Structures sentence example

structures
  • The nature of these structures has been much disputed.
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  • And all three structures may be converted one into the other (Schimper).
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  • here structures have been observed which resemble nuclei in some of their characteristics.
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  • After this came the Great Depression, which so overwhelmed the social support structures that Americans turned to the government for help and have never turned back.
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  • No man was ever more honored in the character of his raisers than I. They are destined, I trust, to assist at the raising of loftier structures one day.
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  • Most of the store fronts were boarded up and a fifty foot blackened gap separated the two largest structures.
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  • Do not anchor to any manmade structures including the penstock system large metal pipe.
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  • A handful of people were building an annex onto one of the buildings with their hands rather than with the technological tools she'd seen create structures.
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  • He grabbed an order of French fries and a burger at the drive-in of a national chain, eating on the road, licking the salt from his fingers as he searched among the glass and steel structures for the address he had jotted down earlier.
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  • The city changed as she wandered the zigzag roads toward its center until she came upon an inner wall - -now open - -leading to stone structures gleaming with gold and silver artwork.
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  • These spiracles, according to Hinds, are remarkable honeycomb-like structures, and perforations to the tracheal tubes have not been demonstrated.
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  • The principal structures include the municipal buildings, corn exchange, library, public hall, and the market cross.
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  • axillary or terminal spikes; they have four stamens, which bear at the back four small herbaceous petal-like structures, and four free carpels, which ripen to form four small green fleshy fruits, each containing one seed within a hard inner coat;.
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  • "Cyclopean" structures were discovered by Hahn at Kretzunista, Arinista, and other sites in the district of Argyrokastro; the walls, partly "Cyclopean," of an ancient city (perhaps Bullis) are visible at Gradisti on the Viossa.
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  • - The states of Australia are divided by natural boundaries, which separate geographical areas having different characters, owing, mainly, to their different geological structures.
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  • Some of the interior structures and the detached one on the lower southern terrace are in a fair state of preservation.
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  • PITCHER PLANTS, in botany, the name given to plants in which the leaves bear pitcher-like structures or are pitcher-like in form.
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  • The houses in Uzhitse are quite unlike those of more prosperous Servian towns, being tall, narrow structures of timber, frequently blackened by the damp. Pop. (1900) about 7000.
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  • There is, however, no evidence whatever for this, the gonads of Hydra being purely ectodermal structures, while all medusoid gono phores have an endodermal portion.
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  • These organs are supported by cuplike structures of the perisarc, termed nematophores, regarded as modified hydrothecae supporting the specialized polyp-individuals.
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  • As a result of this extension of the umbrellar margin, all structures belonging to this region, namely, the ring-canal, the nerve-rings, and the rim of thickened ectoderm, do not run an even course, but are thrown into festoons, caught up under the insertion of each tentacle in such a way that the ring-canal and its accompaniments form in each notch of the umbrellar margin an inverted V, the apex of which corresponds to the insertion of the tentacle; in some cases the limbs of the V may run for some distance parallel to one another, and may be fused into one, giving a figure better compared to an inverted Y.
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  • Bonnet affirms that, before fecundation, the hen's egg contains an excessively minute but complete chick; and that fecundation and incubation simply cause this germ to absorb nutritious matters, which are deposited in the interstices of the elementary structures of which the miniature chick, or germ, is made up.
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  • The observation of the existence of structures, in a rudimentary and apparently useless condition, in one species of a group, which are fully developed and have definite functions in other species of the same group.
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  • The independent plant which is generally attached to the soil by hair-like structures is the sexual generation, the sporophyte is a stalked or sessile capsule which remains always attached to the gametophyte from which it derives the whole or part of its nourishment.
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  • In GY~~1NospERMsso-called because the ovules (and seeds) are borne on an open sporophyll or carpelthe microsporophylls and macrosporophylls are not as a rule associated in the same shoot and are generally arranged in cone-like structures; one or two small prothallial cells are formed in the germination of the microspore; the male cells are in some older members of the group motile though usually passive.
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  • The development of these structures has been studied by many observers, both in England and on the continent of Etirope.
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  • Or more probably it may be the weight of definite particulate structures in their vacuoles.
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  • The response to the stimulus takes the form of increasing the permeability of particular cells of the growing structures, and so modifying the degree of the turgidity that is the precursor of growth in them.
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  • It is sometimes maintained, for example, by Schimper, that their xerophytic characters are related to the physiological dryness of the habitat: this, however, is denied by others who maintain (Clements, 1905: 127) that the xerophytism is due to the persistence of ancestral structures.
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  • Evidence is not wanting, however, that the cytoplasm must be regarded as, fundamentally, a semifluid, homogeneous substance in which by its own activity, granules, vacuoles, fibrils, &c., can be formed as secondary structures.
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  • The cytoplasm is largely concerned in the formation of spindle fibres and centrosomes, and such structures as the cell membrane, cilia, or flagella, the coenocentrum, nematoplasl~ or vibrioids and physodes are also products of its activity.
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  • Chromatophores.The chromatophores or plastids are protoplasmic structures, denser than the cytoplasm, and easily distinguishable from it by their color or greater refractive power.
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  • In the higher plants the structures which have been often described as centrosomes are too indefinite in their constitution.
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  • Our knowledge of these structures is due mainly to Haberlandt.
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  • v.; The Cell and some of its Constituent Structures, Science Progress (1897); Farmer and Moore, On the Melotic Phase in Animals and Plants, Quart.
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  • It is also urged against these definitions that they are not of universal applicability; that there are exceptional structures which cannot be brought within the limits of any one of them.
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  • Other prominent structures are the U.S. government and the judiciary buildings, the latter connected with the capitol by a stone terrace, the city hall, the county court house, the union station, the board of trade, the soldiers' memorial hall (with a seating capacity of about 4500), and several office buildings.
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  • The whole wing is a unique modification, deeply affecting the skeletal, muscular and tegumentary structures, but fluttering, skimming, sailing, soaring are motions much more akin to one another than climbing and grasping, running, scratching, paddling and wading.
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  • At right angles to this street lanes ascend the hill-side to Hillhead, where the more modern structures and villas have been built.
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  • Tower (1903), of nervures similar to those of the hind-wing, and by the proof that the small membranous structures present beneath the elytra of certain beetles, believed by Meinert to represent the whole of the true fore-wings, are in reality only the alulae.
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  • Whatever may be the true explanation of stridulating organs in adult beetles, sexual selection can have had nothing to do with the presence of these highly-developed larval structures.
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  • The Coleoptera can be traced back farther in time than any other order of insects with complete transformations, if the structures that have been described from the Carboniferous rocks of Germany are really elytra.
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  • These structures were believed by C. Darwin to be explicable by sexual selection.
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  • Other important buildings are the Sobranye, or parliament house, the palace of the synod, the ministries of war and commerce, the university with the national printing press, the national library, the officers' club and several large military structures.
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  • San Francisco spent more in new permanent structures than Philadelphia, and Seattle spent more than Pittsburg.
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  • Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.
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  • This type has the advantage of economy in first construction, there being the minimum amount of material to be excavated, and no interference during construction with street traffic or subsurface structures; it has, however, the disadvantage of the cost of o p eration of lifts at the stations.
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  • This system has the advantage of the greatest convenience in operation, no lifts being required, since the distance from the street surface to the station platform is about 12 to 15 ft.; it has the disadvantages, however, of necessitating the tearing up of the street surface during construction, and the readjustment of sewer, water, gas and electric mains and other subsurface structures, and of having the gradients partially dependent on the surface topography.
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  • The third type is the intermediate one between those two, followed by the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways, in London, where the railway has an arched roof, built usually at a sufficient distance below the surface of the street to permit the other subsurface structures to lie in the ground above the crown of the arch, and where the station platforms are from 20 to 30 ft.
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  • The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
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  • Vitale, are pleasing 16th-century structures.
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  • The most imposing block of the later building is formed by a group of structures rising from the terrace formed by the old west wall.
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  • The Mayas have left no r cord of their institutions or of the causes of their decline, beyond what may be deduced from their ruined structures.
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  • These chitinous, rod-like, rarely squat and then hook-like structures are found in the majority of the Chaetopoda, being absent only in certain Archiannelida, most leeches, and a very few Oligochaeta.
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  • There is not a great deal of difference between most of these structures and true nephridia.
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  • It is not quite certain whether these are to be regarded as the remnant of an earlier excretory system, replaced among the Oligochaeta by the subsequently developed paired structures, or whether these "head kidneys" are the first pair of nephridia precociously developed.
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  • In any case the nephridia which occupy the segments of the body generally are first of all represented by paired structures, the "pronephridia," in which the funnel is composed of but one cell, which is flagellate.
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  • Among the aquatic Oligochaeta and many earthworms (the families Lumbricidae, Geoscolicidae and a few other genera) the spermathecae are simple structures, as has been described.
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  • The spermathecae are usually paired structures, one pair to each of the segments where they occur.
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  • Among the purely aquatic families such structures are very rare, and are represented by two caeca in the genus Limnodriloides.
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  • In Ozobranchus the structures in question are still more complicated.
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  • The internal evidence at present available comprises (i) Structures.
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  • Theatral structures found at Cnossus and Phaestus, within the precincts of the palaces, were perhaps used for shows or for sittings of a royal assize, rather than for popular assemblies.
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  • In spite of many comparisons made with Egyptian, Babylonian and "Hittite" plans, both these arrangements remain incongruous with any remains of prior or contemporary structures elsewhere.
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  • At Phylakope, a "megaron" appears only in the uppermost Aegean stratum, the underlying structures being more in conformity with the earlier Cretan.
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  • Schists in the common acceptance of that term are really highly crystalline rocks; fissile slates, shales or sandstones, in which the original sedimentary structures are little modified by recrystallization, are not included in this group by English petrologists, though the French schistes and the German Schiefer are used to designate also rocks of these types.
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  • In the paraschists, though fossils are exceedingly rare, sedimentary structures such as bedding and the alternation of laminae of fine and coarse deposit may frequently be preserved.
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  • In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.
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  • 21, d) is revealed, exhibiting the wings and other imaginal structures, which have been developed unseen beneath the cuticle of the larva.
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  • By histolysis certain parts of the hypodermis are destroyed, while other portions of it develop into the new structures.
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  • (3) An individual in which the reproductive organs and powers are functionally absent becomes one in which these structures and powers are the only reason for existence, for the great majority of insects die after a brief period of reproduction.
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  • In the case of the common drone-fly, Eristalis tenax, the individual, from a sedentary maggot living in filth, without any relations of sex, and with only unimportant organs for the ingestion of its foul nutriment, changes to a creature of extreme alertness, with magnificent powers of flight, living on the products of the flowers it frequents, and endowed with highly complex sexual structures.
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  • A remarkable fossil from the Scottish Coal-measures (Lithomantis) had apparently small wing-like structures on the prothorax, and in allied genera small veined outgrowths - like tracheal gills - occurred on the abdominal segments.
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  • They are not, therefore, like the wings of birds, modified from some pre-existing structures (the fore-limbs) common to their phylum; they are new and peculiar structures.
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  • Swammerdam, however, showed the presence under the larval cuticle of the pupal structures.
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  • For the purposes of scientific topography observation of the natural features and outlines is followed by exact investigation of the architectural structures or remnants, a process demanding high technical competence, acute judgment and practical experience, as well as wide and accurate scholarship. The building material and the manner of its employment furnish evidence no less important than the character of the masonry, the design and the modes of ornamentation.
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  • The testimony afforded Sources by inscriptions is often of decisive importance, especially that of commemorative or votive tablets or of boundary = stones found in situ; the value of this evidence is, on the other hand, sometimes neutralized owing to the former removal of building material already used and its in corporation in later structures.
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  • These structures, however, are of comparatively minor importance in point of dimensions and decoration; they were apparently designed as places of sepulture for local chieftains, whose domains were afterwards incorporated in the Athenian realm by the vuvoucccr,u6 (synoecism) attributed 1/ Attal}is y?
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  • The great engineering works of Cimon provided a suitable area for the magnificent structures of the age of Pericles.
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  • The only extant structures of the classical period are the Hephaesteum, the Dionysiac theatre, and the choragic monument of Lysicrates.
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  • The beautiful choragic monument of Lysicrates, dedicated in the archonship of Euaenetus (335-334 B.C.), is the only survivor of a number of such structures which stood in the The choragic " Street of the Tripods " to the east of the Dionysiac monument theatre, bearing the tripods given to the successful of choragi at the Dionysiac festival.
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  • - On the theory that crystal form and structure are the result of the equilibrium between the atoms and molecules composing the crystals, it is probable, a priori, that the same substance may possess different equilibrium configurations of sufficient stability, under favourable conditions, to form different crystal structures.
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  • While polysymmetry is solely conditioned by the manner in which the mimetic twin is built up from the single crystals, there being no change in the scalar properties, and the vector properties being calculable from the nature of the twinning, in the case of polymorphism entirely different structures present themselves, both scalar and vector properties being altered; and, in the present state of our knowledge, it is impossible to foretell the characters of a polymorphous modification.
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  • The mere retention of the same crystal form by homologous substances is not a sufficient reason for denying a morphotropic effect to the substituent group; for, in the case of certain substances crystallizing in the cubic system, although the crystal form remains unaltered, yet the structures vary.
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  • During recent years the controversies with regard to the modes of formation of these structures have entered on a new phase.
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  • These new structures would rest uncomfortably upon eroded formations and this, Wayland Vaughan points out, is what we actually observe in the case of living and fossil coral reefs.
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  • There are reasons for supposing that the truncal coelom was at one time provided with pore-canals, but supposed vestiges of these structures have only been described for one genus, Spengelia,in which they lie near the anterior end of the truncal coelom.
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  • The exact significance of these roots is a matter for speculation, but it seems possible that they are epiphysial structures remotely comparable with the epiphysial (pineal) complex of the craniate vertebrates.
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  • There is a new general hospital at Eppendorf, outside the town on the north, built on the pavilion principle, and one of the finest structures of the kind in Europe; and at Ohlsdorf, in the same direction, a crematorium was built in 1891 in conjunction with the town cemeteries (370 acres).
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  • The cathedral (1519) is one of the earliest structures by Sammicheli, S.
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  • Yet among the older rocks there are many which, though finely crystalline, have the chemical composition of modern obsidians and possess structures, such as the perlitic and spherulitic, which are very characteristic of vitreous rocks.
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  • If some of the anions, instead of being simple iodine ions represented chemically by the symbol I, are complex structures formed by the union of iodine with unaltered cadmium iodide - structures represented by some such chemical formula as I(CdI 2), the concentration of the solution round the anode would be increased by the passage of an electric current, and the phenomena observed would be explained.
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  • Besides these historical buildings the principal public structures include Smith's school, the municipal buildings, the free library, the episcopal library (founded by Bishop Forbes, who, as well as Bishop AbernethyDrummond, presented a large number of volumes).
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  • The structures formerly regarded as pseudohearts have been shown by Huxley to be nephridia; the true heart was described and figured by A.
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  • The position of the chelicerae of Limulus and of the ganglionic nerve-masses from which they receive their nerve-supply, is closely similar to that of the same structures in Scorpio.
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  • (After Lankester, loc. cit.) eyes, it is to be noted that no Crustacean has structures corresponding to the peculiar diplostichous central eyes, though these occur again (with differences in detail) in Hexapoda.
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  • A similar pair of coxal glands, lobate instead of ovoid in shape, was described by Lankester in Mygale, and it was also shown by him that the structures in Limulus called " brick-red glands " by Packard have the same structure and position as the coxal glands of Scorpio and Mygale.
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  • The coxal glands of the Arachnida are structures of the same nature as the green glands of the higher Crustacea and the so-called " shell glands " of the Entomostraca.
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  • is similar to that in Limulus, whilst the imbricate triangular pieces of the posterior median region resemble the similarlyplaced structures of Limulus in a striking manner.
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  • In regard to the important structures concerned with the fertilization of the egg, Limulus and Scorpio differ entirely from one another.
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  • The male possesses elaborate copulatory structures of a chitinous nature, and the eggs are fertilized in the female without even quitting the place where they are formed on the wall of the reticular gonocoel.
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  • Degenerative simplicity is never uniformly distributed over all the structures of the organism.
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  • It affects many or nearly all the structures of the body, but leaves some, it may be only one, at a high level of elaboration and complexity.
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  • Sutures are stated to mark off some of these pieces, but in the proper sense of that term as applied to the skeletal structures of the Vertebrata, no sutures exist in the chitinous cuticle of Arthropods.
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  • Concentration of the organ-systems by fusion of neighbouring regions (prosoma, mesosoma, metasoma), pre viously distinct, has frequently occurred, together with obliteration of the muscular and chitinous structures indicative of distinct somites.
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  • This concentration and obliteration of somites, often accompanied by dislocation of important segmental structures (such as appendages and nerveganglia), may lead to highly developed specialization (individuation, H.
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  • Thelyphonusassamensis d .Ventral surface of theanteriorregionof the opisthosoma, the first somite being pushed upwards and forwards so as to expose the subjacent structures.
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  • of the Old World; it has a short creeping rhizome, from which springs a slender, herbaceous or woody, often very much branched, erect or climbing stem, the ultimate branches of which are flattened or needle-like leaf-like structures (cladodes), the true leaves being reduced to scales or, in the climbers, forming short, hard more or less recurved spines.
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  • They climb by means of tendrils, which are stipular structures arising from the leaf-sheath.
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  • The two leaning towers, the Torre Asinelli and the Torre Garisenda, dating from 1109 and 1110 respectively, are among the most remarkable structures in Bologna: they are square brick towers, the former being 320 ft.
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  • In Ponape and Kusaie, massive stone structures, similar to those which occur in several other parts of the Pacific Ocean, have long been known to exist.
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  • None of the colossal structures hitherto described appears to have been erected by the present Melanesian or Polynesian peoples, while their wide diffusion, extending as far as Easter Island, within 400 m.
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  • and put together without any mortar, but sustained by their own weight, are built all the massive walls and other structures on the east side of the island.
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  • von Baer in 1828, 5 Muller calls the attention of naturalists to the important fact, that while all the Squamata possess an amnion and an allantois, these structures are absent in the embryos of all the Nuda.
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  • Black ironwood is likewise used in building wagons, while sneezewood is largely utilized for supports for piers and other marine structures, being impervious to the attacks of the Teredo navalis.
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  • From these special studies of human structure the knowledge of the anatomy of animals has proceeded, the same investigator who had made himself acquainted with the structure of the human body desiring to compare with the standard given by human anatomy the structures of other animals.
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  • Knowing the almost endless complexity of organic structures, realizing that man himself with all the mystery of his life and consciousness must be included in any explanation of the origin of living things, they preferred to regard living things as something apart from the rest of nature, specially cared for, specially created by a Divine Being.
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  • Darwin's introduction of thremmatology into the domain of scientific biology was accompanied by a new and special development of a branch of study which had previously been known as teleology, the study of the adaptation of organic structures to the service of the organisms in which they occur.
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  • Necessarily, according to the theory of natural selection, structures either are present because they are selected as useful or because they are still inherited from ancestors to whom they were useful, though no longer useful to the existing representatives of those ancestors.
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  • Structures previously inexplicable were now explained as survivals from a past age, no longer useful though once of value.
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  • Hence many structures which are obvious to the eye, and serve as distinguishing marks of separate species, are really not themselves of value or use, but are the necessary concomitants of less obvious and even altogether obscure qualities, which are the real characters upon which selection is acting.
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  • A subdivision of zoology which was at one time in favour is simply into morphology and physiology, the study of form and structure on the one hand, and the study of Scope the activities and functions of the forms and structures of zoo- on the other.
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  • Owen not only occupied himself with the dissection of rare animals, such as the Pearly Nautilus, Lingula, Limulus, Protopterus, Apteryx, &c., and with the description and reconstruction of extinct reptiles, birds and mammals - following the Cuvierian tradition - but gave precision and currency to the morphological doctrines which had taken their rise in the beginning of the century by the introduction of two terms, " homology " and " analogy," which were defined so as to express two different kinds of agreement in animal structures, which, owing to the want of such " counters of thought," had been hitherto continually confused.
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  • Analogous structures in any two animals compared were by Owen defined as structures performing similar functions, but not necessarily derived from the modification of one and the same part in the " plan " or " archetype " according to which the two animals compared were supposed to be constructed.
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  • Homologous structures were such as, though greatly differing in appearance and detail from one another, and though performing widely different functions, yet were capable of being shown by adequate study of a series of intermediate forms to be derived from one and the same part or organ of the " plan-form " or " archetype."
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  • Owen's definition of analogous structures holds good at the present day.
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  • His homologous structures are now spoken of as " homogenetic " structures, the idea of community of representation in an archetype giving place to community of derivation from a single representative structure present in a common ancestor.
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  • He found by patient inquiry that several physical features and the dimensions of certain bones or bony structures in the body remain practically constant during adult life.
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  • Although the methods of cell-division prevailing in normal structures are maintained generally in those which are pathological, yet certain modifications of these methods are more noticeable in the latter than in the former.
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  • This term is usually applied to a semi-solid substance of homogeneous and gelatinous consistence, which results partly from excretion and partly from degeneration of cellular structures, more particularly of the epithelial type.
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  • They are minute structures having a round or oval shape, concentrically striated, and frequently showing a small nucleus-like body or cavity in their centre.
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  • Hair and some other like structures grow luxuriantly on a part to which there is an excessive flux of blood.
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  • In anatomy and physiology little advance had been made, and so of pathology in the sense of an explanation of morbid processes or knowledge of diseased structures there could be very little.
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  • Syphilitic lesion of the arteries, and likewise of other fibrous tissues, often involves grave consequential damage to nervous structures fed or supported by such parts.
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  • Griesinger (1817-1868), Bevan Lewis - and in the separation from insanity due to primary disease or defect of nerve elements of such diseases as general paralysis of the insane, which probably arise, as we have said, by the action of poisons on contiguous structures - such as blood-vessels and connective elements - and invade the nervous matter secondarily.
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  • The voyage from Bingen to Dort takes from one to six weeks, and the huge unwieldy structures require to be navigated with great care.
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  • The bridge is both a remarkable engineering work, and architecturally one of the finest modern structures in London.
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  • This constant burning of large portions of the city is a marked feature of its early history, and we must remember that, although stone buildings were rising on all sides, these were churches, monasteries, and other public edifices; the ordinary houses remained as before, small wooden structures.
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  • A similar sacrifice in the shape of pillars is often necessary to support the surface, either to avoid injury to valuable structures or to prevent a flooding of the mine.
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  • Among the finest office buildings are the structures of the Albany City Savings Institution, National Commerical Bank, Union Trust Company, Albany Trust Company, the National Savings Bank, First National Bank, the New York State National Bank (1803, probably the oldest building in the United States used continuously for banking purposes) and the Albany Savings Bank.
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  • In anatomy the word is applied to nervous structures which resemble loops.
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  • The Venetian furnaces in the island of Murano are small low structures heated with wood.
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  • In Babylonia the abundance of clay and want of stone led to the employment of brick; the Babylonian temples are massive but shapeless structures of crude brick, supported by buttresses, the rain being carried off by drains, one of which at Ur was of lead.
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  • (For a detailed description of the subjects of the reliefs, &c., with the necessary illustrations, see the works indicated in the bibliography.) Structures.
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  • Structures were found at Jerablus, but never properly uncovered or.
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  • Arslan Tepe (Ordasu), Arbistan, Marash (above the modern town and near the springs), Beikeui, mounds, doubtless covering structures, may be seen, and sculptured slabs have been recovered.
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  • They are structures of solid masonry, containing vaulted rooms for the garrison, and providing a platform at the top for two or three guns, which fire over a low masonry parapet.
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  • The plane projection of molecular structures which differ stereochemically is discussed under Stereoisomerism; in this place it suffices to say that, since the terminal groups of the hexaldose molecule are different and four asymmetric carbon atoms are present, sixteen hexaldoses are possible; and for the hexahydric alcohols which they yield on reduction, and the tetrahydric dicarboxylic acids which they give on oxidation, only ten forms are possible.
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  • In stature they range from the size of a hare to that of a rhinoceros; and their horns vary in size and shape from the small and simple spikes of the oribi and duiker antlers to the enormous and variously shaped structures borne respectively by buffaloes, wild sheep and kudu and other large antelopes.
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  • And all three magnificent structures were mainly the work of Pisan artists, who gave new life.
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  • Almost all the towns of Tunisia were originally Roman or romanized Berber settlements; consequently the remains of Roman buildings form a large part of the material of which their existing structures are composed.
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  • The world has nothing to show, in the way of stone-cutting and fitting, to equal the skill and accuracy displayed in the Inca structures of Cuzco.
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  • Other structures and institutions are the new buildings of the art association; the academy of the plastic arts (1874-1885), in the Renaissance style; and the royal arsenal (Zeughaus) with the military museum.
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  • The only organs that exhibit any sign of degeneration are those of sense, but in the ectoparasitic Trematodes simple eye-like structures are present and perhaps serve as organs of temperature.
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  • The latter structures are only employed for an interval before the final host is entered.
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  • The church of Santa Maria Maggiore, built in 1627-1682, is a characteristic specimen of Jesuit architecture; the church of Sant' Antonio Nuovo, built in 1827-1849, is in the Greek style, as also the Greek Orthodox church, built in 1782, which is one of the handsomest Byzantine structures in the whole of Austria.
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  • In the following year he went into Italy, and after visiting Ambrose at Milan and Siricius at Rome - the latter of whom received him somewhat coldly - he proceeded into Campania, where, in the neighbourhood of Nola, he settled among the rude structures which he had caused to be built around the tomb and relics of his patron saint.
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  • The inner layer of the polypide-bud gives rise to the structures usually regarded as ectodermic and endodermic, the outer layer to the mesodermic organs.
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  • It is true that all the structures of the time had the defect of a box-like appearance.
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  • It would seem that only the immense weight of the roofs and their heavy projections prevent a collapse of some of these structures in high winds.
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  • The care and expense lavished upon these highly ornate structures would have been deemed extravagant even in medieval Europe.
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  • Modern structures include a public hall, and an Oriental institute (in the building erected for the Royal Dramatic College, including a museum of Eastern antiquities, a mosque, and residences for Orientals).
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  • The site of the temple itself carries the remains of successive structures.
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  • In the irregular crystalline aggregates branching and moss-like forms are most common, and in Transylvania thin plates or sheets with diagonal structures are found.
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  • The government offices are well-built brick structures.
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  • The contemporaneity of these structures has been demonstrated by the identity of the pottery and other objects discovered in them, including some remarkable steatopygic figures in stone, and it is clear that they belong to the neolithic period, numerous flints, but no metal, having been found.
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  • in breadth, the surface of the plain, strewn over its whole extent with pieces of pottery and crumbling bricks, and also broken here and there by earthen mounds and ruined walls, the debris of palatial structures which at one time were the glory and wonder of the East.
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  • Of these structures indeed some have survived to the present day in a sufficiently perfect state to bear witness to the grandeur and beauty of the old architecture of Herat.
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  • These processes are not altogether homologous with those of the ovipositor, being formed by inner and outer lobes of a pair of structures on the ninth abdominal segment.
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  • Vestigial palps have been described in various species of Hemiptera, but the true nature of these structures is doubtful.
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  • of the leaf is protected by similar structures.
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  • About the middle of the 15th century their mud-and-rush dwellings were partly replaced by stone structures, grouped around the central enclosure of the great teocalli, and bordering the causeways leading to the mainland.
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  • Between Quemada and Copan, in Honduras, is an unbroken series of mural structures.
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  • On the uplands structures were of stone laid up in a dozen ways.
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  • Living at the time he did, when the doctrines of the humoral pathologists were carried to an extreme extent, and witnessing the ravages which disease made on the solid structures of the body, it was not surprising that he should oppose a doctrine which appeared to him to lead to a false practice and to fatal results, and adopt one which attributed more to the agency of the solids and very little to that of the fluids of the body.
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  • Being soluble in water containing carbonic acid or organic acids it may be readily removed in solution, and may thus furnish plants and animals with the phosphates required in their structures.
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  • On the decay of these structures the phosphates are returned to the inorganic world, thus completing the cycle.
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  • The famous dam of Ma'rib and its sluices were the work of this ancient prince - structures which Arnaud in the 19th century found in the same state in which Hamdani saw them a thousand years ago.
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  • Even those friendly to him sometimes felt it necessary to defend his political course by saying that he was compelled to raze the old buildings and prepare the ground on which his successors might build new and better structures.
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  • The Terpen of Holland appear as mounds somewhat similar to those of the terremare, and were also pile structures, on low or marshy lands subject to inundations from the sea.
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  • - Bridges (old forms, brig, brygge, brudge; Dutch, brug; German, Briicke; a common Teutonic word) are structures carrying roadways, waterways or railways across streams, valleys or other roads or railways, leaving a passage way below.
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  • The development of the theory of structures has been largely directed to determining the arrangements of material which are most economical, especially in the superstructure.
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  • The stability of such structures depends on the position of the line of pressure in relation to the extrados and intrados of the arch ring.
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  • pp. 1-28.) These timber framed structures served as models for the earlier metal trusses which began to be used soon after 1850, and which, except in a few localities where iron is costly, have quite superseded them.
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  • Till near the end of the 19th century bridges of masonry or brickwork were so constructed that they had to be treated as rigid blockwork structures.
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  • The stability of such structures depends on the position of the line of pressure relatively to the intrados and extrados of the arch ring.
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  • An important series of experiments on the strength of masonry, brick and concrete structures will be found in the Zeitschr.
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  • There is still controversy as to what degree of hardness, or (which is nearly the same thing) what percentage of carbon, can be permitted with safety in steel for structures.
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  • is set up in steel structures for each 12° change of temperature.
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  • As to anemometer pressures, it should be observed that the recorded pressure is made up of a positive front and negative (vacuum) back pressure, but in structures the latter must be absent or only partially developed.
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  • - In the case of braced structures the following method is convenient: When a section of a girder can be taken cutting only three bars, the stresses in the bars can be found by taking moments.
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  • The chamber of commerce, and the Pabst, Mitchell, North-Western Life Insurance, Germania Sentinel and Wells buildings, are among the principal business structures.
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  • In Milwaukee are St John's Roman Catholic Cathedral and All Saints Protestant Episcopal Cathedral - the city is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishopric (established in 1892) and of a Protestant Episcopal bishopric. Among other church structures are Plymouth Congregational, Westminster Presbyterian, Church of Gesu (Roman Catholic) and Trinity Lutheran.
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  • The later basalts are especially marked by columnar jointing, which determines the famous structures of the Giant's Causeway and the coast near Bengore Head.
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  • The antiquities of the county consist of cairns, mounts or forts, remains of ecclesiastical and military structures, and round towers.
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  • When in Egypt he measured the pyramids, and, finding that the angles formed by the sides of the largest were in the direction of the four cardinal points, he concluded that this position must have been intended, and also that the poles of the earth and meridians had not deviated since the erection of those structures.
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  • the gall known as Erineum quercinum, on the leaves of Quercus Cerris, were taken for cryptogamic structures.
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  • They are in some cases very slight, and in others form remarkably large and definite structures.
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  • 1 The general ectoderm loses its cilia, which persist only in the sensory cells, and it frequently secretes external protective or supporting structures.
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  • Here the houses are most closely built, and stone structures most abundant.
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  • In some of the principal streets are buildings of three to five storeys, a comparatively rare thing in Russia, indeed in the main street (Kreshchatik) fine structures have been erected since 1896.
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  • In common with these two families and the Characinidae of Africa and South America, the Gymnotidae possess the peculiar structures called ossicula auditus or Weberian ossicles.
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  • The sense-organs of medusae are of two classes: (1) pigment spots, sensitive to light, termed ocelli, which may become elaborated into eye-like structures with lens, retina and vitreous body; (2) organs of the sense of balance or orientation, commonly termed otocysts or statocysts.
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  • The Mistecas, or Mixtecas, and Zapotecas, who occupy the southern slopes of the central plateau, especially Puebla, Morelos, Oaxaca and Guerrero, form another distinct race, whose traditional history goes back to the period when the structures now known as Mitla, Monte Alban, Xochicalco and Zaachila were built.
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  • A remarkable feature of the Central-American ruins is the frequency of truncated pyramids built of hewn stone, with flights of steps up to the temple built on the platform at top. The resemblance of these structures to the old descriptions and pictures of the Mexican teocallis is so striking that this name is habitually given to them.
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  • are twice as long as the 3to 5-toothed Thus the crop-gizzard unci; c, virgate - mallei rod-like, manubria has the same comand fulcrum very long, unci Ior 2-toothed; bination of structures d forcipate - rami large and used as a foras we find in the ceps, mallei rod-like, unci pointed or evanstomach of higher escent; e, incudate - stout fulcrum, rami Crustacea, with which formingaforceps, mallei evanescent; f, unwe may call it homocinate - unci large, 2-toothed, manubria plastic. The trophi evanescent, incus slender; g, ramate - rami are (I) a median incus subquadrantic, fulcrum rudimentary, manY - shaped, with the ubria evanescent; h,malleo-ramate - mallei (fulcrum) distal fastened by their unci to the rami, manubria foot and the arms (rami) looped, rami large and fulcrum slender.
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  • In 1847 he was appointed professor of the mechanical principles of engineering in University College, London, and at the same time he was employed as a member of the Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the application of iron to railway structures.
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  • south-westward to Alabama, where the deformed mountain structures pass out of sight under nearly horizontal strata of the Gulf coastal plain.
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  • between the horizontal structures of the plains on the east and the plateaus on the west.
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  • Associated with these irregular escarpments are occasional rectilinear ridges, the work of extensive erosion on monoclinal structures, of whick Echo Cliffs, east of the Painted Desert (so called from its manycoloured sandstones and clays), is a good example.
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  • These cliffs are peculiar in gradually passing from one formation to another, and in having a height dependent on the displacement of the fault rather than on the structures in the fault face; they are already somewhat battered and dissected by erosion.
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  • In Western Utah and through most of Nevada many of the blocks exhibit deformed structures, involving folds and faults of relatively ancient (Jurassic) date; so ancient that the moun~ tains then formed by the folding were worn down to the lowland stage of old age before the block-faulting occurred.
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  • When this old-mountain lowland was broken into blocks and the blocks were tilted, their attitude, but not their structure, was monoclinal; and in this new attitude they have been so maturely re-dissected in the ne~v cycle of erosion upon which they have now entered as to have gained elaborately carved forms in which the initial form of the uplifted blocks can hardly be perceived; yet at least some of them still retain along one side the highly significant feature of a relatively simple base-line, transecting hard and soft structures alike, and thus indicating the faulted margin of a tilted block.
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  • The University block (an office building owned by Syracuse University), the Union Building, the Onondaga county savings bank and the Syracuse savings bank are among the most notable business structures; and the Onondaga, the Vanderbilt House and the Yates and St Cloud hotels are the principal hotels.
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  • Its palace, one of the most magnificent structures of its kind, was erected, chiefly by Louis XV.
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  • The mountain structures originated in three great orogenic periods, the earliest in the Archean, the second at the end of the Palaeozoic and the third at the end of the Mesozoic. The Archean mountain chains, which enclosed the present region of Hudson Bay, were so ancient that they had already been worn down almost to a plain before the early Palaeozoic sediments were laid down.
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  • The Rocky Mountain region as a whole, best named the Cordillera or Cordilleran belt, includes several parallel ranges of mountains of different structures and ages, the eastern one constituting the Rocky Mountains proper.
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  • As the axis of the ctenidium lies by the side of the body, and is very frequently connate with the body, as so often happens in Gastropods also, we find it convenient to speak of the two plate-like structures formed on each ctenidial axis as the outer and the inner gill-plate; each of these is composed of two lamellae, an outer (the reflected) and an adaxial in the case of the outer gill plate, and an adaxial and an inner (the reflected) in the case of the inner gill-plate.
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  • Soon afterwards the sultan died (1219) and was succeeded by his brother, Ala ud-din Kaikobad I., the most powerful and illustrious prince of this branch of the Seljuks, renowned not only for his successful wars but also for his magnificent structures at Konia, Alaja, Sivas and elsewhere, which belong to the best specimens of Saracenic architecture.
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  • From each side of the uterus the peritoneum is reflected outward, as a two-layered sheet, to the side wall of the pelvis; this is the broad ligament, and between its layers lie several structures of importance.
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  • The foot is a muscular mass without cuticle or skeleton, excepting certain cuticular structures such as the byssus of Lamellibranchs and the operculum of Gastropods, which do not aid in locomotion.
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  • Thus in the primitive mollusc the mantle-cavity contains a symmetrical group of structures at the posterior end of the body, and this group of structures is called the pallial complex.
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  • The alimentary tube consists of three regions: firstly, the anterior buccal mass with the oesophagus, of ectodermic origin, and therefore bearing cuticular structures, namely the jaws and radula; secondly, the mid-gut, of endodermic origin and including the stomach and liver; and, thirdly, the hind-gut or intestine.
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  • Porto Alegre, like many Brazilian cities, is in a transition stage, and handsome new structures of French and Italian styles rise from among the low, heavy and plain old buildings of Portuguese origin.
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  • Into various parts of the fabric were built relics and curiosities from historical structures, such as the doorway of the old Tolbooth in Edinburgh.
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  • In this group the enamel extends partially to the back of the incisors, but in all the rest it is restricted to the front surface, so that, by the more rapid wearing-away of the softer structures behind, a chisel-shaped edge is maintained.
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  • high; the city convention hall, the chamber of commerce, the builders' exchange, the Masonic temple, two state armouries, the Prudential, Fidelity Trust, White and Mutual Life buildings, the Teck, Star and Shea's Park theatres, and the Ellicott Square building, one of the largest office structures in the world; and, in Delaware Park, the Albright art gallery, and the Buffalo Historical Society building, which was originally the New York state building erected for the Pan-American Exposition held in 1901.
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  • When the lines are obtained under circumstances which tend towards sharpness and homogeneity they are often found to possess complicated structures, single lines breaking up into two or more components of varying intensities.
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  • It is badly built, on a swampy site exposed to the inundations of the river; and its houses, with few exceptions, are slight structures of wood and plaster.
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  • In several parts of the town may be found houses of the Venetian time, with some traces of past splendour, but they are few, and are giving place to structures in the modern and more convenient French style.
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  • In Erodium the members of the outer whorl are reduced to scale-like structures (staminodes), and in Pelargonium from two to seven only are fertile.
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  • The lowest and middle divisions have not yet been excavated; the upper part at the south end of the rock was completely exposed in1884-1885by Schliemann and Dorpfeld, and the almost complete plan of the various structures clearly made out.
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  • Such structures are known as mixed crystals or solid solutions.
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  • It has been to a great extent superseded by Portland cement, on account of the much greater strength of the latter, though lime concrete is still used in many places for dry foundations and small structures.
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  • Sometimes in massive concrete structures large and heavy stones as big as a man can lift are buried in the concrete after it is laid in position but while it is still wet.
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  • For important work and especially for thin structures the number of turnings should be increased.
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  • On this account it is usual to neglect the tensile strength of concrete in designing structures, and to arrange the material in such a way that tensile stresses are avoided.
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  • Even though the best hydraulic lime be used it is wise to confine it to places where it is not exposed to the air, or to running water, and indeed for important structures the use of lime should be avoided.
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  • Considerable alarm was created about the year 1887 by the failure of two or three large structures of Portland cement concrete exposed to seawater, both in England and other countries.
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  • But to ensure the permanence of structures in sea-water the great object is to choose a cement containing as little lime and alumina as possible, and free from sulphates such as gypsum; and more important still to proportion the sand and stones in the concrete in such a way that the structure is practically non-porous.
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  • They occur no less in structures of masonry and brickwork, but in these cases they generally follow the joints, and are almost imperceptible.
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  • But it is difficult and expensive to work up into various forms. Concrete has been avoided for making beams, slabs and thin walls, just because its deficiency in tensile strength doomed it to failure in such structures.
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  • America and Germany adopted them readily, and in England some very large structures have been erected with this material.
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  • If it is used in piles or structures where it is likely to be bruised the proportion of cement should be increased.
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  • The structures in which steel concrete is used may be analysed as consisting essentially of (I) walls, (2) columns, (3) piles, (4) beams, (5) slabs, (6) arches.
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  • These structures are known as cephalodia and they usually occupy a definite position in the thallus.
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  • The function of these peculiar structures is unknown.
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  • In one view they are mere asexual conidia, and the term pycnoconidia is accordingly applied since they are borne in structures like the non-sexual pycnidia of other fungi.
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  • The object of the attack on the mole at Zeebrugge was first to seize the battery at the seaward end and prevent it firing at the block ships, and then to demolish the structures on it as far as possible.
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  • Owen's description showed this view to be groundless, and he attributed the extraordinary development of the toucan's beak to the need of compensating, by the additional power of mastication thus given, for the absence of any of the grinding structures that are so characteristic of the intestinal tract of vegetable-eating birds - its digestive organs possessing a general simplicity of formation.
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  • We shall therefore first treat of these under four headings: formation and preparation of the garden, garden structures and edifices, garden materials and appliances, and garden operations.
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  • A considerable portion of the north wall is usually covered in front with the glazed structures called forcing-houses, and to these the houses for ornamental plants are sometimes attached; but a more appropriate site for the latter is the flower garden, when that forms a separate department.
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  • Garden Structures.
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  • These include all those structures which are more intimately associated with the growth of ornamental plants and flowers, and comprise conservatory, plant stove, greenhouse and the subsidiary pits and frames.
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  • The earliest notice we have of such structures is given in the Latin writers of the 1st century (Mart.
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  • The botanist Jungermann had plant houses at Altdorf in Switzerland; those of Loader, a London merchant, and the conservatory in the Apothecaries' Botanic Garden at Chelsea, were among the first structures of the kind erected in British gardens.
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  • Where it is desired to cultivate a large number of plants, it is much better to increase the number of such houses than to provide larger structures.
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  • Orchard Houses are span-roofed or lean-to structures, in which various fruits are cultivated without the aid of artificial heat.
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  • The orchard house is among the most generally useful of all garden structures.
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  • In commercial establishments where utility is of more importance than ornament, the glass houses and hot water apparatus are not of so elaborate a type as indicated in the foregoing remarks, and in many cases excellent produce is grown in structures more or less dilapidated.
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  • A type of building which is becoming increasingly popular for this purpose, and which is in many respects superior to the older, and often more expensive structures, is built of wood, with or without brick foundations, and is thickly thatched with reeds or other non-conducting material externally - on walls and roof - while the interior is matchboarded.
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  • Heat is regulated in the structures by means of valves on the various branch pipes.
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  • In cooler structures it becomes necessary in the dull season of the year to prevent the slopping of water over the plants or on the floor, as this tends to cause " damping off," - the stems assuming a state of mildewy decay, which not infrequently, if it once attacks a plant, will destroy it piece by piece.
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  • Rhubarb and sea-kale among esculents both need to be forced in darkness to keep them crisp and tender, and mushrooms also are always grown in dark structures.
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  • Remove the snow that accumulates on cold frames or other glass structures, particularly if the soil which the glass covers was not frozen before the snow fell; it may remain on the sashes longer if the plants are frozen in, since they are dormant, and would not be injured if deprived of light for eight or ten days.
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  • The xerophytic structures found in some of the plants might seem to corroborate this view; but similar structures are assumed by many plants when dwelling in brackish marshes and morasses.
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  • The earthen dikes are protected by stone-slopes and by piles, and at the more dangerous points also by zinkstukken (sinking pieces), artificial structures of brushwood laden with stones, and measuring some 400 yds.
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  • These structures cannot 3, then be produced from the product of a single spore nor even from the thalli derived from any two spores.
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  • The ascus is thus one of the most sharply characterized structures among the fungi.
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  • In these sporophores (such as the well-known toadstools and mushrooms where the ordinary vegetative mycelium is underground) we have structures specially developed for bearing the basidiospores and protecting them from rain, &c., and for the distribution of the spores - see earlier part of article on distribution of spores (figs.
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  • Blanc, R.S.A., is one of the finest modern ecclesiastical structures in Scotland.
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  • Gdppert as vegetable structures and were supposed to point to an organic origin, but this view is no longer held.
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  • For the rest there are the tombs of many kings in the Biban el Moluk and a good deal of comparatively petty construction and tinkering, with the help of stone robbed from older structures.
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  • Teleology, in this narrower sense, as the study of the adaptation of organic structures to the service of the organisms in which they occur, was completely revolutionized by Darwinism and the research founded on it.
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  • Such are the scales of a bulb, and the various parts of the flower, and assuming that the structure ordinarily termed a leaf is the typical form, these other structures were designated changed or metamorphosed leaves, a somewhat misleading interpretation.
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  • All structures morphologically equivalent with the leaf are now included under the general term phyllome (leaf-structure).
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  • The structures in ordinary language designated as leaves are considered so par excellence, and they are frequently spoken of as foliage leaves.
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  • The large Protestant church of St Willibrord has a choir, built 1424-1526, which is one of the noblest Gothic structures on the Lower Rhine, and a modern nave (1882-96).
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  • Some of the corporations constructing works for the sale of water built structures of notable size, such, for example, as the Sweet-water and Hemet dams of southern California, the Bear river canal of Utah, and the Arizona canal, taking water from Salt river, Arizona.
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  • of canals, some carrying whole rivers, like the Truckee river in Nevada and the North Platte in Wyoming, and had erected 281 large structures, including the great dams in Nevada and the Minidoka dam (80 ft.
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  • In the north of the Delta wherever salt marshes have prevented cultivation in modern times, the mounds, such as those of Pelusium, still stand to their full height, and the more important are covered with ruins of brick structures of Byzantine and Arab date.
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  • The prevailing mode of sepulture in all the different varieties of these structures is by the deposit of the body in a contracted position, accompanied by weapons and implements of stone, occasionally by ornaments of gold, jet or amber.
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  • there are no notable structures in the upper town.
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  • Besides the differentiation into holdfast and shoot, and into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth, there appear superficial structures of the nature of hairs.
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  • Among Rhodomelaceae, hair-like structures of a higher order are known.
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  • The kilns commonly employed are "chamber kilns," circular structures not unlike an ordinary running lime kiln, but having the top closed and connected at the side with a wide flue in which the slurry is exposed to the hot products of combustion from the kiln.
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  • Such composite structures take advantage at once of the high tensile strength of iron and of the high compressive strength of cement mortar.
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  • It might be supposed that hydraulic cements from their nature would be indifferent to the action of water, but this is only true if the structures of which they form part are sufficiently compact.
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  • Schleiden regarded variation and the production of new or improved structures as an unfolding of possibilities latent in the stock.
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  • Herbert Spencer from 1852 onwards maintained the principle of evolution and laid special stress on the moulding forces of the environment which called into being primarily new functions and secondarily new structures.
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  • He laid much stress on the unity of the organism in every stage of its existence, with the resulting correlation of variations, so that the favouring of one particular variation entailed modifications of correlated structures.
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  • The variability of structures which are repeated in the body of the same individual (serial homologues) has been studied by Pearson and his pupils with important results.
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  • Serially homologous structures, borne on the same body, are commonly differ s entiated into sets, the mean character of a set produced in one part of the body, or during one period of life, differing from the mean character of a set produced in a different region or at a different time.
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  • An excellent example of structures differentiated according to position is given by the appendages borne on the stem of an ordinary flowering plant-the one or two seed leaves; the stem leaves, which may or may not be differentiated into secondary sets; and the various floral organs borne at the apex of the stem or its lateral branches.
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  • 197 A., 1901), from which the foregoing statements about beech leaves are taken, Pearson has given the correlation between such sets of organs in a large number of plants: he and his pupils have subsequently determined the correlation between structures repeated in the bodies of individual animals.
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  • sometimes difficult to choose the whole series of structures osberved from a region of the body which is not affected by differentiation.
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  • There remains open a wide field for inquiry as to the precise relations between selection and variation on the one hand, and their products, specific differences and adaptive structures, but the advance of knowledge has supplied no alternative to the Darwinian principles.
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  • Among the chief modern structures may be mentioned the magnificent post office, erected in 1895, the provincial law courts, the municipal infirmary and the large railway station.
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  • timmer, both meaning "room," the word has been transferred to the structures made 'of this material.
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  • The wooden stage has, of course, perished, but all its supporting structures are in place, and the great scena wall stands to its full height, and produces a magnificent impression whether from within or from without.
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  • Dialectic is, therefore, a dislocating power; it shakes the solid structures of material thought, and exhibits the instability latent in such conceptions of the world.
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  • When the idea, itself indefinite, gets no further than a struggle and endeavour for its appropriate expression, we have the symbolic, which is the Oriental, form of art, which seeks to compensate its imperfect expression by colossal and enigmatic structures.
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  • All these splendid structures, fronting one of the main streets in succession, form, even without the abbey church, a remarkable memorial of the wealth of the foundation.
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  • But it has now been shown that he lived in the 2nd century B.C. Remains of a portico, altars and other structures have also been found.
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  • The methods of union adopted are not allowed to impair the strength of structures, which is calculated on the weakest sections through the rivet or bolt holes.
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  • These Psithyri have no pollen-carrying structures on the legs and their grubs are dependent for their ' food - supply on the labours of the Bombi, though, according to E.
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  • Some of the older structures - notably the church of Santo Domingo and the Maestranza - are built of grey limestone.
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  • The principal structures include the burgh and county buildings, town hall, the Dollar free library and Camelon fever hospital.
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  • On the northern side of this terrace, between the second temple and the Cyclopean supporting wall, a long stoa or colonnade runs from east to west abutting at the west end in structures which evidently contained a well-house and waterworks; while at the eastern end of this stoa a number of chambers were erected against the hill, in front of which were placed statues and inscriptions, the bases for which are still extant.
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  • The name of Kutb is preserved in the minar, or pillar of victory, which still stands amid the ruins of ancient Delhi, towering high above all later structures.
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  • Co isolated features which find a parallel in more completely p known cults presuppose such cults; yet it may be in- (erre d that they point to earlier, more perfect structures, to rites which perhaps linger only as a memory, and to conceptions and beliefs which have been elevated or modified by other religions.
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  • Of modern structures, the government offices, the house of the provincial diet, the post office and the palace of the commander of the 17th army corps, which has its headquarters in Danzig, are the most noteworthy.
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  • These last were erected in 1225 and 1222 respectively, and have been rebuilt more than once; the present structures, in somewhat poor taste, date from1829-1834and 1732 respectively.
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  • To find the pressure exerted by a bar AB on the pin A we compound with the force in AB given by the diagram a force equal to P. Conversely, to find the pressure of the pin A on the bar AB we must compound with the force given by the diagram a force equal and opposite to P. This question arises in practice in the theory of three-jointed structures; for the purpose in hand such a structure is sufficiently represented by two bars AB, BC. The right-hand figure represents a portion of the force-diagram; in particular ZX represents the pressure of AB on B
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  • This is important from a technical point of view, since all structures are practically three-dimensional.
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  • Statics of Inextensible Chains.The theory of bodies or structures which are deformable in their smallest parts belongs properly to elasticity.
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  • Considerable additions, however, have been introduced in order to indicate subsequent developments of the subject; the new sections are numbered continuously with the old, objects to which they relate are intended to remain fixed or to move relatively to each otherthe former class being comprehended under the term Theory of Structures and the latter under the term Theory of Machines.
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  • PART 1.OUTLINE OF THE THEORY OF STRUCTURES
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  • The principles of the support, as a whole, of a structure resting on the land, are so far identical with those which regulate the equilibrium and stability of the several parts of that structure that the oni principle which seems to require special mention here is one whic comprehends in one statement the power both of liquids and of loose earth to support structures.
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  • This principle of least resistance renders determinate many problems in the statics of structures which were formerly considered indeterminate.
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  • The application of the method of reciprocal figures was facilitated by a system of notation published in Economics of Construction in relation to framed Structures, by Robert H.
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  • Ihe foregoing principle of the transformation of structures was first announced, though in a somewhat less comprehensivi form, to the Royal Society on the 6th of March 1856.
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  • It is usefu in practice, by enabling the engineer easily to deduce the condition of equilibrium and stability of structures of complex and unsym metrical figures from those of structures of simple and symnietrica figures.
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  • It varies from three to twelve for various materials and structures.
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  • It appears therefore that in general the mechanism is to be designed first and the frame afterwards, and that the designing of the frame is regtilated by the principles of the stability of structures and of the strength and stiffness of materials,care being taken to adapt the frame to the most severe load which can be thrown upon it at any period of the action of the mechanism.
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  • In many genera of springtails a curious post-antennal organ, consisting of sensory structures (often complex in form) surrounded by a firm ring, is to be noticed on the cuticle of the head between the eyes and the feelers.
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  • There are, according to Empedocles, four ultimate elements, four primal divinities, of which are made all structures in the world - fire, air, water, earth.
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  • Then as these fragmentary structures met, there were seen horned heads on human bodies, bodies of oxen with men's heads, and figures of double sex.
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  • But most of these products of natural forces disappeared as suddenly as they arose; only in those rare cases where the several parts were found adapted to each other, and casual member fitted into casual member, did the complex structures thus formed last.
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  • Within this is a maze of structures out of which rises the colossal ruin of the theatre, built up on arches like a Roman amphitheatre for lack of a convenient hill-side to be hollowed out in the usual Greek fashion.
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  • They formed a basis upon which more national and more scrupulous writers could build their various structures.
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  • In these caverns there are numerous stalactite structures, which, from their curious and fantastic shapes, have received such names as the Image of the Virgin, the Mosaic Altar, &c. The principal parts are the Paradies with the finest stalactites, the Astronomical Tower and the Beinhaus.
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  • But the results of the saner researches of Randall Maclver, announced first at the South Africa meeting of the British Association (1905) and later communicated to the Royal Geographical Society, have robbed these structures of much of their glamour; from being the centres of Phoenician and Hebrew industry they have sunk to be mere magnified kraals, not more than three or four hundred years old.
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  • above that of the Archaic, by means of huge foundation blocks bedded upon the earlier structures; and this increase of elevation necessitated a slight expansion of the area all round, and ten steps in place of three.
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  • The streets are narrow, and the houses are mostly picturesque old structures, built of wood, with many quaint gables and dark archways.
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  • As the result of the reconstruction of this section, thousands of wooden buildings, which had been a striking architectural characteristic of the city, were replaced by structures of steel, brick, and, especially, reinforced concrete.
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  • Outside the precinct of Apollo, on the south, was an open place; between this and the precinct was a house for the priests, and within it, in a kind of court, a set of small structures that may perhaps be identified as the tombs of the Hyperborean maidens.
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  • The existence of ciliated micrococci together with the formation of endospores - structures not known in the Cyanophyceae - reminds us of the flagellate Protozoa, e.g.
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  • These H structures are invisible, with ordinary illumination in living cells or unstained preparations, and can only be made clearly visible by special methods of preparation and staining first used by Loffler.
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  • Furthermore, lysogenic action is not confined to the case of bacteria but obtains also with other organized structures, e.g.
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  • The state house, United States government building and city hall are fine structures.
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  • Since the introduction of stone and brick, the whole city has been rebuilt and now contains numerous structures of some architectural pretension, the royal palaces, the houses formerly belonging to the prime minister and nobles, the French residency, the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals, several stone churches, as well as others of brick, colleges, schools, hospitals, courts of justice and other government buildings, and hundreds of good dwellinghouses.
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  • The new museum, connected with the old museum by a covered corridor, is, in its internal arrangements and decorations, one of the finest structures in the capital.
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  • The green gland and the structures associated with it in Decapods were at one time regarded as constituting an auditory apparatus.
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  • At their inner ends (towards the pigment) these cells contain rod-like structures, while their outer ends are connected with the nerve-fibres.
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  • In the Copepoda the median eye may undergo considerable elaboration, and refracting lenses and other accessory structures may be developed in connexion with it.
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  • In addition to the digestive and excretory glands already mentioned, various glandular structures occur in the different groups of Crustacea.
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  • Possibly related to the same group of structures are the greatly-developed cement-glands of the Cirripedia, which serve to attach the animals to their support.
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  • Various accessory structures may be connected with the efferent ducts in both sexes.
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  • Several structures which must be attributed to the common FIG.
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  • Many of the public buildings are fine structures.
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  • To obviate this difficulty we are forced to fall back upon weight, or rather the structures and appliances which weight represents.
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  • The elytra, however, are comparatively long narrow structures which occupy a position in front of the wings, of which they may be regarded as forming the anterior parts.
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  • The elytra, moreover, are not wholly passive structures.
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  • If the wings were not driven at a high speed, and if they were not eccentrics made to revolve upon two separate axes, they would of necessity be large cumbrous structures; but large heavy wings would be difficult to work, and what is worse, they would (if too large), instead of controlling the air, be controlled by it, and so cease to be flying organs.
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  • These surfaces may be conferred on artificial wings, aeroplanes, aerial screws or similar structures; and these structures, if we may judge from what we find in nature, should be of moderate size and elastic. The power of the flying organs will be increased if they are driven at a comparatively high speed, and particularly if they are made to reverse and reciprocate, as in this case they will practically create the currents upon which they are destined to rise and advance.
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  • Henson was one of the first to combine aerial screws with extensive supporting structures occupying a nearly horizontal position.
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  • These were thin, light, long, narrow structures, arranged above each other in tiers like so many shelves.
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  • His structures, such as the hut, fence, stockade, earthwork, &c., may be poor and clumsy, but they are of the same nature as our own.
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  • The leading characters of antlers are described under Pecora, but these structures may be defined somewhat more fully in the following passage from the present writer's Deer of all Lands:- " Antlers are supported on a pair of solid bony processes, or pedicles, arising from the frontal bones of the skull, of which they form an inseparable portion; and if in a fully adult deer these pedicles be sawn through, they will generally be found to consist of solid, ivory-like bone, devoid of perceptible channels for the passage of blood-vessels.
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  • There is some difference of opinion as to which structure or structures represent the cotyledon.
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  • The development of these structures (which was investigated by van Tieghem), FIG.
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  • These new structures also consist of rubble mounds.
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  • The building laws of the city of New York require the following provisions as regards wind forces: " All structures exposed to wind shall be designed to resist a horizontal wind pressure of thirty pounds for every square foot of surface thus exposed, from the ground to the top of the same, including roof, in any direction.
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  • In all structures exposed to wind, if the resisting moments of the ordinary materials of construction, such as masonry, partitions, floors and connexions, are not sufficient to resist the moment of distortion due to wind pressure, taken in any direction on any part of the structure, additional bracing shall be introduced sufficient to make up the difference in the moments.
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  • A common phenomenon in cycads is the production of roots which grow upwards (apogeotropic), and appear as coralline branched structures above the level of the ground; some of the cortical cells of these roots are hypertrophied, and contain numerous filaments of blue-green Algae (Nostocaceae), which live as endoparasites in the cell-cavities.
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  • The female flowers of the Taxaceae assume another form; in Microcachrys (Tasmania) the reproductive structures are spirally disposed, and form small globular cones made up of red fleshy scales, to each of which is attached a single ovule enclosed by an integument and partially invested by an arillus; in Dacrydium the carpellary leaves are very similar to the foliage leaves - each bears one ovule with two integuments, the outer of which constitutes an arillus.
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  • 17, C, a); he suggests they may represent vestigial structures pointing back to some ancestral form beyond the limits of the present group. The Gnetales probably had a separate origin from the other Gymnosperms; they carry us nearer to the Angiosperms, but we have as yet no satisfactory evidence that they represent a stage in the direct line of Angiospermic evolution.
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  • In the higher chromosphere on occasions metallic gases are carried up to such a level that without an eclipse a bright line spectrum of many elements may be seen, but it is always possible to see those of hydrogen and helium, and by opening the slit of the spectroscope so as to weaken still further the continuous spectrum from the photosphere (now a mere reflection) the actual forms of the gaseous structures called prominences round the sun's rim may be seen.
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  • Rankine in his report adopted the prudent course of taking as the safe limits certain pressures to which, at that time, such structures were known to be subject.
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  • Aberdeen's popular name of the "Granite City" is justified by the fact that the bulk of the town is built of granite, but to appreciate its more poetical designation of the "Silver City by the Sea," it should be seen after a heavy rainfall when its stately structures and countless houses gleam pure and white under the brilliant sunshine.
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  • The structure of the zooid of Heliopora, however, is that of a typical Alcyonarian, and the septa have only a resemblance to, but no real homology with, the similarly named structures in madreporarian corals.
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  • In addition to these parts the following structures may exist in corals:- Dissepiments are oblique calcareous partitions, stretching from septum to septum, and closing the interseptal chambers below.
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  • product of the normal or sexual mode of propagation in the group, but owes its origin to a peculiar type of budding or non-sexual reproduction, in which, as temporary resting or protecting structures, the vesicular bodies may have had a share.
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  • All the complicated structures of Blastoidea are evolved from a fairly simple type, which in its turn is linked on to one of the cystid orders.
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  • Beneath each food-groove was a radial water-vessel and probably a nerve and blood-vessel, all which structures passed either between certain regularly arranged thecal plates, or along a furrow floored by those plates, which were then in two alternating series.
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  • We may, with Sedgwick, suppose the coelom to have originated by the enlargement and separation of pouches that pressed outwards from the archenteron into the thickened body-wall (such structures as the genital pouches of some Coelentera, not yet shut off from the rest of the cavity), and they would probably have been four in number and radially disposed about the central cavity.
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  • The remains of the original genital gland within the theca became the "axial organ" surrounded by the "axial sinus" derived from the anterior coelom, and this again by structures derived from the right posterior coelom, which, as explained above, had been depressed to the aboral pole.
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  • These last structures formed a nervous sheath around the axial sinus with its bloodvessels, and became divided into five lobes correlated with the five basals (the "chambered organ") and forming the aboral nerve-centre.
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  • In the Echinoidea the water-canals and associated structures, ending in the terminal plates, stretched right up to these genital plates; but in the Asteroidea they never reached the aboral surface, so that the terminals have always been separated from the aboral pole by a number of plates.
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  • The former might be placed with Diploporita, were it not for a greater intimacy of correlation between ambulacral and thecal structures than is found in Cystidea as here defined.
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  • The megalithic structures common in the Hauran and Moab may be entirely sepulchral.
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  • The capitulum, with its associated structures, is sometimes called the rostrum, whereas sometimes the term rostrum is restricted to the hypostome alone.
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  • They are separated from fishes and batrachians (Pisces and Batrachians) on the one hand, and agree with reptiles, and birds (Reptilia and A y es) on the other, in the possession during intra-uterine life of the membranous vascular structures respectively known as the amnion and the allantois, and likewise in the absence at this or any other period of external gills.
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  • Such hairs, either upon different parts of the skin of the same species, or in different species, assume very diverse forms and are of various sizes and degrees of rigidity - as seen in the fur of the mole, the bristles of the pig, and the spines of the hedgehog and porcupine, which are all modifications of the same structures.
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  • To this group of structures belong the suborbital face-gland.
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  • Besides the crypts of Lieberkiihn found throughout the intestinal canal, and the glands of Brunner confined to the duodenum, there are other structures in the mucous membrane, about the nature of which there is still much uncertainty, called " solitary " and " agminated " glands, the latter more commonly known by the name of " Peyer's patches."
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  • Gallipoli has an unattractive appearance; its streets are narrow and dirty, and many of its houses are built of wood, although there are a few better structures, occupied by the foreign residents and the richer class of Turkish citizens.
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  • Apart from the Protestant churches of St John, with twin towers, and of St James, with a high tower (290 ft.), the medieval town hall, built in the 14th century and restored in 1880, and the numerous university buildings, Göttingen possesses few structures of any public importance.
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  • Other structures are the County buildings, the Public, St Margaret's, Music and Carnegie halls, the last in the Tudor style, Carnegie public baths, high school (founded in 1560), school of science and art, and two hospitals.
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  • It has taken some time to obtain any general acceptance of the view that the parapodia of the Chaetopoda and the limbs of Arthropoda are genetically identi cal structures; yet if we compare the para podium of Tomopteris or of Phyllodoce with one of the foliaceous limbs of Branchipus or __; Apus, the correspond ences of the two are striking.
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  • (4) Three of the rami of the primitive limb (endites 5 and 6, and exite I) specially developed as endopodite, exopodite, and epipodite - the first two often as firm and strongly chitinized, segmented, leg-like structures; the original axis or corm reduced to a basal piece, with or without a distinct gnathobase (endite i)- typical tri-ramose limb of higher Crustacea.
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  • In the Hexapods and Chilopods, and the Arachnids (usually), they form tree-like branching structures, and their finest branches are finer than any blood-capillary, actually in some cases penetrating a single cell and supplying it with gaseous oxygen.
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  • The dysentery poison appears to exert its effects upon the glandular structures of the large intestine, particularly in its lower part.
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  • The houses are mostly very small wooden structures, serving for little else but sleeping places.
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  • The bazaars are miserable structures, covered with mats laid on rafters of date trees.
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  • In some districts the natives live together in one of these giant structures, which are divided into compartments.
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  • Female flowers arranged, two to three together on scale-like structures formed by the union of bracts, in catkins; ovary two-celled; fruit small, flattened, protected between the ripened scales of the catkin.
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  • The native houses are all low, thatched structures, enclosing a square court, and the only break in the mud wall is the door.
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  • These structures are all enclosed in the middle subcorneous integument, a continuation of the ordinary skin of the limb, but extremely vascular, and having its superficial extent greatly increased by being developed into papillae or laminae.
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  • caballus) similar structures occur near the upper extremity of the inner face of the metatarsus.
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  • They are evidently rudimentary structures which it is suggested may represent glands (Lydekker, Proc. Zool.
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  • They are short, stumplike, muscular structures, armed at their free extremities by a pair of cutting blades or claws, and are placed one on each side of the mouth.
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  • There appear to be present in most, if not all, of the legs some accessory glandular structures opening just externally to the nephridia.
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  • There can thus be shown structures which are not present in the object.
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  • Most important are the fine structures of diatoms such as Surirella gemma and Amphipleura pellucida or artificial fine divisions as in a Nobert's grating.
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  • As the seed develops from the ovule which has been fertilized by the pollen, the essential structures for seed-production are two, viz.
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  • These are with few exceptions foliar structures, known in comparative morphology as sporophylls, because they bear the spores, namely, the microspores or pollen-grains which are developed in the microsporangia or pollen-sacs, and the megaspore, which is contained in the ovule or megasporangium.
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  • In some Rosaceous plants an epicalyx is present, due to the formation of stipulary structures by the sepals.
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  • These structures are of the nature of an epicalyx.
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  • Certain structures occur on the petals of some flowers, which received in former days the name of nectaries.
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  • It is sometimes difficult to say whether these structures are to be referred to the corolline or to the staminal row.
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  • It was to such structures.
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  • 2), says, " Krohn stated that the structures described by my father as ovaries were in reality salivary glands, also that the oviduct runs down to the orifice described in the Monograph of the Cirripedia as the auditory meatus."
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  • There are electric tramways and a good water-supply, but most of the older houses are fragile wooden structures coated with lime or mud, and the sanitation is defective.
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  • In many cases internal casts have been formed, some large cavity, such as a fistular pith, having become filled with mineral substance, which has taken the impress of the surrounding structures, such as the wood.
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  • continuation of those structures.
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  • The term is also used of structures resembling these articles, especially of the framework of booms, spars and netting forming a protection for a warship against torpedo attack.
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  • He performed more than six thousand experiments, more than four thousand of which were on animals, and he determined the effects on the heart and other important structures.
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  • Some substances have a very wide range of action, and involve a great variety of structures, while others, such as purgatives, have a very limited sphere.
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  • The climate is much drier than that of Chiapas, and the structures are in a better state of preservation than those of Palenque, but the rank vegetation and the decay of the wooden lintels over the doorways have broken down many of the walls.
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  • There are other structures and groups, smaller and more dilapidated.
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  • It has the same features found in the other structures except for a line of sculptured turtles on the mouldings of the frieze.
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  • This is especially necessary in the case of reverberatory furnaces, which are essentially weak structures, and therefore require to be bound together by complicated systems of tie rods and uprights or buck staves.
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  • The black line separating these two structures is the enamel or hardest constituent of the tooth.
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  • There were several complex structures to be fabricated.
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  • Particular emphasis was placed on the type of structures which would be required.
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  • This design includes incommensurate host-guest structures.
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  • We have to adapt the existing structures to ensure we get the best out of the reforms.
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  • The term "language", includes verbal, tonal and body languages, which underpin all cultural learning structures.
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  • The emerging global world economy lacks the corresponding social structures that cushion economic vicissitudes within domestic society.
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  • active in campaigning for improved career structures.
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  • adsorbed onto particles of clay and held within the crystal structures of clays and feldspars.
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  • Candidates should be able to show an understanding of isomerism by predicting some of the structures of the isomers of given higher alkanes.
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  • However, all the features of the vector sequences may not necessarily have a common allophone clustering structures.
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  • We have shown that fluoride anions can be used to generate helical structures in the solid state.
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  • To achieve good performance from lazy implementations, it proved necessary to apply strictness annotations to certain commonly-used data structures.
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  • The compression which formed the anticline will have been accompanied by flexural slip which would have " planed off " any bottom structures.
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  • aperiodic tilings, which have had unexpected applications in describing new crystal structures.
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  • arbouring and External Structures Much of the fencing and wooden structures such as pergolas, arches, arbors and decking was supplied by Forest.
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  • argumentative structures.
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  • You get to build structures with the aim of getting an armadillo to a blue sphere.
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  • Learn 6 representative structures: val ser asp lys cys phe.
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  • assimilate new knowledge by producing cognitive structures that are similar to the experiences they are engaged in.
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  • New structures and projects can divert attention away from day-to-day services.
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  • backdrop of uncertainty and change in the structures and mechanisms of health and social care delivery.
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  • Dials can be mounted back-to-back, or on pillars, walls or individually designed structures.
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  • Park buildings and structures, including the bandstand, were restored and the fountain was re-created.
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  • bemusen this, calls for a consciousness of structures is refreshing, but also bemusing.
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  • Stephen Foale and Steve Bishop presented their elegant study of grazing bifurcations in impacting systems, relevant to the rattling of engineering structures.
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  • We are developing a new method of screening potentially bioactive molecules which uses a combination of enzymes to select active structures.
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  • Includes detailed table showing chemical names, CAS numbers and structures for booster biocides.
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  • The molecule was named buckminsterfullerene in honor of the architect, who designed geodesic domes based on similar pentagonal and hexagonal structures.
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