Di-derivatives x x x p v as $ v as s Here we have assumed the substituent groups to be alike; when they are unlike, a greater number of isomers is possible.
Orientation of Substituent Groups.-The determination of the relative positions of the substituents in a benzene derivative constitutes an important factor in the general investigation of such compounds.
Intermolecular transformations-migrations of substituent groups from one carbon atom to anotherare of fairly common occurrence among oxy compounds at elevated temperatures.
Not only does the substituent group modify the readiness with which the derivative is attacked, but also the nature of the product.
Starting with a monoderivative, we have seen that a substituent group may enter in either of three positions to form an ortho-, meta-, or paracompound.
Soc. 61, p. 367): If the hydrogen compound of the substituent already in the benzene nucleus can be directly oxidized to the' corresponding hydroxyl compound, then meta-derivatives predominate on further substitution, if not, then orthoand paraderivatives.
3 1 tri-derivatives, except in such cases as when both substituent groups are strongly acid, e.g.
Bamberger (a strong supporter of the centric formula), have shown that the nature of the substituent groups influences the distribution of the fourth valencies; therefore it may be con-?
The mere retention of the same crystal form by homologous substances is not a sufficient reason for denying a morphotropic effect to the substituent group; for, in the case of certain substances crystallizing in the cubic system, although the crystal form remains unaltered, yet the structures vary.
Other substituent groups exercise morphotropic effects similar to those exhibited by the alkyl radicles; investigations have been made on halogen-, hydroxy-, and nitro-derivatives of benzene and substituted benzenes.
The reaction appears to be perfectly general unless the ketone contains two ortho-substituent groups.
Formula also allows of the existence of six di-derivatives, six tri-derivatives, three tetraand one penta derivative, when the substituent groups are identi N %"cal; all of which are in agreement with known facts.
The nature of the substituent exerts a specific influence on the reaction; thus with chlorine or bromine, ortho-semidines and the diphenyl bases are the chief products; the dimethylamino, -N(CH 3) 2, and acetamino, -NHCOCH3, groups give the diphenyl base and the para-semidine respectively.
The measure of the loss of symmetry associated with the introduction of alkyl groups depends upon the relative magnitudes of the substituent group and the rest of the molecule; and the larger the molecule, the less would be the morphotropic effect of any particular substituent.