Subjection sentence examples

  • Here they had their headquarters and held Russia in subjection for nearly three centuries.

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  • the territory of the ancient city of Damascus; it was brought into subjection for a short time under David.

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  • - According to a conception of the world frequently found among peoples of the lower cultures, all the affairs of life are supposed to be under the control of spirits, each ruling a certain element or even object, and themselves in subjection to a greater spirit.

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  • Our earliest information about the Ephthalites comes from the Chinese chronicles, in which it is stated that they were originally a tribe of the great Yue-Chi, living to the north of the Great Wall, and in subjection to the Jwen-Jwen, as were also the Turks at one time.

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  • The Concordat brought the clergy into subjection, and enabled him to distribute benefices at his pleasure among the most docile of his courtiers.

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  • The condition of the church seemed desperate, unless it could be purged of crying scandals of the subjection of the papacy to the great Roman nobles, of its subordination to the German emperor and of its internal demoralization.

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  • According to Catholic doctrine, the Fall involved the subjection, not only of man, but of all things animate and inanimate, to the influence of evil spirits; in support of which St Paul's epistles to the Romans (viii.) and to Timothy (I Tim.

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  • The subjection of Basutoland to the control of the Cape government had by this time proved unsatisfactory, both to the Basuto and to Cape Colony.

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  • 17 it appears that subjection to a foreign power is not a present fact but a thing feared.

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  • Having abandoned the conception of the ancients as to the divine subjection of the will of a nation to some chosen man and the subjection of that man's will to the Deity, history cannot without contradictions take a single step till it has chosen one of two things: either a return to the former belief in the direct intervention of the Deity in human affairs or a definite explanation of the meaning of the force producing historical events and termed "power."

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  • The breach with Rome and the subjection of the church in England to the royal supremacy had been practically achieved before Cranmer's appointment as archbishop: and he had little to do with the other constitutional changes of Henry's reign.

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  • Since the days when Rurik had first chosen it as his headquarters, the little town on the Volkhov had grown into a great commercial of Nov- city and a member of the Hanseatic league, and it had brought under subjection a vast expanse of territory, stretching from the shores of the Baltic to the Ural Mountains, and containing several subordinate towns, of which the principal were Pskov, Nizhniy-Novgorod and Vyatka.

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  • Having made the grand tour he returned to Ireland; and being employed by the parliament in a mission to the duke of Ormonde, now reduced to the last extremities, he succeeded in concluding a treaty with him on the 19th of June 1647, thus securing the country from complete subjection to the rebels.

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  • Its long subjection to Turkey has left little trace of antiquity, and the most striking features in the general view are the minarets of the disused mosques (only four are now in use) and the Mahommedan burying-grounds.

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  • Julius Caesar, after a severe struggle with - the Nervii and their confederates, was successful in bringing the Belgic tribes into Their subjection to Rome.

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  • The subjection of the core to a hydraulic pressure of four tons to the square inch and an electric pressure of 5000 volts from an alternating-current transformer has been adopted, by one manufacturer at least, to secure the detection of masked faults which might develop themselves after submergence.

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  • As late as 1571 Moscow was pillaged by a Tatar horde; but there was no longer any question of permanent political subjection to the Asiatics, and the Russian frontier was being gradually pushed forward at the expense of the nomads of the steppe by the constant advance of the agricultural population in quest of virgin soil.

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  • In the complete subjection of the Continent which preceded the Russian War this was not so easy as it would have been earlier, and she remained at home during the winter of 1811, writing and planning.

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  • The Teutonic knights in the north and the Tatar hordes in the south were equally bent on the subjection of Lithuania, while Olgierd's eastern and western neighbours, Muscovy and Poland, were far more frequently hostile competitors than serviceable allies.

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  • Turning his attention to the east, Henry reduced various Slavonic tribes to subjection, took Brennibor, the modern Brandenburg, from the Hevelli, and secured both banks of the Elbe for Saxony.

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  • One of his first tasks was to send his treatise on the Subjection of Women (written 1861, published 1869, many editions) through the press.

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  • became king of England, and one of the first acts of the new reign, after a narrow escape of the young king from capture by Moray, was the treaty of York, ratified at Northampton in April 1328, by which it was agreed that "Scotland, according to its ancient bounds in the days of Alexander III., should remain to Robert, king of Scots, and his heirs free and divided from England, without any subjection, servitude, claim or demand whatsoever."

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  • The members of the lowest class were not in a state of individual subjection: the entire caste to which they belonged was collectively subject.

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  • He came to the conclusion that there could be no hope of peace and progress in South Africa while there remained the "permanent subjection of British to Dutch in one of the Republics."

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  • Like a true Hegelian he saw three stages in the development of labour: the ancient and feudal period, which, through the subjection of the labourer, sought solidarity without freedom; the reign of capital and the middle classes, established in 1789, which sought freedom by destroying solidarity; and the new era, beginning in 1848, which would reconcile solidarity with freedom by introducing the principle of association.

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  • From this city as their base the Arabs, under Kotaiba (Qotaiba) ibn Moslim, early in the 8th century brought under subjection Balkh, Bokhara, Ferghana and Kashgaria, and penetrated into China as far as the province of Kan-suh.

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  • The fort, at first called Kilmallie, was built by General Monk in 1655 to hold the Cameron men in subjection, and was enlarged in 1690 by General Hugh Mackay, who renamed it after William III., the burgh then being known as Maryburgh in honour of his queen.

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  • The women were kept in subjection, and were far from enjoying the liberty granted them among the Sarmatae, among whom they rode on horseback and engaged in war.

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  • The members of this ecclesiola in ecclesia pledged themselves "to join together in the Christian profession, to follow Christ the Lord as the righteousness of his people, to walk together in brotherly love, and in the duties of it, in subjection to Mr Glas as their overseer in the Lord, to observe the ordinance of the Lord's Supper once every month, to submit themselves to the Lord's law for removing offences," &c. (Matt.

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  • Such a region was naturally occupied from a very early period by wild and lawless races of mountaineers, who were very imperfectly reduced to subjection by the powers that successively established their dominion in Asia Minor.

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  • They held in precarious subjection the hordes whom the conditions of the climate and the soil made it impossible to supplant.

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  • After seventy years' subjection to the Medici Florence had forgotten the art of self-government, and felt the need of a strong guiding hand.

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  • It would seem that having rejected the belief of the ancients in man's subjection to the Deity and in a predetermined aim toward which nations are led, modern history should study not the manifestations of power but the causes that produce it.

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  • A few years later (704 B.C.) the combined forces of Elam and Babylonia were overthrown at Kis, and in the following year the Kassites were reduced to subjection.

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  • Inversnaid was the site of a fort built in 1713 to reduce the clan to subjection.

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  • He crushed the rebellion of Timarchus in Media and reduced Judaea to new subjection.

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  • The theory was purely democratic, but was all ready to be transformed, by means of a series of fictions and implications, into an imperialist doctrine; and in like manner it contained a visionary plan of reformation which ended, not in the separation of the church from the state, but in the subjection of the church to the state.

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  • Before definitely giving its consent to peace negotiations, the Roman Church determined on making a last effort to reduce the Hussites to subjection.

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  • has outlived its day may be justly identified with obscurantism, but not so the systems of those who, by their intellectual force alone, once held all the minds of Europe in subjection.

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  • died on the r3th of March 1516, two years after the " Savage Diet," the ferocity of whose decrees he had feebly endeavoured to mitigate, leaving his two Subjection kingdoms to his son Louis, a child of ten, who was by the pronounced of age in order that his foreignguardians, Turks.

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  • But Turkey was herself fully occupied by affairs in Europe, and to Mehemet Ali, then pasha of Egypt, was deputed the task of bringing the Wahhabis into subjection.

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  • Grimoald of Benevento rebelled against his overlord; the possession of Venice and Dalmatia was disputed by the two empires; and Istria was brought into subjection.

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  • The close relations between northern Italy and the Empire, and the union of the sovereignty of southern Italy with the German crown, seemed to afford the means for keeping Rome in subjection.

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  • But above all archaeology has immensely increased our knowledge of the nations among which Israel was placed, and of the political powers which from time to time held Palestine in subjection.

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  • On the 15th of September 1821 Costa Rica, with the other Central American provinces, revolted and joined the Mexican empire under the dynasty of Iturbide; but this subjection never became popular, and, on the establishment of a Mexican republic in 1823, hostilities broke out between the Conservatives, who desired to maintain the union, and the Liberals, who wished to set up an independent republic. The opposing factions met near the Ochomogo Pass; the republicans were victorious, and the seat of government was transferred from Cartago, the old capital, to San Jose, the Liberal headquarters.

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  • For many years, however, the Indians remained in subjection and took no part in the political activities of their native country.

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  • They were an energetic people, were never subdued by the Aztecs, and are now recovering from their long subjection to Spanish enslavement more rapidly than any other indigenous race.

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  • This was the second warlike expedition in which he was the chief actor, and the accomplishment of its objects led to further operations, among them the subjection of Khwarizm and Urganj.

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  • Timur not only consolidated his rule at home by the subjection of intestine foes, but sought extension of territory by encroachments upon the lands of foreign potentates.

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  • After several campaigns they were reduced to subjection (272 B.C.).

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  • Whenever he had an opportunity he destroyed a feudal castle, and by destroying the towers which commanded nearly every town in France, he freed such towns as Bourges, for instance, from their long practical subjection to the neighbouring great lord.

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  • Old trees are selected, from the bark of which it is observed to ooze in the early summer; holes are bored in the trunk, somewhat inclined upward towards the centre of the stem, in which, between the layers of wood, the turpentine is said to collect in small lacunae; wooden gutters placed in these holes convey the viscous fluid into little wooden pails hung on the end of each gutter; the secretion flows slowly all through the summer months, and a tree in proper condition yields from 6 to 8 Ib a year, and will continue to give an annual supply for thirty or forty years, being, however, rendered quite useless for timber by subjection to this process.

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  • The name Messiah is still lacking, and the central point of the prophecy is not the reign of the deliverer but the subjection of all nations to the law and the temple.'

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  • Before Caesar's arrival in Gaul they had advanced beyond the former river, but their further progress in this direction was checked by his campaigns, and, though both banks of the river were occupied by Teutonic tribes throughout the greater part of its course, most of these remained in definite subjection to the Romans.

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  • It was still being held in strict subjection by the latter when, towards the end of the i ith century, Hildebrand (Gregory VII.) undertook its enfranchisement and began the war of the investitures (q.v.), from which the papacy was to issue with such an extraordinary renewal of its vitality.

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  • - Gregory VII.'s immediate successors accomplished the most pressing work by liberating the Church from feudal subjection, either by force or by diplomacy.

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  • This change was a prelude to the more or less complete subjection of the papacy to French influence which took place in the following century at the period of the " Babylonish Captivity," the violent reaction personified by Boniface VIII.

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  • first Avignon pope, Clement V., marks the final subjection of the papal power to the Capetian government, the inevitable result of the European situation created in the preceding century.

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  • The subjection of the secular clergy was complete, while the episcopate retained no shadow of its independence.

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  • The right of the burgesses to self-government and self-taxation is acknowledged and confirmed, they, on the other hand, being held bound to a constitutional obedience and subjection to the sovereign, particularly to the payment of definite imperial taxes, and the rendering of a certain amount of military service (as the ancient municipia had been).

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  • In 1809 the French invaders of Spain obtained possession of the fortress and kept the city in subjection until 1814.

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  • The medieval constitution of Groningen, unlike that of Utrecht, was aristocratic. Merchant gild there was none; and the craft gilds were without direct influence on the city government, which held them in subjection.

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  • The ancient Bergomum was the centre of the tribe of the Orobii; it became, after their subjection to Rome, a Roman municipality with a considerable territory, and after its destruction by Attila, became the capital of a Lombard duchy.

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  • A considerable number of the Latin cities had before 370 B.C. either been utterly destroyed or reduced to subjection by Rome, and had thus lost their independent existence.

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  • They raised him on a shield and acclaimed him as a king; leader and followers both resolving (says Jordanes the Gothic historian) "rather to seek new kingdoms by their own labour, than to slumber in peaceful subjection to the rule of others."

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  • Despite their troubled history and long subjection, the Belgic provinces still retained to an unusual degree their local liberties and privileges, and more especially the right of not being taxed, except by the express consent of the states.

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  • On the other hand, the Gaetulians to the south of the Atlas range, on the date-producing slopes towards the Sahara, seem to have owned a precarious subjection to the kings of Mauretania, as afterwards to the Roman government.

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  • All these tribes remained in subjection to the Romans.

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  • The conquest of the Frisians by the Franks was begun by Pippin (Pepin) of Heristal in 689 and practically completed by Charles Martel, though they were not entirely brought into subjection until the time of Charlemagne.

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  • Bavaria was brought into subjection about the same time; the Bavarian law, committed to writing between 7~9 and 748, strongly emphasizes the supremacy of the Frankish king, whose authority it recognizes as including the right to appoint and even to depose the duke of Bavaria.

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  • When he was ready he used his new troops, before turning them against their chief enemy, the Magyars, to punish refractory Slavonic tribes; and he brought under temporary subjection nearly all the Slays between the Elbe and the Oder.

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  • During the late kings concluding years 1 certain Bretislaus, who had served Conrad with distinctior in Lusatia, became duke of Bohemia and made war upon th~ disunited Poles, easily bringing them into subjection.

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  • No other mode of escape than complete ~ subjection to Gregory had suggested itself, or was perhaps possible; but it did not save him.

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  • Since the death of Otto the Great the Slavonic lands to the east of the Elbe had been very imperfectly held in subjection by the Germans.

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  • Courland and Livonia were brought into subjection, and into these lands also Christian institutions were introduced and German settlers brought the arts of peace.

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  • The Austrian government, after the subjection of Hungary, withdrew every concession it had made under pressure, and established a thorough despotism, trampling upon the rights of the individual nationalities, and forcing all its subjects into a common political mould.

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  • The opposition of the bishops to these laws was supported even by many Protestants, especially by the more orthodox Lutherans, who feared the effect of this increased subjection of all churches to the state; they were opposed also by the Conservative members of the Upper House.

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  • The attainment of the higher stage of development is the moral and religious vocation of man; this higher stage is self-determination, the performance of every human function as a voluntary and intelligent agent, or as a person, having as its cosmical effect the subjection of all material to spiritual existences.

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  • Many of them gradually sank into a not wholly unwilling subjection as cultivators of the soil under Greek masters.

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  • The kingdom of Hiero was the first-fruits out of Italy of the system by which alliance with Rome grew into subjection to Rome.

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  • Thus for 263 years the Christian people of some part or other of Sicily were in subjection to Moslem masters.

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  • But that subjection differed widely in different times and places.

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  • Ibn Tashfin, who was largely guided by Zainab, had in the meantime brought what is now known as Morocco to complete subjection, and in 1062 had founded the city of Marrakesh ("Morocco City").

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  • 90) against even this degree of subjection.

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  • Badis, the 4th ruler of the dependent Zeirid dynasty which had ruled in the Maghrib since the migration of the F~imite Moizz to Egypt, definitely abjured his allegiance (1049) and returned to Sunnite principles and subjection to the Bagdad caliphate.

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  • The reign of IJafi~ was disturbed by the factions of the soldiery, between which several battles took place, ending in the subjection of the caliph for a time to various usurpers, one of these being his own son I~Iasan, who had been provoked to rebel by the caliph nominating a younger brother as his successor.

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  • After the sultans return they soon rebelled, but were again brought into subjection by Sheiks son Ibrahim; his victories excited the envy of his father, who is said to have poisoned him.

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  • of Kasrawah, governor of Damascus, whom he had been sent to reduce to subjection, ousted Jan Belgt, and was himself proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al- Adil (January 25th, 1501).

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  • The burgesses had not yet recovered from the disaster of " Grevens fejde "; but while the towns had become more dependent on the central power, they had at the same time been released from their former vexatious subjection to the local magnates, and could make their voices heard in the Rigsdag, where they were still, though inadequately, represented.

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  • Klebs insists that the only solution of such problems is the subjection of the algae in question to a rigorous method of pure culture.

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  • Only the mountain stronghold of Montenegro and the Italian city-states on the Adriatic coast escaped subjection.

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  • Wales and its marches were brought into legal union with the rest of England by the statutes of Wales (1534-1536); and after the Pilgrimage of Grace the Council of the North was set up to bring into subjection the extensive jurisdictions of the northern earls.

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  • The objects of that expedition were to punish Mataram and to redress the grievances of the Sasaks whom the Balinese held in cruel subjection.

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  • After 585 the country was ruled again by its own princes under subjection to Lydian supremacy.

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  • He wished to bring about the subjection of the church, and to this end sold bishoprics to the highest bidder, annulled the wills made in favour of the bishoprics and abbeys, and sought to impose upon his subjects a rationalistic conception of the Trinity.

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  • Up to this juncture the question had been in the hands of Grattan and other Protestants, and of a small knot of Catholic nobles and prelates; but their efforts had not accomplished much, and they aimed only at a kind of compromise, which, while conceding their principal claims, would have placed their church in subjection to the state.

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  • The main evidence of the virtue attained by them lies in the voluntary subjection to them of the savage beasts among which they lived.

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  • War broke out - in consequence, it was said, of the murder of the Spartan king Teleclus by the Messenians - which, in spite of the heroism of King Euphaes and his successor Aristodemus ended in the subjection of Messenia to Sparta (c. 720 B.C.).

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  • Germanicus Caesar made several unsuccessful attempts to bring them into subjection again.

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  • Their subjection was only external, nor did Islam ever succeed in assimilating them as the Syrian Christians were assimilated.

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  • Africa and Spain are omitted from this catalogue, because the Abbasids never gained any real footing in Spain, while Africa remained, at least in the first years, in only nominal subjection to the new dynasty.

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  • Shabath to subjection in Mesopotamia, and overcame by great ability a very dangerous rebellion in Egypt.

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  • Twenty years later they entered Asia Minor, whence in a later period they came into Europe, under the name of Athinganoi (Ziganes) and Egyptians (gipsies).2 A far more difficult task lay before Motasim, the subjection of Babak al-Khorrami in Azerbaijan.

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  • These ceorls, sitting on gafol-land, were, though personally free, considered as a lower order of men, and lapsed gradually into more or less oppressive subjection in respect of the great landowners.

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  • 1079), undoubtedly included many freedmen who in point of services and economic subjection were not very much above the slaves.

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  • This class was largely reinforced, when after the extinction of the royal house of Hohenstaufen in the 13th century, a great number of towns founded by them on their demesne successfully claimed immediate subjection to the crown.

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  • These tendencies both princes and lesser nobles naturally tried to thwart, and the mediate towns or Landstddte were finally brought to stricter subjection, at least in the greater principalities such as Austria and Brandenburg.

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  • In Venice, on the contrary, its businesslike habits of mind led the ruling class to make what concessions might seem needful, while both the masses and the head of the state were kept in due subjection to the laws.

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  • Carthage, indeed, chief of the Phoenician settlements, sent forth colonies to defend her conquests and strengthen her military power; and these subcolonies naturally remained in strict subjection to her power, whereas the other young Phoenician states assumed and asserted entire independence.

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  • In the earlier colonies, the state allotted to proposing emigrants from amongst the needy or discontented class of citizens portions of such lands as, on the subjection of a hostile people, the state took into its possession as public property.

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  • At the mouth of the river they met Lord Delaware, however, who brought other colonists and plentiful supplies; and they returned, set up a trading post at what is now Hampton and undertook to bring the hostile natives to subjection.

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  • Thus it happened that, in the fortieth year of Akbar's reign, the empire had more than regained all that it had lost, the recovered provinces being reduced, not to subjection only as before, but to a great degree of peace, order and contentment.

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  • " Subjection to the pope implied an Italianization of French religion; and most Frenchmen looked on the Italians as an inferior race.

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  • It had been the policy of the great Mahratta chiefs, Holkar and Sindhia, to trample down into complete subjection all the petty Rajput princes, whose lands they seized and from whom they levied heavy contributions of money.

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  • Under this head fall the following: - Fasting, or abstention from certain meats and drinks; denial of sexual instinct; subjection of the body to physical discomforts, such as nakedness, vigils, sleeping on the bare ground, tattooing, deformation of skull, teeth, feet, &c., vows of silence to be observed throughout life or during pilgrimages, avoidance of baths, of hair-cutting and of clean raiment, living in a cave; actual self-infliction of pain, by scourging, branding, cutting with knives, wearing of hair shirts, fire-walking, burial alive, hanging up of oneself by hooks plunged into the skin, suspension of weights by such hooks to the tenderer parts of the body, self-mutilation and numerous other, often ingenious, modes of torture.

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  • The powers of the bishops were increased, and their brethren brought in various ways under subjection to them, and in 1609 two courts of high commission were set up by the royal authority with plenary powers to enforce conformity to the new arrangements.

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  • The rich low-lying lands of Morganwg and Gwent were thus firmly occupied, nor were they ever permanently recovered by the Welsh princes; and such natives as remained were kept in subjection by the almost impregnable fortresses of stone erected at Caerphilly, Cardiff, Cowbridge, Neath, Kidwelly and other places.

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  • The close of the 12th century saw the final and complete subjection of the ancient Cambro-British Church to the supremacy of Canterbury.

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  • Having suppressed the independence of Wales, Edward now took steps to keep Gwynedd itself in permanent subjection by building the castles of Conway, Carnarvon, Criccieth and Harlech within the ancient patrimony of the princes of North Wales, whose legitimate race was now extinct save for Llewelyn's daughter Gwenllian, who had entered the convent of Sempringham.

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  • The poet does not describe the events of the siege, nor the horrors of the capture, but the painful experience of subjection and tyranny which followed.

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  • Macedonian expansion, at the expense of Thrace and Illyria, and the subjection of the Balkan Peninsula.

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  • Presumably, his ambitions would have been satisfied with the liberation of the Greek cities, and, perhaps, the subjection of Asia Minor as far as the Taurus.

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  • Simultaneously, at the Olympian festival of 324, the command was issued to all the cities of Greece to recognize him as god and to receive the exiles home.1 In 323 B.C. the preparations for the circumnavigation and subjection of Arabia were complete: the next enterprise being the conquest of the West, and the battle for Hellenic culture against Carthage and the Italian tribes.

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  • But the large Province of Khora~an, of which Meshed was the capital, had never been other than a nominal dependency of the crown since the death of Nadir; and in the autumn of 1830 the shah, under Russian advice, assembled a large force to bring into subjection all turbulent and refractory chiefs on the east of his kingdom.

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  • There had been operations on the banks of the Gurgan, and the Turcomans had been driven from one of their strongholds; but little or no progress had been made in the subjection.

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  • His reign was marked by a troublesome war with the Paulician heretics, an inheritance from his predecessor; the death of their able chief Chrysochir led to the definite subjection of this little state, of which the chief stronghold was Tephrice on the upper Euphrates, and which the Saracens had helped to bid a long defiance to the government of Constantinople.

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  • Here they seem to have remained in subjection to the Romans for about sixty years.

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  • The church is superior to the state, and, therefore, all temporal government should be in subjection to the pope as the representative of God.

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  • Accordingly, in i 13cj, Malachy set out from Ireland with the purpose of soliciting from the pope the pallium (the token of archiepiscopal subjection to Rome) for the archbishop of Armagh.

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  • He reformed and reorganized the Irish Church and brought it into subjection to Rome; like Boniface, he was a zealous reformer and a promoter of monasticism.

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  • By the terms of their subjection to the Huns, the East Goths came to fight for Attila against Christendom at Chalons, just as the Servians came to fight for Bajazet against Christendom at Nicopolis.

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  • Sweden too was now in open revolt; and both Norway and Denmark were taxed to the uttermost to raise an army for the subjection of the sister kingdom.

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  • It has always been politic for powerful states to facilitate and hide schemes of aggrandizement under euphemistic expressions; to cloak subjection or dependence by describing it in words inoffensive or strictly applicable to other relations.

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  • In dealing with dependent nations Rome used terms which veiled subjection (Gairal, Les Protectorats internationaux, p. 26).

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  • Elsewhere Bodin remarks, " le mot de protection est special et n'emporte aucune subjection de celuy qui est en protection."

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  • The emir of Yola, in the period of Fula lordship, claimed rights of suzerainty over the whole of Adamawa, but the country, since the subjection of the Fula (c. 1900), has consisted of a number of small states under the control of the British and Germans.

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  • A Greek inscription at Adulis, no longer extant, but copied by Cosmas of Alexandria, and preserved in his Topographia Christiana, records that Ptolemy Euergetes, the third of the Greek dynasty in Egypt, invaded the countries on both sides of the Red Sea, and having reduced most of the provinces of Tigre to subjection, returned to the port of Adulis, and there offered sacrifices to Jupiter, Mars and Neptune.

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  • Having thus established his rule in the south, Dirk next proceeded to bring into subjection the Frisians in the north.

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  • Thus, as in the case of many Roman coloni, thoroughly free settlers gradually lapsed into a state of perpetual subjection from which they could not emancipate themselves by legal means.

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  • The ultimate result was, however, not only the fixity of peasant tenures, but the subjection of the entire peasant population as a separate class (Krepostrie) to the personal sway of the landowners.

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  • The state insisted to a certain extent on the public character of this subjection and drew distinctions between personal slavery and serfdom.

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  • The colonization of the eastern provinces and the struggle against the Sla y s necessitated a stronger concentration of aristocratic power, and the reception of Roman law during the 5th and 16th centuries hardened the forms of subjection originated by customary conditions.

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  • Personal serfdom (Leibeigenschaft) was abolished first, hereditary subjection (Erbunterthanigkeit) followed next.

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  • It grew up as a consequence of customary subjection and natural husbandry; it melted away with the coming in of an industrial and commercial age.

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  • In the 16th century, when the English began to make determined efforts to bring the whole of Ireland under subjection to the crown, the O'Donnells of Tyrconnel played a leading part; co-operating at times with the English, especially when such co-operation appeared to promise triumph over their ancient enemies the O'Neills, at other times joining with the latter against the English authorities.

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  • Conn Bacach O'Neill, ist earl of Tyrone, determined to bring the O'Donnells under thorough subjection.

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  • In contrast with his father Cypselus, the founder of the dynasty, he is generally represented as a cruel despot, or at any rate as having used all possible devices for keeping his city in subjection.

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  • These tribes have successfully resisted all efforts to bring them under political and ecclesiastical control, and their subjection is still a matter of no small concern to the Colombian government.

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  • Subjection to the temperature of boiling water for, say, half an hour seemed an efficient mode of sterilization, until it was discovered that the spores of bacteria are so involved in heat-resisting membranes, that only prolonged exposure to dry, baking heat can be recognized as an efficient process of sterilization.

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  • Asia and the East generally were left under the subjection of petty kings who were mere vassals of Rome.

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  • The provincial king, Rig Cuicidh, also had an official residence and kingdom of his own, together with allegiance and tribute from each Rig-mor-Tuatha in his province, who in his turn received tribute and allegiance from each RigTuatha under subjection to him.

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  • after long subjection to a powerful overlord, rose and reasserted its independence immedi~tely on hearing of his death.

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  • There was a precarious interval of peace for three years after, but in 997 began a series of invasions led by Sweyn which lasted for seventeen years, and at last ended in the complete subjection of England and the flight of Aithelred to Normandy.

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  • But their oaths were as easily broken as made, and the real subjection of the island was not to be completed for 400 years.

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  • the limit of the country in full subjection to the crown was always shrinking, and the Irish chiefs of the inland continued to pay less and less attention to orders issued from Dublin or London.

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  • The subjection of the Netherlands was now almost out of the question, and although Elizabeths help had not enabled the Protestant cause to win in France, Henry IV.

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  • (elected 1730), named him legate of Ravenna, in which capacity he incurred the pope's displeasure by the strong and unwarrantable measures he adopted to reduce the little republic of San Marino to subjection to Rome.

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  • There were well-defined degrees of dependence among the different tribes or districts: the first of these, bati, is an alliance between two nearly equal tribes, but implying a sort of inferiority on one side, acknowledged by military service; the second, qali, implies greater subjection, and payment of tribute.

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  • Starting with the idea of the highest good and of its constituent elements (Giiter), or the chief forms of the union of mind and nature, Schleiermacher's system divides itself into the doctrine of moral ends, the doctrine of virtue and the doctrine of duties; in other words, as a development of the idea of the subjection of nature to reason it becomes a description of the actual forms of the triumphs of reason, of the moral power manifested therein and of the specific methods employed.

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  • The coarb might be a bishop or only an abbot, but in either case all the ecclesiastics in the family were subject to him; in this way it frequently happened that bishops, though their superior functions were recognized, were in subjection to abbots who were only priests, as in the case of St Columba, or even to a woman, as in the case of St Brigit.

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  • This /89G, and p Gradual movement was not only anti-French and anti-foreign, Subjection but also distinctly anti-Christian.

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  • g Y Y P the stronghold of Ithome and the subjection of the Messenians, who were forced to pay half the produce of the soil as tribute to their Spartan overlords.

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  • In 531 the Thuringians in the centre of Germany were brought into subjection by his eldest son, King Theuderich, and about the same time the Bavarians were united to the Franks, though preserving a certain autonomy.

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  • There was no longer the least hesitation over the choice between liberty with danger and subjection with safety; men sought and found in vassalage the right to live, and willingly bartered away their liberty for it.

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  • But commerce, like industry, was made to rely only on the instigation of the state, by the intervention of officials; here, as throughout thenational life, private initiative was kept in subjection and under suspicion.

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  • Stofflet, Charette and Cadoudal, by using mild and just measures to complete the subjection of the country.

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  • 28 the exactions of a Roman official drove them to revolt, and their subjection was henceforth nominal.

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  • A final defeat was, however, inflicted upon them by Charles Martel in 734, which secured the supremacy of the Franks in the north, though it was not until the days of Charles the Great (785) that the subjection of the Frisians was completed.

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  • But the Frieslanders east of the Zuider Zee obstinately resisted repeated attempts to bring them into subjection.

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  • seems to have aimed not at expelling, but at reducing the Moors to subjection as vassal communities.

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  • The Catalans attained emancipation from feudal subjection by a successiori of savage peasant revolts in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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  • The new spirit was otherwise shown by the restrictions imposed on the numbers of the religious orders and on the Inquisition, which was reduced to practical subjection to the lay courts of law.

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  • The Spanish Church was once more placed in strict subjection to the Roman see, from which for a short time it had been freed.

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  • Began the restoration of the kingdom after the period of anarchy, and - subjection to the caliphate.

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  • His son of the same name, also a distinguished general, completed the subjection of Samnium (272).

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  • the cellulose membranes showed traces of subjection to butyric fermentation, such as is produced at the present day by Bacillus Amylobacter; he also claimed to have detected the organism itself.

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  • 2), which has brought the whole civilized world into subjection to Rome (i.

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  • It was reduced to subjection in 498 B.C. by Hippocrates of Gela, and in 476 Hieron of Syracuse established here the inhabitants of Catana and Naxos.

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  • 4, 5," He hath given them to be in subjection to all the kingdoms that are round about us to be a reproach among all the people round about where the Lord hath scattered them.

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  • In 853, with the assistance of Æthelwulf he reduced North Wales to subjection.

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  • A Latin hierarchy was set up in 1196 (an archbishop at Nicosia with suffragans at Limasol, Paphos and Famagusta), and the Greek bishops were made to minister to their flocks in subjection to it.

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  • jealousy of others which assumes my authority is another person's subjection.

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  • It corrupts an insignificant labor aristocracy with a few sops and keeps the great masses in subjection by blood and iron.

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  • border of Media, the Cossaei, into subjection.

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  • and Alexander II., how he succeeded in raising the papal office from the depths of degradation and subjection to illimitable sway over the minds of men in Europe, and how his warfare with the empire established on a solid basis the still doubtful independence of the Italian burghs, renewing the long neglected protectorate of the Italian race, and bequeathing to his successors a national policy which had been forgotten by the popes since his great predecessor Gregory II., forms a chapter in European history which must now be interrupted.

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  • Thus began that Babylonian exile of the popes which placed them in subjection to the French Jatio~ crown and ruined their prestige in Italy.

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  • Man in the primitive stages of culture is scarcely to be distinguished from other animals as regards his subjection to environment, but in the higher grades of culture the conditions of control and reaction become much more complicated, and the department of anthropogeography is devoted to their consideration.

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  • Before the end of 1803 Alexander had come to perceive the necessity of resisting him energetically in order to save Europe from complete subjection, and in August 1804 he recognized that an armed conflict was inevitable.

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  • This diversity of jurisdiction, and subjection of the clergy only to the sentences of judges bribed by their esprit de corps to judge leniently, led to the adoption of a scale of punishments for the offences of clerks avowedly much lighter than that which was inflicted for the same crimes on laymen; and this in turn led to the survival in England, long after the Reformation, of the curious legal fiction of benefit of clergy (see below), used to mitigate the extreme harshness of the criminal law.

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  • In the preamble to the former Turgot boldly announced as his object the abolition of privilege, and the subjection of all three orders to taxation; the clergy were afterwards excepted, at the request of Maurepas.

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  • Turgot, on hearing of this, wrote an indignant letter to the king, in which he reproached him for refusing to see him, pointed out in strong terms the dangers of a weak ministry and a weak king, and complained bitterly of Ailaurepas's irresolution and subjection to court intrigues; this letter the king, though asked to treat it as confidential, is said to have shown to Maurepas, whose dislike for Turgot it still further embittered.

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  • He took Jerusalem and once more brought the Jews, who had won their independence under the Hasmonaean family, to subjection (see Maccabees).

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  • In many low organisms, such as the spores of bacteria, the thick, non-conducting wall may preserve the living protoplasm from subjection to external temperatures below freezing point, or above boiling point, but all the evidence goes to show that applications of such cold or heat, if prolonged or arranged so as to penetrate to the living matter, destroy life.

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  • 1 The Assyrian records, as well as the Egyptian, distinguish many peoples in both areas from the Kheta-Khatti; and the most we can infer from these records is that there was an occasional league formed under the Hittites, not any imperial subjection or even a continuous federation.

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  • libertas, from liber, free), generally the state of freedom, especially opposed to subjection, imprisonment or slavery, or with such restricted or figurative meaning as the circumstances imply.

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  • The minds of them that by the strength and working of the Almighty, our Lord Jesus Christ, have set their hands and hearts to the pure, unmingled and sincere worshipping of God, according to his blessed and glorious Word in all things, only abolishing and abhorring all traditions and inventions of man whatsoever, in the same Religion and Service of our Lord God, knowing this always, that the true and afflicted Church of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ either bath, or else ever more continually under the cross striveth for to have, " First and foremost, the Glorious word and Evangel preached, not in bondage and subjection [i.e.

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  • called together the fifth Lateran general council, which expressly recognized the subjection of the councils to the pope (Leo X.'s bull Pastor Aeternum, of the 19th of December 1516), and also declared the constitution Unam Sanctam (see above) valid in law.

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  • Caussin de Perceval published (1828) a useful Grammaire arabe vulgaire, which passed through several editions (4th ed., 1858), and edited and enlarged Elie Bocthor's 1 Dictionnaire francais-arabe (2 vols., 1828; 3rd ed., 1864); but his great reputation rests almost entirely on one book, the Essai sur l'histoire des Arabes avant l'Islamisme, pendant l'epoque de Mahomet (3 vols., 1847-1849), in which the native traditions as to the early history of the Arabs, down to the death of Mahommed and the complete subjection of all the tribes to Islam, are brought together with wonderful industry and set forth with much learning and lucidity.

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  • It is more particularly in the part of this programme that relates to the internal policy of the papacy, to the subjection of the Church to the Curia, and to the intensive concentration of the ecclesiastical forces in the hands of the leader of Christendom, that Gregory went farthest in the execution of his plan and approached nearest the goal.

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  • Reared in the nurture of the pope, the populace of the Tiber renounced its stormy liberty in 1209, and accepted the peace and order that a beneficent master gave; but when Innocent attempted to extend to the whole of Italy the regime of paternal subjection that had been so successful at Rome, the difficulties of the enterprise surpassed the powers even of a leader of religion.

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  • By rejecting the Capetian sovereign that Rome wished to thrust upon it to deliver it from the dynasty of Aragon, the little island of Sicily arrested the progress of French imperialism, ruined the vast projects of Charles of Anjou, and liberated the papacy in its own despite from a subjection that perverted and shook its power.

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  • (See Feudalism.) Side by side with these purely official dukedoms, however, there had continued to exist, or had sprung up, either independently or in more or less of subjection to the Frank rulers, national dukedoms, such as those of the Alemanni, the Aquitanians, and, later, of the Bavarians and Thuringians.

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  • But both their revolutions, under the prevot des marchands, Etienne Marcel, after the battle of Maupertuis, and again in 1382, were extremely short-lived, and the only tangible result was a stricter subjection to the king and his officers.

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  • We shall not be astonished to find, therefore, in the Hellenistic states of Asia a population of peasants who seem to have been in a condition of hereditary subjection and adherent to the glebe on the great estates of the Seleucid kings (see Rostowtzew in Lehmann's Beitrdge zur alten Geschichte, ii.).

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  • Personal slavery in the sense in which it existed in the West was practised in ancient Russia (kholopi) and arose chiefly from conquest, but also from voluntary subjection in cases of great hardship and from the redemption of fines and debts (cf.

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  • Numerous other pamphlets appeared, inspired or controlled by Sarpi, who had received the further appointment of censor over all that should be written at Venice in defence of the republic. Never before in a religious controversy had the appeal been made so exclusively to reason and history; never before had an ecclesiastic of his eminence maintained the subjection of the clergy to the state, and disputed the pope's right to employ spiritual censures, except under restrictions which virtually abrogated it.

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  • presupposes the complete subjection of the Canaanites and is of a late prophetic stamp. Some signs of amplification (e.g.

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  • Under his successor, however, Radbod (Frisian Redbad), an attempt was made to extirpate Christianity and to free the Frisians from the Frankish subjection.

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  • In 853, with the assistance of Æthelwulf he reduced North Wales to subjection.

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  • There is indeed little or no evidence to show that any animal to which a new climate is at first prejudicial can be so acclimatized by habit that, after subjection to it for a few or many seasons, it may live as healthily and with as little care as in its native country; yet we may, on general principles, believe that under proper conditions such an acclimatization would take place.

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  • The term by which this subjection is commonly designated, the Mongol or Tatar yoke, suggests ideas of terrible oppression, Character but in reality these barbarous invaders from the Far of Tatar East were not such cruel, oppressive taskmasters as rule.

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  • In 1210 Valdemar led a second expedition eastwards, this time directed against heathen Prussia and Samland, the chief result of which was the subjection of Mestwin, duke of Pomerania, the leading chieftain in those parts.

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  • Mysticism is not the voluntary demission of reason and its subjection to an external authority.

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  • This last enormous privilege, which became one of the main and most efficient instruments of the subjection of Europe to clerical tyranny, extended to matters both civil and criminal; though, as Bingham shows, it did not (always and everywhere) prevail in cases of heinous crime (Origines Eccles.

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  • (ii.) The invasion and temporary subjection of Russia by the Mongols, who penetrated as far west as Silesia.

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  • A marriage between Napoleon and a Russian princess would have implied the permanent subjection of Austria.

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  • So strong was the natural position of Paraguay, however, and so complete the subjection of its inhabitants to the will of the dictator, that it was not until the year 1870, after the republic had been completely drained of its manhood and resources, that the long war was terminated by the capture and death of Lopez with his last handful of men by the pursuing Brazilians.

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  • Adjacent to the town are the two Augustus Cleveland monuments, one erected by government, and the other by the Hindus, to the memory of the civilian, who, as collector of Bhagalpur at the end of the 18th century, "by conciliation, confidence and benevolence, attempted and accomplished the entire subjection of the lawless and savage inhabitants of the Jungleterry of Rajmahal."

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  • In all other cities of the Netherlands the craft gilds remained in humble subjection to a council co-opted from a limited number of wealthy patrician families.

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  • The next year was marked by the subjection of the hitherto semi-independent district of Argyll.

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  • If it means the capture of men, and especially of women, and adoption into the tribe, this existed everywhere; but if subjection to a personal owner, who may compel service, sell or put to death the individual, slavery was far from universal.

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  • Thus Ultramontanism disclaims any moral subjection to secular authority or law, and will recognize the state only in so far as it conforms its rules to those of the Church.

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  • In the course of the new intellectual life, by which after three hundred years of subjection the Czech nation again entered the ranks of the living peoples of Europe, scientific effort early resumed its due place.

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  • Cornwall is at this time in subjection to the king of Ireland, Gormond, and every third year must pay tribute; the Irish champion, Morolt, brother to the queen, arrives to claim his toll of thirty youths and as many maidens.

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  • Notwithstanding their complete subjection, women are treated with a certain respect, and are often employed as intermediaries in the settlement of feuds; a woman may traverse a hostile district without fear of injury, and her bessa will protect the traveller or the stranger.

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  • (On these points see Mary Taylor, Mrs Mill's grand-daughter, in Elliott's edition of the Letters.) closely reasoned and characteristic works, the Liberty, the Utilitarianism, the Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform, and the Subjection of Women, besides his posthumously published essays on Nature and on the Utility of Religion, were thought out and partly written in collaboration with his wife.

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  • His next treatise, The Subjection of Women, was not published till 1869.1 His Examination of Hamilton's Philosophy, published in 1865, had engaged a large share of his time for three years before.

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  • 1908); Inaugural Address at the University of St Andrews (1867); England and Ireland (1868); Subjection of Women (1869; ed.

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  • When supplied with firearms by Europeans they reduced a number of other tribes to subjection and extended their dominion over most of the territory from the St Lawrence to the Tennessee and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi.

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  • Painful toil shall be the lot of man; subjection and pangs that of woman.

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