Sudan sentence example

sudan
  • Since the pacification of the Sudan by the British (1886-1889) there has been some revival of trade between Gondar and the regions of the Blue Nile.

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  • The Egyptian Sudan.-Egyptian cotton was cultivated in the Sudan to the extent of 21,788 acres in 1906 chiefly on nonirrigated land.

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  • Lord Granville further inquired whether Italy would co-operate in pacifying the Sudan, and received an affirmative reply.

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  • Towards the Sudan, however, the Mahdists, who had recovered from a defeat inflicted by an Italian force at Agordat in 1890, resumed operations in December 1893.

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  • Sahel thus understood comprises regions which form the inter mediate zone between the fertile lands of the Sudan and the desert.

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  • In 1881 Mahommed Ahmed ibn Seyyid Abdullah, a Dongolese, proclaimed himself al-mandi and founded in the eastern Sudan the short-lived empire overthrown by an AngloEgyptian force at the battle of Omdurman in 1898.

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  • By the Sudan administration this region has been divided into mudirias (provinces), one, including the central portion, retaining the name of Sennar.

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  • Though the standard gauge is in use in Lower Egypt, the line into the Egyptian Sudan was built on a gauge of 3 ft.

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  • When the Sudan War broke out, Baker, hastening with 3 500 men to relieve Tokar, encountered the enemy under Osman Digna at El Teb.

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  • In 1884, in consequence of the revolt of the mandi in the Egyptian Sudan, the khedival garrisons were withdrawn.

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  • Fifteen new nations formed as the Soviet Union dissolved; Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Sudan into North Sudan and South Sudan.

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  • By the beginning of 1917 the independent Sultanate of Darfur was finally annexed to present-day Sudan by the British colonial rulers of the country.

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  • In the outskirts is a village of Africans from the Sudan - a curious remnant of the forces collected by Ali Pasha.

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  • The United Presbyterian Church has a board of foreign missions (reorganized in 1859) with missions in Egypt (1853), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1909, 71 congregations, 70 ministers and 10,341 members), in the Punjab (1854), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1 909, 35 congregations, 51 ministers and 17,321 members), and in the Sudan (1901); and boards of home missions (reorganized, 1859), church extension (1859), publication (1859), education (1859), ministerial relief (1862), and missions to the freedmen (1863).

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  • The area of the lake is shrinking owing to the progressive desiccation of the country, Saharan climate and conditions replacing those of the Sudan.

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  • Having sounded Lord Granville, Mancini received encouragement to seize Beilul and Massawa, in view of the projected restriction of the Egyptian zone of military occupation consequent on the Mahdist rising in the Sudan.

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  • News of the occupation reached Europe simultaneously with the tidings of the fall of Khartum, an event which disappointed Italian hopes of military co-operation with Great Britain in the Sudan.

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  • They adopted the Mahommedan religion and founded an empire which in the 17th and 18th centuries ruled over a large part of the eastern Sudan.

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  • It formerly had a large trade with the Sudan.

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  • It is probably the greatest commercial city in the central Sudan.

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  • The control now exercised by the French over the greater part of the western Sudan has deprived Morocco of its chief sources of supply.

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  • Since the reconquest of the eastern Sudan by an Anglo-Egyptian force in 1898 effective measures have been taken to suppress slave raiding and as far as possible slavery itself.

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  • The conquest of the central Sudan states by France - completed in 1910 by the subjugation of Wadai - has practically ended the caravan trade in slaves across the Sahara.

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  • Sudan, have been nearly entirely denuded of rubber vines.

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  • Sudan is extracted partly from the roots of Landolphia or from the rhizomes of Landolphia Thollonii or Carpodinus lanceolatus.

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  • In 1874 he founded the Sahara and Sudan mission, and sent missionaries to Tunis, Tripoli, East Africa and the Congo.

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  • The sheikhs El Morgani are the chiefs of a religious brotherhood widely spread and of considerable influence in the eastern Sudan.

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  • Long settled in Jidda, the head of the family removed to the Sudan about 1800 and founded the Morgani sect.

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  • Kassala mudiria contains some of the most fertile land in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

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  • The Sudan government, however, sent engineering parties to remove the sudd blocks and open out a continuous waterway.

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  • Omdurman is the headquarters of the native traders in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, the chief articles of commerce being ivory, ostrich feathers and gum arabic from Darfur and Kordofan.

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  • Nearly every tribe in the Sudan is represented in the population of the city.

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  • The Abyssinians then held the fort, but as the result of frontier arrangement the town was definitely included in the Sudan, though Abyssinia takes half the customs revenue.

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  • These Ethiopian kings seem to have made no attempt to reconquer Egypt, though they were often engaged in wars with the wild tribes of the Sudan.

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  • The group is unknown in America, and in Africa is only represented in the mountains of the north, extending, however, some distance south into the Sudan and Abyssinia.

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  • Politically the whole of Nubia is now included either in Egypt or the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and has no administrative existence.

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  • For topography, &c. and archaeology, see Sudan § Anglo-Egyptian and Egypt.

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  • The town remained in the possession of Egypt until 1885, when the garrison was withdrawn in consequence of the rising of the Mandi in the Sudan.

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  • This northern boundary is in any case conterminous with the southern boundary of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

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  • As a rule, however, the fauna of the Upper Semliki valley, of parts of Ankole, Buganda and Unyoro, of the Northern, Rudolf and Eastern provinces, is of that " East African," " Ethiopic " character which is specially the feature of South and East Africa and of the Sudan right across from Abyssinia to the river Senegal.

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  • In the early 'seventies Sir Samuel Baker (who had discovered Albert Nyanza) extended the rule of the Egyptian Sudan as far south as the Victoria Nile.

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  • The northern boundary was fixed in 1899 on the division of the middle Niger territories (up to that date officially called the French Sudan) among the other French West African colonies.

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  • The Ghadamsi merchants have been known for centuries as keen and adventurous traders, and their agents are to be found in the more important places of the western and central Sudan, such as Kano, Katsena, Kanem, Bornu, Timbuktu, as well as at Ghat and Tripoli.

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  • This being accomplished by March 1901, the conquest of the Algerine Sahara was from that time completed, and nothing any longer hindered the attempts to join Algeria and the Sudan across the Sahara.

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  • The Theban goat, of the Sudan, which is hornless, displays the characteristic features of the last in an exaggerated degree, and in the form of the head and skull is very sheep-like.

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  • General Gordon is quoted as having stated that the Sudan if properly settled would be capable of feeding the whole of Europe.

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  • The pyramid-fields of Memphis and Sakkara, and the necropolis of Meydum, and those of Abydos and Thebes were examined; the great temples of Dendera and Edfu were disinterred; important excavations were carried out at Karnak, Medinet-Habu and Deir el-Bahri; Tanis (the Zoan of the Bible) was partially explored in the Delta; and even Gebel Barkal in the Sudan.

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  • For centuries the chief port of the eastern Sudan, Suakin has been since 1906 to some extent superseded by Port Sudan, a harbour 36 m.

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  • Mehemet Ali after the conquest of the Sudan leased Suakin from Turkey.

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  • Till the suppression of the slave trade Suakin was an important slave port and it has always been the place of embarcation for Sudan pilgrims to Mecca.

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  • Then the Sudan was abandoned and the railway remained in abeyance until 1905-1906, when the line was at length built.

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  • The railway has a terminus at Suakin, but Port Sudan was chosen as the principal entrepot of the commerce carried by the railway.

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  • Being on the high road from Massawa to central Abyssinia, it is a meeting-place of merchants from Arabia and the Sudan for the exchange of foreign merchandise with the - products of the country.

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  • In the Eastern Sudan a promising beginning has been made, but the regions south of Kordofan have hardly been touched.

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  • The basbab or calabash tree, known in the eastern Sudan as the tebeldi and locally Homr, is fairly common and being naturally hollow the trees collect water, which the natives regularly tap. Another common source of water supply is a small kind of water melon which grows wild and is also cultivated.

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  • Kordofan are not known elsewhere in the eastern Sudan.

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  • In Kordofan in 1899 the khalif a met his death, the country having already passed into the hands of the new Sudan government.

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  • Haifa is the northern terminus of the Sudan railway and the southern terminus of a steamboat service on the Nile, which, running to Shellal (Assuan), connects there with the Egyptian railways.

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  • The great lakes of Central Africa, Victoria and Albert Nyanza, and the vast swamp tract of the Sudan, do for the Nile on a gigantic scale what Lakes Maggiore and Como do for the rivers Ticino and Adda.

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  • It is the headquarters of the cavalry of the Egyptian army stationed in the Sudan.

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  • When the Egyptians invaded the Sudan in 1820 Shendi, then a place of considerable size, submitted to Ismail Pasha, son of Mehemet Ali, the pasha of Egypt.

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  • Of these cities the most important is Kano, the great emporium of trade for the central Sudan, where Tuareg and Arab from the north meet merchants from the Niger, Lake Chad and the far southern regions.

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  • There was also a very considerable caravan trade in native goods which the industrious Hausa population carried for great distances through the western and central states of the Sudan.

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  • Kano and the district around it clothes half the population of the Sudan.

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  • Gum, ivory, hides, and ostrich feathers from the Sudan, cotton and sugar from Upper Egypt, indigo and shawls from India and Persia, sheep and tobacco from Asiatic Turkey, and European manufactures, such as machinery, hardware, cutlery, glass, and cotton and woollen goods, are the more important articles.

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  • There is also a direct mail service between Suez and Port Sudan.

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  • Another line connects at Wadi Haifa with the Sudan system, affording direct telegraphic communication via Khartum and Gondokoro with Uganda and Mombasa.

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  • Of less importance are the exports of hides and skins, eggs, wheat and other grains, wool, quails, lentils, dates and Sudan produce in transit.

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  • After a brief period of prosperity, the Arabi rising, the riots at Alexandria, and the events generally which led to the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, followed by the losses incurred in the Sudan in the effort to prevent it falling into the hands of the Mahdi, brought Egypt once more to the verge of financial disaster.

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  • The whole of the extraordinary expenditure of the Sudan campaigns of 1896-1898, with the exception of 800,000 granted by the British government, was paid out of this funda sum amounting in round figures to 1,500,000.

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  • He sent 10,000 men to help to suppress a rebellion in Crete, and conquered the greater part of the (Nile) Sudan; but an expedition of 11,000 men, sent to Abyssinia under Prince Hasan and Rateb Pasha, well equipped with guns and all essentials, was, in two successive disasters (1875 and 1876), practically destroyed.

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  • The sirdar made an attempt to raise a battaliQn of Albanians, but the few men obtained mutinied when ordered to proceed to the Sudan, and it was deemed advisable, after the ringleaders had been executed, to abandon the idea, and rely on blacks to stiffen the fellahin.

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  • After the reconquest of the Sudan one-fourth of the cadets in the military school of Cairo were Sudanese.

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  • In March 1892 Colonel Kitchener succeeded General Sir Francis Grenfell, and four years later began his successful reconquest of the Sudan.

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  • The Nile valley afforded a passage by ship or on foot into Nubia, where, however, little wealth was to be sought, though gold and rarities from the Sudan, such as ivory and ebony, came that way and an armed raid could yield a good spoil in slaves and cattle.

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  • Through the oases also ran paths to the Sudan by which the raw merchandise of the southern countries could be brought to Egypt.

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  • The military spirit awakened in the struggle with the Hyksos had again departed from the Egyptian nation; mercenaries from the Sudan, from Libya and from the northern.

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  • The cotton grown had been brought from the Sudan by Maho Bey, and the organization of the new industryfrom which in a few years Mehemet Ali was enabled to extract considerable revenueswas entrusted to a Frenchman named Jumel.

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  • In 1820 Mehemet Ali ordered the conquest of the eastern Sudan to be undertaken.

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  • Among the pashas reasons for wishing to Sudan extend his rule southward were the desire to capture begun.

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  • Mehemet Ali now ruled over a virtually independent empire, subject only to a moderate tribute, stretching from the Sudan to the Taurus Mountains.

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  • New firmans were issued which confined the pashas authority to Egypt, the Sinai peninsula and certain places on the Arabian side of the Red Sea, and to the Sudan.

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  • He had done a great work in Egypt; the most permanent being the weakening of the tie binding the country to Turkey, the starting of the great cotton industry, the recognition of the advantages of European science, and the conquest of the Sudan.

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  • His endeavour, for instance, to put a stop to the slave raiding which devastated the Sudan provinces was wholly ineffectual.

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  • Of the numerous questions awaiting solution, the first to claim immediate attention was that of the Sudan.

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  • The Sudan was an integral part of the khedives dominions, and caused, even in ordinary times, a deficit of 200,000 to the Egyptian treasury.

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  • The British representative remained firm, and it was decided that the Sudan should be, for the moment at least, abandoned to its fate.

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  • By this time the Mabdi was master of the greater part of the Sudan, but Khartum and some other fortified points still held out.

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  • The constant drain of money and men for the Sudan had been stopped.

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  • On the 24th of October of that year he concluded a preliminary convention by which an Ottoman and a British high commissioner, acting in concert with the khedive, should reorganize the Egyptian army, tranquillize the Sudan by pacific means, and consider what changes might be necessary in the civil administration.

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  • The administration of the Sudan (q.v.) wus organized on the basis of an agreement between the British and Egyptian governments signed on the 19th of January 1899.

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  • The magnitude of the task he had accomplished is shown by the preceding pages, and it need only be added that the transformation effected in Egypt and the Sudan, during his twenty-fout years occupancy of the British Agency, was carried out in every department under his guidance and inspiration.

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  • In this invaluable work the history of Egypt from 1875 to 1892 and that of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan from 1882 to 1907 is treated fully.

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  • Lord Dufferin who had been sent to The Sudan Cairo to draw up a project of constitutional reforms, question.

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  • In a despatch of the 6th of February 1883 Lord Dufferin dealt with the Sudan, and stated that Egypt could hardly be expected to acquiesce in a policy of withdrawal from her Southern territories.

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  • At the same time he pointed out that, Unhappily, Egyptian administration in the Sudan had been almost uniformly unfortunate.

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  • Moreover, to restore tranquillity in the Sudan, the first step necessary was the construction of a railway from Suakin to Berber, or what, perhaps, would be more advisable, to Shendi, on the Nile.

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  • Egyptian sovereignty in the Sudan dates from 1820, when Mehemet Ali sent a large force into the country, and ultimately established his authority over Sennar and Kordofan.

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  • In the same year Darfur and Harrar were annexed, and in 1877 Gordon became governor-general of the Sudan, where, with the valuable assistance of Gessi Pasha, he labored to destroy the slave trade and to establish just government.

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  • Misrule and oppression in every form now again prevailed throughout the Sudan, while the slave traders, exasperated by Gordons stern measures, were ready to revolt.

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  • Thus, at the time when the Egyptian army was broken up at Tell-el-Kebir, the Sudan was already in flames.

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  • That town was captured, after an obstinate defence, on the 17th of January 1883, by which time almost the whole of the Sudan south of Khartum was in open rebellion, except the Bahr-elGhazal and the Equatorial provinces, where for a time Lupton Bey and Emin Pasha were able to hold their own.

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  • Abd-el-Kader, who had succeeded Raouf, telegraphed to Cairo for 10,000 additional troops, and pointed out that if they were not sent at once four times this number would be required to re-establish the authority of the government in the Sudan.

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  • Malet had informed Sherif Pasha that, although Colonel Hicks finds it convenient to communicate with Lord Dufferin or with me, it must not be supposed that we endorse in any way the contents of his telegrams. - - - Her Majestys government are in no way responsible for his operations in the Sudan, which have been undertaken under the authority of His Highnesss government.

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  • Malet, telegraphed that if Colonel Hickss army is destroyed, the Egyptian government will lose the whole of the Sudan, unless some assistance from the outside is given, and advised the withdrawal to some post on the Nile.

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  • Stewart having reached Khartum on B,.Wsh the 18th of February, the policy of British non-inter- expediuoa vention in regard to Sudan affairs could no longer be maintained.

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  • The first attempt at intervention General in the affairs of the Sudan was made too late to save Sinkat and Tokar.

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  • The former hoped that the garrisons of the Sudan could be extricated without fighting.

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  • So great was this obstruction that the Nile had never been a regular trade route to the Sudan.

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  • This was an ancient trade route with the Sudan, and had been used without difficulty by the reinforcements sent to Hicks Pasha in 1883, whic,h were accompanied by guns on wheels.

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  • A cloud having arisen on the frontiers of Afghanistan, the withdrawal of the troops from the Sudan was ordered on the 11th of May.

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  • The failure of the operations in the Sudan had been absolute and complete, and the reason is to be sought in a total misconception of the situation, which caused vacillation and delay, and in the choice of a route by which, having regard to the date of the decision, the relief of General Gordon and Khartum was impossible.

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  • He was succeeded by the principal khalif a, Abdullah ci Taaisha, a Baggara Arab, who for the next thirteen years ruled the Sudan with despotic power.

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  • As the British troops retired to Upper Egypt, his followers seized the evacuated country, and the khalifa cherished the idea, already formulated by the mahdi, of the conquest of Egypt, but for some years he was too much occupied in quelling risings, massacring Lne Egyptians in the Sudan, and fighting Abyssinia, to move seriously in the matter.

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  • The escape from Omdurman of Father Ohrwalder and of two of the captive nuns in December 1891, of Father Rossignoli in October 1894, and of Siatin Bey in February 1895, revealed the condition of the Sudan to the outside world, threw a vivid light on the rule of the khalif a, and corroborated information already received of the discontent which existed among the tribes with the oppression and despotism under which they lived.

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  • In the following year the amir Yunis ed Dekeim made two successful raids into Abyssinian territory, upon which Ras Adal collected an enormous army, said to number 200,000 men, for the invasion of the Sudan.

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  • The results of the battle of Omdurman were the practical destruction of the khalifas army, the extinction of Mahdism in the Sudan, and the recovery of nearly all the country formerly under Egyptian authority.

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  • On the 19th of January 1900 Osman Digna, who had been so great a supporter of Mahdism in the Eastern Sudan, and had always shown great discretion in securing the safety of his own person, was surrounded an.d captured at Jebel Warriba, as he was wandering a fugitive among the hills beyond Tokar.

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  • Originally herdsmen in the western and central Sudan, they extended their sway east of the Niger, under the leadership of Othman Dan Fodio, during the early years of the 19th century, and having subdued the Hausa states, founded the empire of Sokoto with the vassal emirates of Kano, Gando, Nupe, Adamawa, &c.

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  • The ruling caste of the Fula differs widely in character from the herdsmen of the western Sudan.

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  • For three years Lepsius and his party explored the whole of the region in which monuments of ancient Egyptian and Ethiopian occupation are found, from the Sudan above Khartum to the Syrian coast.

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  • Though Arabic has to a considerable extent displaced the Berber language, the latter is still spoken by millions of people from Egypt to the Atlantic and from the Mediterranean to the Sudan.

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  • The colony is bounded inland by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Abyssinia and French Somaliland.

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  • To the west and north the plateau sinks in terraces to the plains of the Sudan, and eastward falls more abruptly to the Red Sea, the coast plain, known as the Samhar, consisting of sandy country covered with mimosa and, along the khors, with a somewhat richer vegetation.

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  • Some tracts of frontier territory are detached from the various regions and entrusted to political residents, as, for instance, on the Sudan frontier and also on the Abyssinian boundary, where strict surveillance is necessary to repress raiding incursions from Tigre, and where the chief intelligence department is established.

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  • Very similar operations have been carried out in Austria-Hungary, where large tracts of land have been brought into cultivation, and watercourses have been diverted successfully despite serious difficulties, climatic and physical; in Russia convict labour has been largely used in the construction of the Trans-siberian railway; the military operations in the Sudan were greatly aided by convict labourers engaged in useful work at the base and all along the line; Italy passed a law in 1904 enacting outdoor labour for the reclamation and draining of waste lands by prisoners under long sentence; and France, although much wedded to cellular imprisonment, is beginning to favour extra-mural employment of prisoners under strict regulations.

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  • In 1899 the limits of the colony were extended, on the dismemberment of the French Sudan, to include the upper Niger districts.

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  • Government offices and private villas are on either side of the palace, and beyond, on the east, are the Sudan Club, the military hospital, and the Gordon Memorial College.

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  • The college, the chief educational centre in the Sudan, is a large, many-windowed building with accommodation for several hundred scholars and research laboratories and an economic museum.

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  • There are Maronite and Greek churches, an Austrian Roman Catholic mission, a large and well-equipped civil hospital and a museum for Sudan archaeology.

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  • Outside the city are a number of model villages (each of the principal tribes of the Sudan having its own settlement) in which the dwellings are built after the tribal fashion.

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  • It is the great entrepot for the trade of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

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  • At the time of the occupation of the Sudan by the Egyptians a small fishing village existed on the site of the present city.

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  • The city rapidly acquired importance as the Sudan was opened up by travellers and traders, becoming, besides the seat of much legitimate commerce, a great slave mart.

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  • The history of the city is intimately bound up with that of the Sudan generally, but it may be recalled here that in 1884, at the time of the Mandist rising, General Gordon was sent to Khartum to arrange for the evacuation by the Egyptians of the Sudan.

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  • The Sudan produce (ivory, ostrich feathers, &c.) formerly brought to Bengazi by caravan, has now been almost wholly diverted to Tripoli, the eastern tracks from Wadai and Borku by way of Kufra to Aujila having become so unsafe that their natural difficulties are no longer worth braving.

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  • Before the change could be effected, however, Gordon resigned his post in the Sudan, and his successor revoked the order.

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  • The effect of the rising was, of course, more markedly felt in Emin's province after the abandonment of the Sudan by the Egyptian government in 1884.

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  • The years1845-1846he spent in travelling in the Sudan, and in 1850 he made an exploration, with Dr John Anderson, of Damaraland and the Ovampo country in south-west Africa, starting from Walfisch Bay.

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  • Dalley, who was acting Premier during the absence through ill-health of Sir Alexander Stuart, made to the British government the offer of a contingent of the armed forces of New South Wales to aid the Imperial troops in the Sudan.

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  • The eastern group - British East Africa; Uganda; Zanzibar and Pemba (sometimes described as " a sphere of influence "); Somaliland; and the Sudan.

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  • On its northern face also the plateau falls in terraces to the level of the eastern Sudan.

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  • It reaches the Sudan plains near Kassala, beyond which place its waters are dissipated in the sandy soil.

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  • The rainy season is of great importance not only to Abyssinia but to the countries of the Nile valley, as the prosperity of the eastern Sudan and Egypt is largely dependent upon the rainfall.

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  • There is also a considerable trade with the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan through the frontier towns of Rosaires and Gallabat.

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  • Gordon, governor-general of the Sudan, was now ordered to go and make peace with John, but the king had moved south with his army, intending to punish Menelek for having raided Gondar whilst he, John, was engaged with the Egyptians.

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  • Meanwhile John had not been idle with regard to the dervishes, who had in the meantime become masters of the Egyptian Sudan.

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  • As it happened, Count Antonelli was with Menelek when he claimed The main object of this mission was to seek John's assistance in evacuating the Egyptian garrisons in the Sudan, which were threatened by the dervishes.

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  • Menelek, in addition, agreed not to obstruct the waters of Lake Tsana, the Blue Nile or the Sobat, so as not to interfere with the Nile irrigation question, and he also agreed to give a concession, if such should be required, for the construction of a British railway through his dominions, to connect the Sudan with Uganda.

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  • After 1897 British influence in Abyssinia, owing largely no doubt to the conquest of the Sudan, the destruction of the dervish power and the result of the Fashoda incident, was sensibly on the increase.

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  • On the east bank opposite Philae is the village of Shellal, southern terminus of the Egyptian railway system and the starting point of steamers for the Sudan.

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  • As the southern frontier town of Egypt proper, Assuan in times of peace was the entrepot of a considerable trade with the Sudan and Abyssinia, and in 1880 its trade was valued at 4.2,Ooo,000 annually.

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  • In the interval there had been other questions on which he found himself at variance with Gladstonian Liberalism, for instance, as regards the Sudan and the Transvaal, nor was he inclined to stomach the claims of the Caucus or the Birmingham programme.

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  • He projected a railway to the Sudan, and also the reparation of the barrage.

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  • The region was annexed to the Egyptian Sudan and Wadelai's village chosen as a government post.

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  • For south of Egypt lay the great territory of the Sudan, which to some extent commands the Nile, and which had been added to the Egyptian dominions at various periods between 1820 and 1875.

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  • The insurrection increased the responsibilities which intervention had imposed on England, and an expedition was sent to Suakin to guard the littoral of the Red Sea; while, at the beginning.of 1884, General Gordonwhose services in China had gained him a high reputation, and who had had previous experience in the Sudan was sent to Khartum to report on the condition of affairs.

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  • In the north, the murder of Gordon was still unavenged; and the vast territory known as the Sudan had escaped from the control of Egypt.

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  • In 1896 Lord Salisburys government decided on extending the Anglo-Egyptian rule over the Sudan, and an expedition was sent from Egypt under the command of Sir Herbert (afterwards Lord) Kitchener to Khartum.

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  • The region was claimed as part of the Egyptian Sudan, but it was not until the arrival of Sir Samuel Baker at Gondokoro in 1870 as governor of the equatorial provinces, that any effective control of the slave traders was attempted.

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  • A good example of this is furnished by the history of the western Sudan and particularly of East and South-East Africa.

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  • In the north and west of Africa, however, the Arab has had a less destructive but more extensive and permanent influence in spreading the Mahommedan religion throughout the whole of the Sudan.

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  • Throughout the rest of the Sudan is found Semitic culture introduced by the Arabized Libyan.

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  • A modern parallel to the spread of Bantu speech is found in the rise of the Hausa language, which is gradually enlarging its sphere of influence in the western and central Sudan.

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  • Large states arose in the western Sudan; Ghana flourished in the 7th century A.D., Melle in the IIth, Songhai in the 14th, and Bornu in the 16th.

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  • Chudeau, summing up the evidence available in 1909, set forth the hypothesis that the existing upper Niger and the existing lower Niger were distinct streams. According to this theory the upper Niger, somewhat above where Timbuktu now stands, went north and north-west and emptied into the Juf, which in the beginning of the quaternary age was a salt-water lake, the remnant of an arm of the sea which in the tertiary age covered the northern Sudan and southern Sahara as far east as Bilma.

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  • Indeed the additions to the knowledge of the Niger during the last two decades of the 19th century were largely the work of French officers engaged in the extension of French influence throughout the western Sudan.

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  • The Sudan has an ethnological rather than a physical unity, and politically it is divided into a large number of states, all now under the control of European powers.

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  • These countries being separately described, brief notice only is required of the Sudan as a whole.

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  • Excluding this transitional zone, the Sudan may be described as a moderately elevated region, with extensive open or rolling plains, level plateaus, and abutting at its eastern and western ends on mountainous country.

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  • Arab influence and the Moslem religion began to be felt in the western Sudan as early as the 9th century and had taken deep root by the end of the i ith.

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  • The existence of native Christian states in Nubia hindered for some centuries the spread of Islam in the eastern Sudan, and throughout the country some tribes have remained pagan.

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  • The terms western, central and eastern Sudan are indicative of geographical position merely.

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  • In the last quarter of the igth century they fell under the control of France, the region being styled officially the French Sudan.

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  • The greater part of what was the French Sudan is now known as rthe Upper Senegal and Niger Colony (see Senegal, French West Africa, &C.).

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  • Wadai was the last state of the Sudan to come under European influence, its conquest being effected in 1909.

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  • These countries are known collectively as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (see below).

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  • Consult also P. C. Meyer, Erforschungsgeschichte and Staatenbildungen des Westsudan (Gotha, 1897), an admirable summary with bibliography and maps; Karl Kumm, The Sudan (London, 1907); Lady Lugard, A Tropical Dependency (London, 1905); and the bibliographies given under the various countries named.

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  • For the central Sudan the most important work is that of Gustav Nachtigal, Sahara and Sudan (3 vols., Berlin 1879-1889).

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  • For the eastern Sudan see the bibliographies under the following section.

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  • The limits of this condominium differ slightly from those of the Egyptian Sudan of the pre-Mandi period.

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  • As thus constituted the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan forms a compact territory which, being joined southwards by the Uganda Protectorate, brings the whole of the Nile valley from the equatorial lakes to the Mediterranean under the control of Great Britain.

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  • The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan extends north to south about 1200 m.

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  • In what follows the term Sudan is used to indicate the Anglo-Egyptian condominium only.

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  • From south to north the Sudan is traversed by the Nile (q.v.), and all the great tributaries of that river are either partly or entirely within its borders.

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  • These mountains, which to the south join the Abyssinian highlands, present their steepest face eastward, attaining heights within the Sudan of 4000 to over 7000 ft.

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  • Apart from the Nile system, fully described elsewhere, the Sudan has two other rivers, the Gash and the Baraka.

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  • The Gash enters the Sudan near Kassala and north of that town turns west towards the Atbara, but its waters are dissipated before that river is reached.

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  • This line is disregarded by the Sudan government.

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  • Sudan and Suakin being the chief ports.

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  • On the Blue Nile the forest trees alter, the most abundant being the babanus (Sudan ebony) and the silag (Anogeissus leiocarpus), while gigantic baobabs, called tebeldi in the Sudan, and tarfa (Sterculia cinerea) are numerous.

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  • In 1905 an estimate made by the Sudan government put the population at 1,853,000 only, including i i,000 foreigners, of whom 2800 were Europeans.

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  • The rest of the Sudan is divided into mudirias (provinces) and these are subdivided into mamuria.

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  • Opposite Khartum, on the west bank of the White Nile, is Omdurman, pop. about 43,000, the capital of the Sudan during the Mandia.

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  • On the Red Sea are Port Sudan and Suakin.

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  • In the south of the Sudan there are no towns properly so called.

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  • There are two trunk railways, one connecting the Sudan with Egypt, the other affording access to the Red Sea.

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  • The total distance to Port Sudan from Khartum is 493 m., the line to Suakin being 4 m.

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  • From Port Sudan and Suakin there is a regular steamship service to Europe via the Suez Canal.

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  • The Sudan was indeed the original home of Egyptian cotton.

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  • The chief products of the Sudan for export are gum, ivory, ostrich feathers, dates and rubber.

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  • In 1908 the exports of Sudan produce were valued at £E515,000 1; the total imports at £E1,892,000.

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  • The Sudan judicial codes, based in part on those of India and in part on the principles of English law and of Egyptian commercial law, provide for the recognition of " customary law " so far as applicable and " not repugnant to good conscience."

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  • The defence of the country is entrusted to the Egyptian army, of which several regiments are stationed in the Sudan.

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  • A small force of British troops is also stationed in the Sudan - chiefly at Khartum.

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  • The Sudan Almanac is a valuable official publication.

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  • Thus in the five years1907-1911inclusive an immense mass of new material was acquired which throws a flood of light on the archaeology at once of Egypt and the Sudan.

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  • The central and southern Sudan is therefore almost a virgin field for the archaeologist, but the exploration of Lower Nubia has made it possible to write a tentative preface to the new chapters still unrevealed.

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  • The real history of the Sudan will therefore be concerned with the evolution of what may be called East African or East Central African civilizations.

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  • From the purely Egyptological standpoint there is much of value to be learned from the Sudan.

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  • Mehemet Ali never stated the reasons which led him to order the occupation of the country, but his leading motive was, probably, the desire to obtain possession of the mines of gold and precious stones which he believed the Sudan contained.

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  • Having conquered Nubia, Sennar and Kordofan the Egyptians set up a civil government, placing at the head of the administration a governor-general with practically unlimited power.2 About this period Mehemet Ali leased from the sultan of Turkey the Red Sea ports of Suakin and Massawa, and by this means got into his hands all the trade routes of the eastern Sudan.

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  • In 1840 - previous attempts having been unsuccessful - the fertile district of Taka, watered by the Atbara and Gash and near the Abyssinian frontier, was conquered and the town of 2 For a list of the governors-general see The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, i.

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  • In 1837 the pasha himself visited the Sudan, going as far as Fazokl, where he inspected the goldfields.

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  • He remained in office, however, little more than a year, too short a period to effect reforms. The Sudan was costing Egypt more money than its revenue yielded, though it must not be forgotten that large sums found their way illicitly into the hands of the pashas.

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  • The viceroy Said, who made a rapid tour through the Sudan in 1857, found it in a deplorable condition.

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  • The project which Said also conceived of linking the Sudan to Egypt by railway remained unfulfilled.

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  • The Sudan at this time (c. 1862) is described by Sir Samuel Baker as utterly ruined by Egyptian methods of government and the retention of the country only to be accounted for by the traffic in slaves.

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  • Ismail, however, was ambitious to extend his dominions and to develop the Sudan on the lines he had conceived for the development of Egypt.

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  • Though spasmodic efforts were made to promote agriculture and open up communications the Sudan continued to be a constant drain on the Egyptian exchequer.

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  • Gordon remained in the Sudan until August 1879.

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  • When Gordon left the Sudan he was succeeded at Khartum by Raouf Pasha, under whom all the old abuses of the Egyptian administration were revived.

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  • At this time the high European officials in the Sudan, besides Gessi, included Emin Pasha - then a bey only - governor of the Equatorial Province since 1878, and Slatin Pasha - then also a bey - governor of Darfur.

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  • Gordon's instructions, based largely on his own suggestions, were not wholly consistent; they contemplated vaguely the establishment of some form of stable government on the surrender of Egyptian authority, and among the documents with which he was furnished was a firman creating him governorgeneral of the Sudan.

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  • To smooth the way for the retreat of the Egyptian garrisons and civilians he issued proclamations announcing that the suppression of the slave trade was abandoned, that the Mandi was sultan of Kordofan, and that the Sudan was independent of Egypt.

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  • Mandism as a vital force in the old Egyptian Sudan ceased, however, with the Anglo-Egyptian victory at Omdurman.'

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  • That control would have been lost had a European power other than Great Britain obtained possession of any part of the Nile valley; and at the time the Sudan was reconquered (1896-98) France was endeavouring to establish her authority on the river between Khartum and Gondokoro, as the Marchand expedition from the Congo to Fashoda demonstrated.

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  • The Nile constitutes, in the words of Lord Cromer, the true justification of the policy of re-occupation, and makes the Sudan a priceless possession for Egypt .2 The Sudan having been reconquered by " the joint military and financial efforts" of Great Britain and Egypt, the British government claimed " by right of conquest " to share in the settlement of the administration and legislation of the country.

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  • To meet these claims an agreement (which has been aptly called the constitutional charter of the Sudan) between Great Britain and Egypt, was signed on the 19th of January 1899, establishing the joint sovereignty of the two states throughout 1 In the autumn of 1903 Mahommed-el-Amin, a native of Tunis, proclaimed himself the Mandi and got together a following in Kordofan.

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  • To this post was appointed Lord Kitchener, the sirdar (commander-in-chief) of the Egyptian army, under whom the Sudan had been reconquered.

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  • Under a just and firm administration, which from the first was essentially civil, though the principal officials were officers of the British army, the Sudan recovered in a surprising manner from the woes it suffered during the Mandia.

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  • This potentate, the sultan Ali Dinar, was recognized by the Sudan government, on condition of the payment of an annual tribute.

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  • The delimitation (1903-1904) of the frontier between the Sudan and Abyssinia enabled order to be restored in a particularly lawless region, and slave-raiding on a large scale ended in that quarter with the capture and execution of a notorious offender in 1904.

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  • The Sudan government devoted much attention to the revival of agriculture and commerce, to the creation of an educated class of natives, and to the establishment of an adequate judicial system.

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  • In these pagan regions the Sudan government encouraged the work of missionary societies; both Protestant and Roman Catholic, while discouraging propaganda work among the Moslems.

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  • In their general policy the Sudan government adopted a system of very light taxation; low taxation being in countries such as Egypt and the Sudan the keystone of the political arch.

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  • This line shortened the distance from Khartum to the nearest seaport by nearly r000 m., and by reducing the cost of carriage of merchandise enabled Sudan produce to find a profitable outlet in the markets of the world.

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  • Indeed the regenerative work of Great Britain in the Sudan has been fully as successful and even more remarkable than that of Great Britain in Egypt.

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  • The relations of the Sudan government with its Italian, Abyssinian and French neighbours was marked by cordiality, but with the Congo Free State difficulties arose over claims made by that state to the Bahr-el-Ghazal Lado.

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  • The difficulty was adjusted in 1906 when the Congo State abandoned all claims to the Ghazal province (whence its troops were withdrawn during 1907), and it was agreed to transfer the Lado enclave to the Sudan six months after the death of the king of the Belgians.

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  • Under the terms of this agreement the Lado enclave was incorporated in the Sudan in 1910.

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  • Wallis Budge, The Egyptian Sudan (2 vols., 1907) and The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1095), edited by Count Gleichen.

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  • By the end of 1882 the whole of the Sudan south of Khartum was in rebellion, with the exception of the Bahr-elGhazal and the Equatorial Provinces.

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  • In the November following Hicks Pasha's force of io,000 men was destroyed at Kashgil, and in the same year the mandi's lieutenant, Osman Digna, raised the tribes in the eastern Sudan, and besieged Sinkat and Tokar, near Suakin, routing General Valentine Baker's force of 2500 men at El Teb in February 1884.

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  • As such he became the recognized spiritual head of all the Mahommedans of west central Sudan, a headship which his successors retained unimpaired, even after the loss of their temporal position to the British in 1903.

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  • The dominions of the emir of Sokoto have suffered some diminutions by reason of British agreements with France relating to the common frontier of the two European powers in the western Sudan.

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  • Three years later Leopold claimed fulfilment of the promise, and Gordon was about to proceed to the Congo when the British government required his services for the Sudan.

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  • The Taiping revolt, which had some remarkable points of similarity with the Mandist rebellion in the Sudan, had commenced in 1850 in the province of Kwangsi.

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  • To understand the object of the appointment which Gordon accepted in Egypt, it is necessary to give a few facts with reference to the Sudan.

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  • After a short stay in Cairo, Gordon proceeded to Khartum by way of Suakin and Berber, a route which he ever afterwards regarded as the best mode of access to the Sudan.

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  • Greater results might have been obtained but for the fact that Khartum and the whole of the Sudan north of the Sobat were in the hands of an Egyptian governor, independent of Gordon, and not too well disposed towards his proposals for diminishing the slave trade.

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  • On arriving in Cairo Gordon informed the khedive of his reasons for not wishing to return to the Sudan, but did not definitely resign the appointment of governor of the equatorial provinces.

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  • Upon this Gordon, to whom the keeping of a promise was a sacred duty, decided to return to Cairo, but gave an assurance to some friends that he would not go back to the Sudan unless he was appointed governor-general of the entire country.

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  • After some discussion the khedive agreed, and made him governor-general of the Sudan, inclusive of Darfur and the equatorial provinces.

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  • Thence he returned to Cairo and resigned his Sudan appointment.

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  • But a few days after his arrival he was requested by the British government to proceed immediately to the Sudan.

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  • The Egyptian government was too busily engaged in suppressing Arabi's revolt to be able to send any help to Abdel Kader, and in September 1882, when the British troops entered Cairo, the position in the Sudan was very perilous.

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  • Had the British government listened to the representations then made to them, that, having conquered Egypt, it was imperative at once to suppress the revolt in the Sudan, the rebellion could have been crushed, but unfortunately Great Britain would do nothing herself, while the steps she allowed Egypt to take ended in the disaster to Hicks Pasha's expedition.

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  • Then, in December 1883, the British government saw that something must be done, and ordered Egypt to abandon the Sudan.

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  • At the same time he was impressed with the necessity of making some arrangement for the future government of the country, and asked for the help of Zobeir (q.v.), who had great influence in the Sudan, and had been detained in Cairo for some years.

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  • The advance of the rebels against Khartum was combined with a revolt in the eastern Sudan, and the Egyptian troops in the vicinity of Suakin met with constant defeat.

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  • In April General Graham and his forces were withdrawn from Suakin, and Gordon and the Sudan were seemingly abandoned to their fate.

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  • Lord Cromer's criticism, it should be remembered, does not deal with Gordon's career as a whole but solely with his last mission to the Sudan; Lord Morley's is a more general judgment.

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  • I do not think that it can be held that General Gordon made any serious effort to carry out the main ends of British and Egyptian policy in the Sudan.

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  • It is the principal port of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and the headquarters of the customs administration.

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  • The climate of Port Sudan is very hot and damp and fever is common.

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  • It owes its existence to the desire of the Sudan administration to find a harbour more suitable than Suakin for the commerce of the country.

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  • When the building of the railway between the Nile and the Red Sea was begun, it was determined to create a port at this harbour - which was renamed Port Sudan (Bander es- Sudan).

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  • The railway (which has termini both at Port Sudan and Suakin) was opened in January 1906 and the customs-house in the May following.

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  • Port Sudan immediately attracted a large trade, the value of goods passing through it in 1906 exceeding £470,000.

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  • The imports are largely cotton goods, provisions, timber and cement; the exports gum, raw cotton, ivory, sesame, durra, senna, coffee (from Abyssinia), goat skins, &c. Forty miles north of Port Sudan is Mahommed Gul, the port for the mines of Gebet, worked by an English company.

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  • Another point to note is the sinisterly continuing propaganda onslaught on Sudan to justify an imperialist blitzkrieg military intervention.

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  • She tested tissue from 134 naturally preserved bodies from an excavated cemetery in the Sudan, once part of the Egyptian empire.

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  • Now that's the way we played charades in the Sudan.

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  • The ideology of Sudan was so congenial to Osama bin Laden that he spent three years in Sudan in the 1990s.

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  • The average person in that country earns approximately $ 40,000 per year while in Sudan the average person earns approximately $ 40,000 per year while in Sudan the average person earns $ 63.

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  • The other is that some pockets here are controlled by Sudanese rebel faction, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA ).

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  • Known as the Town of Fire and Iron, Atbara serves as the main workshop base and administrative headquarters for Sudan's Railways Corporation.

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  • In the context of Sudan the policies pursued by the ruling northern elite resulted in apparent regional socio-economic inequality with southern Sudan suffering most.

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  • In the capital, Khartoum, the Foreign Minister of Sudan's hardline Islamist government has welcomed the news.

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  • Regarding Darfur, the PMOS reminded journalists what the Prime Minister had said during the Sudan trip.

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  • Using Chapter 7 powers, the Security Council gave the government of Sudan until the end of August to disarm the Janjaweed militia.

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  • The Sudanese government have brutally persecuted the Nuba tribes people of Central Sudan.

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  • Whilst identifying several categories of individual at risk, they concluded that involuntary returnees to Sudan generally would not be in danger.

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  • Stephen Blakeway attempted to quantify the result of controlling rinderpest in south Sudan.

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  • Previously Condoleezza Rice Crew in Sudan security rumpus Hey George, where you goin ' with that iPod in your hand?

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  • She reached Port Sudan on 14th December where she was made seaworthy.

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  • The Soviet Union encountered the same setback in Somalia and the Sudan.

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  • Historically, it was an Islamic sultanate located in the western Sudan.

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  • By the beginning of 1917 the independent sultanate of Darfur was finally annexed to present-day Sudan by the British colonial rulers of the country.

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  • After the suppression of the Arabi rebellion he was again installed in office (September 1882) by Tewfik, but in January 1884 he resigned rather than sanction the evacuation of the Sudan.

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  • Since that period Sennar has had no history distinct from that of the rest of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (see Sudan, § Anglo-Egyptian, History).

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  • Navigability really only begins again at Gondokoro on the Sudan frontier, from which point steamers ply to Khartum (see Nile).

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  • To facilitate commerce with the Congo and with the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and to open up the Busoga region the British government in 1910 voted money to build a railway from Jinja to Kakindu.

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  • Suakin was the headquarters of the Egyptian and British troops operating in the eastern Sudan against the dervishes under Osman Digna (see EGYPT, Military Operations, 1884, seq.).

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  • Where the frontier between Egypt and the Sudan reaches the sea is Ras Elba (see further Faa iEA).

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  • Baring forcibly argued against British intervention in the affairs of the Sudan, and on the 13th of December Lord Granville telegraphed that Her Majestys government recommend the ministers of khedive to come to an early decision to abandon all territory south of Assuan, or, at least, of Wadi Haifa.

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  • The operations against Mahdism during the eleven years from the end of the Nile expedition and the withdrawal from the Sudan to the commencement of the Dongola campaign will be more easily understood if, instead of narrating them in one chronological sequence, the operations in each province are considered separately.

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  • The reconquest of Dongola and the Sudan provinces during the three years from March 1896 to December 1898, considering the enormous extent and difficulties of the country, was achieved at an unprecedentedly small cost, while the main item of expenditure the railwayremains a permanent benefit to the country.

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  • After the destruction of the Mandist power in 1898 Gondokoro was occupied by British troops and has since formed the northernmost post on the Nile of the Uganda protectorate (see Sudan; Nile; and Uganda).

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  • A slight qualification of the last statement is necessary, in so far as, among the Fula in the western Sudan, and the Ba-Hima, &c., of the Victoria Nyanza, Libyan and Hamitic elements are respectively stronger than the Negroid.

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  • Worse still in Sudan homosexuality is punishable by the death penalty.

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  • Washington blamed bin Laden and retaliated with missile strikes on his alleged bases in Afghanistan and Sudan.

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