugar and a little water imparts a distinctly yellow tint to ten gallons of water.
    0
    0
  • The exports are chiefly sugar and cotton.
    0
    0
  • The principal agricultural products are coffee, cacau (cacao), sugar, Indian corn and beans.
    0
    0
  • Its principal product is " papelon," or brown sugar, which is put on the market in the shape of small cylindrical and cubical masses of 14 to 31 lb weight.
    0
    0
  • This quality is the only one consumed in the country, with the exception of a comparatively small quantity of granulated, and of refined sugar in tablets prepared for people of the well-to-do classes.
    0
    0
  • The principal exports are rubber, sugar, ground-nuts and oil seeds, beeswax, chromite (from Rhodesia), and gold (from Manica).
    0
    0
  • One chief means employed by nature in accomplishing this object is the investment of those parts of the organism liable to be attacked with an armour-like covering of epidermis, periderm, bark, &c. The grape is proof against the inroads of the yeastplant so long as the husk is intact, but on the husk being injured the yeast-plant finds its way into the interior and sets up vinous fermentation of its sugar.
    0
    0
  • Heidenhain recognizes two classes, first, such substances as peptone, leech extract and crayfish extract; and, secondly, crystalloids such as sugar, salt, &c. Starling sees no reason to believe that members of either class act otherwise than by increasing the pressure in the capillaries or by injuring the endothelial wall.
    0
    0
  • Sugar, tea and coffee are grown in the coast belt by whites.
    0
    0
  • By far the largest of the imports are cotton, silk and woollen piece-goods, while subordinate imports include hardware, gunny bags, sugar, tobacco and liquors.
    0
    0
  • Another Sikh ceremony is the kara parshad or communion made of butter, flour and sugar, and consecrated with certain ceremonies.
    0
    0
  • The principal crops are millet, wheat, pulse, oil-seeds, cotton and sugar cane.
    0
    0
  • It is also probable that the English mixed sugar or honey with the wine and thus supplied artificially that sweetness which the English sun denied.
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    0
  • Among the residents have been Edwin Thomas Booth, John Henry Twachtman, the landscape painter, and Henry Osborne Havemeyer (1847-1907), founder of the American Sugar Company.
    0
    0
  • The principal industries are the manufacture of paper, leather, chemicals and tobacco, sugar refining, shipbuilding and salmon fishing.
    0
    0
  • SUGAR, in chemistry, the generic name for a certain series of carbohydrates, i.e.
    0
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  • sugar of lead, but it is now restricted to certain oxyaldehydes and oxy-ketones, which occur in the vegetable and animal kingdoms either free or in combination as glucosides (q.v.) and to artificial preparations of similar chemical structure.
    0
    0
  • Cane sugar has been known for many centuries; milk sugar was obtained by Fabrizio Bartoletti in 1615; and in the middle of the 18th century Marggraf found that the sugars yielded by the beet, carrot and other roots were identical with cane sugar.
    0
    0
  • The sugars obtained from honey were investigated by Lowitz and Proust, and the latter decided on three species: (I) cane sugar, (2) grape sugar, and (3) fruit sugar; the first has the formula C12H2201,, the others C 6 H 12 0 6.
    0
    0
  • The rotation serves for the estimation of sugar solutions (saccharimetry).
    0
    0
  • 2 Kiliani also showed that arabinose, C 6 11 12 0 61 a sugar found in cherry gum, was an aldopentose, and thus indicated an extension of the idea of a " sugar."
    0
    0
  • - The cyanhydrins on hydrolysis give monocarboxylic acids, which yield lactones; these compounds when reduced by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar containing one more carbon atom.
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  • the passage from a higher to a lower sugar.
    0
    0
  • Ruff effects the same change by oxidizing the sugar to the oxy-acid, ' See Fermentation; and for the relation of this property to structure see Stereoisomerism.
    0
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  • - Fischer found that if one molecule of phenylhydrazine acted upon one molecule of an aldose or ketose a hydrazone resulted which in most cases was very soluble in water, but if three molecules of the hydrazine reacted (one of which is reduced to ammonia and aniline) insoluble crystalline substances resulted, termed osazones, which readily characterized the sugar from which it was obtained.
    0
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  • Other forms are: d- and l-gulose, prepared from the lactones of the corresponding gulonic acids, which are obtained from d- and /-glucose by oxidation and inversion; d- and l-idose, obtained by inverting with pyridine d- and l-gulonic acids, and reducing the resulting idionic acids; d- and l-galactose, the first being obtained by hydrolysing milk sugar with dilute sulphuric acid, and the second by fermenting inactive galactose (from the reduction of the lactone of d, l-galactonic acid) with yeast; and d- and l-talose obtained by inverting the galactonic acids by pyridine into d- and l-talonic acids and reduction.
    0
    0
  • The hexoses so obtained are not necessarily identical: thus cane sugar yields d-glucose and d-fructose (invert sugar); milk sugar and melibiose give d-glucose and d-galactose, whilst maltose yields only glucose.
    0
    0
  • Cane sugar has no reducing power and does not form an hydrazone or osazone; the other varieties, however, reduce Fehling's solution and form hydrazones and osazones, behaving as aldoses, i.e.
    0
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  • Soc., 1903, 85, 1305), who showed that cane sugar and maltose were a-glucosides, and raffinose an a-glucoside of melibiose.
    0
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  • Fischer has proposed formulae for the important disaccharoses, and in conjunction with Armstrong devised a method for determining how the molecule was built up, by forming the osone of the sugar and hydrolysing, whereupon the hexosone obtained indicates the aldose part of the molecule.
    0
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  • Also Marchlewski (in 1899) synthesized cane sugar from potassium fructosate and acetochloroglucose; and after Fischer discovered that acetochlorohexoses readily resulted from the interaction of the hexose penta-acetates and liquid hydrogen chloride, several others have been obtained.
    0
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  • Cane sugar, saccharose or saccharobiose, is the most important sugar; its manufacture is treated below.
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    0
  • Milk sugar, lactose, lactobiose, C12H22011, found in the milk of mammals, in the amniotic liquid of cows, and as a pathological secretion, is prepared by evaporating whey and purifying the sugar which separates by crystallization.
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  • Boletus edulis, in the Oriental Trehala and in ergot of rye; melibiose, C12H22011, formed, with fructose, on hydrolysing the trisaccharose melitose (or raffinose), C18H32016.5H20, which occurs in Australian manna and in the molasses of sugar manufacture; touranose, C12H22011, formed with d-glucose and galactose on hydrolysing another trisaccharose, melizitose, C,8H32016 2H20, which occurs in Pinus larix and in Persian manna; and agavose, C12H22011, found in the stalks of Agave americana.
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  • (X.) Sugar Manufacture Sugar-cane is a member of the grass family, known botanically as Saccharum officinarum, the succulent stems of which are the source of cane sugar.
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  • The sugar-cane was introduced by the Arabs in the middle ages into Egypt, Sicily and the south of Spain where it flourished until the abundance of sugar in the colonies caused its cultivation to be abandoned.
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  • Apart from the sugar-cane and the beet, which are dealt with in detail below, a brief reference need only be made here to maple sugar, palm sugar and sorghum sugar.
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  • This is derived from the sap of the rock or sugar maple (Ater saccharinum), a large tree growing in Canada and the United States.
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  • A tree may yield 3 gallons of juice a day and continue flowing for six weeks; but on an average only about 4 lb of sugar are obtained from each tree, 4 to 6 gallons of sap giving 1 lb of sugar.
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  • The sap is drawn off from the upper growing portion of the stem, and altogether an average tree will run in a season 350 lb of toddy, from which about 35 lb of raw sugar - jaggery - is made by simple and rude processes.
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  • The stem of the Guinea corn or sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) has long been known in China as a source of sugar.
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    0
  • The sorghum is hardier than the sugar-cane; it comes to maturity in a season; and it retains its maximum sugar content a considerable time, giving opportunity for leisurely harvesting.
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    0
  • The sugar is obtained by the same method as cane sugar.
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    0
  • the annual cost of running the factory) of £3 per ton, or f30,000 per annum, will not be able to make as much sugar per day with canes giving juice of 8° B., and will make still less if they yield juice of only 6° B.
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  • For example, a factory able to evaporate 622 tons of water in 24 hours could treat I 000 tons of canes yielding juice of 9° B., and make therefrom too tons of sugar in that time; but this same factory, if supplied with canes giving juice of 6° B., could not treat more than 935 tons of canes in 24 hours, and would only make therefrom 62.2 tons of sugar.
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  • to Io° B., with their apparent value based solely on the percentage of sugar in the juice.
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    0
  • The factory expenses are taken at £30,000 per annum, or £3 per ton on a crop of 10,000 tons (the sugar to cost £8 per ton all told at the factory) - equivalent to £300 per day for the loo working days of crop time.
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  • a ton, any more than it would pay a factory to make only 62.2 tons of sugar in 24 hours, or 6220 tons in the crop of loo days, instead of 10,000 tons.
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  • The details of manufacture of sugar from canes and of sugar from beetroots differ, but there are five operations in the production of the sugar of commerce from either material which are common to both processes.
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  • In India at the present day there are thousands of small mills worked by hand, through which extraction the peasant cultivators pass their canes two or three at a time, squeezing them a little, and extracting per haps a fourth of their weight in juice, from which they make a substance resembling a dirty sweetmeat rather than sugar.
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  • In Barbadoes there are still many estates making good Mascabado sugar; but as the juice is extracted from the canes by windmills, and then concentrated in open kettles heated by direct fire, the financial results are disastrous, since nearly half the yield obtainable from the canes is lost.
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  • In the best organized modern cane sugar estates as much as 122% of the weight of the canes treated is obtained in crystal sugar of high polarizing power, although in Louisiana, where cultivation and manufacture are alike most carefully and admirably carried out, the yield in sugar is only about 7% of the weight of the canes, and sometimes, but seldom, as much as 9%.
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  • Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.
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  • and in practice 10% more than its own weight; or in Crushing other words, loo lb of the best crushed megass will consist of 47.62 lb of fibre and 52.38 lb of moisture - that is, water with sugar in solution, or juice.
    0
    0
  • The British Guiana Planters' Association appointed a sub-committee to report to the West India Commission on the manufacture of sugar, who stated the following: With canes containing 12% fibre the following percentages of sugar are extracted from the canes in the form of juice: Single crushing 76% Double crushing 85% Double crushing with 12% dilution 88% Triple crushing with Io% dilution.
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  • A further saving of juice was sometimes possible if the market prices of sugar were such as to compensate for the cost of evaporating an increased quantity of added water, but a limit was imposed by the fact that water might be used in excess.
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  • Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully described under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana Etr cti o n and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories y f i in Egypt; b u t hitherto, except under exceptional conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or triple crushing.
    0
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  • With the latter system practically as much sugar is obtained from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting megass furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for the crop. With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control necessary to secure the benefits of the process, fuel - that is, coal or wood - has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the spent chips or slices from the diffusers are useless for this purpose; although it is true that in some plantations the spent chips have to a certain extent been utilized as fuel by mixing them with a portion of the molasses, which otherwise would have been sold or converted into rum.
    0
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  • The best results from extraction by diffusion have been obtained in Java, where there is an abundance of clear, good water; but in the Hawaiian Islands, and in Cuba and Demerara, diffusion has been abandoned on several well mounted estates and replaced by double and triple crushing; and it is not likely to be resorted to again, as the extra cost of working is not compensated by the slight increase of sugar produced.
    0
    0
  • The heat at which the syrup boils in the clarifiers, 220° F., has the property of separating a great deal of the gum still remaining in it, and thus cleansing the solution of sugar and water for crystallization in the vacuum pans; and if after skimming the syrup is run into separators or subsiders of any description, and allowed to settle down and cool before being drawn into the vacuum pan for crystallization, this cleansing process will be more thorough and the quality of the final product will be improved.
    0
    0
  • Whether the improvement will be profitable or not to the planter or manufacturer depends on the market for the sugar, and on the conditions of foreign tariffs, which are not infrequently hostile.
    0
    0
  • With open-fire batteries for making the syrup, which was afterwards finished in the vacuum pan, very good sugar was produced, but at a cost that would be ruinous in to-day's markets.
    0
    0
  • In the best days of the so-called Jamaica Trains in Demerara, three-quarters of a ton of coal in addition to the megass was burned per ton of sugar made, and with this for many years planters were content, because they pointed to the fact that in the central factories, then working in Martinique and Guadeloupe, with charcoal filters and triple-effect evaporation, 750 kilos of coal in addition to the megass were consumed to make woo kilos of sugar.
    0
    0
  • It is unquestionably better and easier to evaporate in vacuo than in an open pan, and with a better system of firing, a more liberal provision of steam generators, and multiple-effect evaporators of improved construction, a far larger yield of sugar is obtained from the juice than was possible of attainment in those days, and the megass often suffices as fuel for the crop.
    0
    0
  • The growing demand for this system of evaporation for application in many other industries, besides that of sugar has brought to the front a large number of inventors.
    0
    0
  • In some instances the result has been an additional and unnecessary expenditure of high-pressure steam, and in all the weld-known fact - of the highest importance in this connexion - appears to have been disregarded, that the shorter the time the juice is exposed to heat the less inversion will take place in it, and therefore the less will be the loss of sugar.
    0
    0
  • That evaporation in vacuo, in a multiple-effect evaporator, is advantageous by reason of the increased amount of sugar obtained from a given quantity of juice, and by reason of economy of fuel, there is no doubt, but whether such an apparatus should be of double, triple, quadruple or quintuple effect will depend very much on the amount of juice to be treated per day, and the cost of fuel.
    0
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  • dissolves the most uncrystallizable in preference to that which is most crystallizable sugar," and the patentee speaks of " a discovery I have made that no solution, unless highly concentrated, of sugar in water can without material injury to its colouring-and crystallizing power, or to both, be exposed to its boiling temperature during the period required to evaporate such solution to the crystallizing point."
    0
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  • " I do further declare," he added, " that although in the application of heat to the refining of sugar in my said invention or process I have stated and mentioned the temperature of about 200° F.
    0
    0
  • Howard at any rate saw clearly what was one of the indispensable requisites for the economical manufacture of fine crystal sugar of good colour - the treatment of saccharine solutions at temperatures very considerably lower than 212° F., which is the temperature of water boiling at normal atmospheric pressure.
    0
    0
  • In endeavouring to make a pan of less power do as much and as good work as one of greater power, they have imagined many ingenious mechanical contrivances, such as currents produced mechanically to promote evaporation and crystallization, feeding the pan from many points in order to spread the feed equally throughout the mass of sugar being cooked, and so on.
    0
    0
  • On the other hand, the advocates of admitting the feed into a vacuum pan in many minute streams appeal rather to the ignorant and incompetent sugarboiler than to a man who, knowing his business thoroughly, will boil 150 tons of hot raw sugar in a pan in a few hours, feeding it through a single pipe and valve io in.
    0
    0
  • It is of course presupposed that the juice has been properly defecated, because without this no amount of skill and knowledge in cooking in the pan will avail; the sugar resulting must be bad, either in colour or grain, or both, and certainly in polarizing power.
    0
    0
  • On some plantations making sugar for particular markets and use in refineries it is the custom to make only one class of sugar, by boiling the molasses produced by the purging of one strike with the sugar in the next strike.
    0
    0
  • These pans are sometimes heated by boiling oil, with the idea that under such conditions the sugar which is kept stirred all the time as it thickens cannot be burnt or caramelized; but the same object can be attained more economically with steam of a given pressure by utilizing its latent heat.
    0
    0
  • The sugar thus produced, by constant stirring and evaporation almost to dryness, forms a species of small-grained concrete.
    0
    0
  • Very similar kinds of sugar are also produced for local consumption in Central America and in Mexico, under the names of " Panela " and " Chancaca," but in those countries the sugar is generally boiled in pans placed over special fire-places, and the factories making it are on a comparatively small scale, whereas in the Straits Settlements the " basket sugar " factories are of considerable importance, and are fitted with the most approved machinery.
    0
    0
  • The crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan has now to be separated from the molasses or mother-liquor surrounding the crystals.
    0
    0
  • In some parts of Mexico and Central America this separation is still effected by running the sugar into conical moulds, and placing on the top a layer of moist clay or earth which has been kneaded in a mill into a stiff paste.
    0
    0
  • The moisture from the clay, percolating through the mass of sugar, washes away the adhering molasses and leaves the crystals comparatively free and clear.
    0
    0
  • It may be noted that sugar that will not purge easily and freely with clay will not purge easily and freely in centrifugals.
    0
    0
  • But for all practical purposes the system of claying sugar is a thing of the past, and the bulk of the sugar of commerce is now purged in centrifugals, as indeed it has been for many years.
    0
    0
  • The claying system involved the expense of large curing houses and the employment of many hands, and forty days at least were required for completing the operation and making the sugar fit for the market, whereas with centrifugals sugar cooked to-day can go to market to-morrow, and the labour employed is reduced to a minimum.
    0
    0
  • When Cuba was the chief sugar-producing country making clayed sugars it was the custom (followed in refineries and found advantageous in general practice) to discharge the strike of crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan into a receiver heated below by steam, and to stir the mass for a certain time, and then distribute it into the moulds in which it was afterwards clayed.
    0
    0
  • When centrifugals were adopted for purging the whole crop (they had long been used for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining of running the sugar into wagons or coolers, which was necessary for the second and third sugars' cooked only to string point, was continued, but latterly " crystallization in movement, a development of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refineries and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently.
    0
    0
  • The vacuum pan is erected at a height which commands the crystallizers, each of which will, as in days gone by in Cuba, hold the contents of the pan, and these in their turn are set high enough to allow the charge to fall into the feeding-trough of the centrifugals, thus obviating the necessity of any labour to remove the raw sugar from the time it leaves the vacuum pan to the time it falls into the centrifugals.
    0
    0
  • For this reason alone, and without taking into consideration any increase in the yield of sugar brought about by " crystallization in movement," the system is worthy of adoption in all sugar factories making crystal sugar.
    0
    0
  • The sugar made from the first syrups.
    0
    0
  • The manufacture of cane sugar has largely increased in volume since the year 1901-1902.
    0
    0
  • This, apart from the effect of the abolition of the sugar bounties, has been mainly the result of the increased employment of improved processes, carried on in improved apparatus, under skilled supervision, and with due regard to the importance of the chemical aspects of the work.
    0
    0
  • There were 173 of these factories working in Cuba in 1908-1909, among which the " Chaparra," in the province of Oriente, turned out upwards of 69,000 tons of sugar in the crop of about 20 weeks, and the " Boston " had an output of about 61,00o tons in the same time.
    0
    0
  • Apart from increased yield in sugar of good quality, we may sum up the advantages procurable from the use of Hatton defecators as follows: cold liming; heating gently to the temperature required to coagulate the albumen and not beyond it, whereby disturbance would ensue; the continuous separation of the scums; the gradual drying of the scums so as to make them ready for the fields, without carrying away juice or requiring treatment in filter presses; and the continuous supply of hot defecated juice to the evaporators, without the use of subsiding tanks or eliminators; and, finally, the saving in expenditure on plant, such as filter presses, &c., and wages.
    0
    0
  • The sugar beet is a cultivated variety of Beta maritima (nat.
    0
    0
  • About 1760 the Berlin apothecary Marggraff obtained in his laboratory, by means of alcohol, 6.2% of sugar from a white variety of beet and 4.5% from a red variety.
    0
    0
  • At the present day, thanks to the careful study of many years, the improvements of cultivation, the careful selection of seed and suitable manuring, especially with nitrate of soda, the average beet worked up contains 7% of fibre and 93% of juice, and yields in Germany 12.79% and in France 11.6% of its weight in sugar.
    0
    0
  • The average weight per acre was over 252 tons, and the mean percentage of pure sugar in the juice exceeded Isl.
    0
    0
  • The weight per acre, the saccharine contents of the juice, and the quotient of purity compared favourably with the best results obtained in Germany or France, and with those achieved by the Suffolk farmers, who between 1868 and 1872 supplied Mr Duncan's beetroot sugar factory at Lavenham; for the weight of their roots rarely reached 15 tons per acre, and the percentage of sugar in the juice appears to have varied between 10 and 12.
    0
    0
  • On the best-equipped and most skilfully managed cane sugar estates, where the climate is favourable for maturing the cane, a similar return is obtained.
    0
    0
  • Before beetroot had been brought to its present state of perfection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial competition created and maintained by sugar bounties.
    0
    0
  • In beetroot sugar manufacture the operations are washing, slicing, diffusing, saturating, sulphuring, evaporation, concentration and curing.
    0
    0
  • A cell when filled with fresh slices becomes the head of the battery, and where skilled scientific control can be relied upon to regulate the process, the best and most economical way of heating the slices, previous to admitting the hot liquor from the next cell, is by direct steam; but as the slightest inattention or carelessness in the admission of direct steam might have the effect of inverting sugar and thereby causing the loss of some portion of saccharine in the slices, water heaters are generally used, through which water is passed and heated up previous to admission to the freshly-filled cell.
    0
    0
  • A process for purifying and decolorizing the juice expressed from beetroots by the addition of a small quantity of manganate of lime (20 to 50 grammes per hectolitre of juice), under the influence of an electric current, was worked with considerable success in a sugar factory in the department of Seine-et-Marne in the year 1900-1901.
    0
    0
  • The clear juice thus obtained is evaporated in a multiple-effect evaporator and crystallized in a vacuum pan, and the sugar is purged in centrifugals.
    0
    0
  • From the centrifugal the sugar is either turned out without washing as raw sugar, only fit for the refinery, or else it is well washed with a spray of water and air until white and dry, and it is then offered in the market as refined sugar, although it has never passed through animal charcoal (bone-black).
    0
    0
  • The processes of evaporation and concentration are carried on as they are in a cane sugar factory, but with this advantage, that the beet solutions are freer from gum and glucose than those obtained from sugar-canes, and are therefore easier to cook.
    0
    0
  • There are various systems of purging refined, or socalled refined, sugar in centrifugals, all designed with a view of obtaining the sugar in lumps or tablets, so as to appear as if it had been turned out from moulds and not from centrifugals, and great ingenuity and large sums of money have been spent in perfecting these different systems, with more or less happy results.
    0
    0
  • But the great achievement of recent manufacture is the production, without the use of animal charcoal, of a cheaper, but good and wholesome article, in appearance equal to refined sugar for all intents and purposes, except for making preserves of fruits in the old-fashioned way.
    0
    0
  • The wholesale jam manufacturers of the present day use this sugar; they boil the jam in vacuo and secure a product that will last a long time without deteriorating, but it lacks the delicacy and distinctive flavour of fruit preserved by a careful housekeeper, who boils it in an open pan with cane sugar to a less density, though exposed for a short time to a greater heat.
    0
    0
  • In some factories for refining sugar made from beet or canes this system of carbonatation is used, and enables the refiner to work with syrups distinctly alkaline and to economize a notable amount of animal charcoal.
    0
    0
  • Briefly, sugar-refining consists of melting raw or unrefined sugar with water into a syrup of 27° to 28° Beaume, or 1230 specific gravity, passing it through filtering cloth to remove the sand and other matters in mechanical suspension, and then through animal charcoal to remove all traces of colouring matter and lime, thus producing a perfectly clear white syrup, which, cooked in the vacuum pan and crystallized, becomes the refined sugar of commerce.
    0
    0
  • The melting pans are generally circular vessels, fitted with a perforated false bottom, on which the sugar to be melted is dumped.
    0
    0
  • The pans are provided with steam worms to keep the mass hot as required, and with mechanical stirrers to keep it in movement and thoroughly mixed with the water and sweet water which are added to the sugar to obtain a solution of the specific gravity desired.
    0
    0
  • Any sand or heavy matter in suspension is allowed to fall to the bottom of the pan into the " sandbox " before the melted sugar is run off to the cloth filters.
    0
    0
  • They consist of tanks or cisterns fitted with " heads " from which a number of bags of specially woven cloth are suspended in a suitable manner, and into which the melted sugar or liquor to be filtered flows from the melting pans.
    0
    0
  • This weak solution, called " sweet water," is sometimes used for melting the raw sugar, or it is evaporated in a multiple-effect apparatus to 27° Beaume density, passed through the char filter, and cooked in the vacuum pan like the other liquors.
    0
    0
  • In former days, when refining sugar or " sugar baking " was supposed to be a mystery only understood by a few of the initiated, there was a place in the refinery called the " secret room," and this name is still used in some refineries, where, however, it applies not to any room, but to a small copper cistern, constructed with five or six or more divisions or small canals, into which all the charcoal cisterns discharge their liquors by pipes led up from them to the top of the cistern.
    0
    0
  • As in the beetroot factories, these machines work on different systems, but nearly all are arranged to turn out sugar in lumps or tablets presenting an appearance similar to that of loaf sugar made in moulds, as this kind of sugar meets with the greatest demand.
    0
    0
  • Granulated sugar, so called, is made by passing the crystals, after leaving the centrifugals, through a large and slightly inclined revolving cylinder with a smaller one inside heated by steam.
    0
    0
  • The sugar fed into the upper end of the cylinder gradually works its way down to the lower, showering itself upon the heated central cylinder.
    0
    0
  • A fan blast enters the lower end, and, passing out at the upper end, carries off the vapour produced by the drying of the sugar, and at the same time assists the evaporation.
    0
    0
  • The dry sugar then passes into a rotating screen fitted with two meshes, so that three grades of sugar are obtained, the coarsest being that which falls out at the lower end of the revolving screen.
    0
    0
  • - Systematic feeding for the vacuum pan and systematic washing of the massecuite have been recently introduced not only into refineries, but also into sugar houses or factories on plantations of both cane and beetroot, and great advantages have resulted from their employment.
    0
    0
  • When the massecuite, well pugged and prepared for purging, is in the centrifugals, it is first washed with syrup of low density, to assist the separation of mother-liquor of similar quality, this washing being supplemented by the injection of pure syrup of high density, or " clairce," when very white sugar is required.
    0
    0
  • The manufacturers who have adopted this system assert that, as compared with other methods, not only do they obtain an increased yield of sugar of better quality, but that they do so at a less cost for running their machines and with a reduced expenditure in sugar and " clairce."
    0
    0
  • " Clairce " is the French term for syrup of 27° to 30° Beaume specially prepared from the purest sugar.
    0
    0
  • Apart from modifications in the details of sugar refining which have come into use in late years, it should be mentioned that loaf sugar made in conical moulds, and sugars made otherwise, to resemble loaf sugar, have practically disappeared from the trade, having been replaced by cube sugar, which is found to be more economical as subject to less waste by grocers and housekeepers, and also less troublesome to buy and sell.
    0
    0
  • Its manufacture was introduced into England many years ago by Messrs Henry Tate & Sons, and they subsequently adopted and use now the improved process and apparatus patented in March 1890 by M Gustave Adant, a foreman sugar refiner of Brussels.
    0
    0
  • Each cell is of suitable dimensions to turn out a slab of sugar about 14 in.
    0
    0
  • When this is done, the casing is hoisted out of the centrifugal and the vertical plates and the slabs of sugar are extracted.
    0
    0
  • sarkara, gravel, sugar), and used in medicine.
    0
    0
  • The art of boiling sugar was known in Gangetic India, from which it was carried to China in the first half of the 7th century; but sugar refining cannot have then been known, for the Chinese learned the use of ashes for this purpose only in the Mongol period, from Egyptian visitors?
    0
    0
  • At Gunde-Shapur in this region " sugar was prepared with art " about the time of the Arab conquest, 3 and manufacture on a large scale was carried on at Shuster, Sus and Askar-Mokram throughout the middle ages.4 It has been plausibly conjectured that the art of sugar refining, which the farther East learned from the Arabs, was developed by the famous physicians of this region, in whose pharmacopoeia sugar had an important place.
    0
    0
  • In the age of discovery the Portuguese and Spaniards became the great disseminators of the cultivation of sugar; the cane was planted in Madeira in 1420; it was carried to San Domingo in 1494; and it spread over the occupied portions of the West Indies and South America early in the 16th century.
    0
    0
  • Within the first twenty years of the 16th century the sugar trade of San Domingo expanded with great rapidity, and it was from the dues levied on the imports brought thence to Spain that Charles V.
    0
    0
  • In the middle ages Venice was the great European centre of the sugar trade, and towards the end of the 15th century a Venetian citizen received a reward of ioo,000 crowns for the invention of the art of making loaf sugar.
    0
    0
  • One of the earliest references to sugar in Great Britain is that of 100,000 lb of sugar being shipped to London in 1319 by Tomasso Loredano, merchant of Venice, to be exchanged for wool.
    0
    0
  • per lb for sugar.
    0
    0
  • In 1747 Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, director of the physical classes in the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, discovered the existence of common sugar in beetroot and in numerous other fleshy roots which grow in temperate regions.
    0
    0
  • 8 (who supposes that sugar was produced in Arabia as well as in India); Peripl.
    0
    0
  • In the middle ages the best sugar came from Egypt (Kazwini i.
    0
    0
  • 262), and in India coarse sugar is still called Chinese and fine sugar Cairene or Egyptian.
    0
    0
  • Tha`alibi, a writer of the 11th century, says that Askar-Mokram had no equal for the quality and quantity of its sugar, " notwithstanding the great production of `Irak, Jorjan and India."
    0
    0
  • It used to pay 50,000 lb of sugar to the sultan in annual tribute (Lataif, p. 107).
    0
    0
  • The names of sugar in modern European languages are derived through the Arabic from the Persian shakar.
    0
    0
  • Under the bounty system, by which the protectionist countries of Europe stimulated the beet sugar industry by bounties on exports, the production of sugar in bounty-paying countries was encouraged and pushed far beyond the limits it could have reached without state aid.
    0
    0
  • The first article declared that " The high contracting parties engage to take such measures as shall constitute an absolute and complete guarantee that no open or disguised bounty shall be granted on the manufacture or exportation of sugar."
    0
    0
  • Mr Chamberlain concluded by asking whether the treasury would consent to sending a royal commission to the West Indies to inquire into the effect of the foreign sugar bounties on their principal industry.
    0
    0
  • The annual aggregate output of cane and date sugar in India was short of 4,000,000 tons.
    0
    0
  • Exportation had long ceased, partly owing to the bountied competition of beet sugar, and partly because the people had become able to afford the consumption of a greater quantity than they produced; and German and Austrian sugars were pouring into the country to supply the deficiency.
    0
    0
  • In October 1900 a conditional agreement for the reduction of the bounties was made in Paris between France, Germany and Austria-Hungary; in February 1901 the Belgian government proposed a new session of the Conference of 1898, and on the 16th of December following Brussels welcomed once more the delegates of all the powers, with the exception of Russia, to the eighth European Sugar Bounty Conference since that of Paris in 1862.
    0
    0
  • This was ratified on the 1st of February 1903, subject to a declaration by Great Britain that she did not consent to penalize bounty-fed sugar from the British colonies.
    0
    0
  • It was agreed " to suppress the direct and indirect bounties which might benefit the production or export of sugar, and not to establish bounties of this kind during the whole duration of the convention," which was to come into force on the 1st of September 1903, and to remain in force five years, and thenceforward from year to year, in case no state denounced it twelve months before the 1st of September in any year.
    0
    0
  • The full text in French, with an English translation, of the Sugar Convention, signed at Brussels on the 5th of March 1902 by the plenipotentiaries of the governments of Germany, AustriaHungary, Belgium, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden, will be found in a return presented to parliament in April 1902 (Miscellaneous, No.
    0
    0
  • avoirdupois) of the total net sugar bounties granted by European powers, according to the computation issued by the secretary of the United States treasury on the 12th of December 1898.
    0
    0
  • Bergne reported on the 27th of July 1907 to Sir Edward Grey that " The permanent session had met in special session on the 25th of July, to consider the suggestion of His Britannic Majesty's government to the effect that, if Great Britain could be relieved from the obligation to enforce the penal provisions of the convention, they would be prepared not to give notice on the 1st of September next of their intention to withdraw on the 1st of September 1908 a notice which they would otherwise feel bound to give at the appointed time "; and he added that " At this meeting, a very general desire was expressed that, in these circumstances, arrangements should, if possible, be made which would permit Great Britain to remain a party to the Sugar Convention."
    0
    0
  • Bergne wrote to the foreign office from Brussels, reporting that a special session of the permanent commission, established under the sugar bounties convention, had opened on the 18th of November, and the principal matter for its consideration had been the application of Russia to become a party to the convention on special terms. A protocol admitting Russia to the sugar convention was signed at Brussels on the 19th of December 1907.
    0
    0
  • When, in April 1908, Mr Asquith became premier, and Mr Lloyd George chancellor of the exchequer, the sugar convention The world's trade in cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois at decennial periods from 1840 to 1870, inclusive, and yearly from 1871 to 1901 inclusive, with the percentage of beet sugar and the average price per cwt.
    0
    0
  • The quantities of cane sugar are based on the trade circulars of Messrs Wil ett & Gray of New York; those of beet sugar on the trade circulars of Messrs F.
    0
    0
  • Quantities of raw and refined cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois imported into the United Kingdom in 1870 and in 1875, and yearly from 1880 to 1901 inclusive, with the consumption per head of the population in lb and the price per cwt.
    0
    0
  • of raw and refined sugar.
    0
    0
  • Great Britain, instead of agreeing to prohibit the importation of bounty-fed sugar, was allowed to permit it under certain limits.
    0
    0
  • Russia, which gave bounties, was to be allowed to send into European markets not more than i,000,000 tons within the next five years, and Great Britain undertook to give certificates guaranteeing that sugar refined in the United Kingdom and exported had not been bounty-fed.
    0
    0
  • The renewal of the convention was disapproved by certain Liberal politicians, who insisted that the price of sugar had been raised by the convention; and Sir Edward Grey said that the government had intended to denounce the convention, but other countries had urged that Great Britain had induced them to enter into it, and to alter their fiscal system for that purpose, and it would he unfair to upset the arrangement.
    0
    0
  • Besides, denunciation would not have meant a return to prior conditions; for other countries would have continued the convention, and probably with success, and would have proposed prohibitive or retaliatory duties in respect of British sugar, with bad results politically.
    0
    0
  • Still the British government had been prepared to denounce the convention in view of the penal clause which had ensured the exclusion of bounty-fed sugar, either directly or through the imposition of an extra duty.
    0
    0
  • She had formerly sent to England about 40,000 tons of sugar yearly; she might now send 200,000 tons.
    0
    0
  • Under the original terms of the convention Great Britain might have been asked to close her ports to sugar proceeding from one country or another.
    0
    0
  • The cane and beet sugar crops of the world for 1909-1910, with the average of the crops fdr the seven preceding years from 1902-1903.
    0
    0
  • A.-Cane sugar (compiled from the Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal of Messrs Willett & Gray of New York, and books and reports published under the authority of the government of India).
    0
    0
  • B.-Beet sugar (compiled from data furnished by the Statistisches Bureau fur die Riibenzucker Industrie des Deutschen Reiches, of Mr F.
    0
    0
  • The whole of the sugar produced in India is consumed in the country and sugar is imported, the bulk of it being cane sugar coming from Mauritius and Java, and about 85% of the import is of high quality resembling refined sugar.
    0
    0
  • It would appear that the purchasing power of the inhabitants of India has increased of late years, and there is a growing demand for refined sugar, fostered by the circumstance that modern processes of manufacture can make a quality of sugar, broadly speaking, equal to sugar refined by animal charcoal, without using charcoal, and so the religious objections to the refined sugars of old days have been overcome.
    0
    0
  • The inhabitants grow hemp, Indian corn, coffee, sibucao, cacao, cocoanuts (for copra) and sugar, weave rough fabrics and manufacture tuba (a kind of wine used as a stimulant), clay pots and jars, salt and soap. There is some fishing here.
    0
    0
  • Tobacco is the second industry of the country, the value of the crop being surpassed only by that of sugar.
    0
    0
  • aromatic substances, sugar, liquorice, common salt and saltpetre, &c., dissolved in water.
    0
    0
  • Sugar is also prepared from the sap in a similar manner to that obtained from the maple.
    0
    0
  • - The cultivation of sugar was first introduced in the middle of the 17th century, and owing to the cheapness of labour, the extreme fertility of the soil and the care bestowed on its cultivation, became the staple product of the island.
    0
    0
  • The industries include brewing, weaving and the manufacture of cloth, carpets, tobacco, sugar, leather-grease, toys and roofingfelt.
    0
    0
  • The principal crops are millets, pulse, cotton, wheat, barley and sugar cane.
    0
    0
  • Vienna carries on an extensive trade in corn, flour, cattle, wine, sugar and a large variety of manufactured articles.
    0
    0
  • and jalapin - sugar, starch and gum.
    0
    0
  • Cabinet woods, fruit, tobacco, sugar, wax, honey and cattle products are the leading exports.
    0
    0
  • Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, is very similar to dimethylamine, and condenses to a liquid which boils at 3.2-3.8° C. It is usually obtained from "vinasses," the residue obtained from the distillation of beet sugar alcohol, and is used in the manufacture of potassium bicarbonate by the Solvay process, since its hydrochloride is much more soluble than potassium carbonate.
    0
    0
  • From his committee he reported in April 1888 the "Mills Bill," which provided for a reduction of the duties on sugar, earthenware, glassware, plate glass, woollen goods and other articles, the substitution of ad valorem for specific duties in many cases, and the placing of lumber (of certain kinds), hemp, wool, flax, borax, tin plates, salt and other articles on the free list.
    0
    0
  • The imports consist mainly of European manufactured goods (especially British cotton), machinery, flour, alcohol, sugar, timber, coal and petroleum.
    0
    0
  • The other products of these warm valleys are excellent coffee, cocoa, sugar, tropical fruits of all kinds, and gold in abundance.
    0
    0
  • The Africans were introduced as slaves soon after the conquest, because the coast Indians were physically incapable of performing the work required of them on the sugar estates.
    0
    0
  • The first Chinese coolies were introduced in 1849 to supply labourers on the sugar estates, which had begun to feel the effects of the suppression of the African slave traffic. At first the coolies were treated with cruelty.
    0
    0
  • The exports consist of cotton, sugar, cocaine, hides and skins, rubber and other forest products, wool, guano and mineral products.
    0
    0
  • The most important export is sugar, the products of the mines ranking second.
    0
    0
  • At the outbreak of the war the production was about 80,000 tons; in 1905 the production of sugar and molasses amounted to 161,851 metric tons, of which 134,344 were exported.
    0
    0
  • The manufacturing industries of Peru are confined chiefly to the treatment of agricultural and mineral products - the manufacture of sugar and rum from sugar cane, textiles from cotton and wool, wine and spirits from grapes, cigars and cigarettes from tobacco, chocolate from cacao, kerosene and benzine from crude petroleum, cocaine from coca, and refined metals from their ores.
    0
    0
  • The public revenues are derived from customs, taxes, various inland and consumption taxes, state monopolies, the government wharves, posts and telegraphs, &c. The customs taxes include import and export duties, surcharges, harbour dues, warehouse charges, &c.; the inland taxes comprise consumption taxes on alcohol, tobacco, sugar and matches, stamps and stamped paper, capital and mining properties, licences, transfers of property, &c.; and the state monopolies cover opium and salt.
    0
    0
  • Cacao, tobacco, cotton, rice and indigo are grown in the neighbouring country, and the town has a considerable trade in these and other commodities; it also manufactures sugar, fans and woven fabrics.
    0
    0
  • Among the principal goods dealt with are tea, silk, opium, sugar, flax, salt, earthenware, oil, amber, cotton and cotton goods, sandal-wood, ivory, betel, vegetables, live stock and granite.
    0
    0
  • It is used in the extraction of sugar from molasses, since it combines with the sugar to form a soluble saccharate, which is removed and then decomposed by carbon dioxide.
    0
    0
  • The situation is low and unhealthy, but the territory is fertile, rice, cereals and sugar being grown.
    0
    0
  • Other products are rice, corn, copra, cacao, sugar, cattle and horses.
    0
    0
  • sugar, paper, timber, machinery and various manufactured goods.
    0
    0
  • The value of trade probably exceeds 2,000,000, principal exports being rice, raw silk, dry fruit, fish, sheep and cattle, wool and cotton, and cocoons, the principal imports sugar, cotton goods, silkworm "seed" or eggs (70,160 worth in 1906-7), petroleum, glass and china., The trade in dried silkworm cocoons has increased remarkably since 1893, when only 76,150 lb valued at 6475 were exported; during the year 1906-7 ending 10th March, 2,717,540 lb valued at 238,000 were exported.
    0
    0
  • It is an important industrial centre, carrying on cotton weaving and spinning, tanning, distilling, and the manufacture of coffee, sugar, manure and saltpetre.
    0
    0
  • Several of these institutions are built on the slopes of the hills, and on the highest point, Sugar Loaf Mountain, is a sanatorium.
    0
    0
  • Cargoes of rum, manufactured from West Indian sugar and molasses, were exported to Africa and exchanged for slaves to be sold in the southern colonies and the West Indies.
    0
    0
  • The passage of the Sugar Act of April 5, 1764, and the steps taken by the British government to enforce the Navigation Acts seriously affected this trade.
    0
    0
  • Its principal imports are cotton and woollen goods, yarn, metals, sugar, coffee, tea, spices, cashmere shawls, &c., and its principal exports opium, wool, carpets, horses, grain, dyes and gums, tobacco, rosewater, &c. The importance of Bushire has much increased since about 1862.
    0
    0
  • Sugar, cotton, Indian corn, beans and considerable quantities of wheat are grown, but agriculture is largely hampered by the uncertainty of the rainfall.
    0
    0
  • The principal industries are flax, sugar, tobacco and machinery, and there is a trade in cattle and horses.
    0
    0
  • Sugar and molasses are the chief exports.
    0
    0
  • The city is the chief outlet for the sugar product of the province, which, with the province of Santa Clara, produces two-thirds of the crop of the island.
    0
    0
  • Its industries include brewing and distilling and the manufacture of malt, sugar and starch.
    0
    0
  • Beet sugar is also largely manufactured, and the inhabitants of the Black Forest have long been celebrated for their dexterity in the manufacture of wooden ornaments and toys, musical boxes and organs.
    0
    0
  • Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.
    0
    0
  • The eastern slopes receive more rain and are well clothed with vegetation, but the lower valleys are subtropical in character and are largely devoted to sugar production.
    0
    0
  • Agriculture is the principal industry, the chief products being sugar, barley, Indian corn and wheat.
    0
    0
  • Rum is a by-product of the sugar industry, and "mescal" is distilled from the agave.
    0
    0
  • Among its exports are sugar, coffee, cacao, tobacco and fruit.
    0
    0
  • It exports large quantities of sugar, hides, tobacco, and bees-wax; also some cedar and mahogany.
    0
    0
  • Scheele prepared it by oxidizing sugar with nitric acid, and showed it to be identical with the acetosellic acid obtained from wood-sorrel.
    0
    0
  • sugar, starch and cellulose) by nitric acid, and also by the fusion of many oxygen-holding compounds with caustic alkalis, this latter method being employed for the manufacture of oxalic acid.
    0
    0
  • Lithuania requires primarily manufactured fertilizers and agricultural machinery and salt, sugar, herrings, manufactured articles, etc.
    0
    0
  • All this was done according to certain ancient and rigidly prescribed forms and after the performance of special religious rites, in which the consecration of the pickaxe and the sacrifice of sugar formed a prominent part.
    0
    0
  • Sugar, formerly its staple, has been succeeded by salt.
    0
    0
  • Among the new industries are sugar and coffee plantations, while cotton, ground-nuts and rubber figure increasingly among the exports, cotton and cottonseed being of special importance.
    0
    0
  • In 1840 only a small Indian village marked its site, and its subsequent growth was due to the sugar plantations established by a Jesuit settlement.
    0
    0
  • The imports are chiefly cotton yarn and piece goods, kerosene oil, palm-leaf fans, aniline dyes, sugar and matches.
    0
    0
  • Among the principal imports are cocoa, coffee, grain (including Indian corn), fruit, provisions (including butter, eggs and potatoes from France and the Channel Islands), wines and spirits, sugar, wool, and other foreign and colonial produce.
    0
    0
  • The industries of Konigsberg have made great advances within recent years, notable among them are printing-works and manufactures of machinery, locomotives, carriages, chemicals, toys, sugar, cellulose, beer, tobacco and cigars, pianos and amber wares.
    0
    0
  • The principal exports are cereals and flour, cattle, horses, hemp, flax, timber, sugar and oilcake.
    0
    0
  • In addition to other iron and engineering works, Douai has a large cannon foundry and an arsenal; coal-mining and the manufacture of glass and bottles and chemicals are carried on on a large scale in the environs; among the other industries are flax-spinning, rope-making, brewing and the manufacture of farm implements, oil, sugar, soap and leather.
    0
    0
  • Alcohol is produced by fermentation from vegetable substances containing starch or sugar, from fermentable sugars produced by the hydrolysis of cellulosic bodies, and synthetically from calcium carbide and from the ethylene contained in coal and coke-oven gases.
    0
    0
  • There are numerous sugar factories and rum distilleries.
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  • European plants and animals were introduced into Hispaniola and Cuba, and sugar plantations were set up. But the main object of the Spaniards, who could not labour in the tropics even if they had wished to do so, was always gold, to be won by slave labour.
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  • Osaka possesses iron-works, sugar refineries, cotton spinning mills, ship-yards and a great variety of other manufactures.
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  • The town has a large garrison, consisting of nearly all arms. Its industries are considerable, including the manufacture of machinery, metal ware, chemicals, paper, leather and sugar.
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  • The chief exports are butter and eggs; the chief imports sugar, petroleum, coal and iron.
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  • In 1890 Congress, now controlled by the Republican party, passed the McKinley Bill, by which the revenues of the government were reduced by more than $60,000,000 annually, chiefly through a repeal of the sugar duties.
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  • Its chief productions are sugar, tobacco and cigars, 'stoves, machines, vehicles, agricultural implements and bricks.
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  • Maple sugar is an important by-product of the forests, and in the production of this commodity New York ranks second only to Vermont; 3,623,540 lb were made in 1900.
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  • The refining of sugar was begun in New York City late in the 18th century, but the growth of the industry to its present magnitude has been comparatively recent; the value of the sugar and molasses refined in 1905 was $116,438,838.
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  • Fremont is situated in a good agricultural region; oil and natural gas abound in the vicinity; and the city has various manufactures, including boilers, electro-carbons, cutlery, bricks, agricultural implements, stoves and ranges, safety razors, carriage irons, sash, doors, blinds, furniture, beet sugar, canned vegetables, malt extract, garters and suspenders.
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  • above sea-level, has a temperate, healthy climate with a mean annual temperature of 78° F., and is surrounded by a highly productive country from which are exported coffee, sugar, cacao and rum.
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  • Shipbuilding is carried on at Danzig and Elbing, and in various places there are iron and glass works, saw-mills, sugar factories and distilleries.
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  • The Rhine valley is in great part fertile, yielding good crops of potatoes, cereals (including maize), sugar beet, hops, tobacco, flax, hemp and products of oleaginous plants.
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  • The principal imports, over 90% being of British origin, are cotton goods, clothing and haberdashery, leather, boots, &c., hardware, sugar, coffee, tea and furniture.
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  • Sugar beets were first grown in Montana at Evans, Cascade county, in 1893 without irrigation.
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  • In 1906 sugar refineries were projected at Hamilton, Kalispell, Chinook, Laurel, Missoula, Dillon and Great Falls; and in 1907 the crop was so large that 12,000 freight cars were needed to carry it and the railways had a car and coal " famine."
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  • He strengthened the interstate commission for the regulation of railroads, inaugurated successful suits against monopolies - notably the Standard Oil Company and the so-called Sugar Trust, - and achieved distinct practical results in favour of a system of "industrial democracy" where all men shall have equal rights under the law and where there shall be no privileged interests exempt from the operation of the law.
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  • Beet is chiefly grown as feeding stuff for cattle, and not for sugar.
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  • The statistics of sugar are given in Table V.: TABLE V.-Sugar.
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  • (Thousands of tons.) The price of sugar in Vienna showed in 1913 a considerable fall following the good harvest.
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  • Sugar and alcohol were also placed under the control of central boards, in connexion with existing organizations but with a certain independence: for instance, the Sugar Kartel ceased to exist, while the Central Sugar Board continued.
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  • The latter also managed the export of sugar, in return for which certain wares were imported.
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  • Of the taxes on consumption the spirit tax produced 95 millions, the beer duty 85 millions, and the sugar duty 176 millions.
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  • It has important sugar manufacture, and a technical :school.
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  • Bernburg is the seat of considerable industry, manufacturing machinery and boilers, sugar, pottery and chemicals, and has lead and zinc smelting.
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  • HOGSHEAD, a cask for holding liquor or other commodities, such as tobacco, sugar, molasses, &c.; also a liquid measure of capacity, varying with the contents.
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  • The soil of the lower part of its valley is of exceptional fertility, and produces, amongst other crops, large supplies of sugar beetroot.
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  • A good deal of sugar is also produced from groves of the taxi palm.
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  • Many trees of the eastern forest, such as basswood, sugar, river and red maple, red, white and black ash, red and rock elm, black and bur oak, white and red pine and red cedar find their western limit here.
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  • 2 The early settlers found the bones of the bison scattered over the prairies, and after the construction of railways the gathering and shipping of these for use in sugar refining and in the manufacture of superphosphate became temporarily a profitable industry.
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  • Among the chief productions of the plains are rice (the staple export of the country); pepper (chiefly from Chantabun); sirih, sago, sugar-cane, coco-nut and betel, Palmyra or sugar and attap palms; many forms of banana and other fruit, such as durian, orange-pommelo, guava, bread-fruit, mango, jack fruit, pine-apple, custard-apple and mangosteen.
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  • The climate is healthy and the soil rich; sugar, coffee and cotton being the chief products.
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  • Proust also investigated the varieties of sugar that occur in sweet vegetable juices, distinguishing three kinds, and he showed that the sugar in grapes, of which he announced the existence to his classes at Madrid in 1799, is identical with that obtained from honey by the Russian chemist J.
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  • Not only are rice and maize, sugar and coffee, among the widely cultivated crops, but the coco-nut, the bread-fruit, the banana and plantain, the sugar-palm, the tea-plant, the sago-palm, the coco-tree, the ground-nut, the yam, the cassava, and others besides, are of practical importance.
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  • The cultivation of sugar and coffee owes its development mainly to the Dutch; and to them also is due the introduction of tea.
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  • The principal articles of export are sugar, tobacco, copra, forest products (various gums, &c.), coffee, petroleum, tea, cinchona, tin, rice, pepper, spices and gambier.
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  • The government ceased to cultivate sugar in 1891, but coffee, and to some extent cinchona, are cultivated on government plantations, though not in equal quantity to that grown on land held on emphyteusis.
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  • The average annual yield of sugar in 1900-1905 was 852,400 tons, but it increased steadily during that period.
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  • In the second half of the 17th century the monopoly system and the employment of slaves and forced labour gave rise to many abuses, and there was a rapid decline in the revenue from sugar, coffee and opium, while the competition of the British East India Company, which now exported spices, indigo, &c. from India to Europe, was severely felt.
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  • The cultivation of pepper, cochineal, cinnamon and indigo for the government had already ceased; De Waal restricted the area of the sugar plantations (carried on by forced native labour) as from 1878, and provided for their abolition after 1890.
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  • The industries consist of iron-foundries and factories for sugar and soap; and there is a military school.
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  • Imports consist of cotton, linen and woollen fabrics, hardware, cutlery and machinery, kerosene, glass and earthenware; and the exports of cattle, sugar, tobacco, coffee, coco-nuts and fibre, dividivi and dye-woods, vegetable ivory, rubber, hides and skins, medicinal forest products, gold, silver and platinum.
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  • The surrounding country is rugged, and produces Indian corn and sugar in considerable quantity.
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  • The exports from Batavia to the other islands of the archipelago, and to the ports in the Malay Peninsula, are rice, sago, coffee, sugar, salt, oil, tobacco, teak timber and planks, Java cloths, brass wares, &c., and European, Indian and Chinese goods.
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  • The coastal plain comprises a sandy, unproductive belt immediately on the coast, back of which is a more fertile tertiary plain, well suited, near the higher country, to the production of sugar and cotton.
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  • In special branches of industry Czechoslovakia is prominent among European countries, as for instance in the production of sugar and glass.
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  • Czechoslovakia manufactures and exports agricultural machinery, plant for sugar refineries and distilleries, locomotives, railway carriages and trucks and other rolling-stock, motor-cars, tractors.
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  • Previous to the war the present Czechoslovak territories were responsible for 92% of the sugar produced by Austria-Hungary, for 46% of the spirits, beer 57%, malt 87%, foodstuffs 50%, chemicals 75%, metals 60%, porcelain too %, glass 90%, cotton goods 75%, woollen goods 80%, jute 90%, leather 70%, gloves 90%, boots 75%, paper 60%.
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  • Czechoslovakia is the only European State which can export sugar: it is the second largest beet-sugar producer in the world, having I some 500,000 ac. of beet under cultivation.
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  • In 1920-1 some 715,000 tons of sugar were produced, 189 factories and refineries being engaged in the industry, and 300,000 tons were available for export.
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  • The agriculture of the republic supplies the material for several important industries, including the production of sugar, beer and spirits, starch (120 factories), syrup, glucose, chicory, coffee substitutes from rye and barley, jams. Alcohol and spirits are distilled in 1,100 distilleries employing 18,000 workmen and producing annually some.
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  • Sugar, malt, hops, beer, mineral waters, glass, porcelain, leather, gloves, furniture and toys are the principal articles of export to Great Britain.
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  • Industries include the manufacture of agricultural machinery, spirits, furniture and sugar, also milling and brewing.
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  • There are manufactures of tobacco, sugar and boots; other industries are flour-milling, tanning and brewing.
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  • The town is the seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal of first instance; it has trade in phosphates, of which there are workings in the vicinity, and carries on cotton-spinning and the manufacture of leather, paper and sugar.
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  • Vinen, loc. cit.), with gallic and ellagic acids, ligneous fibre, water, and minute quantities of proteids, chlorophyll, resin, free sugar and, in the cells around the inner shelly chamber, calcium oxalate.
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  • The nature of the changes made between 1842 and 1860 is indicated by the following tabular statement: - After 1860 only forty-eight articles remained subject to duty, a number which has been still further reduced, the most notable change having been free admission of sugar in 1872.
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  • In 1901, to aid in meeting the expenses of the South African war, a moderate revenue duty was again imposed on sugar; and in 1902 the shilling duty on corn and flour (abolished in 1869) was restored, but again taken off in 1903.
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  • A further step towards consolidating the protective system was taken by abolishing the duty on sugar, mainly a revenue duty.
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  • For consistency in maintaining the protective principle a direct bounty was given to the domestic producers of sugar in Louisiana.
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  • A duty was reimposed on sugar, chiefly as a means of securing needed revenue, but at a less rate than had existed before 1890.
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  • At the same time the differential duty on refined sugar, which operated as protection to the sugar trust, was not abolished, as the ardent tariff reformers had proposed, but kept in substance not greatly changed.
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  • Kiev is the principal centre for the sugar industry of Russia, as well as for the general trade of the region.
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  • The diand tri-methyl derivatives are found in the fusel oil obtained by fermentation of beetroot sugar.
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  • They are also formed when grape sugar is heated with ammonia or when glycerin is heated with ammonium chloride and ammonium phosphate (C. Stoehr, Journ.
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  • (5) Sodii citro-tartras effervescens, a mixture of sugar, sodium bicarbonate, citric and tartaric acids.
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  • There is not a very active trade direct with foreign countries, as the principal imports - cotton, leather, petroleum, sugar, coal and timber - are introduced through Barcelona.
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  • 'In chemical constitution it consists of an emulsion of fatty globules (cream) in a watery alkaline solution of casein, and a variety of sugar, peculiar to milk, called lactose.
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