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substitute

substitute

substitute Sentence Examples

  • I was positive all she did was substitute a different one for each letter in the alphabet.

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  • These nuts, as far as they went, were a good substitute for bread.

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  • Jessi arrived fifteen minutes early the next day, in case Xander or Ingrid called in a substitute after she quit.

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  • "I'm sorry I have to be the substitute but I feel honored," he said.

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  • In times of scarcity the Norse peasant-farmer uses the sweetish inner bark, beaten in a mortar and ground in his primitive mill with oats or barley, to eke out a scanty supply of meal, the mixture yielding a tolerably palatable though somewhat resinous substitute for his ordinary flad-brod.

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  • In this emergency assignats were issued to provide a substitute for a metallic currency.

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  • It is clear that in the circumstances the terms "father," "patristic," "patrology" must be used with much elasticity, since it is now too late to substitute for them any more comprehensive terms.

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  • Glycerin is useless as a food and is not in any sense a substitute for cod-liver oil.

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  • "Perhaps it's like those puzzles in the newspaper where they simply substitute a different letter for the real one," Fred offered.

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  • The leaves of a closely allied plant, Empleurum serratulum, are employed as a substitute or adulterant for buchu.

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  • In the 13th century it became necessary for the legists to codify, as it were, the unwritten law, because the upheavals of the times necessitated the fixing of some rules in writing, and especially because it was necessary to oppose a definite custom of the kingdom to Frederick II., who sought, as king of Jerusalem, to take advantage of the want of a written law, to substitute his own conceptions of law in the teeth of the high court.

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  • He was still debating whether or not he'd need to find a substitute for dinner, if he was going to lose this round with Jessi again.

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  • We can therefore substitute sound diagnosis for guesswork more frequently in modern than in historical problems.

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  • After twice failing in the attempt to gain a professorship in the university, he was invited, during an illness of Dugald Stewart in the session of 1808-1809, to act as his substitute, and during the following session he undertook a great part of Stewart's work.

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  • MALARIA, an Italian colloquial word (from mala, bad, and aria, air), introduced into English medical literature by Macculloch (1827) as a substitute for the more restricted terms "marsh miasm" or "paludal poison."

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  • If the number of inhabitants exceed 500, the commune must also provide a special school for girls, unless the Departmental Council authorizes it to substitute a mixed school.

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  • In Norway the sprays, like those of the juniper, are scattered over the floors of churches and the sitting-rooms of dwelling-houses, as a fragrant and healthful substitute for carpet or matting.

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  • According to Juvenal the sons of such proselytes were apt to go farther and to substitute the Jewish Law for the Roman Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges; Judaicum ediscunt et servant ac metuunt ius Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moyses.

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  • But his proposal to substitute for all aides and customs duties a single capitation tax of a tenth of the revenue of all property was naturally opposed by the farmers of taxes and found little support.

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  • On the arrival of the ship at its destination he provided a substitute for his post and crossed over to the island of Luzon, which he explored.

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  • It was found, however, that the steam work was done with less care than had been bestowed upon the horse tillage, and the result was that steam came to be regarded as an auxiliary to horse labour rather than as a substitute for it.

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  • Various attempts have been made to substitute a comb for the knife or beater, and one of the latest productions is the " Universal fibre gin," in which a series of blunt combs working horizontally replace the solid beater and so-called knife of the Macarthy gin.

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  • A hopeless antagonism arose between them, which was widened by Enfantin's announcement of his theory of the relation of man and woman, which would substitute for the "tyranny of marriage" a system of "free love."

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  • Various attempts have been made to substitute a comb for the knife or beater, and one of the latest productions is the " Universal fibre gin," in which a series of blunt combs working horizontally replace the solid beater and so-called knife of the Macarthy gin.

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  • You can also substitute sweet potato fries with any burger or sandwich order.

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  • From the extreme south most of the merchantable timber had been cut, but immediately north of this there were still vast quantities of valuable long-leaf pine; in the marshes of the Delta was much cypress, the cotton-wood was nearly exhausted, and the gum was being used as a substitute for it; and on the rich upland soil were oak and red gum, also cotton-wood, hickory and maple.

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  • It was devised by the Hudson's Bay Company for carrying freight, as a substitute for the less serviceable canoe, and was named after their York factory, the centre to which the traders brought down the furs for shipment to England and from which they took back merchandise and supplies to the interior of Rupert's Land.

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  • The purely artificial character of the System of Linnaeus and his successors had been perceived, and men were at a loss to find a substitute for it.

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  • It was often a pecuniary advantage to the master to liberate his slave; he obtained a payment which enabled him to buy a substitute, a^ .d at the same time gained a client.

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  • For the old external law they substitute the internal law: conscience is recognized as the power that approves or condemns conduct Nivxii, Ecclus.

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  • When dealing with maps not drawn on an equal area projection we substitute quadrilaterals bounded by meridians and parallels, the areas for which are given in the " Smithsonian Geographical Tables " (1894), in Professor H.

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  • The oak of Britain is still in demand for the construction of merchant shipping, though teak has become in some measure its substitute, and foreign oak of various quality and origin largely takes.

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  • When a people migrate they may take with them their god, and if they conceive him to be a spiritual being who cannot be represented by an image, they may desire a symbolical expression of or, rather, a substitute for his presence.

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  • Gas fires, as a substitute for the open coal fire, have many points in their favour, for they are conducive to cleanliness, they need but little attention, and the heat is easily controlled.

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  • Plantain occurs in several varieties; it is in part a cheap and healthful substitute for bread, which is also made from the bitter cassava, after the poison is extracted.

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  • These at first encircled the whole border; but soon it became customary to substitute for them square patches of embroidery or precious fabrics.

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  • It was devised by the Hudson's Bay Company for carrying freight, as a substitute for the less serviceable canoe, and was named after their York factory, the centre to which the traders brought down the furs for shipment to England and from which they took back merchandise and supplies to the interior of Rupert's Land.

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  • The German emperor shared this desire, but Bismarck and the Austrian emperor wished to substitute for the imperial league some more advantageous combination.

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  • The German emperor shared this desire, but Bismarck and the Austrian emperor wished to substitute for the imperial league some more advantageous combination.

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  • He is allowed, however, " on account of its weight," to substitute for the pretiosa the auriphrygiata during part of the services, i.e.

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  • Following the lead of the Independents, who set up Mansfield College at Oxford, the Presbyterian Church has founded Westminster College at Cambridge as a substitute for its Theological Hall in London.

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  • The radical side of Descartes appears again in his offering his own type of theism as a substitute for the old proofs - not a supplement.

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  • Ibn Haukal goes on to say that finally the Hamdanids took possession of the town, confiscated the estates of those who had emigrated, and compelled those who remained to substitute corn for their profitable fruit crops.

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  • The main product is the refined oil, which is used for a great number of purposes, such as a substitute for olive oil, mixed with beef products for preparation of compound lard, which is estimated to consume one-third of cotton seed oil produced in the States.

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  • Another curious theorem proposed by Bouilland in 1625 as a substitute for Kepler's second law is that the angular motion of the body as measured around the empty focus F' is (approximately) uniform.

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  • Ibn Haukal goes on to say that finally the Hamdanids took possession of the town, confiscated the estates of those who had emigrated, and compelled those who remained to substitute corn for their profitable fruit crops.

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  • The idea of automatic telephony is to substitute for the operator of the manual exchange an electromechanical or other switching system, which, controlled in its movement by the action of the subscriber, will automatically select, connect and disconnect circuits as desired.

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  • The idea of automatic telephony is to substitute for the operator of the manual exchange an electromechanical or other switching system, which, controlled in its movement by the action of the subscriber, will automatically select, connect and disconnect circuits as desired.

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  • The main product is the refined oil, which is used for a great number of purposes, such as a substitute for olive oil, mixed with beef products for preparation of compound lard, which is estimated to consume one-third of cotton seed oil produced in the States.

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  • Somewhat reluctantly it was accepted by Scottish Presbyterianism as a substitute for an older version with a greater variety of metre and music. "Old Hundred" and "Old 124th" mean the moth and 124th Psalms in that old book.

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  • Somewhat reluctantly it was accepted by Scottish Presbyterianism as a substitute for an older version with a greater variety of metre and music. "Old Hundred" and "Old 124th" mean the moth and 124th Psalms in that old book.

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  • The montes, by which are understood plantations as well as native thickets, produce among other woods the algarrobo, a poor imitation of oak; the guayabo, a substitute for boxwood; the quebracho, of which the red kind is compared to sandalwood; and the urunday, black and white, not unlike rosewood.

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  • The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe: cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the common crowberry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called by the Falklanders the " diddle-dee " berry; of Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis and Bostkovia grandif ora.

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  • The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe: cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the common crowberry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called by the Falklanders the " diddle-dee " berry; of Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis and Bostkovia grandif ora.

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  • With what is specifically Christian we have nothing to do in the present article: but it is worth noticing that the appeal to " values, " aesthetic and still more moral, forms a substitute for that natural theology which Ritschl despised and professed to reject.

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  • term which appears to have been introduced by Linnaeus, and was reinvented as a substitute for the cosmography of the middle ages by Professor Huxley.

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  • From the bottom of this sea they have been raised to form the dry lands along the shores of Suffolk, whence they are now extracted as articles of commercial value, being ground to powder in the mills of Mr [afterwards Sir John] Lawes, at Deptford, to supply our farms with a valuable substitute for guano, under the accepted name of coprolite manure."

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  • It was not long, however, before the stock-feeder in the South found that cotton seed hulls were an excellent substitute for hay.

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  • term which appears to have been introduced by Linnaeus, and was reinvented as a substitute for the cosmography of the middle ages by Professor Huxley.

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  • Meanwhile Wright, Ward and Sayce had all suggested " Hittite " as a substitute for " Hamathite," because no other N.

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  • If you keep leaving him sexually frustrated, he's likely to start looking for a substitute.

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  • In the Saxon period the "mast" seems to have been regarded as the most valuable produce of an oak wood; nor was its use always confined to the support of the herds, for in time of dearth acorns were boiled and eaten by the poor as a substitute for bread both in England and France, as the sweeter produce of Q.

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  • As these possess no glands they are a worthless substitute.

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  • The acting justice sits normally alone to hear causes in his canton of the peace (uchastok), but, at the request of both parties to a suit, he may call in an honorary justice as assessor or substitute.

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  • but the great majority of couplings remain non-automatic. It may be pointed out that the general employment of side buffers in Europe greatly complicates the problem of designing a satisfactory automatic coupling, while to do away with them and substitute the combined buffer-coupling, such as is used in the United States, would entail enormous difficulties in carrying on the traffic during the transition stage.

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  • Thus its non-liability to freeze (when not absolutely anhydrous, which it practically never is when freely exposed to the air) and its nonvolatility at ordinary temperatures, combined with its power of always keeping fluid and not drying up and hardening, render it valuable as a lubricating agent for clockwork, watches, &c., as a substitute for water in wet gas-meters, and as an ingredient in cataplasms, plasters, modelling clay, pasty colouring matters, dyeing materials, moist colours for artists, and numerous other analogous substances which are required to be kept in a permanently soft condition.

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  • Hence in all there are mn such systems. If, therefore, we have a third equation, and we substitute each system of values in it successively and form the product of the mn expressions thus formed, we obtain a function which vanishes if any one system of values, common to the first two equations, also satisfies the third.

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  • af Expression in Terms of Roots.-Since x+y y =mf, if we take cx any root x 3, y1, ofand substitute in mf we must obtain, y 1 C) zaZ1 �; hence the resultant of and f is, disregarding numerical factors, y,y2...y,,.

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  • We may in any relation substitute for any pair of quantities any other cogredient pair so that writing -}-d 2, -d l for x 1 and x 2, and noting that gx then becomes (gd), the above-written identity bceomes (ad)(bc)+(bd)(ca)+(cd)(ab) = 0.

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  • To obtain the real form we multiply out, and, in the result, substitute for the products of symbols the real coefficients which they denote.

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  • One advantage we have obtained is that, if we now write ao =o, and substitute a 8 _ 1 for a,, when s>o, we obtain d d aO da l +al da 2 +a2 da �....+an_2dan_1 which is the form of SZ for a binary (n- Henceby merely diminishing each suffix in a seminvariant by unity, we obtain another seminvariant of the same degree, and of weight w-8, appertaining to the (n-I) ic. Also, if we increase each suffix in a seminvariant, we obtain terms, free from a 0, of some seminvariant of degree 8 and weight w+8.

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  • A pamphlet written to propose a substitute for the system of impressment in 1822 is said to have offended King William IV.

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  • A basic chloride, Pb(OH)Cl, was introduced in 1849 by Pattinson as a substitute for white lead.

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  • We may therefore generally substitute s/2n for tan 0 in the various expressions which have been given for I.

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  • Vegetable wax, which is an excellent substitute for beeswax, is a product of the carnahuha palm (Copernicia cerifera), and is an important export from Ceara.

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  • It is therefore difficult to suppose that the Jewish Church as a whole passed through a stage in which it was felt desirable to substitute o'n'7 H in writing for n¦n'.

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  • In medieval illumination it furnished, as a glaze upon burnished tinfoil, a cheap and effective substitute for gold.

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  • At that period the urban masses, but recently converted to Christianity, sought in the worship of the martyrs a sort of substitute for polytheism.

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  • Nearly all medieval medical literature was condemned under this name; and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its fountain-head.

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  • In politics proper he seems indeed to have had few or no constructive ideas, and to have been entirely ignorant or quite reckless of the fact that his attacks were destroying a state of things for which as a whole he neither had nor apparently wished to have any substitute.

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  • Personal surety appears as a complement of and substitute for collective responsibility.

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  • It is not a vestis sacra, and cannot therefore be used as a substitute for the surplice, e.g.

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  • It is used by brewers as a substitute for hops.

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  • Although good crops may follow the application of lime, the latter is not a direct fertilizer or manure and is no substitute for such.

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  • This is the great social fact - the failure of government to perform one of its most primary duties, the necessity of finding some substitute in private life - extending in greater or less degree through the whole formative period of feudalism, which explains the transformation of institutions that brought it into existence.

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  • They connect all the important cities, towns and ports, but cover only a small part of the republic. The cost of erecting and maintaining telegraph lines in the sierra and montana regions is too great to permit their extensive use, and the government is seeking to substitute wireless telegraphy.

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  • 27) after the regular daily sacrifice (in the synagogues a substitute - probably Adonay - was employed); 4 on the Day of Atonement the High Priest uttered the name ten times in his prayers and benediction.

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  • In many passages the name seems to be only a more solemn substitute for the simple Yahweh, and as such it has probably often been inserted by scribes.

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  • Tallow candles as a substitute for whale-oil had been introduced, and the British market was closed by a duty of £r8 a ton on oil; a bounty offered by the Massachusetts legislature (£5 on white and £ 3 on yellow or brown spermaceti, and £2 on whale-oil per ton) was of slight assistance.

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  • Gladstone was implored to withdraw them, or substitute a resolution in favour of Irish autonomy; but he resolved to press at least the Home Rule Bill to a second reading.

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  • The present head, however, isa later substitute f or the original, which was destroyed by fire.

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  • Thus nickel, which was formerly used in the manufacture of " German silver " as a substitute for silver, is now widely employed in naval construction and in the manufacture of steel armourplate and projectiles.

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  • Other tales said the stone was the one given by Rhea to Cronus as a substitute for Zeus.

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  • An exactly similar expression holds good in hydrokinetics, provided that for the electric potential we substitute velocity potential, and for the electric force the velocity of the liquid.

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  • to formal logic. An attempt has been made by some philosophers to substitute "Gnosiology" (Gr.

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  • An officer whose nature, as the event showed, was interpenetrated with the spirit of legality was a fitting servant of a revolution whose aim it was to substitute legality for personal caprice as the dominant principle of affairs.

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  • Sorensen and Martin Knudsen after a careful investigation decided to abandon the old definition of salinity as the sum of all the dissolved solids in sea-water and to substitute for it the weight of the dissolved solids in 1000 parts by weight of sea-water on the assumption that all the bromine is replaced by its equivalent of chlorine, all the carbonate converted into oxide and the organic matter burnt.

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  • It provided also a substitute for either the Aristotelian or the Ramist logic, which was an additional element in its favour.

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  • As a substitute for timber props at the face, pieces of steel joists, with the web cut out for a short distance on either end, with the flanges turned back to give a square bearing surface, have been introduced.

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  • The use of small auxiliary blowing ventilators underground, for carrying air into workings away from the main circuits, which was largely advocated at one time, has lost its popularity, but a useful substitute has been found in the induced draught produced by jets of compressed air or high-pressure water blowing into ejectors.

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  • The equation of energy is dQ=dE+pdv, (17) expressing that the total energy dQ is used partly in increasing the internal energy of the gas, and partly in expanding the gas against the pressure p. If we take p = RNT/v from equation (14) and substitute for E from equation (16), this last equation becomes dQ 2 (n +3)RNdT +RNTdv (18) which may be taken as the general equation of calorimetry, for a gas which accurately obeys equation (14).

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  • A substitute for this originality was found at Alexandria in learned research, extended and multifarious knowledge.

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  • This was the beginning of his connexion with John Stuart Mill, which led to a life-long friendship. In 1841 he became substitute for Dr Glennie, the professor of moral philosophy, who, through ill-health, was unable to discharge the active duties of the chair.

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  • He still for a short time retained influence with the king, and intended to employ George Grenville (whom he recommended as his successor) as his agent; but the latter insisted on possessing the king's whole confidence, and on the failure of Bute in August 1763 to procure his dismissal and to substitute a ministry led by Pitt and the duke of Bedford, Grenville demanded and obtained Bute's withdrawal from the court.

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  • The appeal to an Absolute on the other hand is only to substitute one difficulty for another.

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  • The real issue comes into view in the attempt, undertaken in the interest of freedom, to substitute for the notion of the world as a cosmos pervaded by no discernible principle and in its essence indifferent to the form impressed upon it by its active parts.

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  • 2 In this earlier period (before 1900), thanks to the 1 However, every office-holder was, and every subject might be, required to take (though this was not a condition of the franchise) the oaths enjoined by parliament in the first year of the reign of William and Mary as a substitute for the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy; and the same still applies to the signing of the Declaration.

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  • Again, can we substitute church authority for that which is always the background of " dogma " as interpreted from inside - divine authority?

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  • His "substitute for religion" is a doctrine in many points akin to Comte and Feuerbach, the former of whom he resembles in his sentimentalism.

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  • In France royalty acquired little by little a preponderant influence over feudalism and used its increased prestige to substitute for the Truce of God the peace of the state.

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  • The cold sometimes is severely felt by the poor classes owing to want of proper fuel, for which a great part of the population has no substitute except dried cowdung.

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  • Zirconia, when heated to whiteness, remains unfused, and radiates a fine white light, which suggested its utilization for making incandescent gas mantles; and, in the form of disks, as a substitute for the lime-cylinders ordinarily employed in "limelight."

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  • In some tracts it was found advisable to substitute a less elaborate schedule for that generally prescribed.

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  • The work was in fact the first attempt to substitute for the popular representations of Thiers and Lamartine the critical investigation which has been carried on with such brilliance by Taine and Sorel.

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  • Romanes), in which the writer endeavours to establish the weakness of the proofs for the existence of God, and to substitute for theism Spencer's physical explanation of the universe, and yet admits how unsatisfying to himself the new position is.

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  • In 1907 the legislature proposed an amendment providing for the application of initiative and referendum to statutory laws and constitutional amendments; two years later the legislature passed a substitute resolution, which omits the clause regarding amendments of the constitution, and which, if passed by the legislature of 2922 will be put to popular vote at the general election of 1912.

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  • Of the intestines they make masks or covers for their faces, to protect them from the glare of the sun in the spring, and use them as a substitute for glass, by extending them over their windows.

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  • Voltaire, though he did not originate, yet adopted a moral and religious scheme which he sought to substitute for the church tradition.

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  • Esparto leaves contain 56% by weight of fibre, or about ro% more than straw, and hence have come into requisition as a substitute for linen rags in the manufacture of paper.

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  • If then we substitute for the standard cell any other source of electromotive force, we can move the slider into another position in which the galvanometer will show no deflection.

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  • Many even of these readings merely relate to variations of spelling, pronunciation or grammatical forms; others substitute a more decent expression for the coarser phrase of the text, but in some instances the suggested reading really affects the sense of the passage.

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  • And these earliest epistles are just the substitute for his personal presence, advice which he took occasion to send to his converts after he had left them.

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  • Some differences of opinion arose in connexion with the report, and at a meeting of the commissioners on the 12th of April 1899, when part 5 of the draft report was to be considered, a proposal was made to substitute an alternative draft for Lord Peel's, and also a series of alternative drafts for the four sections already discussed.

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  • The notes are not legal tender, and it is forbidden to count them as " cash on hand " in bank returns, but ample safeguards both as to issue and redemption inspire full confidence in their employment as a substitute for gold.

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  • He is, perhaps, the first purist among the Biblical translators, endeavouring, whenever possible, to substitute a word of native origin for the foreign expression of his predecessors.

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  • According to the decisions of the Congregation of Rites chasubles must not be of linen, cotton or woollen stuffs, but of silk; though a mixture of wool (or linen and cotton) and silk is allowed if the silk completely cover the other material on the outer side; spun glass thread, as a substitute for gold or silver thread, is also forbidden, owing to the possible danger to the priest's health through broken fragments falling into the chalice.

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  • For translations from the ancients he would substitute imitations.

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  • In 1171 on the death of the Fatimite caliph he was powerful enough to substitute the name of the orthodox caliph in all Egyptian mosques.

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  • A later method consists in boiling the weed with sodium carbonate; the liquid is filtered and hydrochloric acid added to the filtrate, when alginic acid is precipitated; this is also filtered off, the filtrate neutralized by caustic soda, and the whole evaporated to dryness and carbonized, the residue obtained being known as kelp substitute.

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  • 24 is epexegetic, and Luke and Paul rightly substitute the nominative.

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  • This industry was ruined by the competition of chemical dyes, and a substitute was found in the cultivation of coffee.

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  • The syrup is used chiefly as a substitute for jam or preserved fruits, and the sugar is used in country homes for sweetening, for cooking purposes and for the making of confectionery.

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  • It remained for Spengel to entitle the work Anaximenis Ars Rhetorica in his edition of 1847, and thus substitute for the name of the philosopher Aristotle that of the sophist Anaximenes on his title-page.

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  • The bark is also used as a substitute for paper.

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  • Bhojputtra) growing on the Himalayan Mountains, as high up as 9000 ft., yields large quantities of fine thin papery bark, extensively sent down to the plains as a substitute for wrapping paper, for covering the "snakes" of hookahs and for umbrellas.

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  • Revard (Paris, 1816); Delambre, Traite de l'astronomie theorique et pratique, tome iii.; Histoire de l'astronomie moderne; Methodus technica brevis, perfacilis, ac perpetua construendi Calendarium Ecclesiasticum, Stylo tam novo quam vetere, pro cunctis Christianis Europae populis, F&c., auctore Paulo Tittel (Göttingen, 1816); Formole analitsche pel 1 If Saturday, substitute Sunday immediately following.

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  • 2 If Saturday, substitute Thursday immediately preceding.

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  • The soft inner bark is occasionally used in Siberia as a ferment, by hunters and others, being boiled and mixed with rye-meal, and buried in the snow for a short time, when it is employed as a substitute for other leaven, and in making the sour liquor called " quass."

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  • The meal is an excellent substitute for soap, and is stated by Elliot to be an invariable concomitant of the Hindu bath.

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  • It is much resorted to for weighting coloured silks by dyers on the continent, and, though a very clumsy method, no substitute has been found so cheap and easy of application.

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  • In many cases it is sufficient to substitute unity for a and write X-X0HD -D0', which gives a convenient formula, which in this form was first used by A.

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  • At the same time, his characteristic exactness makes his collection a most admirable substitute for the texts of the many valuable treatises of earlier mathematicians of which time has deprived us.

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  • This is, of course, more true of the middle ages than of the times that preceded and followed them; the Church under the Roman empire hardly as yet realized the possibilities of " sermons in stones," and took over, with little change, the model of the secular and religious buildings of pagan Rome; the Renaissance, essentially a neo-pagan movement, introduced disturbing factors from outside, and, though developing a style very characteristic of the age that produced it, started that archaeological movement which has tended in modern times to substitute mere imitations of old models for any attempt to express in church architecture the religious spirit of the age.

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  • For it he proposed to substitute the genetic method, whereby human conscious experience might be exhibited as growing or developing from its essential basis in connexion with external conditions.

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  • certain scientific odium attaches, and substitute ` monism ' for it " (Last Words on Materialism, 273).

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  • But his substitute was his own hypothesis of panpsychism, from which he deduced a "cosmorganic " evolution from a " cosmorganic " or original condition of the world as a living organism into the inorganic, by the principle of tendency to stability.

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  • This is to substitute " indirect experience " for all inference, and to maintain that when, starting from any " direct experience," I infer the back of the moon, which is always turned away from me, I nevertheless have experience of it; nay, that it is experience.

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  • Over against this view, which might well grow up among the Jews of the Dispersion as a sort of substitute for the possibility of offering sacrifices in the Temple - but which would be a lame addition to the Christianity of their own former leaders (xiii.

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  • (1046) put an end to this oppression it was only to substitute another.

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  • The popes were in favour of Charles of Anjou and his dynasty, but Charles was hostile to the union of the two Churches, since it was his intention to seize the Byzantine Empire and substitute himself for the Palaeologi.

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  • The .- trunk contains a spacious body-cavity filled during the breeding season by the swollen ovaries, and the same is true of the tail if we substitute testes for ovaries.

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  • The first is the department of extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs, having at its head the secretary of the Congregation of the same name; the second, that of ordinary affairs, directed by a substitute, is the department dealing, among other things, with the concession of honorary distinctions, both for ecclesiastics and laymen; the third is that of the briefs, which hitherto.

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  • The brief is written on thin parchment, and dated by the ordinary era and the day of the month; they were formerly signed only by the cardinal secretary of briefs or his substitute, but now by the cardinal secretary of state or the head of the office, called the chancellor of Briefs (cancellarius Brevium) .

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  • At one time also some species were used in the arts for supplying a gum as a substitute for gum-arabic. These were chiefly Ramalina fraxinea, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia physodes, all of which contain a considerable proportion of gummy matter (of a much inferior quality, however, to gum-arabic), and were employed in the process of calico-printing and in the making of parchment and cardboard.

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  • Among other treasures it contains the silver coffin of St Liborius, a substitute for one which was coined into dollars in 1622 by Christian of Brunswick, the celebrated freebooter.

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  • At the diet of 1605 Sigismund and his partisans endeavoured so far to reform the Polish constitution as to substitute a decision by a plurality of votes for unanimity in the diet.

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  • As a substitute for Solenhofen stone it is used in a modified form of lithography, which can be performed on rotary printingmachines at a high speed.

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  • any indication of local limitation or action was implied or expressed, in the Hebrew text, of God the Targumists were careful to substitute some expression involving the use of "Shekinah."

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  • 12) may under some circumstances be useful as a substitute for the three-light frame.

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  • For one kind of meat we could substitute another; wool could be replaced by cotton, silk or fur; were our common silicate glass gone, we could probably perfect and cheapen some other of the transparent solids; but even if the earth could be made to yield any substitute for the forty or fifty million tons of iron which we use each year for rails, wire, machinery, and structural purposes of many kinds, we could not replace either the steel of our cutting tools or the iron of our magnets, the basis of all commercial electricity.

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  • The Russian are smaller, but more silky and, as now dyed, make a cheap and fair substitute for sable.

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  • They have been successfully dyed and used as a substitute for sable.

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  • The best, from Norway, are very durable and of good appearance and an excellent substitute for American sable.

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  • It is very durable for linings, and is an economical substitute for sable for coats, capes, boas and trimmings.

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  • It remains to be seen how knowledge can be explained on such a basis; but, before proceeding to sketch Hume's answer to this question, it is necessary to draw attention, first, to the peculiar device invariably resorted to by him when any exception to his general principle that ideas are secondary copies of impressions presents itself, and, secondly, to the nature of the substitute offered by him for that perception of relations or synthesis which even in Locke's confused statements had appeared as the essence of cognition.

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  • These external relations are, in fact, what Hume describes as the natural bonds of connexion among ideas, and, regarded subjectively as principles of association among the facts of mental experience, they form the substitute he offers for the synthesis implied in knowledge.

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  • As in the case of the previous problem, it is unnecessary to follow the steps of his analysis, which are, for the most part, attempts to self substitute qualities of feeling for the relations of thought The .

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  • By Wilhelm Ostwald especially, attempts have been made to substitute the notion of atoms and molecular structure by less hypothetical conceptions; these ideas may some day receive thorough confirmation, and when this occurs science will receive a striking impetus.

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  • These were intended as a substitute for the paid canvassers, about to be abolished by Mr Gladstone's Reform Bill.

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  • The principle of the Tithe Commutation Acts (1836-1860) is to make permanent and general the system which had been only partial or temporary (in most cases), After the and to "substitute a corn rent (known as a tithe rent charge), permanent in quantity and payable Acts.

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  • A military demonstration on the 8th of September 1881, led by Arabi, forced the khedive to increase the numbers and pay of the army, to substitute Sherif Pasha for Riaz Pasha as prime minister, and to convene an assembly of notables.

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  • But without following the explanation into the details in which it revels, it may be enough to say that the whole hypothesis is but an attempt to exclude the occult conception of action at a distance, and substitute a familiar phenomenon.

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  • In 1852 he began experiments in steam cultivation, and in 1858 the Royal Agricultural Society awarded him the prize of £50o which it had offered for a steam-cultivator that should be an economic substitute for the plough or the spade.

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  • by a substitute, and his brother William, the prince of Prussia, took his place for three months.

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  • Here the tendency to substitute uniform imperial laws for state laws is clearly seen.

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  • Moreover, a law of 1878, the occasion of which was Bismarcks long absence from Berlin, empowered the chancellor to appoint a substitute or representative (Stellvertreter) either for the whole duties of his office or for the affairs of a particular department.

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  • Magyars and Sla y s never willingly recognized a style which ignored their national rights and implied the superiority of the German elements of the monarchy; to the Germans it was a poor substitute for a title which had represented the political unity of the German race under the Holy Empire.

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  • The printing-office was for him, what it has been for many another poor boy, no mean substitute for the academy and for the college.

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  • A regiment of regular infantry makes but a sorr substitute for the splendid cavalcade of former times.

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  • The British officers had acquired the words of command in Turkish, as used in the old army, an attempt to substitute Egyptian words having failed owing to lack of crisp, sharp-sounding words.

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  • He is even said to have given orders to substitute the name of the Fatimite caliph for that of the Abbasid in public prayer, but to have been warned of the unwisdom of this course.

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  • Nureddin loyally aided his deputy in dealing with Frankish invasions of Egypt, but the anomaly by which he, being a Sunnite, was made in Egypt to recognize a Fa~timite caliph could not long continue, and he ordered Saladin to weaken the Fatimite by every available means, and then substitute the name of the Abbasid for his in public worship. Saladin and his ministers were at first afraid lest this step might give rise to disturbances among the people; but a stranger undertook to risk it on the 17th of September 1171, and the following Friday it was repeated by official order; the caliph himself died during the interval, and it is uncertain whether he ever heard of his deposition.

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  • It is a plausible conjecture that the original narratives of J and E also contained directions for the construction of an ark,' as a substitute for the personal presence of Yahweh, and also for the erection of a "tent of meeting" outside the camp, and that these commands were omitted by R P in favour of the more elaborate instructions given in ch.

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  • also permitted foreigners to substitute for the pilgrimage to Rome a visit to some specified church in their own country and a contribution towards the expenses of the Holy Wars.

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  • The name of Hermes seems during the 3rd and following centuries to have been regarded as a convenient pseudonym to place at the head of the numerous syncretistic writings in which it was sought to combine Neo-Platonic philosophy, Philonic Judaism and cabalistic theosophy, and so provide the world with some acceptable substitute for the Christianity which had even at that time begun to give indications of the ascendancy it was destined afterwards to attain.

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  • The abolition of this system was announced in 1906, and, as a partial substitute, it was decided to hold an annual examination in Peking of Chinese graduates educated abroad (Times, 22nd of October 1906).

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  • vicarius, substitute),a title, more especially ecclesiastical, describing various officials acting in some special way for a superior.

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  • Pomp Eio (1569-1616), a native of Corsica, who served under Alessandro Farnese and the marquis of Spinola in the Low Countries, where he lost an arm, and, from the artificial substitute which he wore, came to be known by the sobriquet Bras de Fer.

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  • The leaves are eaten by cattle, and have been employed as a substitute for tea.

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  • Satisfactions took the new meaning of the temporal punishments due in this life and the substitute for the pains of purgatory.

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  • He disclaims the intention of making his work a substitute for the actual narrative contained in the Bible.

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  • Mushrooms and other fungi are largely used as food, especially by the Hindus of the towns, to whom they supply a substitute for meat.

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  • Accordingly Protagoras, while with the one hand he put away philosophy, with the other offered a substitute.

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  • That he should do so was only natural, since his position as a teacher of rhetoric was already secure when Protagoras made his first appearance in the character of a sophist; and, as Protagoras, Prodicus and the rest of the sophists of culture offered a comprehensive education, of which oratory formed only a part, whilst Gorgias made no pretence of teaching " civic excellence " (Plato, Meno, 95 C), and found a substitute for philosophy, not in literature generally, but in the professional study of rhetoric alone, it would have been convenient if the distinction between sophistry and rhetoric had been maintained.

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  • Indeed, the sophists generally had a special predisposition to error of this sort, not only because sophistry was from the beginning a substitute for the pursuit of truth, but also because the successful professor, travelling from city to city, or settling abroad, could take no part in public affairs, and thus was not at every step reminded of the importance of the " material " element of exposition and reasoning.

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  • Finding in the cultivation of " virtue " or " excellence " a substitute for the pursuit of scientific truth, and in disputation the sole means by which " virtue " or " excellence " could be attained, he resembled at once the sophists of culture and the sophists of eristic. But, inasmuch as the " virtue " or " excellence " which he sought was that of the man rather than that of the official, while the disputation which he practised had for its aim, not victory, but the elimination of error, the differences which separated him from the sophists of culture and the sophists of eristic were only less considerable than the resemblances which he bore to both; and further, though his whole time and attention were bestowed upon the education of young Athenians, his theory of the relations of teacher and pupil differed from that of the recognized professors of education, inasmuch as the taking of fees seemed to him to entail a base surrender of the teacher's independence.

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  • Though some of those who resorted to the gymnasts, physicians and musicians derived from them such substitute for " higher education " as was before 447 generally obtainable, it was only incidentally that professional men and artists communicated anything which could be called by that name.

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  • In 1761 it was found expedient and profitable to dethrone Mir Jafar, the nawab of Murshidabad, and substitute his son-in-law, Mir Kasim, in his place.

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  • Repeated annexations, the spread of education, the appearance of the steam engine and the telegraph wire, all alike revealed a consistent determination to substitute an English for an Indian civilization.

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  • The article Transit Circle describes one form of mounting in which the telescope is simply a refined substitute for the sights or pinules of the old astronomers.

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  • 96, pp. 735-74 1, Loewy gives an account of an instrument which he calls an "equatorial coude," designed (I) to attain greater stability and so to measure larger angles than is generally possible with the ordinary equatorial; (2) to enable a single astronomer to point the telescope and make observations in any part of the sky without changing his position; (3) to abolish the usual expensive dome, and to substitute a covered shed on wheels (which can be run back at pleasure), leaving the telescope in the open air, the observer alone being sheltered.

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  • After acting three years as his father's substitute he was elected professor of mathematics in conjunction with him in 1775.

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  • Three years later Adam Ferguson was appointed secretary to the commissioners sent out to the American colonies, and at his urgent request Stewart lectured as his substitute.

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  • - Merwan strengthened his position according to the old oriental fashion by marrying the widow of Yazid, and soon felt himself strong enough to substitute his own son Abdalmalik for Khalid b.

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  • Eutychius and others pretend that he desired to substitute Jerusalem for Mecca, because Ibn Zobair had occupied the latter place, and thus the pilgrimage to the Ka`ba had become difficult for the Syrians.

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  • Only after sensation has ceased does an idea, or representation of what is not presented, become necessary as a substitute for a sensation and as a condition not of the first judgment that there is, but of a second judgment that there was, something sensible.

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  • This analytical, Xoyos he offers as his substitute for knowledge.

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  • to Con elusions lead forward to the as yet unknown, and his substitute as to in- is not quite clear.

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  • This is perhaps fortunate for the history of doctrine, for it produces the commentator, your Aspasius or Alexander of Aphrodisias, and the substitute for the critic, your Cicero, or your Galen with his attempt at comprehension of the Stoic categories and the like while starting from Aristotelianism.

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  • But it is not mere induction, with its " unanalysed concretes taken as ultimate " that is set up as the substitute for deduction.

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  • These cases are really included in the equation if we substitute the proper values of n or m.

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  • The highest pressures recorded for cane-sugar are nearly three times as great as those given by van't Hoff's formula for the gas-pressure, but agree very well with the vapour-pressure theory, as modified by Callendar, provided that we substitute for V in Arrhenius's formula the actual specific volume of the solvent in the solution, and if we also assume that each molecule of sugar in solution combines with 5 molecules of water, as required by the observations on the depression of the freezing-point and the rise of the boiling-point.

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  • The flowers are sometimes eaten in salads, and the leaves and young green fruits are pickled in vinegar as a substitute for capers.

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  • The ordinary costume of the pope is similar to that of the other clergy and bishops, but white in colour; his shoes alone are different, being low open shoes, red in colour, with a cross embroidered on the front; these are what are called the "mules," a substitute for the compagi of ancient times, formerly reserved to the pope and his clergy (cf.

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  • The Old Testament, allegorically explained, became the substitute for the outgrown mythology; intellectual activity revived; the new facts gained predominant influence in philosophy, and in turn were shaped according to its canons.

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  • Since a couple is for our purposes sufficiently represented by its moment it has been proposed to substitute the name torque (or twisting effort), as free from the suggestion of any special pair of forces.

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  • often convenient to substitute for a force applied to a given point or a couple applied to a given piece, the equivalent force or coupl applied to some other point or piece; that is to say, the force 0

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  • One can already discern a movement in various quarters towards a recognition of impersonal theism, and towards fixing the teaching of the philosophical schools upon some definitely authorized system of faith and morals, which may satisfy a rising ethical standard, and may thus permanently embody that tendency to substitute spiritual devotion for external forms and caste rules which is the characteristic of the sects that have from time to time dissented from orthodox Brahminism."

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  • These sometimes completely absorb the shell on which they are settled, but then act as a substitute for it, and in any case by their outgrowth they extend the limits of the dwelling, so that the inmate can grow in comfort without having to hunt or fight for a larger abode.

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  • In 1902 the success of deep tube electric railways in Great Britain was assured, and in 1904 main line railways began to abandon, at least experimentally, the steam locomotive and substitute for it the electric transmission of power.

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  • Indeed, it was not until Mr. Rowan got the Dutch government, about 1838, to substitute jute yarns for those made from flax in the manufacture of the coffee bagging for their East Indian possessions, that the jute trade in Dundee got a proper start.

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  • On the 10th of August 1792 he was a member of the revolutionary Commune of Paris, and became second substitute of the procureur of the Commune on the 2nd of December 1792.

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  • neither and both), and by Hegel when he tries to substitute the Begriff or notion for the Vorstellung or pictorial conception.

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  • It is, in a manner, Spinoza's "organon" - the doctrine of method which he would substitute for the corresponding doctrines of Bacon and Descartes as alone consonant with the thoughts which were shaping themselves or had shaped themselves in his mind.

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  • The inner bark is twisted into ropes, and, like that of the spruce, is kiln dried, ground up, and mixed with meal in times of scarcity; in Kamchatka it is macerated in water, then pounded, and made into a kind of substitute for bread without any admixture of flour.

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  • He also proposed to substitute for the elected Majlis a council of forty members, nominated by himself; but under pressure from Great Britain.

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  • The letter is essentially a spontaneous, nonliterary production, ephemeral, intimate, personal and private, a substitute for a spoken conversation.

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  • and Paul III., and permitted as a substitute for the unrevised Breviary, until Pius V.

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  • It is a useful method, and is often very satisfactory, but it has the disadvantage that it admits of but little progress, and when a trusted empirical remedy fails we do not know precisely in what direction to look for a substitute.

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  • was another tendency in post-Aristotelian thought - to lean upon authority and substitute learning for independent research - which grew stronger just in proportion as the fresh interest in the problems of the universe and the zeal for discovery declined - a shadow, we may call it, of the coming Scholasticism thrown a thousand years in advance.

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  • His method was to choose some Spanish or Italian play, cut out the parts he disliked, and substitute scenes with dialogues in his own way, but he has neither ideals, taste nor education; and, except in Os Maridos Peraltas, his characters are lifeless and their conventional passions are expressed in inflated language.

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  • He also prepared potassium chlorate and attempted to use it in the manufacture of gunpowder as a substitute for saltpetre.

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  • The Jews were ordered under pain of death to substitute for their own observances the Pagan rites prescribed for the empire generally.

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  • the patriarch, the Holy Synod and the National Mixed Council at once meet and elect a temporary substitute for the patriarch (Toirornpnriis).

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  • It occasioned a sincere friendship between him and Pope, whom he persuaded to add a fourth book to the Dunciad, and encouraged to substitute Cibber for Theobald as the hero of the poem in the edition of 1743 published under the editorship of Warburton.

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  • Eminently religious, and orthodox in his convictions, he did not seek to substitute a pagan for the Christian ideal.

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  • We have evidence that he did not substitute an immanent world-soul for Aristotle's extra-mundane deity; he recognized nothing beyond natural necessity.

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  • In the same year he entered public life, being chosen as substitute for the representative of the lower nobility of his district in the estates-general, which were in that year summoned to Berlin.

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  • It was introduced as a substitute for iodoform and is stated to.

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  • In consequence of the high price of the alkaloid an attempt was made some years ago by the Government of India to manufacture from cinchona bark a cheap febrifuge which should represent the alkaloids contained in the bark and form a substitute for quinine.

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  • It is quite apparent that the predictions in the Book of Daniel centre on the period of Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.), when that Syrian prince was endeavouring to suppress the worship of Yarweh and substitute for it the Greek religion.

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  • To this correspond the Platonic confusion of logic and ethics and the attempt to substitute a theory of concepts for a metaphysic of reality.

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  • Iron or steel as a substitute for wood for constructive purposes was long thought to be fire-proof or fire-resisting because it is incombustible, and for this reason it has not only replaced wood in many features of building construction but is also used as a substitute for masonry.

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  • The presence of a perianth is a feature suggestive of an approach to the floral structure of Angiosperms; the prolongation of the integument furnishes the flowers with a substitute for a stigma and style.

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  • If, however, they could be induced to discard the old Slavonic alphabet and substitute for it the Latin, and could be brought to recognize their national and ethnical unity with ancient Rome, it was hoped that then they would be more easily induced to enter into the unity of faith.

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  • The office of vicepresident is abolished, and the president is authorized to choose a temporary substitute from his cabinet, and in case of his death or resignation his successor is chosen by the cabinet or the governor of a department who happens to be nearest Bogota at the time.

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  • The central and essential ceremonies of the hajj or greater pilgrimage are those of the day of Arafa, the 9th of the "pilgrimage month" (Dhu'l Hijja), the last of the Arab year; and every Moslem who is his own master, and can command the necessary means, is bound to join in these once in his life, or to have them fulfilled by a substitute 1 The latter perhaps was no part of the ancient omra; see SnouckHurgronje, Het Mekkaansche Feest (1880) p. 115 sqq.

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  • Sometimes the monks were directly subject to the lay abbot; sometimes he appointed a substitute to perform the spiritual functions, known usually as dean (decanus), but also as abbot (abbas legitimus, monasticus, regularis).

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  • In the conversation with Nicodemus we seem to overhear a protest against the growing tendency of the last years of the 1st century to substitute formal sacraments for the free afflatus of the spirit, and to "crib, cabin and confine" the gift of prophecy.

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  • He was educated at Glasgow University, where, at the age of twenty, he acted for a short time as substitute for the professor of Greek.

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  • Lord Melbourne was without the qualification of attention to details, and he never displayed those brilliant talents which often form a substitute for more solid acquirements.

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  • Among the Lutherans auricular confession survived the Reformation, but the general confession and absolution before communion were soon allowed by authority to serve as a substitute; in Wurttemberg as early as the 16th century, in Saxony after 1657, and in Brandenburg by decree of the elector in 1698.

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  • The landowners had either to build a house within it for their own inhabiting, or to provide that a competent substitute dwelt there to represent them.

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  • Hence came the curious paradox, that the party which started as the advocates of the rights of parliament against the incapable ministers appointed by the crown, ended by challenging the right of parliament, exercised in 399, to depose a legitimate king and substitute for him another member of the royal house.

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  • They no longer asked, as many of them had asked in the beginning of Elizabeths reign, to substitute the presbyterian discipline for the episcopal government.

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  • The only substitute for traditional authority is the clearly expressed expression of the national will, and it is impossible to doubt that if the national will had been expressed it would have swept away Cromwell and all his system.

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  • In the presence of this difficulty the government decided, early in 1847, gradually to discontinue the relief works, and to substitute for them relief committees charged with the task of feeding the people.

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  • On Monday, the 25th, the cabinet again met to consider the new difficulty which had thus arisen; and it decided (as was said afterwards by Sir John Pakington) in ten minutes to substitute for the scheme a mild measure extending the borough franchise to houses rated at 6 a year, and conferring the county franchise on 20 householders.

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  • Anselm holds that it was best for the injured honour of God to receive from a substitute what the sinner was personally in no condition to offer.

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  • For property Proudhon would substitute individual possession, the right of occupation being equal for all men.

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  • The dean of the Arches originally had jurisdiction over the thirteen London parishes above mentioned, but as the official principal was often absent as ambassador on the continent, he became his substitute, and gradually the two offices were blended together.

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  • The ultimate superiority of the moral consciousness over all other standards is recognized, even by those who impugn its authority, whenever they claim that all men ought to recognize the superior value of the standards which they themselves wish to substitute.

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  • We have seen that in the latter's system the " moral sense " is not absolutely required, or at least is necessary only as a substitute for enlightened self-regard; since if the harmony between prudence and virtue, self-regarding and social impulses, is complete, mere self-interest will prompt a duly enlightened mind to maintain precisely that " balance " of affections in which goodness consists.

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  • The influence of the Darwinian theory, moreover, has extended from historical psychology to ethics, tending to substitute " preservation of the race under its conditions of existence " for " happiness " as the ultimate end and standard of virtue.

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  • It is only in the present day that there are noticeable signs of dissatisfaction with current morality itself, and a tendency to substitute or advocate a new morality based ostensibly upon conclusions derived from the facts of scientific observation.

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  • It is frequently impossible to discover whether he wishes by an appeal to evolutionary principles to reinforce the sanctions and emphasize the absolute character of the traditional morality which in the main he accepts without question from the current opinions about conduct of his age, or whether he wishes to discredit and disprove the validity of that morality in order to substitute by the aid of the biological sciences a new ethical code.

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  • Sir Leslie Stephen, for instance, wishes to substitute the conception of " social health " for that of universal happiness, and considers that the conditions of social health are to be discovered by an examination of the " social organism " or of " social tissue," the laws of which can be studied apart from those laws by which the individuals composing society regulate their conduct.

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  • There is the fact also that Calvin used his endeavour to have the sentence which had been pronounced against Servetus mitigated, death by burning being regarded by him as an "atrocity," for which he sought to substitute death by the sword.

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  • judged it expedient to withdraw his grandfather's edict, and to substitute for it his own Typus or Precept (rinros 7repi 7riamwc), forbidding all discussion of the questions of the duality or singleness of either the energy or the will of Christ.

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  • The death of the duke of Orleans in 1842 was a blow to Barrot's party, which sought to substitute the regency of the duchess of Orleans for that of the duke of Nemours in the event of the succession of the count of Paris.

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  • A prohibition bill introduced in the legislature of 1892 was, through the influence of the Tillman Reform faction, replaced by a substitute measure, which established a dispensary system, based upon the Gothenburg plan.

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  • Philip Augustus was not satisfied with the destruction of a turbulent feudalism; he wished to substitute for it such unity and peace as had obtained in the Roman Empire; Adminisand just as he had established his supremacy over the tration of feudal lords, so now he managed to extend it over the Philip clergy, and to bend them to his will.

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  • Whilst others were triumphing openly, Mazarin, in the shadow and silence of the interregnum, had kept watch upon the heart of the queen; and when the old party of Marie de Medici and Anne of Austria wished to come back into power, to impose a general peace, and to substitute for the Protestant alliances an understanding with Spain, the arrest of Francois de Vendme, duke of Beaufort, and the exile of other important nobles proved to the great families that their hour had gone by (September 1643).

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  • But to indicate this opposition in the qualities of the reals A+B, we must substitute for these symbols others, which, though only "contingent aspects" of A and B, i.e.

    0
    0
  • If we adopt this hypothesis, and substitute s= 2C T, where c is a constant, in the fundamental equation (9), we obtain at once d 2 E/d T 2 = - 2 (c' -c"), which is immediately integrable, and gives dE/dt=p = 2 (t ° -t) (c'-c") .1 (m) E1_,'=(t-t') (c'-c") 12to-(t-}-t')1 (11) where t o is the temperature of the neutral point at which dE/dt = o.

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  • Taking conduction into account in the application of the second law of thermodynamics, he proposes to substitute the inequality, Td/dET - P

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  • Oats and rye are cultivated only in the higher parts of the mountains, the former as a substitute for barley in feeding horses and mules, the latter as a breadstuff.

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  • There was no definite idea anywhere as to how a substitute was to be found.

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  • If pollen is scarce, a substitute in the form of either pea-meal or wheaten flour must be supplied to the bees, as brood-rearing cannot make headway without the nitrogenous element indispensable in the food on which the young are reared.

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  • Further, in accordance with the tendency to substitute historical for economic explanations of the great feasts, Pentecost came to be regarded as the feast commemorative of the Sinaitic legislation.

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  • It is cultivated for the sake of its leaves, which are used in salads and soups as a substitute for young onions.

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  • Rendel Harris that the great twin pillars were connected with the cult of the Dioscuri, and that in the Acts of Thomas is to be seen a later attempt to substitute other " twins," viz.

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  • Common frankincense is an ingredient in some ointments and plasters, and on account of its pleasant odour when burned has been used in incense as a substitute for olibanum.

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  • Gum kuteera resembles in appearance gum tragacanth, for which the attempt has occasionally been made to substitute it.

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  • The earliest examples were square or rectangular in horizontal section, but the general tendency of modern practice is to substitute round sections, their construction being facilitated by the use of specially moulded bricks which have entirely superseded the sandstone blocks formerly used.

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  • He was also the first to discard the use of wooden bomb-shells, and substitute others cast in bronze.

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  • The best method of birth control is abstinence and a little pill is no substitute for morality.

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  • He needed a little mind-clearing R and R. Bird Song showed no damage from a day of substitute management.

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  • "Perhaps it's like those puzzles in the newspaper where they simply substitute a different letter for the real one," Fred offered.

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  • I was positive all she did was substitute a different one for each letter in the alphabet.

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  • "I'm sorry I have to be the substitute but I feel honored," he said.

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  • If you keep leaving him sexually frustrated, he's likely to start looking for a substitute.

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  • Jessi arrived fifteen minutes early the next day, in case Xander or Ingrid called in a substitute after she quit.

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  • He was still debating whether or not he'd need to find a substitute for dinner, if he was going to lose this round with Jessi again.

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  • A solution, which is perfectly acceptable to HMRC, is to substitute some of the employe's pay with the childcare vouchers.

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  • acceptable substitute for halal meat, many of the usual arguments over food at the wedding reception were bypassed.

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  • In my experience, a slavish adherence to a methodology can be a good substitute for thought, for some bad PM's.

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  • agave syrup or nectar is about 90% fructose, and is often used as a sweetener and a safe substitute for table sugar.

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  • It can also be used to substitute anise seeds in recipes - 1 crushed star anise = 1/2 teaspoon crushed anise seed.

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  • appearances as substitute.

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  • arcane mysteries have their place, but they are no substitute for practice.

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  • benzol substitute for gasoline, made from coal.

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  • frozen brine shrimp is a decent substitute for the live version.

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  • In case of supply difficulties substitute components may be supplied; for instance 100nF capacitors may replace 47nF parts.

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  • capital allowances substitute for depreciation, which can be claimed at a rate of 25% per year on a reducing balance basis.

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  • Nothing that is said here by us is intended to substitute for reading the catechism.

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  • chirpy pop psych introduction is no substitute for a serious discussion of the real issues involved.

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  • If goat colostrum does not provide this immunity can its use still be justified as, for example, an enriched milk substitute.

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  • And so, as a substitute for my lack of technique, I do a few contortions.

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  • Vietnamese coriander (Polygonum odoratum ): Not true coriander, but a good substitute.

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  • Does anyone know of a good coffee creamer substitute?

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  • creosote substitute waterproofing and repairs carried out.

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  • Other plants gathered included dandelion leaves for greens and salads, chicory roots for a coffee substitute, and cabbage leaves for chilblains!

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  • People feel all kinds of ways, But nothing can substitute a drunken daze, Apart from Rage.

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  • debut as substitute in the 4-1 win over Banbury on 7th February 2004.

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  • However, a suitable substitute delegate may replace an existing booking at any time without cost penalty.

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  • If you're on a budget cloth diapers can be used as a substitute.

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  • Accum's still produced a low boiling distillate which was sold as a cheap substitute for natural turpentine.

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  • So we oppose the suggestion to substitute private easements over public roads.

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  • emollient substitute.

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  • Present legislation allows a court to set aside grossly exorbitant credit agreements, and to substitute them with terms that are fair and reasonable.

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  • Phone calls and analog faxes are routed via GSM and device works as a substitute for a fixed telephone line.

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  • fenugreek seeds are NOT a good substitute for leaves.

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  • Second Test - Edgbaston The role of a substitute fielder can be a complicated one.

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  • The throw, tho, from the substitute fielder Stephen Peters, who had only just taken the field, missed the stumps.

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  • Pollen Substitute Toasted soya flour 1 part by weight.

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  • compact fluorescent an energy-efficient, long-lasting substitute for incandescent lamps.

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  • fm radio etc but no memory card so no good as an ipod substitute.

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  • foisted off onto substitute carers in the form of family and friends.

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  • I might substitute any of those for sweet corn fritters or fried bread.

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  • The only ineligible player among the 16 being the substitute goalkeeper Tom Heaton.

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  • Subsection (4) provides for substitute guardians, who have not been called upon to act, to resign.

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  • Whilst at Crystal Palace he joined the hatters on loan during April in 2001, he made only three substitute appearances for the club.

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  • high-flown rhetoric a substitute for serious argument.

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  • intended as a substitute for the proper medical care of patients.

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  • invalidateple, the list may be lost, or the testator may attempt to substitute a later list, thereby invalidating the gifts.

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  • Consequently a substitute was needed - walking the labyrinth in a church.

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  • They may also serve as substitute holidays, as they do for me in my own marimba in the black course kind of way.

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  • A substitute Medicaid for family coverage drive down health.

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  • Now addicts are being offered the heroin substitute methadone.

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  • minutely faithful details that was a sufficing substitute for food.

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  • It can be used as a substitute in most recipes calling for dark molasses.

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  • nephew lot substitute in some way for his own lack of offspring (cf.

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  • I expect Hague would win each one, on account of his good oratory, but this is no substitute for policies.

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  • outfield substitute at Portsmouth - but he did not score.

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  • outfield sub and even the Reserves ' physio Peter Shaw was named as a substitute.

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  • Online learning material should not be a substitute for active participatory learning experiences.

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  • However, she was eventually persuaded to substitute a fine.

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  • phenyl ethylamine, a mood enhancer, so a substitute sometimes just doesn't do the trick.

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  • Instead they hesitated and allowed substitute Williams to sneak in and toe poke past a bewildered Beresford.

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  • That research is no substitute for understanding the human psyche.

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  • quinine substitute to heart medicine.

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  • Certainly no substitute for a good few rashers of bacon.

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  • Fresh winter savory leaves can be used as a substitute for black pepper.

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  • For coffee milk shake, use coffee ice cream, or substitute vanilla or coffee syrup.

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  • frozen brine shrimp is a decent substitute for the live version.

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  • Solute atoms of similar size to those in the host lattice may substitute for host atoms - these are known as substitutional solute atoms of similar size to those in the host lattice may substitute for host atoms - these are known as substitutional solutes.

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  • synthetic white spinel was often used in the past as a diamond substitute.

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  • Created substitute programs to child's nativity stares quot cases were in the book.

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  • The third Charlton player in England's squad, defender Casey Stoney, was an unused substitute.

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  • Methadone is an opiate substitute and is synthesized from the raw materials found in the opium poppy.

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  • As kosher food is an acceptable substitute for halal meat, many of the usual arguments over food at the wedding reception were bypassed.

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  • Even retailers with national coverage did not feel that regional wholesalers were an adequate substitute for the co-ordinated service offered by a national provider.

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  • substitute tanf the first model credit plan for he or she.

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  • substitute goalkeeper Tom Heaton.

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  • substitute Medicaid in companies of serious illnesses and.

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  • substitute appearance.

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  • substitute keeper 18-year-old debutant Alex Davies with the chance to make himself the hero by saving Reid's spot kick.

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  • Website: Nursing Times saliva substitute anomalies in formulary Price M. Personal Comment: Extended Formulary Nurse Prescribing another saliva substitute roadblock.

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  • The toxicology tests also showed what had killed him was being given the drug combined with an adult dose of the heroin substitute Subutex.

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  • In bakery mixes Meritose provides a source of fermentable sugars to promote yeast activity and it may be used to substitute sucrose economically.

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  • sucrose substitute or a readily available energy source in sports drinks, isotonic drinks and baby foods.

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  • sugarless candy or gum, melt bits of ice in your mouth, or use a saliva substitute.

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  • superscript characters, use the following substitute trademark notices.

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  • In their enthusiasm to have the working classes go teetotal, tea was regularly offered at temperance meetings as a substitute for alcohol.

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  • This recipe is also included in Easy Sushi but here I substitute fish fingers for the prawn tempura suggested in the book.

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  • The mutation produces a good solo timbre, a kind of cornet substitute.

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  • Body: front half red seal fur substitute; rear half flat silver tinsel.

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  • turpentine substitute applied lightly with a soft pad.

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  • unused substitute.

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  • Why bother with substitute sources of stand-in obligation when, thanks to having become moral saints, act utilitarianism will fortunately always do?

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  • Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the contemporary avant-garde must substitute itself for the missing political vanguard.

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  • variola proteins, it should be possible to substitute those obtained from the highly similar vaccinia virus.

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  • I have used the traditional thick white noodles but you could substitute Chinese egg noodles or rice vermicelli.

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  • volleyed just over the crossbar and substitute Sam McMahon saw his shot saved by Parkin.

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  • Recent projects have included processes for the production of fungal meat substitute, biodegradable plastic, and protein and ethanol from cheese whey.

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  • wickerwork image in which to burn them but the warriors objected and insisted on a substitute.

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  • If we substitute the latter value in (22) we find X Io 6 cm.

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  • These at first encircled the whole border; but soon it became customary to substitute for them square patches of embroidery or precious fabrics.

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  • Ellis used mean-tone temperament in calculating this lower pitch; but as he used just intonation for the Halberstadt, it seems preferable to substitute it for the Chorton, thus reducing it to a' 422.8.

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  • Gas fires, as a substitute for the open coal fire, have many points in their favour, for they are conducive to cleanliness, they need but little attention, and the heat is easily controlled.

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  • Following the lead of the Independents, who set up Mansfield College at Oxford, the Presbyterian Church has founded Westminster College at Cambridge as a substitute for its Theological Hall in London.

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  • If the number of inhabitants exceed 500, the commune must also provide a special school for girls, unless the Departmental Council authorizes it to substitute a mixed school.

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  • The oak of Britain is still in demand for the construction of merchant shipping, though teak has become in some measure its substitute, and foreign oak of various quality and origin largely takes.

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  • In the Saxon period the "mast" seems to have been regarded as the most valuable produce of an oak wood; nor was its use always confined to the support of the herds, for in time of dearth acorns were boiled and eaten by the poor as a substitute for bread both in England and France, as the sweeter produce of Q.

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  • mannifera, attacked by a kind of Coccus, yields a sweet exudation which the Kurds collect and use as manna, or as a substitute for honey or sugar in various confections (see Manna).

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  • The radical side of Descartes appears again in his offering his own type of theism as a substitute for the old proofs - not a supplement.

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  • With what is specifically Christian we have nothing to do in the present article: but it is worth noticing that the appeal to " values, " aesthetic and still more moral, forms a substitute for that natural theology which Ritschl despised and professed to reject.

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  • In the Leptolinae we must first substitute polyp for actinula, and then a condition is found which can be compared to the case of Cunina parasitica or Gonionemus, if we suppose that neither the parent-actinula (i.e.

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  • But the effect of the adoption of these conclusions has been rather to substitute a new metaphor for that of Bonnet than to abolish the conception expressed by it.

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  • From the bottom of this sea they have been raised to form the dry lands along the shores of Suffolk, whence they are now extracted as articles of commercial value, being ground to powder in the mills of Mr [afterwards Sir John] Lawes, at Deptford, to supply our farms with a valuable substitute for guano, under the accepted name of coprolite manure."

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  • When, in the early years of steam navigation, the English government made known its desire to substitute steam vessels for the sailing ships then employed in the mail service between England and America, Cunard heartily entered into the scheme, came to England, and accepted the government tender for carrying it out.

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  • It is clear that in the circumstances the terms "father," "patristic," "patrology" must be used with much elasticity, since it is now too late to substitute for them any more comprehensive terms.

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  • A hopeless antagonism arose between them, which was widened by Enfantin's announcement of his theory of the relation of man and woman, which would substitute for the "tyranny of marriage" a system of "free love."

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  • He also wrote in 1832 Le Livre nouveau, intended as a substitute for the Christian Scriptures, but it was not published.

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  • The montes, by which are understood plantations as well as native thickets, produce among other woods the algarrobo, a poor imitation of oak; the guayabo, a substitute for boxwood; the quebracho, of which the red kind is compared to sandalwood; and the urunday, black and white, not unlike rosewood.

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  • The leaves of a closely allied plant, Empleurum serratulum, are employed as a substitute or adulterant for buchu.

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  • As these possess no glands they are a worthless substitute.

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  • The acting justice sits normally alone to hear causes in his canton of the peace (uchastok), but, at the request of both parties to a suit, he may call in an honorary justice as assessor or substitute.

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  • but the great majority of couplings remain non-automatic. It may be pointed out that the general employment of side buffers in Europe greatly complicates the problem of designing a satisfactory automatic coupling, while to do away with them and substitute the combined buffer-coupling, such as is used in the United States, would entail enormous difficulties in carrying on the traffic during the transition stage.

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  • (ii.) The piacular sacrifice arose from the need of atoning for bloodshed within the kinship group; properly speaking, the culprit himself should suffer: should he be unknown or beyond the reach of vengeance, a substitute had to be found.

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  • The same tendency led the pious worshippers to avoid His awful name and to substitute Adonai in their scriptures or to use in the Mishna the term " name " (shem) or " heaven."

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  • MALARIA, an Italian colloquial word (from mala, bad, and aria, air), introduced into English medical literature by Macculloch (1827) as a substitute for the more restricted terms "marsh miasm" or "paludal poison."

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  • According to Juvenal the sons of such proselytes were apt to go farther and to substitute the Jewish Law for the Roman Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges; Judaicum ediscunt et servant ac metuunt ius Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moyses.

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  • From the extreme south most of the merchantable timber had been cut, but immediately north of this there were still vast quantities of valuable long-leaf pine; in the marshes of the Delta was much cypress, the cotton-wood was nearly exhausted, and the gum was being used as a substitute for it; and on the rich upland soil were oak and red gum, also cotton-wood, hickory and maple.

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  • He is allowed, however, " on account of its weight," to substitute for the pretiosa the auriphrygiata during part of the services, i.e.

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  • Thus its non-liability to freeze (when not absolutely anhydrous, which it practically never is when freely exposed to the air) and its nonvolatility at ordinary temperatures, combined with its power of always keeping fluid and not drying up and hardening, render it valuable as a lubricating agent for clockwork, watches, &c., as a substitute for water in wet gas-meters, and as an ingredient in cataplasms, plasters, modelling clay, pasty colouring matters, dyeing materials, moist colours for artists, and numerous other analogous substances which are required to be kept in a permanently soft condition.

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  • Glycerin is useless as a food and is not in any sense a substitute for cod-liver oil.

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  • But his proposal to substitute for all aides and customs duties a single capitation tax of a tenth of the revenue of all property was naturally opposed by the farmers of taxes and found little support.

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  • It was found, however, that the steam work was done with less care than had been bestowed upon the horse tillage, and the result was that steam came to be regarded as an auxiliary to horse labour rather than as a substitute for it.

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  • We can therefore substitute sound diagnosis for guesswork more frequently in modern than in historical problems.

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  • In Norway the sprays, like those of the juniper, are scattered over the floors of churches and the sitting-rooms of dwelling-houses, as a fragrant and healthful substitute for carpet or matting.

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  • In times of scarcity the Norse peasant-farmer uses the sweetish inner bark, beaten in a mortar and ground in his primitive mill with oats or barley, to eke out a scanty supply of meal, the mixture yielding a tolerably palatable though somewhat resinous substitute for his ordinary flad-brod.

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  • The purely artificial character of the System of Linnaeus and his successors had been perceived, and men were at a loss to find a substitute for it.

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  • On the arrival of the ship at its destination he provided a substitute for his post and crossed over to the island of Luzon, which he explored.

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  • It was not long, however, before the stock-feeder in the South found that cotton seed hulls were an excellent substitute for hay.

    0
    0
  • In the 13th century it became necessary for the legists to codify, as it were, the unwritten law, because the upheavals of the times necessitated the fixing of some rules in writing, and especially because it was necessary to oppose a definite custom of the kingdom to Frederick II., who sought, as king of Jerusalem, to take advantage of the want of a written law, to substitute his own conceptions of law in the teeth of the high court.

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  • The objective was unexpected: it may have been chosen by St Louis, because he knew how seriously the power of the sultan was undermined by the Mamelukes, who were in the very next year to depose the Ayyubite dynasty, which had reigned since 1171, and to substitute one of their number as sultan.

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  • ra some critics propose to substitute for" remember thy Creator "the expression of xi.

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    0
  • Another curious theorem proposed by Bouilland in 1625 as a substitute for Kepler's second law is that the angular motion of the body as measured around the empty focus F' is (approximately) uniform.

    0
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  • When dealing with maps not drawn on an equal area projection we substitute quadrilaterals bounded by meridians and parallels, the areas for which are given in the " Smithsonian Geographical Tables " (1894), in Professor H.

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    0
  • After twice failing in the attempt to gain a professorship in the university, he was invited, during an illness of Dugald Stewart in the session of 1808-1809, to act as his substitute, and during the following session he undertook a great part of Stewart's work.

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  • It was often a pecuniary advantage to the master to liberate his slave; he obtained a payment which enabled him to buy a substitute, a^ .d at the same time gained a client.

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  • For the old external law they substitute the internal law: conscience is recognized as the power that approves or condemns conduct Nivxii, Ecclus.

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  • In this emergency assignats were issued to provide a substitute for a metallic currency.

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    0
  • Plantain occurs in several varieties; it is in part a cheap and healthful substitute for bread, which is also made from the bitter cassava, after the poison is extracted.

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  • When a people migrate they may take with them their god, and if they conceive him to be a spiritual being who cannot be represented by an image, they may desire a symbolical expression of or, rather, a substitute for his presence.

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  • Hence in all there are mn such systems. If, therefore, we have a third equation, and we substitute each system of values in it successively and form the product of the mn expressions thus formed, we obtain a function which vanishes if any one system of values, common to the first two equations, also satisfies the third.

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  • af Expression in Terms of Roots.-Since x+y y =mf, if we take cx any root x 3, y1, ofand substitute in mf we must obtain, y 1 C) zaZ1 �; hence the resultant of and f is, disregarding numerical factors, y,y2...y,,.

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    0
  • We may in any relation substitute for any pair of quantities any other cogredient pair so that writing -}-d 2, -d l for x 1 and x 2, and noting that gx then becomes (gd), the above-written identity bceomes (ad)(bc)+(bd)(ca)+(cd)(ab) = 0.

    0
    0
  • To obtain the real form we multiply out, and, in the result, substitute for the products of symbols the real coefficients which they denote.

    0
    0
  • One advantage we have obtained is that, if we now write ao =o, and substitute a 8 _ 1 for a,, when s>o, we obtain d d aO da l +al da 2 +a2 da �....+an_2dan_1 which is the form of SZ for a binary (n- Henceby merely diminishing each suffix in a seminvariant by unity, we obtain another seminvariant of the same degree, and of weight w-8, appertaining to the (n-I) ic. Also, if we increase each suffix in a seminvariant, we obtain terms, free from a 0, of some seminvariant of degree 8 and weight w+8.

    0
    0
  • A pamphlet written to propose a substitute for the system of impressment in 1822 is said to have offended King William IV.

    0
    0
  • A basic chloride, Pb(OH)Cl, was introduced in 1849 by Pattinson as a substitute for white lead.

    0
    0
  • We may therefore generally substitute s/2n for tan 0 in the various expressions which have been given for I.

    0
    0
  • Vegetable wax, which is an excellent substitute for beeswax, is a product of the carnahuha palm (Copernicia cerifera), and is an important export from Ceara.

    0
    0
  • It is therefore difficult to suppose that the Jewish Church as a whole passed through a stage in which it was felt desirable to substitute o'n'7 H in writing for n¦n'.

    0
    0
  • In medieval illumination it furnished, as a glaze upon burnished tinfoil, a cheap and effective substitute for gold.

    0
    0
  • Immediately after the discovery of guncotton SchOnbein proposed its employment as a substitute for gunpowder, and General von Lenk carried out a lengthy and laborious series of experiments intending to adapt it especially for artillery use.

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    0
  • At that period the urban masses, but recently converted to Christianity, sought in the worship of the martyrs a sort of substitute for polytheism.

    0
    0
  • Nearly all medieval medical literature was condemned under this name; and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its fountain-head.

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    0
  • " similaa similibus curantur,"which he explained as depending on the law that in order to get rid of a disease some remedy must be given which should substitute for the disease an action dynamically similar, but weaker.

    0
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  • In politics proper he seems indeed to have had few or no constructive ideas, and to have been entirely ignorant or quite reckless of the fact that his attacks were destroying a state of things for which as a whole he neither had nor apparently wished to have any substitute.

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  • Disillusioned and cynical, though clear-sighted as ever, he was henceforth before all things an Austrian, more Austrian on occasion even than Metternich; as, e.g., when, during the final stages of the campaign of 1814, he expressed the hope that Metternich would substitute "Austria" for "Europe" in his diplomacy and - strange advice from the old hater of Napoleon and of France - secure an AustroFrench alliance by maintaining the husband of Marie Louise on the throne of France.

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  • Personal surety appears as a complement of and substitute for collective responsibility.

    0
    0
  • Meanwhile Wright, Ward and Sayce had all suggested " Hittite " as a substitute for " Hamathite," because no other N.

    0
    0
  • It is not a vestis sacra, and cannot therefore be used as a substitute for the surplice, e.g.

    0
    0
  • It is used by brewers as a substitute for hops.

    0
    0
  • Although good crops may follow the application of lime, the latter is not a direct fertilizer or manure and is no substitute for such.

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  • This is the great social fact - the failure of government to perform one of its most primary duties, the necessity of finding some substitute in private life - extending in greater or less degree through the whole formative period of feudalism, which explains the transformation of institutions that brought it into existence.

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  • They connect all the important cities, towns and ports, but cover only a small part of the republic. The cost of erecting and maintaining telegraph lines in the sierra and montana regions is too great to permit their extensive use, and the government is seeking to substitute wireless telegraphy.

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  • 27) after the regular daily sacrifice (in the synagogues a substitute - probably Adonay - was employed); 4 on the Day of Atonement the High Priest uttered the name ten times in his prayers and benediction.

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  • In many passages the name seems to be only a more solemn substitute for the simple Yahweh, and as such it has probably often been inserted by scribes.

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  • Tallow candles as a substitute for whale-oil had been introduced, and the British market was closed by a duty of £r8 a ton on oil; a bounty offered by the Massachusetts legislature (£5 on white and £ 3 on yellow or brown spermaceti, and £2 on whale-oil per ton) was of slight assistance.

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  • Gladstone was implored to withdraw them, or substitute a resolution in favour of Irish autonomy; but he resolved to press at least the Home Rule Bill to a second reading.

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  • The present head, however, isa later substitute f or the original, which was destroyed by fire.

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  • Thus nickel, which was formerly used in the manufacture of " German silver " as a substitute for silver, is now widely employed in naval construction and in the manufacture of steel armourplate and projectiles.

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  • Other tales said the stone was the one given by Rhea to Cronus as a substitute for Zeus.

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  • An exactly similar expression holds good in hydrokinetics, provided that for the electric potential we substitute velocity potential, and for the electric force the velocity of the liquid.

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  • to formal logic. An attempt has been made by some philosophers to substitute "Gnosiology" (Gr.

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  • Thanks to the enthusiasm of Schliemann and his successors, we can now substitute for the mythical "Age of Heroes" a historical "Mycenaean Age" of Greece, and give tangible proof of its relatively high state of civilization.

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  • An officer whose nature, as the event showed, was interpenetrated with the spirit of legality was a fitting servant of a revolution whose aim it was to substitute legality for personal caprice as the dominant principle of affairs.

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  • Sorensen and Martin Knudsen after a careful investigation decided to abandon the old definition of salinity as the sum of all the dissolved solids in sea-water and to substitute for it the weight of the dissolved solids in 1000 parts by weight of sea-water on the assumption that all the bromine is replaced by its equivalent of chlorine, all the carbonate converted into oxide and the organic matter burnt.

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  • It provided also a substitute for either the Aristotelian or the Ramist logic, which was an additional element in its favour.

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  • As a substitute for timber props at the face, pieces of steel joists, with the web cut out for a short distance on either end, with the flanges turned back to give a square bearing surface, have been introduced.

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  • The use of small auxiliary blowing ventilators underground, for carrying air into workings away from the main circuits, which was largely advocated at one time, has lost its popularity, but a useful substitute has been found in the induced draught produced by jets of compressed air or high-pressure water blowing into ejectors.

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  • The equation of energy is dQ=dE+pdv, (17) expressing that the total energy dQ is used partly in increasing the internal energy of the gas, and partly in expanding the gas against the pressure p. If we take p = RNT/v from equation (14) and substitute for E from equation (16), this last equation becomes dQ 2 (n +3)RNdT +RNTdv (18) which may be taken as the general equation of calorimetry, for a gas which accurately obeys equation (14).

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  • A substitute for this originality was found at Alexandria in learned research, extended and multifarious knowledge.

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  • This was the beginning of his connexion with John Stuart Mill, which led to a life-long friendship. In 1841 he became substitute for Dr Glennie, the professor of moral philosophy, who, through ill-health, was unable to discharge the active duties of the chair.

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  • He still for a short time retained influence with the king, and intended to employ George Grenville (whom he recommended as his successor) as his agent; but the latter insisted on possessing the king's whole confidence, and on the failure of Bute in August 1763 to procure his dismissal and to substitute a ministry led by Pitt and the duke of Bedford, Grenville demanded and obtained Bute's withdrawal from the court.

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  • The appeal to an Absolute on the other hand is only to substitute one difficulty for another.

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  • The real issue comes into view in the attempt, undertaken in the interest of freedom, to substitute for the notion of the world as a cosmos pervaded by no discernible principle and in its essence indifferent to the form impressed upon it by its active parts.

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  • 2 In this earlier period (before 1900), thanks to the 1 However, every office-holder was, and every subject might be, required to take (though this was not a condition of the franchise) the oaths enjoined by parliament in the first year of the reign of William and Mary as a substitute for the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy; and the same still applies to the signing of the Declaration.

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  • Again, can we substitute church authority for that which is always the background of " dogma " as interpreted from inside - divine authority?

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  • His "substitute for religion" is a doctrine in many points akin to Comte and Feuerbach, the former of whom he resembles in his sentimentalism.

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  • In France royalty acquired little by little a preponderant influence over feudalism and used its increased prestige to substitute for the Truce of God the peace of the state.

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  • The cold sometimes is severely felt by the poor classes owing to want of proper fuel, for which a great part of the population has no substitute except dried cowdung.

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  • Zirconia, when heated to whiteness, remains unfused, and radiates a fine white light, which suggested its utilization for making incandescent gas mantles; and, in the form of disks, as a substitute for the lime-cylinders ordinarily employed in "limelight."

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  • In some tracts it was found advisable to substitute a less elaborate schedule for that generally prescribed.

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  • The work was in fact the first attempt to substitute for the popular representations of Thiers and Lamartine the critical investigation which has been carried on with such brilliance by Taine and Sorel.

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  • Romanes), in which the writer endeavours to establish the weakness of the proofs for the existence of God, and to substitute for theism Spencer's physical explanation of the universe, and yet admits how unsatisfying to himself the new position is.

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  • 19 Hebrews speaks of Christ as transcending the rites and officials of the law; He a ccomplishes the realities which they could only foreshadow;, in relation to the perfect, heavenly sacrifice which atones for sin, He is both priest and victim.20 The subsequent development of the Christian doctrine has chiefly shaped itself according to the Pauline formula of vicarious atonement; the sufferings of Christ were accepted as a substitute for theunishment which men deserved, p ?

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  • In 1907 the legislature proposed an amendment providing for the application of initiative and referendum to statutory laws and constitutional amendments; two years later the legislature passed a substitute resolution, which omits the clause regarding amendments of the constitution, and which, if passed by the legislature of 2922 will be put to popular vote at the general election of 1912.

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  • But attempts have been made, and have been largely successful, to make the revenue dependent to a less extent on monopolies and the products (especially agricultural) of the land; and to abolish licences and substitute direct taxes.

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  • Of the intestines they make masks or covers for their faces, to protect them from the glare of the sun in the spring, and use them as a substitute for glass, by extending them over their windows.

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  • Voltaire, though he did not originate, yet adopted a moral and religious scheme which he sought to substitute for the church tradition.

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  • We have now to substitute these data in the universally valid circuital relations - namely, (i) line integral of magnetic force round a circuit is equal to Orr times the current through its aperture, which may be regarded as a definition of the constitution of the aether and its relation to the electrons involved in it; and (ii) line integral of the electric force belonging to any material circuit (i.e.

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  • Esparto leaves contain 56% by weight of fibre, or about ro% more than straw, and hence have come into requisition as a substitute for linen rags in the manufacture of paper.

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  • In 1550 it was proposed in Brunswick to banish all " profane " authors from the schools, and in 1589 a competent scholar was instructed to write a sacred epic on the kings of Israel as a substitute for the works of the "pagan" poets.

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  • If then we substitute for the standard cell any other source of electromotive force, we can move the slider into another position in which the galvanometer will show no deflection.

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