But they had substituted fake bones.
He substituted cunning and corruption for violence.
Strong worms and wheels are substituted for the light clockwork.
The glass industry began in Wheeling in 1821, and there a process was discovered by which in 1864 for soda ash bicarbonate of lime was substituted, and a lime glass was made which was as fine as lead glass; other factors contributing to the localization of the manufacture of glass here are the fine glass sand obtained in the state and the plentiful supply of natural gas for fuel Transportation and Commerce.
I substituted the adjectives LARGE and SMALL for those signs.
This symbol is in general use; it is assumed that at each corner there is a CH group which, however, is not always written in; if a hydrogen atom be substituted by another group, then this group is attached to the corner previously occupied by the displaced hydrogen.
You wanted nice things, so you substituted your family for a conscience.
From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classification of organic compounds.
The next salt to be obtained was the mercuric salt, which was prepared in 1 799 by Edward Charles Howard, who substituted mercury for silver in Brugnatelli's process.
On the 25th of May the petition was presented to Cromwell again, with the title of Protector substituted for that of King, and he now accepted it.
By a modification of the bridge method, applied with excellent results by Dr Muirhead to submarine work, condensers are substituted for a and b, one being also placed in the circuit between P and Q.
The experiments with this form were not successful, and, with the view of making the moving parts as light as possible, he substituted for the comparatively heavy lever armature a small piece of clock spring, about the size of a sixpence, glued to the centre of the diaphragm.
Their generals substituted heavy-armed cavalry for the old militia, and introduced systems of campaigning which reduced the art of war to a game of skill.
In this way the later nobility of the thegns was in England substituted for the older nobility of the eorls.
The other day I substituted the words SMALL and LARGE for these signs, and she at once adopted the words and discarded the signs.
It was separated from Etruria and Umbria by the main chain of the Apennines; and the river Ariminus was substituted for the far-famed Rubicon as its limit on the Adriatic.
For these Syriac has substituted middle or reflexive forms with prefixed eth and a change in the last vowel.
At mass and vespers the mitra simplex may be substituted for it in the same way as the auriphrygiata for the pretiosa.
In methane and ethane the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, and no matter which one may be substituted by another element or group the same compound will result.
This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
And if Martha's discovery had been substituted with the theater prop, he'd bet his boots there was an empty trunk out there somewhere!
In 1883 the veterinary department of the Privy Council - which had been constituted in 1865 when the country was ravaged by cattle plague - was abolished by order in council, and the " Agricultural Department " was substituted, but no alteration was effected in the work of the department, so far as it related to animals.
Kant had substituted one great necessity, sprung from an ideal source.
For passenger trains and occasionally for fast goods trains screw couplings are substituted for the simple chains.
In Berlin, on the Stadtbahn - which for a part of its length traverses private property - masonry arches, or earthen embankments between retaining walls, were substituted for the metallic structure wherever possible.
The English Jews " gradually substituted for the personal protection of the crown, the sympathy and confidence of the nation " (L.
Wurtz discovered the amines or substituted ammonias, previously predicted by Liebig; A.
It is necessary clearly to distinguish such compounds as the amino- (or amido-) acids and acid-amides; in the first case the amino group is substituted in the hydrocarbon residue, in the second it is substituted in the carboxyl group.
Frostburg was first settled in 1812; was called Mount Pleasant until about 1830, when the present name was substituted in honour of Meshech Frost, one of the town's founders; and was incorporated in 1870.
Where, as in England, they felt that they could improve, they substituted for the style of the country their own style - that is, a style which they had not created but which they had adopted, which they had made thoroughly their own, and which they went on improving in England no less than in Normandy.
In the deltas of shoal rivers, with a strong tide or current and no land visible, a 5 lb lead is substituted for the log-ship; the lead rests on the bottom, and the speed is obtained in a manner similar to that previously described.
The dauphin was concealed in the fourth storey of the Tower, a wooden figure being substituted for him.
They hold in their hands books turned upside down, and pretend to read through spectacles in which for glass have been substituted bits of orange-peel."
The cottonclearing house substituted book-keeping for the bulk of these payments.
The title of giudice was abolished and a feudal marquisate substituted.
The oak requires shelter in the early stages of growth; in England the Scotch pine is thought best for this purpose, though Norway spruce answers as well on suitable ground, and larch and other trees are sometimes substituted.
Capital punishment was abolished in 1877, penal servitude for life being substituted.
Test after test, cunningly devised, on which the investigator has set his mind, is put aside, and another substituted."
20 the word " altar " in Hebrew is substituted).
The "grey amice" of the canons of St Paul's at London was put down in 1549, the academic hood being substituted.
plain-laid manila cable a wire rope has in some cases been successfully substituted.
According to some accounts the sacrifice was completed, according to others Artemis carried away the maiden to be her priestess in the Tauric Chersonese [[[Crimea]]] and substituted for her a hind.
Direct collection of taxes by imperial procurators was substituted for the system of farming, and a special official (advocatus fisci) was instituted to look after the interests of the imperial treasury.
Direct firing is used for the second boiling of the soap mixture; but for this superheated steam may with advantage be substituted, either applied by a steam-jacket round the pan or by a closed coil of pipe within it.
He was designed for the magistracy of his province; and in 1771, when for a time the provincial parlement was suppressed, with the others, by the chancellor Maupeou, he refused to sit in the royal tribunal substituted for it.
has been accused of having caused his death, or of having substituted a dead child in his place; but nothing was ever proved.
A sixth is the position of the planet in the orbit at a given moment, for which may be substituted the moment at which it passed the pericentre.
At the head of the administration was placed the archchaplain, and an ecclesiastical chancellor was substituted for the ancient referendarius.
The principal local government is that of the municipalities or municipal districts, but for the Spanish municipal government the insular legislature has substituted one resembling that of small towns in the United States, and it has reduced the number of districts from 66 to 47.
There was a strong agitation in favour of the abolition of the tax during the winter of 1850-1851, and it was accordingly repealed on the 24th of July 1851, and a tax on inhabited houses substituted.
Still, till the last Berzelius remained faithful to his original theory; experiment, which he had hitherto held to be the only sure method of research, he discarded, and in its place he substituted pure speculation, which greatly injured the radical theory.
These results may be graphically represented as follows: numbering the hydrogen atoms in cyclical order from i to 6, then the first thesis demands that whichever atom is substituted the same compound results, while the second thesis points out that the pairs 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are symmetrical with respect to 1, or in other words, the di-substitution derivatives 1.2 and 1.6, and also 1.3 and 1.5 are identical.
The amino group is more powerful than the hydroxyl, and the substituted amino group more powerful still; the repeated substitution of hydroxyl groups sometimes causes an intensification and sometimes a diminution of colour.
Kryst., 1902, 1904, et seq.) on the substituted ammonium chlorplatinates, and of G.
Mez (ibid., 1901, 35, p. 242) on substituted ureas, illustrate this point.
Other substituent groups exercise morphotropic effects similar to those exhibited by the alkyl radicles; investigations have been made on halogen-, hydroxy-, and nitro-derivatives of benzene and substituted benzenes.
It has been shown that certain elements and groups exercise morphotropic effects when substituted in a compound; it may happen that the effects due to two or more groups are nearly equivalent, and consequently the resulting crystal forms are nearly identical.
Here he was accused of fraud for having substituted one name for another in a deed of transfer of national lands.
In his text Eratosthenes ignored the popular division of the world into Europe, Asia and Libya, and substituted for it a northern and southern division, divided by the parallel of Rhodes, each of which he subdivided into sphragides or plinthia - seals or plinths.
As soon as the march of conquest had reached its natural limit, slavery began to be modified; and when the empire was divided into the several states which had grown up under it, and the system of defence characteristic of the middle ages was substituted for the aggressive system of antiquity, slavery gradually disappeared, and was replaced by serfdom.
It seems to have begun in really voluntary agreements; but for these the unscrupulous greed of the traders soon substituted methods of fraud and violence.
For the second offence the penalty was to be twenty years' imprisonment (August I, 1793), for which the death penalty was ultimately substituted (May 10, 1794).
It should be noted that this concession was substituted for one negotiated by the same group, and projected to pass through Diarbekr.
His earliest conquest was Karaja Hissar (1295),(1295), where first the name of Osman was substituted for that of the sultan in the weekly prayer.
Sometimes identical notes are substituted for collective, i.e.
Any one who removed a boundary stone was accursed (sacer) and might be slain with impunity; a fine was afterwards substituted for the death penalty.
In 1864 the Bute trustees unsuccessfully sought powers for constructing three additional docks to cost two millions sterling, but under the more limited powers granted in 1866, the Roath basin (12 acres) was opened in 1874, and (under a substituted act of 1882) the Roath dock (33 acres) was opened in 1887.
In 1687 the town surrendered this charter to James II., who in a substituted one, which, however, was never acted upon, reserved to the Crown the right of removing any member of the corporation from office.
Apparently the old faith-healing had lost its efficacy, and the priests substituted for it elaborate prescriptions as to diet, baths and regimen which must have made Epidaurus and its visitors resemble their counterparts in a modern spa.
For these were substituted later a set of stone columns resembling those in the proscenium of a theatre.
When heated with the halogens, acetophenone is substituted in the aliphatic portion of the nucleus; thus bromine gives phenacyl bromide, C6H6CO.CH2Br.
Archbishop Unwan of Hamburg-Bremen (1013-1029) substituted a chapter of canons for the monastery, and in 1037 Archbishop Bezelin (or Alebrand) built a stone cathedral and a palace on the Elbe.
the word "vestment" is used as synonymous with but one liturgical garment - the chasuble, the "mass vestment" par excellence; in the Prayer Book of 1559 "vestments" are eliminated altogether, "ornaments" being substituted as a more comprehensive term.
Gold brocades or cloth-of-gold may, however, be substituted for red, green and white, and silver for white.
In some districts a stout stick is substituted for the paddle, on which the rubber as it coagulates is wound cylindrically.
For this reason the acid copper-bath is not used for iron or zinc objects, a bath containing copper cyanide or oxide dissolved in potassium cyanide being substituted.
By the Clerical Subscription Act 1865 a declaration was substituted for the oath, and a new canon incorporating the alteration was ratified by the crown in 1866.
He was criticised, both in England and in Canada, for forwarding, in 1911, in the course of his duties as ambassador, an arrangement for reciprocity between the two North American states; but the general election, which substituted Sir R.
= 0, we find that, eliminating x, the resultant is a homogeneous function of y and z of degree mn; equating this to zero and solving for the ratio of y to z we obtain mn solutions; if values of y and z, given by any solution, be substituted in each of the two equations, they will possess a common factor which gives a value of x which, corn bined with the chosen values of y and z, yields a system of values which satisfies both equations.
If a wire of soft iron is substituted for the suspended magnetic needle, either pole of the bar-magnet will attract either end of the wire indifferently.
It is remarkable that if a flow of heat be substituted for a current of electricity a closely allied group of " thermo-magnetic effects " is presented.
In later times, pay was substituted for the aes hordearium, three times as much as that of the infantry.
Miller (Ber., 1892, 25, p. 2864; 1896, 29, p. 59) have shown that in the presence of aniline and sulphuric acid they give substituted quinolines.
Cuvier went no further than Brongniart, and, in the Regne Animal, he dropped the term Amphibia, and substituted Reptilia for it.
in Siena gave fresh courage to the malcontents, who, backed by the imperial authority, overthrew the government of the nine and substituted a magistracy of twelve drawn from the lowest class.
By a statute in 1860 the Hulsean professorship of divinity was substituted for the office of Christian advocate, and the lectureship was considerably modified.
For the conflicts which accompanied the first intrusion of philosophy into the theological domain more profound and cautious thinkers with a far ampler apparatus of knowledge had substituted a harmony.
The electrolytic reduction of the aromatic nitro compounds gives rise to substituted hydroxylamines which are immediately transformed into aminophenols or amines.
Expressions suitable for discussion when v is large were obtained 1 In experiment a line of light is sometimes substituted for a point in order to increase the illumination.
Busch, Ber., 1899, 32, p. 2960): N C(SH):N C 6 H 5 /N C:NC6H5 C. 2 S 7Hs " H s d-H N NH C,H 7 C7 "N N C,H7 C. Harries (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 1223) has also shown that as-phenylhydrazino-acetic esters, when heated with formamide and substituted formamides under pressure, yield dihydrotriazines: CO 2 R CO-NR'-CH H2 N(C6H5)NH2 +R'NH CHO --> CH 2 N(C 6 H 5) IV The phen-a-triazines are yellow-coloured crystalline compounds of a somewhat basic character.
when Abimelech (the Philistine king in the stories of Abraham and Isaac) could be substituted in the title of Ps.
Moreover, Kruger requested that the term " South African Republic " should be substituted for Transvaal State.
In this document a fresh set of articles was substituted for those of the Pretoria Convention of 1881.
On the mesas alfalfa could be substituted for the native grasses and be used for stock when the pasturage of the lower plains is not available.
By this a definite number of tolls, at fixed rates, was substituted for the often arbitrary tolls which had been exacted previously.
For mechanical conceptions he substituted the theory of" animism "- attributing to the soul the functions of ordinary animal life in man, while the life of other creatures was left to mechanical laws.
Rasori (1763-1837), who taught it as professor at Pavia, but afterwards substituted his own system of contra-stimulus.
Formic acid yields acridine, and the higher homologues give derivatives substituted at the meso carbon atom, N N +[[Hcooh-C 6 H 5 /Inc6h5->C6h4 C6h4 Cho Ch N N +Ch 3 000h->C 6 H 5 /IC 6 H 5 --C 6 H 4 C6h4 Coch 3 C]](CH3) Acridine may also 1:e obtained by passing the vapour of phenylortho-toluidine through a red-hot tube (C. Graebe, Ber., 1884, 17, p. 1 37 0); by condensing diphenylamine with chloroform, in presence of aluminium chloride (0.
This view is confirmed by the fact that, when the music was performed at Venice by permission of the pope, it produced so little effect that the emperor Leopold I., at whose request the manuscript had been sent, thought that something else had been substituted.
The principal improvement made of recent years in this portion of the process has been the construction of pipes through which the carbonic acid gas is injected into the juice in such a manner that they can be easily withdrawn and a clean set substituted.
C 6 H 5 CCl: CH 2 or a-compounds, and C 6 H 1 CH: CHC1, or co-compounds, whilst in the third the benzene nucleus is substituted.
Those substituted in the benzene nucleus are obtained by condensing two molecules of a substituted benzyl and benzal chlorides.
Furthermore, with the large furnaces which gas-firing makes possible mechanical appliances may be substituted for manual labour in many operations, such as removing and replacing broken retorts, mixing and conveying the charge, drawing and casting the metal, charging and emptying the retorts, and removing the residues and products.
Many of the furnaces now in constant use depend mainly on this principle, a core of granular carbon fragments stamped together in the direct line between the electrodes, as in Acheson's carborundum furnace, being substituted for the carbon pencils.
It is for this reason that Siemens, Borchers and others substituted a hollow watercooled metal block for the carbon cathode upon which the melted metal rests while in the furnace.
In the King furnace, for example, the crucible, or lowest part of the furnace, is made detachable, so that when full it may be removed and an empty crucible substituted.
The condition of his pardon is the endurance by him of the substituted punishment.
Hofmann, Ber., 1885, 18, P. 2 734; 1886, 19, p. 1822); CH3CONH2-CH3CONHBr - >CH3CONKBr - > CH 3 NC0 - > CH3NH2; and by the hydrolysis of substituted urethanes (Th.
It is to be noted that only traces of the aromatic amines are produced by heating the halogen substituted benzenes with ammonia, unless the amino group be situated in the side chain, as in the case of benzylamine.
" Jehovah " is a modern mispronunciation of the Hebrew name, resulting from combining the consonants of that name, Jhvh, with the vowels of the word ¢donay, " Lord," which the Jews substituted for the proper name in reading the scriptures.
The consonants of the word to be substituted are ordinarily written in the margin; but inasmuch as Adonay was regularly read instead of the ineffable name Jhvh, it was deemed unnecessary to note the fact at every occurrence.
In the Metaphysical state, for volition is substituted abstract force residing in the object, yet existing independently of the object; the phenomena are viewed as if apart from the bodies manifesting them; and the properties of each substance have attributed to them an existence distinct from that substance.
A thatched roof is imperative in the orthodox shrine, but in modern days tiles or sheets of copper are sometimes substituted.
In the cities and towns horses used as beasts of burden are now shod with iron, but in rural or mountainous, districts straw shoes are substituted, a device which enables the animals to traverse rocky or precipitous roads with safety.
Apollinaris denied the completeness of the human nature, and substituted the divine Logos for the reasonable soul of man.
Substituted oxamides are produced by the action of primary amines on ethyl oxalate.
In the year after the war (240), when the armies had returned and the people were at leisure to enjoy the fruits of victory, Livius Andronicus substituted at one of the public festivals a regular drama, translated or adapted from the Greek, for the musical medleys (saturae) hitherto in use.
For the Thursday market granted in 1326 a Friday market was substituted in 1733, and this continues to be held.
Pirminius, who was far from being an original writer, made great use of a treatise by Martin of Braga, but substituted a Roman form of Renunciation, and refers to the Roman rite of Unction in a way which leads us to suppose that the form of creed which he substituted for Martin's form was also Roman.
In 1662 the rubric was altered and it was substituted for the Apostles' Creed.
xxviii.) which denied the Real Presence was substituted one by Guest with the desire " not to deny the reality of the presence of the Body of Christ in the Supper, but only the grossness and sensibleness in the receiving thereof."
Since the weights used in conjunction with a balance are really standard masses, the word "weight" may be substituted for the word "mass" in the preceding definitions; and we may symbolically express the relations thus: - If M be the weight of substance occupying a volume V, then the absolute density O = M/V; and if m, m 1 be the weights of the substance and of the standard substance which occupy the same volume, the relative density or specific gravity S = m/m l; or more generally if m i be the weight of a volume v of the substance, and m l the weight of a volume v l of the standard, then S = mv l /m l v.
As a Hebrew scholar he made a special study of the history of the Hebrew text, which led him to the conclusion that the vowel points and accents are not an original part of the Hebrew language, but were inserted by the Massorete Jews of Tiberias, not earlier than the 5th century A.D., and that the primitive Hebrew characters are those now known as the Samaritan, while the square characters are Aramaic and were substituted for the more ancient at the time of the captivity.
In 1762 that portion of Biddeford which lay east of the river was incorporated as the town of Pepperellborough, for which name Saco was substituted in 1805.
Some excellent instruments of the second type were subsequently made by Dollond's eldest son Peter, in which for the " convex glass within the tube " was substituted an achromatic object-glass, and outside that a divided negative achromatic combination of long focus.
Trans., 1821, pp. 101-103) describes a doubleimage micrometer of his own invention, in which a sphere of rockcrystal is substituted for the eye-lens of an ordinary eye-piece.
Instead of this the Church substituted the name of the disciple through whom the message was delivered for that of his Master, and designated our Apocalypse "The Apocalypse of John."
As cause of our sensations and ground of our belief in externality, he substituted for an unintelligible material substance an equally unintelligible operation of divine power.
For shaft linings steel rings of H or channel section supported by intermediate struts are also used, and cross-bearers or buntons of steel joists and rail guides are now generally substituted for wood.
In some instances electric motors have been substituted for compressed-air engines in such machines.
When the ingot has been made and the crucible is full, the latter is withdrawn and another substituted.
When, in 1867, the Congressional plan of reconstruction was substituted, Texas was joined to Louisiana to constitute the fifth military district, and the first commander, General P. H.
For the stately declamation, the sonorous, and beyond a doubt impressive, chant of Quin and his fellows, Garrick substituted rapid changes of passion and humour in both voice and gesture, which held his audiences spellbound.
In Hesiod (Theogony, 1013) he is the son of Odysseus and Circe, and ruler of the Tyrsenians; in Virgil, the son of Faunus and the nymph Marica, a national genealogy being substituted for the Hesiodic, which probably originated from a Greek source.
The place was first settled about 1827; in 1838 it was laid out as a town and named Littleton; in 1858 the present name, in honour of William Bradford (1755-1795), was substituted; and Bradford was incorporated as a borough in 1873, and was chartered as a city in 1879.
The old hierarchy continued, but service books in English were substituted for those in Latin, and preaching was encouraged.
This made it clear that the communion was no longer to be regarded as a propitiatory sacrifice, the names " Holy Communion " and " Lord's Supper " being definitively substituted for " Mass " (q.v.), while the word " altar " was replaced by " table."
It retained the Areopagitic council in the Draconian laws by the supposition that Solon, while leaving untouched the Draconian laws concerned with the cases of homicide which came before the Ephetae, substituted a law of his own regarding wilful murder, which fell within the jurisdiction of the Areopagites.
Some recent critics,' however, are inclined to place them in the post-exilic period, in which case a late editor has substituted them for earlier, probably less edifying, oracles.
Accordingly as early as 1669 the French government decided on the foundation of a school for French dragomans at Constantinople, for which in later years was substituted the Ecole des langues orientales in Paris; most of the great powers eventually took some similar step, England also adopting in 1877 a system, since modified, for the selection and tuition of a corps of Britishborn dragomans.
The Truce of God was most powerful in the 12th century, but with the 13th its influence waned as the kings gradually gained control over the nobles and substituted the king's peace for that of the Church.
The term tenement, too, was substituted for that of storey, as the subdivision of a house, whilst in addition to inhabited and uninhabited houses, those occupied by day, but not by night, were separately recorded.
If A denotes the true area of the original trapezette, and B the aggregate area of the substituted figures, we have A B, where 41-denotes approximate equality.
The method is then modified by replacing B by an expression which gives the areas of the substituted figures approximately.
But the new constitution of that year substituted a court of appeals for the court of errors, merged the court of chancery into the supreme court, established in each county a new county court composed of a single judge, and, taking the appointment of judges from the governor, gave the election of them to the people.
In 1851 a compromise measure was substituted, increasing the state appropriation to $800,000 and exempting indigent parents from the " rate bill," which was finally abolished in 1867.
If, however, its presence is recognized sodium phosphate may be substituted.
If, for the single toothed wheel, be substituted a set of four with a common axis, in which the teeth are in the ratios 4: 5: 6: 8, and if the card be rapidly passed along their edges, we shall hear distinctly produced the fundamental chord C, E, G, C 1 and shall thus satisfy ourselves that the intervals C, E; C, G and C, C 1 are, 2 and 2 respectively.
Interesting results are obtained by singing the different vowels into a funnel substituted for the resonator in the figure.
In some cases riveted covers had to be substituted for the pins.
Much attention has been paid to the explanation of this fact, since knowledge on this point might enable an artificial product, without the disadvantages of this oil, to be substituted for it.
The Hare (or Rabbit), Monkey, Dog and Serpent reappeared without change; for the Tiger, Crocodile and Hen, unknown in America, the Ocelot, Lizard and Eagle were substituted as analogous.6 The Aztec calendar dated from the 7th century; but the zodiacal tradition embodied by it was doubtless much more ancient.
The " zodiac of labours " was replaced in French castles and hotels by a " zodiac of pleasures," in which hunting, hawking, fishing and dancing were substituted for hoeing, planting, reaping and ploughing.8 It is curious to find the same sequence of symbols employed for the same decorative purposes in India as in Europe.
The Regulations substituted statute law for administrative and military despotism, and made the governorgeneral in council responsible to the minister of the colonies at the Hague.
If leaf-mould is not at hand, turfy peat may be substituted for it.
Hence the name Brissotins, coined by Camille Desmoulins, which was sometimes substituted for that of Girondins, sometimes closely coupled with it.
Somewhat later it disappeared also in the case of the churches of less importance, patronal rights over these being substituted for the former absolute ownership. The pontificate of Alexander III.
Great Britain) a " most favoured nation " arrangement was substituted for the previous treaty regime.
It substituted specific duties for the ad valorem duties of 1846 and 1857, and made some other changes of significance, as in the higher duties upon iron and steel.
This further act of repression led to two terrible Cossack risings, in 1635 and 1636, put down only with the utmost difficulty, whereupon the diet of 1638 deprived the Cossacks of all their ancient privileges, abolished the elective hetmanship, and substituted for it a commission of Polish noblemen with absolute power, so that the Cossacks might well declare that those who hated them were lords over them.
The articles of impeachment were sent up to the Lords in October, the trial beginning on the 12th of March 1644, but the attempt to bring his conduct under a charge of high treason proving hopeless, an attainder was substituted and sent up to the Lords on the 22nd of November.
In 1875 Wiese was succeeded by Bonitz, the eminent Aristotelian scholar, who in 1849 had introduced mathematics and natural science into the schools of Austria, and had substituted the wide reading of classical authors for the prevalent practice of speaking and writing Latin.
The olefines may be synthetically prepared by eliminating water from the alcohols of the general formula CnH2n+1 OH, using sulphuric acid or zinc chloride generally as the dehydrating agent, although phosphorus pentoxide, syrupy phosphoric acid and anhydrous oxalic acid may frequently be substituted.
Chablay, Comptes rendus, 1906, 1 43, p. 123) 2CH 2 :CH CH 2 OH+2NH 3 Na = CH,:CH CH3+CH2:CH CH20Na +NaOH+2NH31 from the lower members of the series by heating them with alkyl halides in the presence of lead oxide or lime: C5H,9-I-2CH31 =2H1+ C 7 H, 4 i and by the action of the zinc alkyls upon the halogen substituted olefines.
As unsaturated compounds they can combine with two monovalent atoms. Hydrogen is absorbed readily at ordinary temperature in the presence of platinum black, and paraffins are formed; the halogens (chlorine and bromine) combine directly with them, giving dihalogen substituted compounds; the halogen halides to form monohalogen derivatives (hydriodic acid reacts most readily, hydrochloric acid, least); and it is to be noted that the haloid acids attach themselves in such a manner that the halogen atom unites itself to the carbon atom which is in combination with the fewest hydrogen atoms (W.
In the Weston standard cell cadmium and cadmium sulphate are substituted for zinc and zinc sulphate; it has the advantage of a much smaller coefficient of temperature variation than the Clark cell.
In these cases the vowel points attached to the written word (Kethibh) belong to the word which is to be substituted for it, the latter being placed in the margin with the initial letter of Qere (= to be read) prefixed to it.
- is to be substituted the new critical question - From these post-exilic collections how are the pre-exilic elements to be extracted ?
Some of the original proposals, which were much criticized, were subsequently dropped, including the permanent diversion of the Old Sinking Fund to a National Development Fund (created by a separate bill), and a tax on "ungotten minerals," for which was substituted a tax on mineral rights.
The culture of tobacco, which is the second most valuable crop in the state, was begun in the north part about 1780 and in the west and south early in the 19th century, but it was late in that century before it was introduced to any considerable extent in the Blue Grass Region, where it was then in a measure substituted for the culture of hemp. By 1849 Kentucky ranked second only to Virginia in the production of tobacco, and in 1899 it was far ahead of any other state in both acreage and yield, there being in that year 384,805 acres, which was 34'9% of the total acreage in the continental United States, yielding 314,288,050 lb.
Up to 1880 the railway mileage had increased to only 1,530; but during the next ten years it increased to 2,942, and railways were in considerable measure substituted for water craft.
(b) In determinations of volume which do not admit of a high degree of accuracy the cubic decimetre can be taken as equivalent to the litre; and in these determinations expressions of volumes based on the cube of the unit of linear measure can be substituted for expressions based on the litre as defined above.
He eventually became dictator, dissolved Congress (May 31, 1834) and the state legislatures, and substituted creatures of his 1834 own for the governors of the states and mayors of towns, then retiring into private life.
The Latin original is a glossed version of the Vulgate, and in the English translation the words of the gloss are often substituted for the strong and picturesque expressions of the Biblical text;.
Agriculture on the farms still operated was now greatly modified, and the production of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, poultry and eggs was largely substituted for the production of cereals.
By treaty of December 1145 he recognized the republic under his suzerainty, substituted a papal prefect for the "patrician" and returned to Rome.
The citrates act in precisely similar fashion, and may be substituted.
This seems to be still the law, although a declaration was substituted for the oath by the Statutory Declarations Act 18 35, s.
In both societies he was known as Il Lasca or Leuciscus, and this pseudonym is still frequently substituted for his proper name.
It is significant in this connexion that it was under Adrian (c. 774) that the papal chancery ceased to date by the regnal years of the Eastern emperor and substituted that of the pontificate.
It emerges because in all judgments on textual matters it is presupposed that they will be acted on, that a reading accepted will remain in the text, a rejected one obelized, enclosed between brackets or removed, and, in this last case, something else substituted in its place.
Other roots are substituted for it, notably that of Panax quinquefolium, distinguished as American ginseng, and imported from the United States.
The ancient Saxons had borrowed the week from some Eastern nation, and substituted the names of their own divinities for those of the gods of Greece.
Perceiving That The Measure Was Likely To Confer A Great Eclat On His Pontificate, Undertook The Long Desired Reformation; And Having Found The Governments Of The Principal Catholic States Ready To Adopt His Views, He Issued A Brief In The Month Of March 1582, In Which He Abolished The Use Of The Ancient Calendar, And Substituted That Which Has Since Been Received In Almost All Christian Countries Under The Name Of The Gregorian Calendar Or New Style.
The Chitons and their allies were placed under the Gastropoda, as a distinct branch called Isopleura, and for the Acephala de Blainville's name Lamellibranchia was substituted.
AZO COMPOUNDS, organic substances of the type R N:N R' (where R = an aryl radical and R' = a substituted alkyl, or aryl radical).
By them a written law has been substituted for that unwritten law which nations had been wont to construe with a latitude more or less corresponding to their power.
Belopolsky and Prince Galitzin, who substituted for the source an image formed of a stationary object in a rapidly moving mirror.
In 1871 a new Lectionary was substituted for the previously existing one, into the merits and demerits of which it is not possible to enter here; and in 1872, by the Act of Uniformity Amendment Act, a shortened form of service was provided instead of the present form of Morning and Evening Prayer for optional use in other than cathedral churches on all days exeept Sunday, Christmas Day, Ash Wednesday, Good Friday and Ascension Day; provision was also statutably made for the separation of services, and for additional services, to be taken, however, except so far as anthems and hymns are concerned, entirely out of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer.
Sainte Claire Deville's process, which used to be employed commercially, was essentially the same, except that sodium was substituted for potassium (Comptes rendus, 18 57, 44, p. 394), the product being further purified by redistillation.
In later processes, carnallite (a natural double chloride of magnesium and potassium) has commonly, after careful dehydration, been substituted for the single chloride.
He suggested that this theory of the substantial unity of a body might explain transubstantiation, by supposing that, while the monads and phenomena of bread remain, the vinculum substantiale of the body of Christ is substituted.
By thus supposing a psychical basis to evolution, Fechner, anticipating Wundt, substituted a psychical development of organs for Darwinian accidental variation.
He accepted from Hegel " the real is rational " without the Hegelian method, for which he substituted conscious experience as a revelation of the divine.
The needle b is then substituted for a, there being now no needle in the clamp attached to the microscope arm, and the difference between the reading now obtained and the dip, together with the weight added to the needle, gives the product of the moment of the needle b into the earth's total force.
Adiutrix, and achieved the final subjugation of Wales and the first conquest of Yorkshire, where a legionary fortress at York was substituted for that at Lincoln.
But orders were given soon after that the altars should be destroyed, and replaced by movable wooden tables; while from the revised Prayer-book of 1552 the word "altar" was carefully expunged, " God's board " or " the table " being substituted.
When tables were substituted for altars in the English churches, these were not merely movable, but at the administration of the Lord's Supper were actually moved into the body of the church, and placed table-wise - that is, with the long sides turned to the north and south, and the narrow ends to the east and west, - the officiating clergyman standing at the north side.
Thus he clearly described the preparation of hydrochloric acid by the action of oil of vitriol on common salt, the manifold virtues of sodium sulphate - sal mirabile, Glauber's salt - formed in the process being one of the chief themes of his Miraculum mundi; and he noticed that nitric acid was formed when nitre was substituted for the common salt.
the type of the leaden seal affixed to the bulls (representing the heads of the apostles Peter and Paul) was fixed, and the use of Roman minuscule finally substituted for that of the Lombard script.
It increased the number of senators and representatives, created the office of lieutenant-governor, substituted biennial for annual sessions of the legislature, introduced minority representation in the choice of the higher judiciary and of the county commissioners and auditors and provided (as had an amendment adopted in 1850) for the election of all judges by popular vote.
Subsequently when oxygen was substituted for air in the first method, so that all (instead of about one-seventh part) of the nitrogen was derived from ammonia, the difference rose to 2%.
In the case of the Norway hare, it has been stated that a general moult, including all the hairs and under fur, takes place and new white hairs are substituted.
Deville first selected the chloride as his raw material, but observing it to be volatile and extremely deliquescent, he soon substituted in its place a double chloride of aluminium and sodium.
When the Lombard kingdom fell before the Franks under Charlemagne in 774, the archbishops of Milan were still further strengthened by the close alliance between Charles and the Church, which gave a sort of confirmation to their temporal authority, and also by Charles's policy of breaking up the great Lombard fiefs and dukedoms, for which he substituted the smaller counties.
Stone copings are best, but they are costly, and Portland cement is sometimes substituted.
With this object in view, the early improvers of hot-house architecture substituted metal for wood in the construction of the roofs, and for the most part dispensed with back walls; but the conducting power of the metal caused a great irregularity of temperature, which it was found difficult to control; and, notwithstanding the elegance of metallic houses, this circumstance, together with their greater cost, has induced most recent authorities to give the preference to wood.
Winkler (1703-1770), professor of physics at Leipzig, substituted a leather cushion for the hand.
The joint effect of such chilling and such annealing is to make the metal much harder than if slowly cooled, because for each 1% of graphite which the chilling suppresses, 15% of the glass-hard cementite is substituted.
Thus, first, for the brittle glass-hard cementite there is gradually substituted the relatively harmless temper graphite; and, second, even this is in part removed by surface oxidation.
The eye end of the telescope tube is removed - a counterpoise to the object end being substituted in its place - and a prism is inserted at the intersection of the visual axis with the transit axis, so that the rays from the object-glass may be reflected through one of the tubes of the transit axis to an eye-piece in the pivot of this tube.
The third council of Carthage in 397 forbade anything but Holy Scripture to be read in church; this rule has been adhered to so far as the liturgical epistle and gospel, and occasional additional lessons in the Roman missal are concerned, but in the divine office, on feasts when nine lessons are read at matins, only the first three lessons are taken from Holy Scripture, the next three being taken from the sermons of ecclesiastical writers, and the last three from expositions of the day's gospel; but sometimes the lives or Passions of the saints, or of some particular saints, were substituted for any or all of these breviary lessons.
Bancroft's father was a Unitarian, and he had devoted his son to the work of the ministry; but the young man's first experiments at preaching, shortly after his return from Europe in 1822, were unsatisfactory, the theological teaching of the time having substituted criticism and literature for faith.
Enclosure Acts often gave a portion of the lands enclosed to the spiritual or lay rector and exempted the rest from tithes; and in other local acts a corn rent or yearly money payment was substituted for tithes.
Commissioners (now the board of agriculture) are appointed to execute the acts; a rent charge on all lands liable to tithes at the time of the passing of the first act is substituted for those tithes, of which the gross amount is ascertained either by voluntary parochial agreement, or, failing that, by compulsory award confirmed by the commissioners; and the value of the tithes is fixed in the latter case by their average value in the particular parish during the seven years preceding Christmas 1835, without deduction for parochial or county and other rates, charges and assessments falling on tithes, the rent charge being liable to all the charges to which tithes were liable.
As already indicated above, certain lands are exempt from payment of tithes while in the occupation of their owners, either by reason of their having been parcel of the possessions of any privileged order, or by reason of their being of the tenure of ancient demesne and exempt whilst in the tenure, occupation or manurance of the Crown, its tenants, farmers and lessees or under-tenants, although they are subject to tithes when aliened or occupied by subjects not being such; and in these and in all such cases, with the consent of such owners, a fixed rent charge may be substituted for any contingent rent charge imposed on them (2 & 3 Vict.
C. 93) a gross rent charge can be substituted for a commutation of tithes on common rights at a fixed sum per head; a gross rent charge made payable in respect of the tithes of a gated or stinted pasture rated to the relief of the poor may be apportioned thereupon and enforced in the method prescribed by the other Tithe Acts; a rent charge on commons may be commuted for part of the land or redeemed, if the landowners and persons liable for tithe so agree; and upon enclosure, a rate per head may be converted into a rent charge on the lands allotted.
The act of 1891, has, however, altered this method of recovering tithes, and substituted another intended to shift the burden of responsibility from the occupier to the landowner, by making the latter directly and solely responsible, but giving the remedy against the land.
In 1674 John Fell, the dean of Christ Church, who bore the charges of the Latin translation of Anthony Wood's History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford (1670), struck out all the complimentary epithets in the account of his life, and substituted very different ones; but this time the king did suffer him to defend himself by publishing a dignified letter (Vit.
A further characteristic feature of the cellular structure of the tea-leaf is the abundance, especially in grown leaves, of large, branching, thick-walled, smooth cells (idioblasts), which, although they occur in other leaves, are not found in such as are likely to be confounded with or substituted for tea.
AQUARII, a name given to the Christians who substituted water for wine in the Eucharist.
is merely attached to and not substituted for that of king of Prussia.
Auersperg (Anastasius Griin) entered the diet of Carniola carrying the whole of the Slovenian literature under his arm, as evidence that the Slovenian language could not well be substituted for German as a medium of higher education.
Collisions on the southern border of the protectorate between French and German troops led in 1905-1906 to an accurate survey of the south and east frontier regions and to a new convention (1908) whereby for the straight lines marking the frontier in former agreements natural features were largely substituted.
Thus the Koran itself confesses that the unbelievers cast it up as a reproach to the Prophet that God sometimes substituted one verse for another (xvi.
The Pindaris had ceased to exist, and peace and security had been substituted for misery and terror.
A pillar of earth before the dam is called the Bride of the Nile, and Arab historians relate that this was substituted, at the Moslem conquest, for a virgin whom it was the custom annually to sacrifice, to ensure a plentiful inundation.
The nature of the assigned revenue was altered, the land I tax being substituted for those previously assigned, that tax being chosen as it had a greater character of stability than any other source of revenue.
In later times the theory of Ennead became very popular and was adopted by most of local priesthoods, who substituted their own favorite god Re, sometimes retaining and sometimes changing the names he other eight deities.
Damascus was taken by the Carmathians, and the name of the Abbasid caliph substituted for that of Moizz in public worship. IJasan al-A~am advanced from Damascus through Palestine to Egypt, encountering little resistance on the way; and in the autumn of 971 Jauhar found himself besieged in his new city.
So soon as al-Aflal had got possession of his nephews person, he started on an expedition for the recovery of Damascus: al-Adil not only frustrated this, but drove him back to Egypt, where on the 25th of January 1200 a battle was fought between the armies of the two at Bilbeis, resulting in the defeat of al-Aflal, who was sent back to Sarkhad, while aI-Adil assumed the regency, for which after a few months he substituted the sovereignty, causing his nephew to be deposed.
Napoleon's occupation of the Ionian Islands and his relations with Ali had alarmed Russia, which feared that French influence would be substituted for her own in the Balkan peninsula; and on the 5th of September 1798 a formal alliance, to which Great Britain soon after acceded, was signed on behalf of the emperor Paul and the sultan.
19a was afterwards substituted).
For his former favourites were substituted energetic advisers, his brother-in-law Charles of Anjou, Dunois (the famous bastard of Orleans), Pierre de Breze, Richemont and others.
The cathedral of St Sophia in the upper castle, built in the 12th century, fell to ruins in the 18th century, whereupon the United Greek bishop substituted a modern structure.
But in 1831 for the Doctor's degree the faculty substituted, following British custom, the degree of Master of Arts.
The symmetrically substituted ureas are generally tasteless, while the asymmetrical derivatives are sweet.
His charters to landowners and burghs (charters not being novel in Scotland, but now more lavishly conferred) substituted written documents for the unwritten customs of Celtic tenure, and converted the under kings of provinces into earls of the king, while vice-comites, or sheriffs, administered local justice in the king's name, though Celtic custom still prevailed, under a thin veneer of law, in the Celtic regions, as in Galloway.
The Essex and the Essex Union, the Surrey and the Surrey Union, the Old Berkeley, the West Kent, the Burstow, the Hertfordshire, the Crawley and Horsham, the Puckeridge, as regards foxhounds; the Berkhampstead, the Enfield Chase, Lord Rothschild's, the Surrey, the West Surrey and the Warnham, as regards staghounds - as well as the Bucks and Berks, which was substituted for the Royal Buckhounds - are within easy reach of the capital.
There is a modern Greek folk-tale which preserves some features of the legend of Theseus and the Minotaur, but for the Minotaur has been substituted a seven-headed snake.
There is no great display of arboreal vegetation anywhere except in the valleys and lower passes where the rainfall is abundant, but in general terms it may be said that the rainfall and vegetation which characterize the Quito basin soon disappear as one proceeds southward, and are substituted by arid conditions.
Into his services he introduced many peculiar alterations: he drew up a "Primitive Liturgy," in which he substituted for the Nicene and Athanasian creeds two creeds taken from the Apostolical Constitutions; for his "Primitive Eucharist" he made use of unleavened bread and mixed wine; he distributed at the price of one shilling medals of admission to his oratory, with the device of a sun rising to the meridian, with the motto Ad summa, and the words Inveniam viam aut faciam below.
In 1854 selection by examination as a method of appointment to posts in the English public service was first substituted for the patronage system, which had caused grave dissatisfaction (see Macaulay's speech on the subject, The Times of the 25th of June 1853).
Being a much more costly spice than cassia, that comparatively harsh-flavoured substance is frequently substituted for or added to it.
To this relatively conservative bill, which substituted in many instances ad valorem for specific duties, and was intended by its author to be a revenue as well as a protective measure, were added many amendments which made the bill more strongly protectionist, and in some cases were vigorously opposed by Morrill.
The divergence appears when plates are substituted for sheets.
On the History of Animals no commentary at all exists, and Plato's Republic is substituted for the then inaccessible Politics.
But when Fabre substituted dead individuals of her own species or live larvae of another genus, the Osmia had no scruple in destroying them, so as to bite her way out to air and liberty.
If the unfinished cell in the old nest had been only just begun, while that in the substituted nest were nearly completed, the bee would add so much material as to make the cell much larger than the normal size, her instinct evidently being to do a certain amount of building work before filling the cell with food.
If this "royal jelly" continue to be given to the grub throughout its life, it will grow into a queen; if the ordinary mixture of honey and digested pollen be substituted, as is usually the case from the fourth day, the grub will become a worker.
If the offer of the zamindar was not deemed satisfactory, another contractor was substituted in his place.
When Lord Curzon became viceroy in 1898, he reversed the policy on the north-west frontier which had given rise to the Tirah campaign, withdrew outlying garrisons in tribal country, substituted for them tribal militia, and created the new North-West Frontier province, for the purpose of introducing consistency of policy and firmness of control upon that disturbed border.
A glass prism of total reflection is sometimes substituted for the plane mirror.
21 (b), in which case the upper section of the tube bearing the plane mirror is removed and a shorter section substituted for it.
The sudden withdrawal of morphine should therefore never be practised with takers of large quantities of the drug, but gradually diminishing doses given by the physician should be substituted.
S(= selectae), in which a spondee is substituted for a trochee in the cadence, e.g.
As these began to develop in civilization, they substituted, at least so far as their shrine was concerned, buildings of mud-brick for reed huts.
As to al-Himar this was substituted also by the Khorasanians for his usual title, al-Faras, "the race-horse."
Baths, the Zeirid ruler of the Maghrib, made himself independent, and substituted in prayer the name of the Abbasid caliph for that of Mostansir.
Yemen had been subjected, and at Mecca and Medina his name was substituted in the public prayers for that of the Fatimite caliph.
Winkler discovered that an iron chain wound round the bottle could be substituted for the hand, and Sir William Watson in England shortly afterward showed that iron filings or mercury could replace the water within the jar.
The justification of this assumption lies in the fact that the values of c found in this manner, when substituted in equation (25) for the saturation-pressure, give correct results for p within the probable limits of error of Regnault's experiments.
The Tournois was substituted for the Angevin money in Normandy after 1204.
No one being thought worthy to succeed Codrus, the title of king was abolished, and that of archon substituted for it.
It therefore made the aspirates A, E, Q and the semi-vowel I into vowels, and apparently converted the semi-vowel Y = w into the vowel which it placed at the end of the alphabet and substituted for it as the sixth symbol of the alphabet the letter F with the old value of w.
Leaves of aluminium foil may with advantage be substituted for gold-leaf, and a scale is sometimes added to indicate the angular divergence of the leaves.
The Christian passages, which are poetically of no value, are evidently of literary origin, and may be of any date down to that of the extant MS. The curious passage which says that the subjects of Hrothgar sought deliverance from Grendel in prayer at the temple of the Devil, " because they knew not the true God," must surely have been substituted for a passage referring sympathetically to the worship of the ancient gods.
In 1874 Congress substituted a government by three commissioners appointed by the president with the concurrence of the Senate, and in 1878 the government by commissioners was made permanent.
Leibnitz the vis viva; the name energy was substituted by T.
It also determines the forms of the teeth of straight racks, if one of the centres be removed, and a straight line EIE, parallel to the direction of motion of the rack, and perpendicular to CilCi, be substituted for a pitch-circle.
The only modification required in the formulae is, that in equation (26) the difference of the angular velocities should be substituted for their sum.
Then, if possible, B and, C themselves are to be resolved each into rnI factors (counting 1 as a factor), which factors, or multiples of them, shall be not less than t nor greater than 6t; or if B and C contain inconveniently large prime factors, an approximate velocity ratio, found by the method of continued fractions, is to be substituted for B/C as before.
The mode of distribution of a force applied to a solid body requires to be considered when its stiffness and strength are treated of; but, in questions respecting the action of a force upon a rigid body considered as a whole, the resultant of the distributed force, determined according to the principles of statics, and considered as acting in a single line and applied at a single point, may, for the occasion, be substituted for the force as really distributed.
which, substituted in equation (63), gives the work lost in a unit of time by th~ friction of involute teeth.
~ is to be substituted for ri r2 r1 ri 103.
The Greek forms are probably simple mistakes for the Hebrew, k (:) having been replaced by r (') and ph (cp) substituted for v (1).
and George V., and in August 1910 parliament substituted for it a simple declaration of adhesion to the Protestant religion.
Wolffenstein, 1899, p. 2 534); by the hydrolysis of succinonitrile (from ethylene dibromide) C 2 H 4 - >C 2 H 4 Br 2 --*C 2 H 4 (CN) 2 - >C 2 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2; by the hydrolysis of 0-cyanpropionic ester; and by the condensation of sodioinalonic ester with monochloracetic ester and hydrolysis of the resulting ethane tricarboxylic ester (R02C)2CH CH2 C02R; this method is applicable to the preparation of substituted succinic acids.
Nothing remained to check those centrifugal forces in state and church which substituted a confederation of rival European powers for the earlier ideal of universal monarchy, and separate religious constitutions for the previous Catholic unity.
But at first little beyond empty rhetoric and clumsy compilation was substituted.
In like manner the new learning failed to penetrate all classes of society with the rapidity of its expansion in Italy, nor was the new ideal of life and customs so easily substituted for the medieval.
For obedience to central authority was substituted balance of power.
About 1839, on the recommendation of Graham, whom in 1837 he had accompanied to University College, London, he was appointed chemist at James Muspratt's alkali works in Lancashire; in connexion with alkali he showed that cast-iron vessels could be satisfactorily substituted for silver in the manufacture of caustic soda, and worked out improvements in the production of chlorate of potash.
Sir Isaac Newton substituted a ball of glass for sulphur in the electrical machine and made other not unimportant additions to electrical knowledge.
But his advice was neglected by the vacillating and peace-loving monarch, his proffered proclamation was put aside, and a weak, featureless production substituted in its place.
The ketenes are usually obtained by the action of zinc on ethereal or ethyl acetate solutions of halogen substituted acid chlorides or bromides.
Thought or conception without a subjectagent appears as the principle - thought or thinking in its universality without any individual substrata in which it is embodied: TO voeav or vona-is is to be substituted for vas.
The earlier differs from the later exposition in allowing an objective causal relation between thought and extension, for which there is substituted in the Ethics the idea of a thoroughgoing parallelism.
Hankel still further improved the dry pile electrometer by giving a slow motion movement to the two plates, and substituted a galvanic battery with a large number of cells for the dry pile, and also employed a divided scale to measure the movements of the gold-leaf (Pogg.
An ancient legal conception, it has been said, corresponds not to one but to several modern conceptions; and the proposition is equally true when economic is substituted for legal.
Ixion abused his pardon by trying to seduce Hera; but the goddess substituted for herself a cloud, by which he became the father of the Centaurs.
The marriage, however, never got beyond the betrothal stage, and at Earl Ragnvald's suggestion Astrid, her half-sister, was substituted, contrary to the will of Olaf Skottkonung.
and Persia, which instituted various reforms in the customs service, secured to both countries the most-favored-nation treatment, and substituted specific import and export duties for the charge of 5% ad valorem provided for in the treaty of 1857.
The solution, known as baryta-water, finds an extensive application in practical chemistry, being used in gas-analysis for the determination of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; and also being used in organic chemistry as a hydrolysing agent for the decomposition of complex ureides and substituted aceto-acetic esters, while E.
44), chairs were substituted for couches in the case of goddesses, and the lectisternium in their case became a sellisternium (the reading, however, is not certain).
Through the firmness of the Transvaal delegates, supported by the Progressives, the principle of equal rights was retained; the concession made to the Cape was the abandonment of proportional representation, while one-membered constituencies were substituted for three-membered constituencies.
They substituted primitive Pneuma for his primitive fire, but so far as they are hylozoists at all they stand upon the same ground with him.
For this the Stoics substituted four summa genera, all subordinate, so that each in turn is more precisely determined by the next.
The revolution of the 5th of October 1910 brought the monarchy to an end and substituted republican government for it.
By this coup d'etat the constitution of 1822 was substituted for the charter of 1826; and a Septembrist ministry under the Viscount Sft da Bandeira replaced the Chartist ministry under Saldanha, Terceira and Palmella.
He found the stage occupied mainly by religious plays in which there appeared no trace of the Greek or Roman theatre, and, admiring what he had seen in Italy, he and his followers protested against the name auto, restored that of comedy, and substituted prose for verse.
(17) Both p and x are functions of z, the value of which remains the same when z - c is substituted for z.
This view is confirmed by experiments in which other gases are substituted for air as the environment of colliding jets.
Wright and Douglas showed that under these conditions phagocytosis might occur when a small quantity of normal serum was present, whereas it was absent when normal salt solution was substituted for the serum; the latter thus contained substances which made the organisms susceptible to the action of the phagocytosis.
From the articles substituted in the London convention of the 27th of February 1884 for those of 1881, the word " suzerainty " was omitted.
An inscription on the gun recording that fact was erased by Aurangzeb, who substituted the present inscription stating that he conquered Bijapur in 1686.
The presence of the phenanthrene nucleus and the chain system CH 3 N C C follows from the fact that these alkaloids, by appropriate treatment, yield a substituted phenanthrene and also dimethylaminoethanol (CH3)2N CH2 CH20H.
On the loth of September 1777 it was amended by the New Jersey legislature, the words "state" and "states" being substituted for the words " colony" (or " province") and " colonies."
In 974 he was substituted by Crescentius and the Roman barons for Benedict VI., who had been assassinated.
It substituted the work of the genius for the miraculous intervention of Providence, but, apart from certain abstract formulae such as Truth and Right, knew nothing of why or how.
Penaud also substituted india-rubber under torsion for the whalebone and clock springs of the smaller models, and the steam of the larger ones.
That act abolished the old school boards and school attendance committees, and substituted a single authority for all kinds of schools and for all kinds of education.
A state board of education, composed of one member from each county, was established in 1846, but for this was substituted, in 1852, a commissioner of schools for each county, appointed by the governor, and two years later a state superintendent of schools was substituted for the county commissioners.
The subject has been especially studied by Skraup, Konigs, and von Miller; Kiinigs and von Miller have proposed formulae consisting of a piperidine ring substituted with a vinyl group; in the former that is a bridge of CH 2 C(OH) from the nitrogen atom to the -y-carbon atom, connexion with the quinoline residue being made at the hydroxylic carbon atom through a CH2 group: whilst in the latter the piperidine ring is substituted by a methyl group in addition to the vinyl group and the bridge is simply C(OH), with which connexion is made as before.
The name Abaelardus (also written Abaelardus, Abaielardus, and in many other ways) is said to be a corruption of Habelardus, substituted by himself for a nickname Bajolardus given to him when a student.
Direct taxation in the shape of income tax was substituted for indirect taxation previously levied, in order to relieve trade from the shackles of duties and charges which had become allembracing.
The town was laid out again in 1835 by Ebenezer Martin (son of Absalom Martin) and was called Martinsville; the present name was substituted a few years later.
Although nominally tribasic the commonest metallic salts are dibasic. Organic ethers, however, are known in which one, two and three of the hydrogen atoms are substituted (Michaelis and Becker, Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1003).
In all those passages of the Old Testament where anthropomorphic terms are used of God, the Memra is substituted for God.
The voivode Radu (1462-75) was substituted for this monster by Turkish influence, and constrained to pay a tribute of 12,000 ducats; but Vlad returned to the throne in 1476-77.
The central commission was at the same time abolished, and a council of state charged with preparing bills substituted for it.
The belfry which rises in the centre of the facade dates from the end of the 13th century; it has long been famous for its chime of bells, but the civic fathers have caused modern airs to be substituted for the old hymn.
An ordinance passed in 1827, abolishing the old Dutch courts of landroost and heemraden (resident magistrates being substituted) and decreeing that henceforth all legal proceedings should be conducted in English; the granting in 1828, as a result of the representations of the missionaries, of equal rights with whites to the Hottentots and other free coloured people; the imposition (1830) of heavy penalties for harsh treatment of slaves, and finally the emancipation of the slaves in 1834,3 - all these things increased the dislike of the farmers to the government.
The caliphs substituted a covering of figured brocade, and the Egyptian government still sends with each pilgrim caravan from Cairo a new kiswa of black brocade, adorned with a broad band embroidered with golden inscriptions from the Koran, as well as a richer curtain for the door.'
In repairing this work the perfectly safe form shown by the dotted lines ka, kj was substituted for the flat surface aj, and this alone, if originally adopted, would have prevented dangerous shearing strains.
So-called " natural cement " has been used, except during frosty weather, when Portland cement was substituted on account of its more rapid setting.
Decker (Ber., 9 5, 38, p. 1144) has found that many ortho substituted quinolines will not combine with methyl iodide owing to steric hindrance, but the difficulty can be overcome in most cases by using methyl sulphate and heating the reaction components to ioo C. for half an hour.
Aschan (Ber., 1902, 35, p. 33 8 9) depicts these cases by representing the plane of the carbon atoms of the ring as a straight line and denoting the substituted hydrogen atoms by the letters X, Y, Z.
The ministers whom Ill, he substituted for the creatures of Mortimer were capable, if not talented administrators.
of all tion olinthose who objected to see the kings will substituted for ~~iI~i11c~ the law, even if they wished to see the Protestant dissenters tolerated.
The Revolution had made war on princes and privilege, and the common people had in general gained wherever the Napoleonic rgime had been substituted for their effete despotisms; but the Continental System was felt as an oppression in every humble household, suddenly deprived of the little imported luxuries, such as sugar and coffee, which custom had made necessaries; and from this time date the beginnings of that popular revolt against Napoleon that was to culminate in the War of Liberation.
by the offer of a partition of the world, concluded the treaty of Tilsit, which not only brought Russia into the Continental System, but substituted for a coalition against France a formidable coalition against England.
They substituted for it a modified proposal which they were unable to carry.
It was obvious that the old expedient of increasing taxation had failed, and that some new method had to be substituted for it.
The encumbered estates act, though it substituted a solvent for an insolvent proprietary, placed the Irish tenants at the mercy of landlords of whom they had no previous knowledge, who were frequently absentees, who bought the land as a matter of business, and who dealt with it on business principles by raising the rent.
For, while hitherto the debate had turn.ed on the technical points whether an affirmation could be substituted for an oath, or whether a person who had declared that an oath had no meaning for him could properly be sworn, the end at which Bradlaughs opponents were thenceforward aiming was the imposition of a new religious testthe belief in a Godon members of the House of Commons.
As, can i nes 11 _ 1, premolars,, molars, 3-3311-11' however, initial letters may be substituted for the names of each group, and it is unnecessary to give more than the numbers of the teeth on one side of the mouth, the formula may be abbreviated into: g, 1 i p4,mR; total 44.
These papers taken together constitute a great treatise on logic, in which he substituted improved systems of notation, and developed a new logic of relations, and a new onymatic system of logical expression.
He found fault with the church for having substituted for Christian liberty a yoke of Jewish bondage.'
But already, at the end of 1099 Dagobert, archbishop of Pisa, had been substituted as patriarch for Arnulf (who had been acting as vicar) by the influence of Bohemund; and Dagobert, whose vassal Godfrey had at once piously acknowledged himself, seems to have forced him to an agreement in April Too, by which he promised Jerusalem and Jaffa to the patriarch, in case he should acquire in their place Cairo or some other town, or should die without issue.
Many substituted hydroxylamines are known, substitution taking a place either in the or a position (NH 2 OH).
He further brought into prominence the effects of refraction in altering the apparent places of the heavenly bodies, and substituted Venus for the moon as a connecting-link between observations of the sun and stars.
In Greek mythology the term was specially applied to the stone supposed to have been swallowed by Cronus (who feared misfortune from his own children) in mistake for his infant son Zeus, for whom it had been substituted by Uranus and Gaea, his wife's parents (Etymologicum Magnum, s.v.).
We might further derive from the general spirit of Christian unworldliness that repudiation of the secular modes of conflict, even in a righteous cause, which substituted a passive patience and endurance for the old pagan virtue of courage, in which the active element was prominent.
Each of these hydro-carbons gives rise to two alcohols: n-butane gives a primary and a secondary; and iso-butane a primary, when the substitution takes place in one of the methyl groups, and a tertiary, when the hydrogen atom of the: CH group is substituted.
A bill was introduced into parliament in 1864 to make the metric system compulsory for certain purposes, but owing to government objections a permissive bill was substituted and subsequently became law as the Metric Act 1864.
In 1869 the regency had substituted a new constitution for that of 1838.
A continuous shifting of the standpoint was in large measure substituted for the displacements of the objects viewed, which thus acquired a regularity and consistency heretofore lacking to them.
in diameter; he substituted equatorial for zodiacal armillae, thus definitively establishing the system of measurements in right ascension and declination; and improved the graduation of circular arcs by adopting the method of " transversals."
Barnes had a horror of Latin forms in English, and would have substituted English compounds for many Latin forms in common use.
In the United States the law in regard to bigamy is practically founded on the English statute of 1604, with the exception that imprisonment and a fine, varying in the different states, were substituted instead of making the offence a felony.
Two legal decisions swept away the customs of tanistry and of Irish gavelkind, and the English land system was violently [From Anglo-Norman Invasion] substituted.
The attempt to govern Ireland under what was called " the ordinary law " was necessarily abandoned, and a perpetual Crimes Act was passed which enabled the lordlieutenant to proclaim disturbed districts and dangerous associations, and substituted trial by magistrates for trial by jury in the case of certain acts of violence.
But in opposition to the party of order, he defined his own personal policy, as in his letter to Edgard Ney (August 16, 1849), which was not deliberated upon at the council of ministers, and asserted his intention "of not stifling Italian liberty," or by the change of ministry on the 31st of October 1849, when, "in order to dominate all parties," he substituted for the men coming from the Assembly, such as Odilon Barrot, creatures of his own, such as Rouher and de Parieu, the Auvergne avocats, and Achille Fould, the banker.
he began the fatal era of great international wars by his unlucky crusade against the king of Aragon, who, thanks to the massacre of the Sicilian Vespers, substituted his own predominance in Sicily for that of Charles of Anjou.
The former overwhelmed John the Fearless, who fled from Paris; and the Armagnacs, re-entering on his exit, substituted white terror for red terror, from the 12th of December 1413 to the 28th of July 1414.
The Protestant alliance was substituted for the Turkish alliance, and Henry II.
But after his mediation in the treaty of Breda (July 1667), when Hugues de Lionne, secretary of state for foreign affairs, had isolated Spain, he substituted soldiers for the jurists and cannon for diplomacy in the matter of the queens rights.
Followir~g on an edict registered by the lit de justice, which forbade any remonstrance in political matters, the parlement had resigned, and had been imitated by the provincial parlements; whereupon Maupeou, an energetic chancellor, suppressed the parlements and substituted superior councils of magistrates appointed by the king (1771).
in the course of the flour-war (guerre des farines) (AprilMay 1775); he substituted a territorial subsidy for the royal corveso burdensome upon the peasantsand thus tended to abolish privilege in the matter of imposts; and he established the freedom of industry by the dissolution of privileged trade corporations (1776).
The historic divisions of the realm were wiped out; for the old provinces were substituted eighty-three departments; and with the provinces vanished the whole organization, territorial, administrative and ecclesiastical, of the ancien rÃ©gime.
The ~ P Committee of Public Safety, now a permanency, first annulled the Convention and was itself the central comrnitte~e authority, its organization in Paris being the twelve ~~e1~i6 committees substituted for the provisional executive committee and the six ministers, the Committee of General Security for the maintenance of the police, and the arbitrary Revolutionary Tribunal.
He substituted Tuscans for foreigners in government The offices, introduced a system of free trade in foodstuffs (at the suggestion of the Sienese Sallustio II.
He reorganized taxation on a basis of equality for all citizens, thereby abolishing one of the most vexatious privileges of the nobility, reformed the administration of justice and local government, suppressed torture and capital punishment, and substituted a citizen militia for the standing army.
They excluded the Deity from all direct action upon the world, and substituted for a cosmic principle the active intellect, - thus holding a form of Pantheism.
incorporated the gild of the Brethren and Sisters of Maydenhith to provide certain necessaries for the celebration of Mass and to keep the bridge in order: the gild, dissolved at the Reformation, was revived by Elizabeth, who, however, later (1581) substituted for it a corporation consisting of a warden, bridgemaster, burgesses and commonalty: the governing charter until the 19th century was that of James I.
In fact, the lateral systems are obtained when a plate of selenite is substituted for the quartz.
But he substituted the equally unnecessary hypothesis of a magnetic attraction, and failed to perceive that the phenomenon to be explained was, in relation to absolute space, not a movement but the absence of movement.
Though this process is now largely supplemented, and even displaced, by various rivals, at the time it was brought out it was of enormous industrial importance, since it effected a great cheapening in the price of steel, and led to that material being widely substituted for others which were inferior in almost every respect but that of cost.
(2) Words terminating in s surd or sonant and in x anciently formed their plural by adding to the singular the syllable es (bras, brasses; pres,, preses; maleix, maleixes), but subsequently, from about the 15th centui-v, the Castilian influence substituted Os, so that one now hears brrissos, presos, ma~eixos.
But the simple perfect is no longer employed in the spoken language, which has substituted for it a periphrastic perfect, composed of the infinitive o~ the verb and the present of the auxiliary anar: va-ig pendre, for example, does not mean I am going to take, but I have taken.
D between vowels kept its ground longer than in Castilian: documents of the 14th century supply such forms as vidieron, vido, hudso, provedir, red emsr, prodeza, Benedit, vidiendo, &c.; but afterwards y came to be substituted fordordj: veyere (vi d e r e), seyer (s e d e r e), seya (s edo a t), goyo (g a u d I u m), enueyo (I nod i u m).
DBbereiner he substituted a glass tube closed by a plug of plaster of Paris, and with this simple appliance he developed the law now known by his name "that the diffusion rate of gases is inversely as the square root of their density."
In the country under his dominion the khalifa's government was carried on after the manner of other Mahommedan states, but pilgrimages to the Mandi's tomb at Omdurman were substituted for pilgrimages to Mecca.
Another bill which he had much at heart, on merchant shipping, had to be abandoned, and a royal commission substituted, but the subsequent legislation in1888-1894owed much to his efforts.
The attempt to solve the apparent incongruity of a perfect union of two complete and distinct natures in one person produced first Apollinarianism, which substituted the divine Logos for the human y ob's or 7rveuµa of Jesus, thereby detracting from the completeness of his humanity; and then Nestorianism, which destroyed the unity of Christ's person by affirming that the divine Logos dwelt in the man Jesus as in a temple, and that the union of the two was in respect of dignity, and furthermore that, inasmuch as the Logos could not have been born, to call Mary 9eororcos, " Godbearer," was absurd and blasphemous.
At this time there was evidently a tendency to breed a somewhat lighter and speedier horse; but, while the introduction of a more active animal would soon have led to the displacement of the ponderous but powerful cavalry horse then in use, the substituted variety would have been unable to carry the weight of armour with which horse and rider were alike protected; and so in the end the old breed was kept up for a time.
Its red, blue and black flag was the standard of revolution in Italy until substituted by the red, white and green in 1831.
When first settled it was named Nashborough in honour of Abner Nash (1716-1786), who was at the time governor of North Carolina, or more probably in honour of the Revolutionary general, Francis Nash (1720-1777), a brother of Abner, killed at Germantown; but when, in 1784, it was incorporated as a town by the North Carolina legislature the present name was substituted.
From that day British authority was substituted for Fula authority throughout the protectorate.
By the treaty of Berlin, 13thof July 1878, alike engagement to the six signatory powers was substituted for that to Russia.
Prazmowski who substituted a Wenham diffracting division prism at the position of the real image of the exit pupil of the objective formed by a reversing system.
Anilides, compounds in which the amino group is substituted by an acid radical, are prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; antifebrin or acetanilide is thus obtained from acetic acid and aniline.
Courts of justice were substituted in 1822 for courts-martial; and in 1825 the colony was made independent of New South Wales, Colonel Arthur being appointed governor.
It may have been the impulse given by the final supremacy of the caliphate to the long process which eventually substituted a new branch of Semitic speech for the Aramaic (which had now prevailed for a millennium and a half), that led Jacob to adopt the Greek vowel signs for use in Syriac. A century later Theophilus of Edessa (d.
and the English land system substituted.
The great work of Kant absolutely closed the lines of speculation along which the philosophical literature of the 18th century had proceeded, and substituted for them a new and more comprehensive method of regarding the essential problems of thought, a method which has prescribed the course of philosophic speculation in the present age.
The court of civil appeals, which in 1907 was substituted for the court of chancery appeals, is also composed of five judges not more than two of whom shall reside in the same grand division.
If the patient does not tolerate an ACE inhibitor (usually due to cough ), an ARB should be substituted.
Powdered Digitalis leaf is occasionally adulterated; the following leaves have been substituted for the true drug: mullein (Verbascum thapsus, fam.
However for tri and tetra substituted alkenes the situation is not as clear.
antiphon texts will then be substituted with officially approved music settings provided?
In general a qualitatively similar effect is expected for toluene, and other methyl substituted aromatics.
boron atoms is substituted with iodine.
Variation ground chili can be substituted for the fresh chili.
I substituted a crude trailer out of a plastic milk crate on a plywood base which works well on the original chassis.
The haphazard cylinders he substituted displayed a musical fantasia.
Brass was substituted more and more for bronze, and gold inlay replaced red copper.
For commands that are not internal to the shell, the command name is substituted separately from the argument list.
I have substituted some healing herbs for the crushed nightshade we found in Turok's quarters.
polenta fritters, Fried Pumpkin, Fried Squash, and Parsnips may also be added or substituted if desired.
rye whiskey was substituted for the cognac.
signatoryspan>Authorized Signatories may be applied or substituted at the discretion of the Vice President (Student Activities ).
Quentin has apparently substituted for Mark who is alleged to have the snuffles.
substituted the word " representative " .
substituted at half-time.
In 1870, the cocktail was changed when American rye whiskey was substituted for the cognac.
Brown writes: "If for the theory ` life without air ' is substituted the consideration that yeast cells can use oxygen in the manner of ordinary aerobic fungi, and probably do require it for the full completion of their lifehistory, but that the exhibition of their fermentative functions is independent of their environment with regard to free oxygen, it will be found that there is nothing contradictory in Pasteur's experiments to such a hypothesis."
One of the chief subjects for consideration was the creation of a "tribunal of reference"; but the resolutions on this subject were withdrawn, owing, it is said, to the opposition of the American bishops, and a more general resolution in favour of a "consultative body" was substituted.
Their preponderance in Ulster and their consciousness of their great service to England led them first of all to hope that Presbyterianism might be substituted for Episcopacy in Ulster, and afterwards, that it might be placed on an equal footing with the latter.
For the policy Of assimilation there was substituted the policy of association, which had for aim the development of the colonies and protectorates upon natural, I.e.
His administration as it stands in history is undoubtedly open to the charge that after abolishing the absolutism of the ancient monarchy he substituted for it, not law and liberty, but a military tyranny far more despotic than the most arbitrary administration of Charles I.
In the latter case, which is the standard practice, mechanical vibration of the siphon is substituted in the place of electrification of the ink, so as to eliminate the effect of atmospheric conditions which frequently caused discontinuity in the flow of ink.
The Field-Marshal received him most courteously and offered not only to waive the demand for a part of Piedmontese territory, but to enlarge the kingdom, on condition that the constitution should be abolished and the blue Piedmontese flag substituted for the tricolor.
This, according to Westermarck, is the central idea of human sacrifice: the victim is substituted for the sacrificer, to deliver him from perils by disease, famine or, more indefinitely, from the wrath of the god in general.
For the external supports which had vanished Jeremiah substituted a basis which was internal, personal and spiritual (i.e.
On the other hand are the evolutionists, who have substituted for the utilitarian ideal of the "greatest happiness" those of "race-preservation" and the "survival of the fittest" (see Ethics, ad.
The charter of 1614 substituted markets on Tuesdays and Thursdays for the Wednesday market and added two fairs one at Corpus Christi and the other on the Thursday before St Andrew.
The former substituted for the salt, sulphur and mercury of Basil Valentine and Paracelsus three earths - the mercurial, the vitreous and the combustible - and he explained combustion as depending on the escape of this last combustible element; while Stahl's conception of phlogiston - not fire itself, but the principle of fire - by virtue of which combustible bodies burned, was a near relative of the mercury of the philosophers, the soul or essence of ordinary mercury.
44 restored the quaestors, but nominated by the emperor for three years, for whom Nero in 56 substituted two ex-praetors, under the same conditions.
Dumas gave especial attention to such substitutions, named metalepsy (µeraXntks, exchange); and framed the following empirical laws to explain the reactions: - (1) a body containing hydrogen when substituted by a halogen loses one atom of hydrogen for every atom of halogen introduced; (2) the same holds if oxygen be present, except that when the oxygen is present as water the latter first loses its hydrogen without replacement, and then substitution according to (1) ensues.
In propane, on the other hand, the hydrogen atoms attached to the terminal carbon atoms differ from those joined to the medial atom; we may therefore expect to obtain different compounds according to the position of the hydrogen atom substituted.
For succinosuccinic ester, formed by the action of sodium on two molecules of succinic ester, has either of the formulae (I) or (II); oxidation of the free acid gives dioxyterephthalic acid in which the para-positions must remain substituted as in (I) and (II).
It may be generally concluded that the substitution of alkyl, nitro, hydroxyl, and haloid groups for hydrogen in a molecule occasions a deformation of crystal structure in one definite direction, hence permitting inferences as to the configuration of the atoms composing the crystal; while the nature and degree of the alteration depends (1) upon the crystal structure of the unsubstituted compound; (2) on the nature of the substituting radicle; (3) on the complexity of the substituted molecule; and (4) on the orientation of the substitution derivative.
Picard and other members of the Academy of Science whom Colbert, in 1668, directed to prepare a new map of France, for on David Vivier's map of the environs of Paris (1674, scale r: 86,400) very crude hachures bounding the rivers have been substituted for the scenographic hills of older maps.
It also substituted another form of declaration for that required under the Clerical Subscription Act 1865 (see above).
The epitome referred tc, in which alphabetical order was substituted for arrangement in classes and some articles on Christian writers added as a concession to the times, is assigned from internal indications to the years 829-837.
But while Nanak had substituted holiness of life for vain ceremonial, Guru Govind Singh demanded in addition brave deeds and zealous devotion to the Sikh cause as proof of faith; and while he retained his predecessors' attitude towards the Hindu gods and worship he preached undying hatred to the persecutors of his religion.
The skim-coulter is shaped like a miniature plough, substituted for or fixed in front of the coulter; it is used chiefly on lea land, to pare off the surface of the soil together with the vegetation thereon, and turn it into the previous furrow, where it is immediately buried by the furrow slice.
Later, the motive of the Toba pictures, as such caricatures were called, tended to degenerate, and the elegant figures of Kakuyu were replaced by scrawls that often substituted indecency and ugliness for art and wit.
Such hypotheses - for example, the idea that in the person of Christ the Logos is substituted for a rational human spirit - are to be met with in certain early fathers "(ibid.
This was destroyed by fire in 548 B.C., and the contract for rebuilding was undertaken by the exiled Alcmaeonidae from Athens, who generously substituted marble on the eastern front for the poros specified (see Cleisthenes, ad init.).