He formalized the structure of medical inquiry as an independent science.
A small door in the stone structure opened.
From what I've learned his entire brain structure is distorted.
As Dean neared the structure, a figure emerged from the building.
The structure of proteins enables scientists to understand the function they perform.
The structure was just under seventy feet long and about twelve feet high; said to be the height designed to accommodate a wagon fully loaded with hay.
A structure loomed darkly against the lighter horizon.
She occupied the largest suite in the structure, seven spacious rooms on the top floor.
He passed the recently restored Beaumont Hotel, a beautiful structure that after several decades of disuse and deterioration had finally been returned to its past glory.
They will have a two-tier governance structure - a Management Board and a Board of Governors.
I will begin by describing the structure of the school system in the Republic of Ireland.
The children needed structure and direction in their lives.
HTML documents are not viewable from within the cgi-bin directory structure.
I'm not easy to live with, and the structure is good for me.
Such roofs are not suitable for cold climates, for accumulations of snow might overburden the structure and would also cause the wet to penetrate through any small crevices and under flashings.
On the farther side of the eastern ravine stands a smaller but very well proportioned structure, the church of St Eugenius, the patron saint of Trebizond, now the Yeni Djuma djami, or New Friday mosque.
You can structure determination by patterson or direct methods, but do not eliminate more than 50%.
Nearly seventy-five Colorado winters rusting away at the structure did not breed confidence.
Her mother and father-in-law sat in front of the crushed structure, hunched over while their sobs reaching her ears.
The adobe structure was guarded by several more Guardians, none of whom looked like Damian from the distance.
"We're going there," she said, indicating the next largest structure nearby.
The Buen, as everyone referred to it, was located in a hundred year old structure previously known as the Scott-Humphries Building, which had remained vacant for over twenty-five years.
Of course, she might be skittish if she didn't know how secure the structure was.
As the design was somewhat complicated, the slightest jar made the structure fall.
The Teatro Farnese, a remarkable wooden structure erected in1618-1619from Aleotti d'Argenta's designs, and capable of containing 4500 persons, is also in this palace.
The Teatro Farnese, a remarkable wooden structure erected in1618-1619from Aleotti d'Argenta's designs, and capable of containing 4500 persons, is also in this palace.
The joists are covered with a waterproof material such as asphalt, lead, zinc or copper, the three last materials being usually laid upon boarding, which stiffens the structure and forms a good surface to fix the weatherproof covering upon.
St. Thomas the Apostle Church was a scrubbed-white structure looking like a New England calendar except for its city location.
These nations will play a substantial role in shaping this new English, as they bring grammatical structure, idioms, and nuanced words from their native tongue.
Eventually he was able to prove that the biological doctrine of omnis cellula ecellula applies to pathological processes as well as to those of normal growth, and in his famous book on Cellular-pathologic, published at Berlin in 1858, he established what Lord Lister described as the "true and fertile doctrine that every morbid structure consists of cells which have been derived from pre-existing cells as a progeny."
The destruction was visible long before they reached the low adobe structure hidden between the foothills of the Tucson Mountains.
Airy hallways led through the hacienda style structure on either side of her.
In that world some structure was still being erected and did not fall, something was still stretching out, and the candle with its red halo was still burning, and the same shirtlike sphinx lay near the door; but besides all this something creaked, there was a whiff of fresh air, and a new white sphinx appeared, standing at the door.
World Wide Insurance Company was in the heart of Philadelphia, occupying a towering structure that glared down on city hall and a thousand tired buildings, many dating back to the horse-drawn carriage days.
Katie sought an entrance into the palatial estate, not seeing one along this side. She ran alongside the marble structure. It was well over quarter mile in length. Toby pulled away from her suddenly, and she stopped so fast, she tripped.
Katie sought an entrance into the palatial estate, not seeing one along this side. She ran alongside the marble structure. It was well over quarter mile in length. Toby pulled away from her suddenly, and she stopped so fast, she tripped.
At the same time he felt that above his face, above the very middle of it, some strange airy structure was being erected out of slender needles or splinters, to the sound of this whispered music.
The hotel de ville, also by Abadie, is a handsome modern structure, but preserves two towers of the château of the counts of Angouleme, on the site of which it is built.
There are numerous modern churches and chapels, many of them very handsome; and the former parish church of St Nicholas remains, a Decorated structure containing a Norman font and a memorial to the great duke of Wellington.
The African elephant is a very different animal from its Asiatic cousin, both as regards structure and habits; and were it not for the existence of intermediate extinct species, might well be regarded as the representative of a distinct genus.
Pushing himself away from the book that would reveal nothing he sought, he went to the small, square window overlooking the stone structure of the Sanctuary.
Pushing himself away from the book that would reveal nothing he sought, he went to the small, square window overlooking the stone structure of the Sanctuary.
Notwithstanding certain points of resemblance in structure and phonetics, Albanian is entirely distinct from the neighbouring languages; in its relation to early Latin and Greek it may be regarded as a co-ordinate member of the Aryan stock.
The structure of the mouth-parts is different from that seen in any other insects.
The five-toed feet are of normal structure, and the rat-like tail is prehensile towards the tip. The female has a small pouch.
The old courthouse was a massive structure dominating the town square.
The small cathedral of St Aurea, also an early Renaissance structure, with Gothic windows, is by some ascribed to Meo del Caprina (1430-1501).
As a rule there is no allantoic placenta forming the means of communication between the blood of the parent and the foetus, and when such a structure does occur its development is incomplete.
In 1894 and 1895, Fischer, in a remarkable series of papers on the influence of molecular structure upon the action of the enzyme, showed that various species of yeast behave very differently towards solutions of sugars.
The whole structure is composed of red and grey Verona marble.
Clermont has several handsome squares ornamented with fountains, the chief of which is a graceful structure erected by Bishop Jacques d'Amboise in 1515.
The classification into epithelial organs, connective tissues, and the more specialized muscle and nerve, was largely due to him; and he proved the presence of neuroglia in the brain and spinal cord, discovered crystalline haematoidine, and made out the structure of the umbilical cord.
They accurately described the construction of DNA as a double helix and showed how its structure made replication both possible and reliable.
Corresponding with this difference of structure there is also a difference in the geological succession.
The beautiful granite structure of South Station was opened in 1899 and within ten years, was the busiest train station in the United States.
The classic colors red, gold and green adorn the outside of this ornate structure.
Just then, an elderly woman emerged from the back of the red brick structure.
It was his life, a sense of comfort and structure.
You have the most beautiful bone structure.
"Where is everyone?" she asked, taking in the underground structure.
He appeared to be trying to lift the massive structure.
Finally, there is the hypothesis that marsupials are the descendants of placentals, in which case, as was suggested by its discoverer, the placenta of the bandicoots would be a true vestigial structure.
C. Stirling indicate that in the enclosed as far as the nails in structure of the feet this creature a common integument.
The broad molars are either bluntly tuberculated or transversely ridged; the outer side of the hind part of the lower jaw has a deep pocket; and the hind-limbs are generally very long, with the structure of the foot similar to that of the bandicoots.
The crystals are feebly doubly refracting, and in polarized light exhibit a banded structure parallel to the cube faces.
The Myrmecobius of Western Australia is a bushy-tailed ant-eater about the size of a squirrel, and from its lineage and structure of more than passing interest.
We pass on to the other curious order of non-placental mammals, that of the Monotremata, so called from the structure of their organs of evacuation with a single orifice, as in birds.
The grammatical structure of some north Australian languages has a considerable degree of refinement.
Sir Henry Parkes was elected president, and he moved a series of resolutions embodying the principles necessary to establish, on an enduring foundation, the structure of a federal government.
The Temple of the Cross is a larger structure of similar design and construction.
The two first of these three are handsome suspension bridges; the third, an iron structure, replaced a wooden bridge of many arches which was closed in 1881, after standing a little over a century.
Reniform and stalactitic masses with a radiated fibrous structure also occur.
The Red Sandrock Mountains are similar to one another in form and structure, generally rounded on the N.
Lyons), who died after 22 B.C. It is a circular structure of blocks of travertine 160 ft.
above, and revolves either on upper and lower pivots supported by the structure of the workshop, or on a fixed pillar secured to a heavy foundation.
- Cephalotus follicularis, showing ordinary leaves and pitchers, the right hand one cut open to show internal structure.
But at present the word "leech" is applied to every member of the group Hirudinea, for the general structure and classification of which see Chaetopoda.
Finally, as regards structure,S the tentacles may retain their primitive hollow nature, or become solid by obliteration of the axial cavity.
- Diagrams to show the structure of Nematocysts and their mode of working.
Polyp 7 has proof sense, 1 o c oduced as its first bud, 8; as its second bud, a7, motion and nutriwhich starts a uniserial pinnule; and as a third t i on, until its bud I', which starts a biserial branch (I I'-VI') medusoid nature that repeats the structure of the main stem and and organization gives off pinnules.
Cladonema still has the typical medusan structure, and is able to swim about, but in Clavatella the umbrella is so much reduced that swimming is no longer possible.
23 and 25); and, fourthly, in structure, being hollow or solid, as in the polyp. In some medusae, for instance, the remarkable deep-sea family Pectyllidae, the tentacles may bear suckers, by which the animal may attach itself temporarily.
The statocysts present in general the structure of either a knob or a closed vesicle, composed of (I) indifferent supporting epithelium; (2) sensory, so-called auditory epithelium of slender cells, each.
The whole structure is innervated oho+ like the tentacles, from1 j' the ex-umbral nerve-ring.
Ea c h cordylus is a tentacle-like structure with an endodermal axis containing an axial cavity which may be continuous with the ring-canal, or may be partially occluded.
The endoderm of the medusa shows the same general types of structure as in the polyp, described above.
- Diagrams of the Structure of the Gonophores of various Hydromedusae, based on the figures of G.
It has been maintained that the gonads of Hydra represent sporosacs or gonophores greatly reduced, with the last traces of medusoid structure completely obliterated.
In some Leptomedusae the gonads are formed on the radial canals and form protruding masses resembling sporosacs superficially, but not in structure.
It is marked by the formation in the bud of a characteristic structure termed the entocodon (Knospenkern, Glockenkern).
in Margelidae, have the appearance and structure of tentacles.
Apart from the weighty arguments which the development furnishes against the theories of Allman and Mechnikov, it may be pointed out that neither hypothesis gives a satisfactory explanation of a structure universally present in medusae of whatever class, namely the endoderm-lamella, discovered by the brothers O.
It would be necessary to regard this structure as a secondary extension of the endoderm in the tentacle-web, on Allman's theory, or between the outgrowths of the hydrorhiza, on Mechnikov's hypothesis.
Secondly, there is the evidence from the development, namely, the presence of the entocodon in the medusa-bud, a structure which, as explained above, can only be accounted for satisfactorily by derivation from a medusan type of organization.
This genus comprises fresh-water polyps of simple structure.
Protohydra is a marine genus characterized by the absence of tentacles, by a great similarity to Hydra in histological structure, and by reproduction by transverse fission.
The tentacles may be scattered singly round the margin of the umbrella (" monerenematous ") or arranged in tufts (" lophonematous "); in form they may be simple or branched (Cladonemid type); in structure they may be hollow (" coelomerinthous "); or solid (" pycnomerinthous ").
Since no graptolites are known living, or, indeed, since palaeozoic times, the interpretation of their structure and affinities must of necessity be extremely conjectural, and it is by no means certain that they are Hydrozoa at all.
The Narcomedusae exhibit peculiarities of form and structure which distinguish them at once from all other Hydromedusae.
As yet, however, the medusa of Microhydra has only been seen in an immature condition, but it shows some well-marked differences from Limnocodium, especially in the structure of the tentacles, which furnish useful characters for distinguishing species amongst medusae.
A typical Siphonophore is a stock or cormus consisting of a number of appendages placed in organic connexion with one another by means of a coenosarc. The coenosarc does not differ in structure from that already described in colonial Hydrozoa.
The appendages show various types of form and structure corresponding to different functions.
68, k), absent in Chondrophorida and Cystophorida; they are contractile and resemble, both in appearance, structure and function, the umbrella of a medusa, with radial canals, ring-canal and velum; but they are without manubrium, tentacles or sense-organs, and are always bilaterally symmetrical, a peculiarity of form related with the fact that they are attached on one side to the stem.
In Velella the pneumatophore becomes of complex structure and sends air-tubes, lined by a chitin and resembling tracheae, down into the compact coenosarc, thus evidently serving a respiratory as well as a hydrostatic function.
Haeckel regarded the whole structure as a glandular ectodermal pit formed on the exumbral surface of a medusa-person.
The tentacles of siphonophores may reach a great length and have a complex structure.
Gunther, " On the Structure and Affinities of Mnestra parasites Krohn; with a revision of the Classification of the Cladonemidae," Mitt.
Schulze, " On the Structure and Arrangement of the Soft Parts in Euplectella aspergillum" (Amphibrachium), Tr.
Spencer, " A new Family of Hydroidea (Clathrozoon), together with a description of the Structure of a new Species of Plumularia," Trans.
The superiority of animals to plants and metals in the possession of special organs of sense is connected with the greater complexity and heterogeneity of their structure.
The observation of the gradations of structure, from extreme simplicity to very great complexity, presented by living things, and of the relation of these graduated forms to one another.
The observation that large groups of species of widely different habits present the same fundamental plan of structure; and that parts of the same animal or plant, the functions of which are very different, likewise exhibit modifications of a common plan.
For De Maillet not only has a definite conception of the plasticity of living things, and of the production of existing species by the modification of their predecessors, but he clearly apprehends the cardinal maxim of modern geological science, that the explanation of the structure of the globe is to be sought in the deductive application to geological phenomena of the principles established inductively by the study of the present course of nature.
The conclusions enunciated by Cuvier and Von Baer have been confirmed in principle by all subsequent research into the structure of animals and plants.
For it is almost impossible to prove that any structure, however rudimentary, is useless - that is to say, that it plays no part whatever in the economy; and, if it is in the slightest degree useful, there is no reason why, on the hypothesis of direct creation, it should not have been created.
When a series of the modifications of an anatomical structure has been sufficiently examined, it is frequently possible to decide that one particular condition is primitive, ancestral or central, and that the other conditions have been derived from it.
Thus, for instance, the archecentric condition of any Avian structure is a metacentre of the Sauropsidan stem.
In its simplest form, this phrase implies such an obvious fact as that whatever be the future development of, say, existing cockroaches, it will be on lines determined by the present structure of these creatures.
All the Malagasy lemurs, which agree in the structure of the internal ear, are now included in the family Lemuridae, confined to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, which comprises the great majority of the group. The other families are the Nycticebidae, common to tropical Asia and Africa, and the Tarsiidae, restricted to the Malay countries.
Till recently the aye-aye was regarded as representing a family by itself - the Chiromyidae; but the discovery that it resembles the other lemurs of Madagascar in the structure of the inner ear, and thus differs from all other members of the group, has led to the conclusion that it is best classed as a subfamily (Chiromyidae) of the Lemuridae.
With the exception just named, the islands, which agree very closely in geological structure, are mountainous, and present, perhaps, the most wonderful example of volcanic rocks to be found on the globe.
In most cases the organic structure has disappeared, le i tving only a cavity, with perhaps a trace of chitin.
In some Indian and Malay Engystomatids of the genera Callula and Microhyla, the tadpoles are remarkably transparent, and differ markedly in the structure of the buccal apparatus.
It is beautifully placed near the river, and is a fine cruciform structure, partly Early English and partly Perpendicular, with a central tower and lofty octagonal spire.
They are characterized by the absence of that differentiation of the body into root, stem and leaf which is so marked a feature in the higher plants, and by the simplicity of their internal structure.
The Mycetozoa or Myxomycetes are a saprophytic group without chlorophyll, of simple structure and isolated position.
They have no true roots, and their structure is purely cellular or conducting bundles of a very simple structure are present.
In general structure they approach the Phanerogams with which they form collectively the Vascular Plants as contrasted with the Cellular PlantsThallophyta and Bryophyta.
The gametophyte is a small thalloid structure which shows varying degrees of independence affording an interesting transition to the next group.
The sporophyte is the plant which is differentiated into stem, leaf and root, which show a wonderful variety 01 form; the internal structure also shows increased complexity and variety as compared with the other group of vascular plants, the Pteridophyta.
The seed is a new structure characteristic of this group, which is therefore often referred to as the Seed-plants.
The fertilized egg-cell (oospore) forms a filamentous structure, the proernbryo, from a restricted basal portion of which one or more embryos develop, one only as a rule reaching maturity.
The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.
An account of the structure of plants naturally begins with the cell which is the proximate unit of organic structure.
In the higher (more complicated) plants the cells differ very much among themselves, and the body is composed of definite systems of these units, each system with its own characteristic structure, depending partly on the characters of the component cells and partly)~ I ill N~V O~V~
Many forms, even when multicellular, have all their cells identical in structure and function, and are often spoken of as physiologically unicellular.
This may have a radial stem-like organization, a central cell-thread giving off from every side a number of short sometimes unicellular branches, which together form a cortex round the central thread, the whole structure having a cylindrical form which only branches when one of the short cell-branches from the central thread grows out beyond the general surface and forms in its turn a new central thread, from whose cells arise new short branches.
The whole structure, consisting of the two pits and the wall between is known as a genetic pit.
These branch, and may be packed or interwoven to form a very solid structure; but each grows in length independently of the others and retains its own individuality, though its growth in those types with a definite external form is of course correlated with that of its neighbors and is subject to the laws governing the general form of the body.
A solid fungal body may usually be seen to consist of separate hyphae, but in some cases these are so bent and closely interwoven that an appearance like that of ordinary parenchymatous tissue is obtained in section, the structure being called pseudo parenchyrna.
The surface layer of the rhizome bears rhizoids, and its whole structure strikingly resembles that of the typical root of a vascular plant.
The structure of the stomata of the sporophyte of vascular plants is fundamentally the same as that of the stomata on the sporogonium of the true mosses and of the liverwort A nihoceros.
This type of structure, which is extremely various in its details, is found especially, as we should expect, in plants which have to economize their water supply.
When, in place of a number of such cells called tracheids, we have a continuous tube with the same kind of wall thickening, but composed of a number of cells whose cross walls have disappeared, the resulting structure is called a vessel.
I, N.) have been quite recently shown to possess a peculiar structure.
The structure formed by a number of such cells placed end to end is called a sieve-tube (obviously comparable with a xylem-vessel), and the end-wall or area of endwall occupied by a group of perforations, a sseve-plate.
The centre of the S~hooo- stele is however often occupied by a large-celled pith resembling the cortex in structure, the cortex and pith ~ together being classed as ground tissue.
I mesocycle joining with the corresponding outer segments to form a nearly concentric structure.
Such a structure may be spoken of as a dissected dictyostele.
Sometimes a complete internal vascular cylinder, having the same structure as the primary one, and concentric with it, occurs in the pith, and others may appear, internal to the first (Matonia, Saccoloma).
The evolution of the vascular structure of the petiole in the higher ferns is strikingly parallel with that of the stem, except in some few special cases.
Besides the types forming this series, there are a number of others (Medulloseae and allied forms) which show numerous, often very complex, types of stelar structure, in some cases polystelic, whose origin and relationship with the simpler and better known types is frequently obscure.
indications of polystely, frequent occurrence of extra-stelar concentric bundles, anomalous secondary thickening) which recall these complex types of stelar structure in the fossil Cycadofilices.
The typical structure of the vascular cylinder of the adult primary stem in the Gyrnnosperms and Dicotyledons is, like that of the higher ferns, a hollow cylinder of vas- Structure of cular tissue enclosing a central parenchymatous pith.
The structure of the stele of the primary Fin.
The radial structure is characteristic of all root-steles, which have in essential points a remarkably uniform structure throughout the vascular plants, a fact no doubt largely dependent on the very uniform conditions under which they live.
In the roots of some palms and orchids a polystelic structure obtains.
In other cases the root structure of the stele continues up to the cotyledonary node, though the hypocotyl is still to be distinguished from the primary root by the character of its epidermis.
The structure of the growing-points or apical meristems varies much in different cases.
The vessels and tracheids are very various in size, shape and structure in different plants.
An ordinary cambium is scarcely ever found in the Monocotyledons, but in certain woody forms a secondary meristem is formed outside the primary bundles, and gives rise externally to a little secondary cortex, and internally to a secondary parenchyma in which are developed numerous zones of additional bundles, usually of concentric structure, with phloem surrounded by xylem.
Thus the structure of an old thickened root approximates to that of an old thickened stem, and so far as the vascular tissue is concerned can often only be distinguished from the latter by the position and orientation of the primary xylems. The cambium of the primary root, together with the tissues which it forms, is always directly continuous with that of the primary stem, just in the same way as the tissues of the primary stele.
Cork is also formed similarly in the root after the latter has passed through its primary stage as an absorptive organ, and its structure is becoming assimilated to that of the stem.
History and Bibliography.The study of plant anatomy was begun in the middle of the seventeenth century as a direct result of the construction of microscopes, with which a clear view of the structure of plant tissues could be obtained.
The whole of the writings of this time are dominated by a preoccupation with the functions of the different tissues, in itself an excellent standpoint for investigation, but frequently leading in the case of these early investigators to one-sided and distorted views of the facts of structure.
1840), who carefully investigated and described the facts of anatomical structure without attempting to fit them into preconceived views of their meaning.
without revealing any entirely new types of structure.
It was fully recognized by its followers that the dominating influence in the structure and working of the body was the protoplasm, and the division of labor which it exhibited, with the accompanying or resulting differentiation into various tissues, was the special subject of investigation.
Many who followed the study of vegetable structure did not at that time give an equal prominence to this view.
It is only comparatively recently that the methods of histological investigation used by animal physiologists have been carefully and systematically applied to the study of the vegetable organisms. They have, however, been attended with wonderful results, and have revolutionized the whole study of vegetable structure.
The Nature of the Organization of Ilte Plant, and the Relations of the Cell-Membrane and the Protoplasm.This view of the structure of the plant and this method of investigation lead us to a greatly modified conception of its organization, and afford more completely an explanation of the peculiarities of form found in the vegetable kingdom.
All these points of structure can only be correctly interpreted after a consideration of the needs of the individual protoplasts, and of the large colony of which they are members.
Differences connected with the mode of supply of nutritive material do exist, but they are mainly correlated with the structure of the organisms, which makes the method of absorption different.
The relations of the Alga and the Fungus, which have formed a close associationship in the structure known as the Lichen, were established many years ago.
Marshall \Vard has directed attention to several points of their structure which bear out this view.
If the member is one which shows a difference of structure on two sides, such as a leaf, the two sides frequently show a difference of degree of turgidity, and consequently of rate of growth.
41UT6V, plant), comprises our knowledge of the symptoms, course, causes and remedies of the maladies which threaten the life of plants, or which result in abnormalities of structure that are regarded, whether directly injurious or not to life, as unsightly or undesirable.
The elementary unit of plant structure, as of animal structure, is the cell.
Upon our knowledge of its minute structure or cytology, combined with a study of its physiological activities, depends the ultimate solution of all the important problems of nutrition.
General Structure and Differentiation of the Vegetable Cell.
The epidermal, conducting and strengthening tissues show on the other hand considerable modifications both in form and structure.
Very little is known of the finer structure of the cytoplasm of a vegetable cell.
In some cases it shows, when submitted to a careful examination under the highest powers of the microscope, and especially when treated with reagents of various kinds, traces of a more or less definite structure in the form of a meshwork consisting of a clear homogeneous substance containing numerous minute bodies known as microsomes, the spaces being filled by a more fluid ground-substance.
This structure, which is visible both in living cells and in.
The starch grain may thus be regarded as a crystalline structure of the nature of a spherecrystal, as has been suggested by many observers.
The Structure of the Nucleus.In the living condition the resting nucleus appears to consist of a homogeneous ground substance containing a large number of small chromatin granules and one or more large spherical granulesnucleolithe whole being surrounded by a limiting membrane which separates it from the cytoplasm.
It is often vacuolar, sometimes granular, and in other cases it is a homogeneous body with no visible structure or differentiation.
2, L), a nucleolus appears, a nuclear membrane is formed, and daughter nuclei are thus constituted which possess the same structure and staining reactions as the mother nucleus.
structure and mode of formation, the spermatozoids of animals.
At the an ~ ~ tenor end are attached - two cilia or flagella In, , C the Vascular Cryptogams -- ~ the structure is much the;il ~.: -; same, but a more or less ~ ~ ~ spherical mass of cyto 4 i~- - ~ plasm remains attached .8 ~ :~ to the posterior spirals, -.
The researches of the last twenty years have shown that the structure of the nucleus and the phenomena of nuclear division in these lower forms conforms in all essential details to those in the higher plants.
the Ascomycetes, Rust Fungi, &c., the same structure obtains so far as all essential details are concerned.
8.Cell Structure of the Cyanophyceae.
Some observers consider that the yeast nucleus possesses a typical nuclear structure, and exhibits division by mitosis, but the evidence for this is not very satisfactory.
vii.; On the Structure and Reproduction of Cystopus candidus, Ann.
x.; The Cell Structure of the Cyanophyceae, Proc. Roy.
The leaf (phyllome) is an appendicular member only borne by a stem, but differing from it more or less obviously in form and development, though co-ordinate with it in complexity of structure.
The hair (trichome) is a superficial appendage of simple structure, which may be borne by any of the other members.
For instance, some xerophytes are dry and hard in structure, whilst others are succulent and fleshy.
This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.
In other words, the plant must be irritable to the stimulus exerted from without, and be capable of responding to it by changes of form and structure.
He considered, for instance, that stems, leaves, roots and flowers differ as they do because the plastic substances entering into their structure are diverse.
Yet thrcughout they agree in the essential structure of their floral organs.
South America and North America follow this type most closely; Eurasia (the land mass of Europe and Asia) comes next, while Africa and Australia are farther removed from the type, and the structure of Antarctica and Greenland is unknown.
More elaborate subdivisionsaccording to structure, origin and position have been proposed.
low coasts, subdividing each group according as the coast-line runs parallel to or crosses the line of strike of the mountains, or is not related to mountain structure.
From the descriptive or topographical point of view, geometrical form alone should be con- Land sidered; but the origin and geological structure of forms. land forms must in many cases be taken into account when dealing with the function they exercise in the control of mobile distributions.
The geographers who have hitherto given most attention to the forms of the land have been trained as geologists, and consequently there is a general tendency to make origin or structure the basis of classification rather than form alone.
The geological structure and the mineral composition of the rocks are often the chief causes determining the character of the land forms of a region.
into types has usually had regard rather to geological structure than to external form, so that some geologists would even apply the name of a mountain range to a region not distinguished by relief from the rest of the country if it bear geological evidence of having once been a true range.
Davis, who classifies land surfaces in terms of the three factors - structure, process and time.
2 Of these time, during which the process is acting on the structure, is the most important.
Internally they are found to consist of a lamina twisted upon itself, and externally they generally exhibit a tortuous structure, produced, before the cloaca was reached, by the spiral valve of a compressed small intestine (as in skates, sharks and dog-fishes); the surface shows also vascular impressions and corrugations due to the same cause.
The former, standing on the south side of the market square, is a Gothic structure, erected in 1353-1370 on the ruins of Charlemagne's palace.
The scope of the anatomical part of the following article is a general account of the structure of birds (A y es) in so far as they, as a class, differ from other vertebrates, notably reptiles and mammals, whilst features especially characteristic, peculiar or unique, have been dwelt upon at greater length so far as space permitted.
Soc., 1875; " Monograph on the Structure and Development of the Shoulder-girdle and Sternum," Ray Soc. London, 1868; W.
Judd that this structure may be due to mechanical stresses.
The cathedral, a beautiful church, was consecrated in 1084, but of this early building only foundation walls remain; the present structure of brick was begun in 1215, and enlarged and restored at various later dates.
There are remains of a Moorish fort on the hill commanding the town; and the north gateway - the Puerta del Colegio - is a fine lofty arch, surmounted by an emblematic statue and the city arms. The most prominent buildings are the episcopal palace (1733), with a frontage of a 600 ft.; the town house (1843), containing important archives; and the cathedral, a small Gothic structure built on the site of a former mosque in the 14th century, and enlarged and tastelessly restored in 1829.
In the central square stands one of the finest belfries of northern France, a square structure surmounted by a wooden campanile, dating from the 14th century.
In perennials the stem shows a regular increase in thickness each year by the addition of a new ring of wood outside the old one - for details of structure see Plants: Anatomy.
The acid is considered to possess the structure 0 2 S(SH) (OH), since sodium thiosulphate reacts with ethyl bromide to give sodium ethyl thiosulphate, which on treatment with barium chloride gives presumably barium ethyl thiosulphate.
A larger and more brightly coloured species, C. spinoides, inhabits the Himalayas, but the siskin has many other relatives belonging to the New World, and in them serious modifications of structure, especially in the form of the bill, occur.
- Structure of Male Stag-Beetle (Lucanus cervus).
In the structure of the digestive system, beetles resemble most other mandibulate insects, the food-canal consisting of gullet, crop, gizzard, mid-gut or stomach, intestine and rectum.
Such a typically "campodeiform" grub, moving actively about in pursuit of prey, is the one extreme of larval structure to be noticed among the Coleoptera.
Its structure has been described by C. Heinemann, and its physiology by R.
Kolbe, on the other hand, insists that the weevils are the most modified of all beetles, being highly specialized as regards their adult structure, and developing from legless maggots exceedingly different from the adult; he regards the Adephaga, with their active armoured larvae with two foot-claws, as the most primitive group of beetles, and there can be little doubt that the likeness between larvae and adult may safely be accepted as a primitive character among insects.
In the Coleoptera we have to do with an ancient yet dominant order, in which there is hardly a family that does not show specialization in some point of structure or life-history.
The Lymexylonidae, a small family of this group, characterized by its slender, undifferentiated feelers and feet, is believed by Lameere to comprise the most primitive of all living beetles, and Sharp lays stress on the undeveloped structure of the tribe generally.
Considerable diversity is to be noticed in details of structure within this group, and for an enumeration of all the various families which have been proposed and their distinguishing characters the reader is referred to one of the monographs mentioned below.
While from the nature of their life-history there is no doubt that they have a rather close relationship to the Meloidae, their structure is so remarkable that it seems advisable to regard them as at least a distinct tribe of Coleoptera.
The present structure was erected subsequent to the extinction of the Jacobite rebellion.
Owing to the orographical structure of the East-European plains, the river systems have become more than usually prominent and.
He proposed to build an elevated railway on a single line of posts, placed along the curb-line of the street: a suggestion which embodies not only the general plan of an elevated structure, but the most striking feature of it as subsequently built - namely, a railway supported by a single row of columns.
The first actual work, however, was not begun till 1870, when the construction of an iron structure on a single row of columns was undertaken.
31), the earliest form, consisted of a single row of columns supporting two lines of longitudinal girders carrying the rails, the lateral stability of the structure being obtained by anchoring the feet of the columns to their foundations.
In Berlin, on the Stadtbahn - which for a part of its length traverses private property - masonry arches, or earthen embankments between retaining walls, were substituted for the metallic structure wherever possible.
- Single-Column Elevated Structure Z9' 1'7 5-3 " FIG.
- Double-Column Elevated Structure (half-section).
35) marks a still further step in advance, in that there are practically two different railways in the same structure.
The government barrack is a rather imposing structure in the middle of the town, as is the cathedral church to the east, built of stone and buttressed with brick.
In the same temple stands the altar of prayer for good harvests, which is surmounted by a triple-roofed circular structure 99 ft.
Many of the block mountains of the Great Basin are of complicated internal structure, showing rocks of all ages - slate, limestone, quartzites, granite, multi-coloured volcanic rocks, and large areas of lava overflow.
The church of St Peter, a large cruciform structure, exhibits all the Gothic styles, and earlier fragments are traceable.
Ursus in 370-390, which had a nave and four aisles, was destroyed in 1734-44, only the (inaccessible) crypt and the round campanile remaining from the earlier structure; there are fragments of reliefs from a pulpit erected by Archbishop Agnellus (556-569) in the interior.
Nazario e Celso), a small structure in the form of a Latin cross with a dome (in which, as in the baptistery of Neon, the old cathedral, &c., the constructional use of amphorae is noteworthy), with a plain brick exterior, and rich mosaics on a dark blue ground within.
Francesco; it is a square-domed structure, with a relief by Pietro Lombardo (1482) representing the poet, and a sarcophagus below, in an urn within which lie the poet's remains.
It has, moreover, been remarked that almost all the animals mentioned were at home in the Egypt of those days, or at least, like the elephant, were to be seen there occasionally, whereas the structure of the hedgehog, for instance, is explained by a reference to the sea-porcupine, better known to fish-buyers on the Mediterranean.
Within the divisions named - Orthorrhapha Nematocera, Orthorrhapha Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha - the constituent families are usually grouped into a series of "superfamilies," distinguished by features of structure or habit.
Many instances of exaggerated and apparently unnatural structure nevertheless occur, as in the case of the genera Pangonia, Nemestrina, Achias, Diopsis and the family Celyphidae, .and, as might be expected, it is chiefly in tropical species that these peculiarities are found.
Macbeth is said to have slain Duncan in the first structure that gave its name to Castlehill, which was probably the building demolished in 1297 by the adherents of Wallace.
Even before authentic history begins, the elements of religion and society had already crystallized into a solid coherent structure which was to persist without essential modification.
The structure of the island is complex.
The structure is further complicated by a great thrust-plane which has brought the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous beds upon the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene beds.
of this, a royal tomb consisting of a square chamber, which originally had a pointed vault of " Cyclopaean " structure approached by a forehall or rock-cut passage.
In its structure and general arrangements it bears a general resemblance to the palace of Phaestus and Cnossus on a smaller scale.
Three miles east of Stranraer is Lochinch, the residence of the earl of Stair, a modern structure in the Scots Baronial style.
Becket is an irregular structure, dating from the reign of Henry VI., but frequently restored.
The town is of peculiar structure and aspect,.
The social instincts and industrious habits of ants have always made them favourite objects of study, and a vast amount of literature has accumulated on the subject of their structure and their modes of life.
(For the so-called " white ants,"which belong to an order far removed from the Hymenoptera, see Termite.) Structure.
I) piles up a heap of leaves, twigs and other vegetable refuse, so arranged as to form an orderly series of galleries, though the structure appears at first sight a chaotic heap. Species of Camponotus and many other ants tunnel in wood.
Other common modifications arise from the union of certain parts of the perianth to each other, and from the varied and often very remarkable outgrowths from the lip. These modifications are associated with the structure and habits of insects and their visits to the flowers.
In the common orchids of British meadows, Orchis Mori-o, mascula (Shakespeare's long purples), &c., the general structure of the flower is as we have described it (figs.
The floral structure is so curious that perhaps less attention has been paid to the vegetative organs than the peculiarities of their organisation demand.
They derive this moisture from the air by means of aerial roots, developed from the stem and bearing an outer spongy structure, or velamen, consisting of empty cells kept open by spiral thickenings in the wall; this sponge-like tissue absorbs dew and rain and condenses the moisture of the air and passes it on to the internal tissues.
In Cypripedium two of the outer stamens are wanting; the third - the one, that is, which corresponds to the single fertile stamen in the Monandreae - forms a large sterile structure or staminode; the two lateral ones of the inner series are present, the third being undeveloped.
The Monandreae have been subdivided into twenty-eight tribes, the characters of which are based on the structure of the anther and pollinia, the nature of the inflorescence, whether terminal or lateral, the vernation of the leaf and the presence or absence of a joint between blade and sheath, and the nature of the stem.
E Arabian Sea Ba Of G A L e Geological information incomplete Desert Deposits Quaternary Tertiary Mesozoic Palaeozoic Archaean and Metamorphic Younger Volcanic Rocks English Miles b iuHi iiiiuiiiiii after llargl,aua Geology The geology of Asia is so complex and over wide areas so little known that it is difficult to give a connected account of either the structure or the development of the continent, and only the broader features can be dealt with here.
Southern China is very different in structure, consisting largely of folded mountain chains, but the geological succession is very similar, and excepting near the Tibetan and Burmese borders, there are no marine deposits of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
Some authorities hold that Peruvian civilization had no connexion with the north and was an entirely indigenous product, but Kechua is in structure not unlike the agglutinative languages of central and northern Asia.
The structure, it is true, was not permanent.
And in regard to Reid's favourite proof of the principles in question by reference to "the consent of ages and nations, of the learned and unlearned," it is only fair to observe that this argument assumes a much more scientific form in the Essays, where it is almost identified with an appeal to "the structure and grammar of all languages."
"The structure of all languages," he says, "is grounded upon common sense."
The church of St Nicholas is a cruciform Perpendicular structure with a beautiful central tower, and some portions of earlier date.
The chapel, the only remnant of the palace, is a beautiful Decorated structure with a vaulted crypt, itself above groundlevel.
Thus the postcaval vein of the higher vertebrata is partly a new structure altogether, and is partly formed out of the pre-existing posterior cardinals.
Eyes often present and comparatively complicated in structure.
Alimentary canal straight, often with appended glands of complicated or simpler structure; no jaws.
They also agree in the general structure of the nephridia.
We have thus the replacement of a spermatheca, corresponding to those of the remaining families of Oligochaeta, and derived, as is believed, from the epidermis, by a structure performing the same function, but derived from the mesoblastic tissues, and with a cavity which is coelom.
The oesophagus is often furnished with glandular diverticula, the "glands of Morren," which are often of complex structure through the folding of their walls.
These worms lay cocoons like the Oligochaeta and leeches, and where they depart from the structure of the Oligochaeta agree with that of leeches.
There are two chitinous jaws in the buccal cavity, a dorsal and a ventral, which are of specially complicated structure in Cirrodrilus.
The nephridia are like those of the Oligochaeta in general structure; that is to say, they consist of drain-pipe cells which are placed end to end and are perforated by their duct.
The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under the following five heads: - (1) The laws of polarization by reflection and refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the absorption of light.
Part of the present structure is believed to date from 1220 and once sheltered William Wallace.
The more modern buildings include the City Hall, a fine granite structure (completed in 1893), with a tower 180 ft.
Smith and fifty-nine others lost their lives; and St Paul's Church, where Jefferson Davis was attending services, on the 2nd of April 1865, when he received news from 1 As built in Richmond in 1845 by Luther Libby, it was a brick structure, three storeys high in front and four in the rear.
PEAR (Pyrus communis), a, member of the natural order Rosaceae, belonging to the same genus as the apple (P. malus), which it resembles in floral structure.
" Thomson and Tait," as it is familiarly called ("T and T" was the authors' own formula), was planned soon after Lord Kelvin became acquainted with Tait, on the latter's appointment to his professorship in Edinburgh, and it was intended to be an all-comprehensive treatise on physical science, the foundations being laid in kinematics and dynamics, and the structure completed with the properties of matter, heat, light, electricity and magnetism.
In this treatment we have to bear in mind what the entomologist teaches us, that is, the nature, habits and structure of the pest.
No general rules, applicable to all times, can be laid down as to what not only be prepared to take account of the physical features of the world, the general structure and organization of the industry and commerce of different states, the character of their administration and other important causes of economic change.
On this subject many monographs and larger works have been published in recent years, but dealing rather with such questions as trade unionism, co-operation and factory legislation, than the structure and organization of particular industries, or the causes and the results of the formation of the great combinations, peculiarly characteristic of the United States, but not wanting in England, which are amongst the most striking economic phenomena of modern times.
In dextral Gastropods the only structure found on the topographically right side of the rectum is the genital duct.
The general structure of the Molluscan intestine has not been sufficiently investigated to render any comparison of this structure of Patella with that of other Mollusca possible.
It is clear that, if we start from the condition of full eversion of the tube and watch the process of introversion, we shall find that the pleurecbolic variety is introverted by the apex of the tube sinking inwards; it may be called acrembolic, whilst conversely the acrecbolic tubes are pleurembolic. Further, it is obvious enough that the process either of introversion or of eversion of the tube may be arrested at any point, by the development of fibres connecting the wall of the introverted tube with the wall of the body, or with an axial structure such as the oesophagus; on the other hand, the range of movement of the tubular introvert may be unlimited or complete.
The enlarged glandular structure of the walls of the rectum is frequent in the Pectinibranchia, as is also though not universal the gland marked y, next to the rectum.
The minute structure of the epithelium which clothes it, as well as the origin of the nerve which is distributed to the parabranchia, proves it to be the same organ which is found universally in molluscs at the base of each gill-plume, and tests the indrawn current of water by the sense of ?,g smell.
They are true Pectinibranchia which have taken to a pelagic life, and the peculiarities of structure which they exhibit are strictly adaptations consequent upon their changed mode of life.
The variety of special developments of structure accompanying the atrophy of typical organs in the Opisthobranchia and general degeneration of organization is very great.
The Eolid-like Nudibranchs, amongst other specialities of structure, possess (in some cases at any rate) apertures at the apices of the " cerata " or dorsal papillae, which lead from the exterior into the hepatic caeca.
An operculum is present only in Amphibola; a contrast being thus afforded with the operculate pulmonate Streptoneura (Cyclostoma, &c.), which differ in other essential features of structure from the Pulmonata.
Herdman, " On the Structure and Functions of the Cerata or Dorsal Papillae in some Nudibranchiate Mollusca," Quart.
Cunningham, " On the Structure and Relations of the Kidney in Aplysia," Mitt.
In other words, the whole mental structure we call knowledge consists, in its simplest equally with its most complex constituents, of the "work of the mind."
The Mandaean places of worship, being designed only for the priests and their assistants (the worshippers remaining in the forecourt), are excessively small, and very simply furnished; two windows, a door that opens towards the south so that those who enter have their faces turned towards the pole star, a few boards in the corner, and a gabled roof complete the whole structure; there is neither altar nor decoration of any kind.
In all main points of their internal structure the Hexapoda agree with other Arthropoda.
With this brief summary of the essential characters of the Hexapoda, we may pass to a more detailed account of their structure.
Elaboration in the form of the feelers, often a secondary sexual character in male insects, may result from a distal broadening of the segments, so that the appendage becomes serrate, or from the development of processes bearing sensory organs, so that the structure is pinnate or feather-like.
In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.
In the abdominal exoskeleton the segmental structure is very clearly marked, a series of sclerites - dorsal terga and abdominal sterna - being connected by pale, feebly chitinized cuticle, so that considerable freedom of movement between the segments is possible.
In reference to the structure From Nussbaum in Miall and Denny, The Cockroach, Lovell Reeve & Co.
The changes have been found to be made up of two sets of processes: histolysis, by which the whole or part of a structure disappears: and histogenesis, or the formation of the new structure.
Insect metamorphosis may be briefly described as phenomena of development characterized by abrupt changes of appearance and of structure, occurring during the period subsequent to embryonic development and antecedent to the reproductive state.
But in general we find that elaboration of imaginal structure is associated with degradation in the nature of the larva, cruciform and vermiform larvae being characteristic of the highest orders of the Hexapoda, so that unlikeness between parent and offspring has increased with the evolution of the class.
In conjunction with the association mentioned above of the most highly developed imaginal with the most degraded larval structure, it indicates clearly that the active, armoured grub preceded the sluggish soft-skinned caterpillar or maggot in the evolution of the Hexapoda.
His order of wingless insects (Aptera) included Crustacea, spiders, centipedes and other creatures that now form classes of the Arthropoda distinct from the Hexapoda; it also included Hexapoda of parasitic and evidently degraded structure, that are now regarded as allied more or less closely to various winged insects.
Sharp, is unlikely to be superseded by the result of any researches into minute imaginal structure.
Sharp's proposed association of the parasitic wingless insects in a group Anapterygota cannot, however, be defended as natural; and recent researches into the structure of these forms enables us to associate them confidently with related winged orders.
The Mecaptera, with their predominantly longitudinal wing-nervuration, serve as a link between the Neuroptera and the Trichoptera, their retention of small cerci being an archaic character which stamps them as synthetic in type, but does not necessarily remove them from orders which agree with them in most points of structure but which have lost the cerci.
This latter order, which is not certainly known to have existed before Tertiary times, has become the most highly specialized of all insects in the structure of the pupa.
The eruciform larva of the Orthorrhapha leads on to the headless vermiform maggot of the Cyclorrhapha, and in the latter sub-order we find metamorphosis carried to its extreme point, the muscid flies being the most highly specialized of all the Hexapoda as regards structure, while their maggots are the most degraded of all insect larvae.
They afford an example - paralleled in other classes of the animal kingdom - of an order which, though specialized in some respects, retains many primitive characters, and has won its way to dominance rather by perfection of behaviour, and specially by the development of family life and helpful socialism, than by excessive elaboration of structure.
And thus perfection of structure and instinct in the imago has been accompanied by degradation in the larva, and by an increase in the extent of transformation and in the degree of reconstruction before and during the pupal stage.
Denny, Structure and Life-history of the Cockroach (London, 1886); B.
Carpenter, Insects: their Structure and Life (London, 18 99); L.
Hammond, Structure and Life-history of the Harlequinfly (Oxford, 1900); J.
Like nearly all his predecessors since Aelian, he adopted an alphabetical arrangement, though this was not too pedantically preserved, and did not hinder him from placing together the kinds of birds which he supposed (and generally supposed rightly) to have the most resemblance to that one whose name, being best known, was chosen for the headpiece (as it were) of his particular theme, thus recognizing to some extent the principle of classification.3 Belon, with perhaps less book-learning than his contemporary, was evidently no mean scholar, and undoubtedly had more practical knowledge of birds - their internal as well as external structure.
of birds, and he seems to have been the first to institute a direct comparison of their skeleton with that of man; but in this respect he only anticipated by a few years the more precise researches of Volcher Coiter, a Frisian, who in 1573 and 1575 published at Nuremberg two treatises, in one of which the internal structure of birds in general is very creditably described, while in the other the osteology and myology of certain forms is given in considerable detail, and illustrated by carefully drawn figures.
During all this time little had been done in studying the internal structure of birds; 3 but the foundations of the science of embryology had been laid by the investigations into the development of the chick by the great Harvey.
Yet, in order to determine the difference of structure in their organs of voice, Cuvier, as he says in his Legons (iv.
That the series of natural animals is continuous, forming, as it were, a circle; so that, upon commencing at any one given point, and thence tracing all the modifications of structure, we shall be imperceptibly led, after passing through numerous forms, again to the point from which we started.
That these primary divisions of every group are characterized by definite peculiarities of form, structure and economy, which, under diversified modifications, are uniform throughout the animal kingdom, and are therefore to be regarded as the primary types of nature.
In these " Fragments," apparently his earliest productions, we find him engaged on the subject with which his name will always be especially identified, the structure and arrangement of feathers.
Premising then that the chief characters assigned by this systematist to his several groups are drawn from almost all parts of the structure of birds, and are supplemented by some others of their more prominent peculiarities, we present the following abstract of his scheme:-2 I.
23-52), a brief description from Nitzsch's pen of the peculiarities of the internal structure of nearly every genus is incorporated with the author's prefatory remarks, as each passed under consideration, e Cf.
Two years later Nitzsch, who was indefatigable in his endeavour to discover the natural families of birds and had been pursuing a series of researches into their vascular system, published the result, at Halle in Saxony, in his Observationes de avium arteria carotide communi, in which is included a classification drawn up in accordance with the variation of structure which that important vessel presented in the several groups that he had opportunities of examining.
But it must be observed that the classification of Nitzsch, just given, rests much more on characters furnished by the general structure than on those furnished by the carotid artery only.
Among all the species (188, he tells us, in number) of which he examined specimens, he found only four variations in the structure of that vessel, namely: I.
Hitherto our attention has been given wholly to Germany and France, for the chief ornithologists of Britain were occupying themselves at this time in a very useless way - not paying due heed at this time to the internal structure of birds, and some excellent descriptive memoirs on special forms had appeared from their pens, to say nothing of more than one general treatise on ornithic anatomy.
p. 405) in 1823, with the addition, however, of his Raptores, and it will be unnecessary to enter into particulars concerning it, though it is as equally remarkable for the insight shown by the author into the structure of birds as for the philosophical breadth of his view, which comprehends almost every kind of character that had been at that time brought forward.
The importance of this singular but superficial departure from the normal structure has been so needlessly exaggerated as a character that at the present time its value is apt to be unduly depreciated.
6 Andreas Wagner, in his report on the progress of 2 A short essay by Nitzsch on the general structure of the Passerines, written, it is said, in 1836, was published in 1862 (Zeitschr.
He states that Gould suspected the alliance of these two forms " from external structure and habits alone "; otherwise one might suppose that he had obtained an intimation to that effect on one of his Continental journeys.
In all these species he found the vocal organs to differ essentially in structure from those of other birds of the Old World, which we now call Passerine, or, to be still more precise, Oscinian.
Indeed he was so much prepossessed in favour of a classification based on the structure of the digestive organs that he could not bring himself to consider vocal muscles to be of much taxonomic use, and it was reserved to Johannes Muller to point out that the contrary was the fact.
The remaining three are now seen to be obviously artificial associations, and the second of them, Clamatores, in particular, containing a very heterogeneous assemblage of forms; but it must be bottle in mind that the internal structure of some of them was at that time still more imperfectly known than now.
They could even discern dimly some generalized stock whence had descended whole groups that now differed strangely in habits and appearance - their discernment aided, may be, by some isolated form which yet retained undeniable traces of a primitive structure.
The Dromaeognathae resemble the Ratitae, and especially the genus Dromaeus, in their palatal structure, and are composed of the Tinamous (q.v.).
That the palatal structure must be taken into consideration by taxonomers as affording hints of some utility there can no longer be a doubt; but perhaps the characters drawn thence owed more of their worth to the extraordinary perspicuity with which they were presented by Huxley than to their own intrinsic value, and if the same power had been employed to elucidate in the same way other parts of the skeleton - say the bones of the sternal apparatus or even of the pelvic girdle - either set might have been made to appear quite as instructive and perhaps more so.
From what has before been said of his works it may be gathered that, while professedly basing his systematic arrangement of the groups of birds on their external features, he had hitherto striven to make his schemes harmonize if possible with the dictates of internal structure as evinced by the science of anatomy, though he uniformly and persistently protested against the inside being better than the outside.
In addition to an enormous body of new information chiefly on the shoulder girdle, the alar muscles and the nerve plexuses of birds, this work contained a critical and descriptive summary of practically the whole pre-existing literature on the structure of birds, and it is hardly necessary for the student of ornithology to refer to earlier literature at first hand.
Abich (Sur la structure et la geologic du Daghestan, 1862), the successive folds of Jurassic limestones and slates, all nearly parallel to the Caucasus, which form lofty, narrow plateaus.
The North Bridge, a fine iron structure, spans the valley, giving connexion between the opposite higher parts of the town.
Among other public buildings may be noted the Piece-Hall, erected in 1799 for the lodgment and sale of piece goods, now used as a market, a great quadrangular structure occupying more than two acres; the bonding warehouse, court-house, and mechanics' institute.
The result is that the tracery itself has to support the structure above it - is, in fact, constructional - whereas in most other countries the tracery is merely, as it were, a pierced screen filling in a constructional arch.
In 1479 a fire consumed the earlier buildings along the Rio, and these were replaced (1480-1550) by the present Renaissance structure.
The corner towards the Ponte della Puglia was also restored, and the hideous device of walling up the five last arches, adopted in the 16th century by the architect Da Ponte, was removed without prejudice to the stability of the structure.
A special brick structure was erected in the public gardens to receive the works of contemporary artists, both Italian and foreign.
The new Old South (the successor of the Old South, which is now a museum) is a handsome structure of Italian Gothic style, with a fine campanile.
Along one line there was a gradual elaboration of the tube until it culminated, so far as structural complexity is concerned, in the so-called trapdoor nests or burrows of various families; along the other line the tubular retreat either retains its primitive simplicity in association with a new structure, the snare or net, or is entirely superseded by the latter.
Reference has already been made to the silken tube or tent, of simple structure, with an orifice at one or both ends, as the possible origin of all snares, however complex they may be.
Some tropical members of the family belonging to the genus Nephela, however, spin a web which is intermediate in structure between that of Aranea and the complete sheet-like web of Agalena.
To the web is attached a trap-line which when drawn taut holds the snare stretched and tight, and when relaxed loosens the whole structure so that the threads fall together.
Swammerdam's Biblia naturae, issued in 1737, fifty years after its author's death, and containing observations on the structure and lifehistory of a series of insect types.
Graber turned their attention to the detailed investigation of some one species or to special points in the structure of some particular organs, using for the elucidation of their subject the ever-improving microscopical methods of research.
Fundamental alterations have been made in the structure of the leading cotton markets, and in methods of buying and selling cotton, in the last hundred years.
The present structure, which dates from 1347, has its Gothic character disguised by a classical facade with Ionic pillars and much tasteless modernization.
The main supplies have been obtained from strata unbroken and comparatively undisturbed, but the occurrence of anticlinal or terrace structure, however slightly marked or limited in extent, exerts a powerful influence on the creation of reservoirs of petroleum.
When the slow folding of the strata is accompanied by a gradual local descent, a modified or " arrested " anticlinal structure, known as a " terrace " is produced, the upheaving action at that part being sufficient only to arrest the descent which would otherwise occur.
It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.
The most striking feature in the structure of Syria is the existence of long Graben, or narrow depressions formed by faulting.
Not only are new words employed, and old words in new significations, but the grammatical structure has a modern stamp - some phrases have the appearance of having been translated out of Aramaic into Hebrew.
and two external, so that they were of the typical primitive bunodont structure.
They were five-toed, bunodont Condylarthra, with a decided approximation to the perissodactyle type in the structure of the feet.
There may have been an earlier temple here, but the present structure, dedicated to the Theban triad of Ammon, Mut and Khons, was erected by Amenophis III.
Then came the stress of war in Europe, a wretched neutrality at home, fierce outbreaks of human passions, and the fair structure of government by a priori theories based on the goodness of unoppressed humanity came to the ground.
These difficulties are met by the assumption that the semicircular masonry formed the base of a retaining-wall which rose to a considerable height, supporting a theatre-like structure capable of seating many thousand persons.
Here was found a rectangular structure resembling a temple, but with a side door to the north; it possessed a portico of six columns.
The Theseum or temple of Theseus, which lay to the east of the Agora near the Acropolis, was built by Cimon: here he deposited the bones of the national hero which he brought from Scyros about 470 B.C. The only building in the city which can with certainty be assigned to the administration of Pericles is the Odeum, beneath the southern declivity of the Acropolis, a structure mainly of wood, said to have been built in imitation of the tent of Xerxes: it was used for musical contests and the though not established, may be regarded as practically certain, notwithstanding the difficulty presented by the subjects of the sculptures, which bear no relation to Hephaestus.
Fragments of Doric columns and foundations were discovered, probably intended for the temple begun by Peisistratus, the orientation of which differed slightly from that of the later structure.
5.17), and therefore cannot be of later date than 35 B.C. It is an octagonal marble structure, 42 ft.
Excavations carried out in 1898-1899 showed that the structure was nearly square; the only portion remaining is the slightly curved front, with three niches between Corinthian pilasters; in the central niche is the statue of Philopappus.
The Stadium, in which the Panathenaic Games were held, was first laid out by the orator Lycurgus about 330 B.C. It was an oblong structure filling a natural depression near the left bank of the Ilissus beneath the eastern de clivity of the Ardettus hill, the parallel sides and semicircular end, or acev50vn, around the arena being partially excavated from the adjoining slopes.
The royal palace, designed by Friedrich von Gartner (1792-1847), is a tasteless structure; attached to it is a beautiful garden laid out by Queen Amalia, which contains a well-preserved mosaic floor of the Roman period.
The cathedral, a large, modern structure, is devoid of architectural merit, but some of the smaller, ancient, Byzantine churches are singularly interesting and beautiful.
About 1645 a powder magazine in the Propylaea was ignited by lightning and the upper portion of the structure was destroyed.
dissecare, to cut apart), the separation into parts by cutting, particularly the cutting of an animal or plant into parts for the purpose of examination or display of its structure.
The prayer chamber is a lofty structure, quite unlike those of Egypt and Kairawan, with a dome 75 ft.
This section includes a brief history of the subject, and proceeds to treat of the principles underlying the structure and interrelations of organic compounds.
Additional evidence as to the structure of the molecule was discussed by Avogadro in 1811, and by Ampere in 1814.
with the adoption of simple rules as a first attempt at representing a compound, he availed himself of other data in order to gain further information as to the structure of compounds.
This attitude was due to his adherence to the " dualistic theory" of the structure of substances, which he deduced from electrochemical researches.
Alexander Butlerow named the " structure theory," and contributed much to the development of the subject.
He defined structure " as the manner of the mutual linking of the atoms in the molecule," but denied that any such structure could give information as to the orientation of the atoms in space.
He regarded the chemical properties of a substance as due to (1) the chemical atoms composing it, and (2) the structure, and he asserted that while different compounds might have the same components (isomerism), yet only one compound could have a particular structure.
Identity in properties necessitated identity in structure.
We have seen how its utilization in the " structure theory " permitted great clarification, and attempts were not wanting for the deduction of analogies or a periodicity between elements.
Williamson showed how alcohol and ether were to be regarded as derived from water by substituting one or both hydrogen atoms by the ethyl group; he derived acids and the acid anhydrides from the same type; and from a comparison of many inorganic and the simple organic compounds he concluded that this notion of a " water-type " clarified, in no small measure, the conception of the structure of compounds.
The " structure theory " (or the mode of linking of the atoms) of carbon compounds, founded by Butlerow, Kekule and Couper and, at a later date, marvellously enhanced by the doctrine of stereo-isomerism, due to J.
isomerism, or the existence of two or more chemically different substances having identical molecular weights, is adequately shown; and, most important of all, once the structure is determined, the synthesis of the compound is but a matter of time.
The ringed structure of benzene, C 6 H 61 was first suggested in 1865 by August Kekule, who represented the molecule by six CH groups placed at the six angles of a regular hexagon, the sides of which denoted the valencies saturated by adjacent carbon atoms, the fourth valencies of each carbon atom being represented as saturated along alternate sides.
The development of the " structure theory " in about 1860 brought in its train an appreciation of the chemical structure of the derivatives of benzene.
The value of this ringed structure was readily perceived, but objections were raised with respect to Kekule's disposal of the fourth valencies.
Here we shall only discuss the structure of these compounds in the light of the modern benzene theories; reference should be made to the articles Naphthalene, Anthracene and Phenanthrene for syntheses, decompositions, &c.
For the complete determination of the chemical structure of any compound, three sets of data are necessary: (I) the empirical chemical composition of the molecule; (2) the constitution, i.e.
The second and third sets elucidate the actual structure of the molecule: these are known as " constitutional properties."
We may therefore conclude that the molecular volume depends more upon the internal structure of the molecule than its empirical content.
Hydrocarbons of similar structure have been prepared by Thiele, for example, the orange-yellow tetraphenyl-para-xylylene, which is obtained by boiling the bromide C6H4[CBr(C6H5)2]2 with benzene and molecular silver.
The quinonoid structure of many coloured compounds has been proved experimentally, as, for example, by Hewitt for the benzene-azo-phenols, and Hantzsch for triaminotriphenyl methane and acridine derivatives; but, at the same time, many substances cannot be so explained.
Meyer) regards all coloured substances as having a quinonoid structure.
The development of the theory of crystal structure, and the fundamental principles on which is based the classification of crystal forms, are treated in the article Crystallography; in the same place will be found an account of the doctrine of isomorphism, polymorphism and morphotropy.
Isomorphism may be defined as the existence of two or more different substances in the same crystal form and structure, polymorphism as the existence of the same substance in two or more crystal modifications, and morphotropy (after P. von Groth) as the change in crystal form due to alterations in the molecule of closely (chemically) related substances.
- On the theory that crystal form and structure are the result of the equilibrium between the atoms and molecules composing the crystals, it is probable, a priori, that the same substance may possess different equilibrium configurations of sufficient stability, under favourable conditions, to form different crystal structures.
Again, the pyroxenes, RS103 (R=Fe, Mg, Mn, &c.), assume the forms (I) monoclinic, sometimes twinned so as to become pseudo-rhombic; (2) rhombic, resulting from the pseudo-rhombic structure of (I) becoming ultramicroscopic; and (3) triclinic, distinctly different from (I) and (2); (I) and (2) are polysymmetric modifications, while (3) and the pair (I) and (2) are polymorphs.
It is doubtful indeed whether any general conclusions can yet be drawn as to the relations between crystal structure and scalar properties and the relative stability of polymorphs.
When both the crystal form and structure are retained, the substances are said to be isomorphous.
If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.
It is thus seen that the ordinary plane representation of the structure of compounds possesses a higher significance than could have been suggested prior to crystallographical researches.
In their minute structure the muscular fibres resemble those of Nematodes.
Alloa Park, the seat of the earl of Mar and Kellie, is in the immediate vicinity, and in its grounds stand the ruins of Alloa Tower, an ancient structure 89 ft.
For not only has the weight been more than quadrupled in some of the larger breeds, and the structure of the skull and other parts of the skeleton greatly altered, but the proportionate size of the brain has been reduced and the colour and texture of the fur altered in a remarkable manner.
This development, which is accompanied by changes in the structure of the skull, depends on breeding the animals in warm damp hutches, without which the best developed parents fail to produce the desired offspring.
These are large dogs, hunting by smell, with massive structure, large drooping ears, and usually smooth coats, without fringes of hair on the ears, limbs or tail.
The church of St Giles, formerly a chapel of ease to All Saints, but made parochial in the 18th century, is'of Norman date, but most of the present structure is modern.
The church of the Holy Ghost (Helgeands-Kyrka) in a late Romanesque style (c. 1250) is a remarkable structure with a nave of two storeys.
His writings, which are chiefly theological and controversial, are largely formed of charges to his clergy, and sermons on different topics; but, though valuable and full of thought, they lose some of their force by the cumbrous German structure of the sentences, and by certain orthographical peculiarities in which the author indulged.
It is nearly always a neat structure composed of fine twigs, roots or bents, and lined with wool or hair.
Pectolite is a secondary mineral occurring as white masses with a radially fibrous structure in the veins and cavities of basic igneous rocks.
In 1194 another conflagration laid waste the new building then hardly completed; but clergy and people set zealously to work, and the main part of the present structure was finished by 1240.
continuous series, with massive, quadrate, transversely ridged or complex crowns--the posterior premolars usually resembling the molars in structure.
It will be seen that from the biological standpoint there fall under the stricter definition those hereditary modes of behaviour which are analogous to hereditary forms of structure; and that a sharp line of distinction is drawn between the behaviour which is thus rendered definite through heredity, and the behaviour the distinguishing characteristics of which are acquired in the course of individual life.
Thus the modern ideas, which have so powerfully extended and unified the subject, have loosened its connexion with "number" and "quantity," while bringing ideas of form and structure into increasing prominence.
Viewing the subject as a whole, and apart from remote developments which have not in fact seriously influenced the great structure of the mathematics of the European races, it may be said to have had its origin with the Greeks, working on pre-existing fragmentary lines of thought derived from the Egyptians and Phoenicians.
It is comparatively modern, built at different periods, a large and confused structure without proportion, beauty or strength.
The few remaining fragments produce the impression of vivid and rapid narrative, to which the flow of the native Saturnian verse, in contradistinction to the weighty and complex structure of the hexameter, was naturally adapted.
The ancient church of St Edward the Confessor was replaced in 1850 by a structure in Decorated style.
Approaching the coasts from the interior, the snow of the surface gradually changes its structure.
- So far as made out, the structure of explored Greenland is as follows: 1.
This is exactly the structure of the plum or apricot, and differs from that of the almond, which is identical in the first instance, only in the circumstance that the fleshy part of the latter eventually becomes dry and leathery and clacks open along a line called the suture.
It has, in fact, become metamorphosed into a resistant supporting structure resembling in some respects the notochord of the true Chordata, but probably not directly comparable with the latter structure, being related to it solely by way of substitution.
- Structure of branchial region.
The respiratory current of water is therefore conducted to the exterior by different means from that adopted by Amphioxus, and this difference is so great that the theory which seeks to explain it has to postulate radical changes of structure, function and topography.
It seems likely that the coelomic pore-canals were originally excretory organs, but in the existing Enteropneusta the pore-canals (especially the collar canals) have, as we have seen, acquired new functions or become vestigial, and the function of excretion is now mainly accomplished by a structure peculiar to the Enteropneusta called the glomerulus, a vascular complex placed on either side of the anterior portion of the stomochord, projecting into the proboscis-coelom.
- Structure of anterior end.
The state capitol, an imposing structure built on a bluff above the river, was built in1838-1842and enlarged in 1887-1888; it was first occupied in 1840 by the legislature, which previously had met (after 1837) in the county court house.
Another type of incipient crystallization which is excessively common in obsidian is spherulites, or small rounded bodies which have a radiating fibrous structure.
The minute globular bodies have occasionally a sub-pearly lustre, and glassy rocks which possess this structure have been called perlites (q.v.).
When it cools it becomes hard, but if before it is quite cold we plunge it into cold water a very perfect perlitic structure will arise in it.
If the matrix, however, is originally crystalline it does not seem probable that perlitic structure can develop in it.
A dull stony-looking rock results, the vitreous lustre having entirely disappeared, and in microscopic section this exhibits a cryptocrystalline structure, being made up of exceedingly minute grains principally of quartz and felspar.
This open chain structure is challenged in the views put forward by T.
Lowry and Armstrong represent these compounds by the following spatial formulae which postulate a y-oxidic structure, and 5 asymmetric carbon atoms, i.e.
This type of structure is somewhat common in Ireland, but the only Scottish examples are those at Brechin, Abernethy in Perthshire, and Egilshay in the Orkneys.
It was built on the site of an earlier structure entirely in the time of the Ptolemies.
The properties of caoutchouc clearly show, however, that its actual molecular structure is considerably more complex than is represented by the empirical formula, and that it is to be regarded as the polymer of a terpene or similar hydrocarbon and composed of a cluster of at least ten or twenty molecules of the formula C5H8.
When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
The exact chemical nature of caoutchouc is, however, not determined, and recent researches point to the view that its molecular structure may even be somewhat different from that of the terpenes.
Similar products are also formed by heating gutta-percha which closely resembles caoutchouc in its chemical structure.
The study of the action of ozone on caoutchouc has thrown new light on the complex question of the chemical structure of this substance, and discloses relationships with the sugars and other carbohydrates from certain of which levulinic acid is obtained by oxidation.
This arises chiefly from the orographical structure; the vast plateau of Central Asia prevents the moderating influence of the sea from being felt.
The American use of the term deltidium for the structure which Europeans call the pseudo-deltidium makes for confusion.
The term is also used generally of a supporting frame or structure, especially in the construction of a roof or a bridge.
In it the hairs are confined to the dorsal middle line and the creeping setae are hooked, of a finer structure than in Chaetosoma, and situated so far forward that the vagina opens amongst them.
It is in the Montagne Noire rather than in the Cevennes proper that the structure of the chain has been most fully investigated.
60° E., and the structure is complicated by overthrusting on an extensive scale.
St Saviour's parish church of Tor-Mohun, or Tormoham, an ancient stone structure, was restored in 1874.
The parish church of St George, occupying the site of an older structure of the same name, destroyed by fire in 1853, was finished in 1858 under the direction of Sir G.
It is a fine cruciform structure of Decorated character, with a central tower 170 ft.
As a consequence of the structure of the molecule, which is an aggregation of atoms, the planes of the orbits around the latter may be oriented in various positions, and the direction of revolution may be right-handed or left-handed with respect to the direction of any applied magnetic field.
If the structure of the molecule is so perfectly symmetrical that, in the absence of any external field, the resultant magnetic moment of the circulating electrons is zero, then the application of a field, by accelerating the right-handed (negative) revolutions, and retarding those which are left-handed, will induce in the substance a resultant magnetization opposite in direction to the field itself; a body composed of such symmetrical molecules is therefore diamagnetic. If however the structure of the molecule is such that the electrons revolving around its atoms do not exactly cancel one another's effects, the molecule constitutes a little magnet, which under the influence of an external field will tend to set itself with its axis parallel to the field.
The castle is a quadrangular structure of great strength, with rounded towers at three of the angles, and has a circumference of about 400 ft.
The evidence of the exact equivalence of the segmentation and appendages of Limulus and Scorpio, and of a number of remarkable points of agreement in structure, was furnished by Ray Lankester in an article published in 1881 (" Limulus an Arachnid," Quart.
N.S.), and in a series of subsequent memoirs, in which the structure of the entosternum, of the coxal glands, of the eyes, of the veno-pericardiac muscles, of the respiratory lamellae, and of other parts, was for the first time described, and in which the new facts discovered were shown uniformly to support the hypothesis that Limulus is an Arachnid.
The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).
7n7 microscopic structure of the FIG.
Their minute structure is closely similar in the two cases; the leaf-like plates receive blood from the great sternal sinus, and serve as respiratory organs.
There is no doubt that these are parapodial or limb appendages, carrying numerous imbricated secondary processes, and therefore comparable in essential structure to the leaf-bearing plates of the second meso somatic somite of Limulus.
That is neces sarily a blood-holding structure and is obliterated and fused with soft tissues of the sternal region so that the lamellae cannot be detached and presented as standing out from it.
There are a number of other important points of structure besides those referring to the somites and appendages in which Limulus agrees with Scorpio or other Arachnida and differs from other Arthro- '11'1 poda.
The central nervous systems of Limulus and of Scorpio present closer agreement in structure than can be found when a Crustacean is compared with either.
The Minute Structure of the Central Eyes and of the Lateral Eyes.
- Limulus agrees with Scorpio not only in having a pair of central eyes and also lateral eyes, but in the microscopic structure of those organs, which differs in the central and lateral eyes respectively.
The ommatidium (soft structure beneath the lens-unit of a compound eye) is very simple in both Scorpio and Limulus.
(For details the reader is referred to Watase (11) and to Lankester and Bourne (5).) The structure of the central eyes of Scorpio and spiders and also of Limulus differs essentially from that of the lateral eyes in having two layers of cells (hence called diplostichous) beneath the lens, separated from one another by a membrane (figs.
In the specialized ommatidia of the compound eyes of Crustacea and Hexapods the rhabdom is an important structure.'
A similar pair of coxal glands, lobate instead of ovoid in shape, was described by Lankester in Mygale, and it was also shown by him that the structures in Limulus called " brick-red glands " by Packard have the same structure and position as the coxal glands of Scorpio and Mygale.
Microscopically their structure is the same in essentials as that of the coxal glands of Scorpio (13).
The coxal glands do not establish any special connexion between Limulus and Scorpio, since thay also occur in the same somite in the lower Crustacea, but it is to be noted that the coxal glands of Limulus are in minute structure and probably in function more like those of Arachnids than those of Crustacea.
The Entosternites and their Minute Structure.
The entosternites are cartilaginous in texture, but they have neither the chemical character nor the microscopic structure of the hyaline cartilage of Vertebrates.
In microscopic structure they all present the closest agreement with one another.
A minute entosternite having the above-described structure is found in the Crustacean Apus between the bases of the mandibles, and also in the Decapoda in a similar position, but in no Crustacean does it attain to any size or importance.
(After Lankester, loc. cit.) has as many structure of the prosoma, and must play an important part economy of these organisms. In Limulus (figs.
Only the central and horizontal parts of this structure correspond precisely to the entosternite of Limulus: the right and left anterior processes(marked ap in figs.
- Diagrams of the development and adult structure of one of the paired central eyes of a scorpion.
Those of Limulus were described and figured by Alphonse Milne-Edwards, but he called them merely " transparent ligaments," and did not discover their muscular structure.
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