Subventions from the departments and communes.
Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.
2.5d., and imperial subventions to a rate of is.
The Dutch, who had to pay subventions to their German allies, and to support a large army, could spare little for their fleet.
Subventions are paid for regular steamship service at the principal ports, the total expenditure in1907-1908being £42,876.
The government offered subventions to those who would provide cold-storage warehouses at various points where these were necessary, and also arranged with the owners of ocean steamships to provide cold-storage chambers on them by means of mechanical refrigerators.
But the long liberal ascendancy closed the ranks of the CatholicCalvinist coalition, and united them against the neutral schools, and in 1889 they were able to pass a law enabling not only the unsectarian public schools, but all private schools organized by societies and bodies recognized by the law to receive subventions from the state.
Finally, it may be mentioned that a sum proportionately large is available from public funds and regular parliamentary grants for furthering science and arts by temporary subventions to students, authors, artists and others of insufficient means, in order to enable them to carry out particular works, to profit by foreign travel, &c. The principal scientific societies and institutions are detailed under Copenhagen.
For surrendered rights and privileges the sultan and his grandees received monetary compensations in the shape of annual subventions, and these also have been paid for the losses formerly incurred by the wilful destruction of the nutmeg plantations, carried out in order to enhance the value of this commodity and monopolize its cultivation.
Local authorities receive other subventions and aids from the central government besides the proceeds of these taxes, so that their appropriation for local needs is related to a large question which belongs, however, to the general subject of local government, and not so much to the special subject of taxation.
The excess of expenditure over revenue is made good by subventions from France.
All the Spanish railways belong to private companies, most of which have received state subventions, and they will fall in to the government mostly at the end of 99 yearS.
State subventions, rather than commerce or colonization, were often their object; but that has been a characteristic of French colonial enterprise at all times.