Subsurface sentence example

subsurface
  • Physical properties provide critical interpretive links between geophysical measurements and evaluation of subsurface geology and state conditions.

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  • The aim of the experiment was to map water movements in the shallow subsurface in high spatial and temporal resolution under controlled circumstances.

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  • Chalk subsoil was, in all areas, cleaned to locate any possible subsurface features.

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  • It is a strategy to produce standard systematic models of the subsurface geology for Britain.

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  • The infilling material may be warmer, softer ice from below the surface, or water from a subsurface ocean.

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  • Surface flow is easier to deal with, as subsurface flow often occurs over a wider area.

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  • To produce new methods of predicting subsurface movements, above multiple tunnels.

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  • They function as integrators, connecting subsurface and topside engineering activities to bring oil or gas from the reservoir to the surface.

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  • The third type is the intermediate one between those two, followed by the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways, in London, where the railway has an arched roof, built usually at a sufficient distance below the surface of the street to permit the other subsurface structures to lie in the ground above the crown of the arch, and where the station platforms are from 20 to 30 ft.

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  • This type has the advantage of economy in first construction, there being the minimum amount of material to be excavated, and no interference during construction with street traffic or subsurface structures; it has, however, the disadvantage of the cost of o p eration of lifts at the stations.

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  • This system has the advantage of the greatest convenience in operation, no lifts being required, since the distance from the street surface to the station platform is about 12 to 15 ft.; it has the disadvantages, however, of necessitating the tearing up of the street surface during construction, and the readjustment of sewer, water, gas and electric mains and other subsurface structures, and of having the gradients partially dependent on the surface topography.

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  • The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.

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