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stresses

stresses Sentence Examples

  • The impact stresses depend so much on local conditions that it is difficult to fix what allowance should be made.

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  • The horizontal stresses in the flanges are greatest at the centre of a span.

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  • be the breaking strength of the same bar when subjected to stresses varying from k max .

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  • Let t be the statical breaking strength of a bar, loaded once gradually up to fracture (t = breaking load divided by original area of section); u the breaking strength of a bar loaded and unloaded an indefinitely great number of times, the stress varying from u to o alternately (this is termed the primitive strength); and, lastly, let s be the breaking strength of a bar subjected to an indefinitely great number of repetitions of stresses equal and opposite in sign (tension and thrust), so that the stress ranges alternately from s to -s.

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  • =0, where 4 is-For-according as the stresses are of the same or opposite signs.

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  • = u(1+ (us) Iu) [Stresses of opposite sign.] The working stress in any case is f max .

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  • For shearing stresses the working stress may have o 8 of its value for tension.

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  • To compare this with the previous table, tp _ (A+B)/A = r +P. Except when the limiting stresses are of opposite sign, the two tables agree very well.

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  • Determination of Stresses in the Members of Bridges.

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  • - It is convenient to consider beam girder or truss bridges, and it is the stresses in the main girders which primarily require to be determined.

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  • - In the case of braced structures the following method is convenient: When a section of a girder can be taken cutting only three bars, the stresses in the bars can be found by taking moments.

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  • Further, the range of stress to which they are subjected is the sum of the stresses due to the load advancing from the left or the right.

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  • Then the bridge is designed, so far as the direct stresses are concerned, for bending moments due to a uniform dead load and the uniform equivalent load we.

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  • The axis becomes, therefore, a line of resistance, and in reasoning of the stresses on frames we may treat the frame as consisting of simple straight lines from joint to joint.

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  • It is found in practice that the stresses on the several members do not differ sensibly whether these members are pinned together with a single pin or more rigidly jointed by several bolts or rivets.

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  • A frame used to support a weight is often called a truss; the stresses on the various members of a truss can be computed for any given load with greater accuracy than the intensity of stress on the various parts of a continuous structure such as a tubular girder, or the rib of an arch.

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  • Many assumptions are made in treating of the flexure of a continuous structure which are not strictly true; no assumption is made in determining the stresses on a frame except that the joints are flexible, and that the frame shall be so stiff as not sensibly to alter in form under the load.

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  • These stresses will be unknown quantities, which the designer cannot take into account, and such a combination should if possible be avoided.

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  • Bow (Economics of Construction), and is convenient in applying the theory of reciprocal figures to the computation of stresses on frames.

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  • Reciprocal figures are easily drawn by following definite rules, and afford therefore a simple method of computing the stresses on members of a frame.

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  • Rankine gives the approximate rule Working deflection =5= l a /t o,000h, where l is the span and h the depth of the beam, the stresses being those usual in bridgework, due to the total dead and live load.

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  • It is never exhibited except by rocks which have been sub jected to the tangential stresses set up in the earth's crust by folding.

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  • On this account it is usual to neglect the tensile strength of concrete in designing structures, and to arrange the material in such a way that tensile stresses are avoided.

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  • Let t be the statical breaking strength of a bar, loaded once gradually up to fracture (t = breaking load divided by original area of section); u the breaking strength of a bar loaded and unloaded an indefinitely great number of times, the stress varying from u to o alternately (this is termed the primitive strength); and, lastly, let s be the breaking strength of a bar subjected to an indefinitely great number of repetitions of stresses equal and opposite in sign (tension and thrust), so that the stress ranges alternately from s to -s.

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  • To compare this with the previous table, tp _ (A+B)/A = r +P. Except when the limiting stresses are of opposite sign, the two tables agree very well.

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  • Bow (Economics of Construction), and is convenient in applying the theory of reciprocal figures to the computation of stresses on frames.

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  • On this account it is usual to neglect the tensile strength of concrete in designing structures, and to arrange the material in such a way that tensile stresses are avoided.

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  • In most mechanical systems the working stresses acting between the parts can be determined when the relative positions of all the parts are known; and the energy which a system possesses in virtue of the relative positions of its parts, or its configuration, is classified as "potential energy," to distinguish it from energy of motion which we shall presently consider.

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  • But there are stresses which depend on the relative motion of the visible bodies between which they appear to act.

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  • As subscribers' lines are invariably short, the smallest gauge of wire possessing the mechanical strength necessary to withstand the stresses to which it may be subjected can be employed, and bronze wire weighing 40 lb per mile is commonly used.

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  • Maxwell explained electric and magnetic forces, not by the action at a distance assumed by the earlier mathematicians, but by stresses in a medium filling all space, and possessing qualities like those attributed to the old luminiferous ether.

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  • To prevent excessive bending stresses the diameter of drum and sheave must bear a proper ratio to that of the rope.

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  • The stresses in the web are greatest at the ends of the span.

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  • But girders may have curved chords and then the stresses in the web are diminished.

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  • Not only were the bracing bars designed to calculated stresses, and the continuity of the girders taken into account, but the validity of the calculations was tested by a verification on the actual bridge of the position of the points of contrary flexure of the centre span.

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  • - k min ., if the stresses are both of the same kind, and kmax.

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  • But there are stresses which depend on the relative motion of the visible bodies between which they appear to act.

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  • - k min ., if the stresses are both of the same kind, and kmax.

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  • The earliest published theoretical investigations of the stresses in bracing bars were perhaps those in the paper by W.

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  • road to pass between the springings and ensured the transmission of the wind stresses to the abutments without interrupting the crossbracing.

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  • Judd that this structure may be due to mechanical stresses.

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  • In bridges so erected the straining action during erection must be studied, and material must be added to resist erecting stresses.

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  • Straining Actions and Working Stresses.

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  • These percentages are added to the live load stresses.

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  • Hence the formula is more useful in the form w = (w i +w2)1 2 / (Kd -1 2) = (wl +w 2)lr/ (K -lr) where k= (wl+w2-1-w3)lr/w3 is to be deduced from the data of some bridge previously designed with the same working stresses.

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  • The committee recommended that a factor of safety of 4 should be taken for wind stresses.

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  • It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses.

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  • Concrete by itself, though strong in compression, can offer but little resistance to tensile and shearing stresses, and as these stresses always occur in beams the problem arises how best to arrange the steel so as to assist the concrete in bearing them.

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  • To meet tensile stresses the steel is nearly always inserted in the form of bars running along the beam.

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  • In each case the object is to place the bars as nearly as possible where the tensile stresses occur.

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  • In cases where all the stresses are heavy, that portion of the beam which is under compression is similarly reinforced, though with smaller bars (figs.

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  • generally placed near the under and upper surface of the beam they are of little use in helping to resist the shearing stresses which are great- 1 est at its neutral axis.

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  • Floor slabs may be regarded as wide and shallow beams, and the remarks made about the stresses in the one apply to the other also; accordingly, the various devices which are used for strengthening beams recur in the slabs.

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  • But in a thin slab, with its comparatively small span and light load, the concrete is generally strong enough to bear the shearing stresses unaided, and the reinforcement is devoted to assisting it where the tensile stresses occur.

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  • A concrete arch is reinforced in much the same way as a wall, the stresses being somewhat similar.

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  • this coarseness and the consequent brittleness are removed, by reheating them much above Ac 3, which also relieves the internal stresses due to the different rates at which different layers cool, and hence contract, during and after solidification.

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  • The combination of ductility, which lessens the tendency to break when overstrained or distorted, with a very high limit of elasticity, gives it great value for shafting, the merit of which is measured by its endurance of the repeated stresses to which its rotation exposes it whenever its alignment is not mathematically straight.

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  • Another branch of meaning stresses the formal, customary aspect; and hence in such phrases as "solemn act," probate in "solemn form," it means that which is done with all due forms and ceremonies.

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  • There are no regulations in England limiting the working stresses that may safely be placed upon timber, although in some districts the least sizes that may be used for timbers in roofs and floors are specified.

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  • In some European and other countries, however, the safe working stresses of timber used for constructional purposes are defined.

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  • The building by-laws of the municipality of Johannesburg, in South Africa, contain the following table: Safe Working Stresses for Timber.

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  • Severe simplicity is also most in harmony with constructional designs in plated work, where stresses occur in straight lines.

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  • In some regions, notably in the Baltic province and in parts of the United States, the rocks still retain their original horizontality of deposition, the muds are scarcely indurated and the sands are still incoherent; but in most parts of the world they bear abundant evidence of the many movements and stresses to which they have been exposed through so enormous a period of time.

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  • When a plane frame which is just rigid is subject to a given system of equilibrating extraneous forces (in its own plane) acting on the joints, the stresses in the bars are in general uniquely determinate.

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  • For the conditions of equilibrium of the forces on each pin furnish vi equations, viz, two for each point, which are linear in respect of the stresses and the extraneous forces.

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  • This system of equations must involve the three conditions of equilibrium of the extraneous forces which are already identically satisfied, by hypothesis; there remain therefore 2n ~ independent relations to determine the 2n3 unknown stresses.

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  • The stresses produced by extraneous forces in a simple frame can be found by considering the equilibrium of the various joints in a proper succession; and if the graphical method be employed the various polygons of force can be combined into a single force-diagram.

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  • The stresses in the bars, in the problem as thus modified, may be supposed found by the preceding methods; it remains to infer from the results thus obtained the reactions in the original form of the problem.

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  • The principle can of course be extended to any system of particles or rigid bodies, connected together in any, way, provided we take into account the internal stresses, or reactions, between the various parts.

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  • We are thus able tc imagine a great variety of mechanical systems to which tht principle of virtual work can be applied without any regard tc the internal stresses, provided the hypothetical displacements be such that none of the connections of the system are violated.

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  • The principle of virtual work is specially convenient in the theory of frames (~ 6), since the reactions at smooth joints and the stresses in inextensible bars may be left out of account.

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  • We have seen that the stresses produced by an equilibrating system of extraneous forces in a frame which is just rigid, according to the criterion of 6, are in general uniquely determinate; in particular, when there are no extraneous forces the bars are in general free from stress.

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  • When a frame has a critical form it may be in a state of stress independently of the action of extraneous forces; moreover, the stresses due to extraneous forces are F indeterminate, and may be infinite.

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  • In a critical form we _____________________ have Os = o, and the equation is satisfied FIG C2 by an arbitrary value of S; a consistent system of stresses in the remaining bars can then be found by preceding rules.

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  • Again, when extraneous forces P act on the joints, the equation is Z(P.&P)+S.Os=-o, where op is the displacement of any joint in the direction of the corresponding force P. If ~(P. Op) =o, the stresses are merely indeterminate as before; but if ~ (P. op) does not vanish, the equation cannot be satisfied by any finite value of S, since Os =0.

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  • This means that, if the material of the frame were absolutely unyielding, no finite stresses in the bars would enable it to withstand the extraneous forces.

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  • The stresses in the bars would then be comparatively very great, although finite.

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  • We may note that a frame of n joints which is just rigid must have 3116 bars; and that the stresses produced in such a frame by a given system of extraneous forces in equilibrium are statically determinate, subject to the exception of critical forms.

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  • The statement may be extended to a system of rigid bodies, provided the mutual reactions consist of the stresses in inextensible links, or the pressures between smooth surfaces, or the reactions at rolling contacts (~ 9).

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  • It is shown that a machine may at any instant be represented by a frame of links the stresses in which are identical with the pressures at the joints of the mechanism.

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  • The driving and resisting efforts are represented by elastic links in the dynamic frame, and when the frame with its elastic links is drawn the stresses in the several members of it may be determined by means of reciprocal figures.

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  • Dalby (London, 1906), where the inertia stresses brought upon the several links of a Joy valve gear, belonging to an express passenger engine of the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway, are investigated for an engine-speed of 68 m.

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  • Let us consider the stresses which are c d exerted across this imaginary section by the 9.

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  • In transferring the loads from the column bases to the bottom of the footings the greatest care must be taken in all systems of construction that the stresses throughout at no point exceed the safe limits of stress for the various materials used.

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  • In calculations for wind pressures, the working stresses set forth in the code may be increased by fifty per centum.

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  • There is no serious difficulty in so constructing walls of this kind as to be practically water-tight while they remain unbroken; but owing to the settlement of the earthen embankments and the changing level of saturation they are undoubtedly subject to irregular stresses which cannot be calculated, and under which, speaking generally, plastic materials are much safer.

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  • If, therefore, the centre of that became so far removed to the right as to make j coincident with b, the diagram of stresses would become the triangle j'l'c', and the vertical pressure at the inner face would be nil.

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  • During the last few years attention has been directed to the stresses - including shearing stresses - on planes other than horizontal.

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  • 2 Dr Unwin took two horizontal planes, one close above the other, and calculated the vertical stresses on each by the law of uniformly varying stresses.

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  • The weights being known, the principal stresses may be determined.

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  • These researches led to a wide discussion of the sufficiency of the law of uniformly varying stress when applied to horizontal joints as a test of the stability of dams. Professor Karl Pearson showed that the results are dependent upon the assumption that the distribution of the vertical stresses on the base of the structure also followed the law of uniformly varying stress.

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  • He stated that it wa g practically impossible to determine the stresses by purely mathematical means.

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  • The late Sir Benjamin Baker, F.R.S., suggested that the stresses might be measured by experiments with elastic models, and among others, experiments were carried out by Messrs Wilson and Gore a with indiarubber models of plane sections of dams (including the foundations) who applied forces to represent the gravity and water pressures in such a manner that the virtual density of the rubber was increased many times without interfering with the proper ratio between gravity and water pressure, and by this means the strains produced were of sufficient magnitude to be easily measured.

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  • The maximum principal stresses are represented by the directions and thicknesses of the two systems of intersecting lines mutually at right angles.

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  • Tensile stresses (indicated by broken lines on the diagram) are shown at the upstream toe notwithstanding that the line of resistance is well within the middle third of the section.

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  • Similar experiments upon models with rounded toes but otherwise of the same form showed a considerable reduction in the magnitude of the tensile stresses.

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  • On examining the diagram it will be observed that the maximum compressive stresses are parallel to and near to the down stream face of the section, which values are approximately equal to the maximum value of the vertical stress determined by the law of uniformly varying stress divided by the cosine squared of the angle between the vertical and the resultant.

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  • Arrow heads at the ends of an axis of an ellipse indicate tension as distinct from compression, and the semi-axes in magnitude and direction represent the principal stresses.

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  • The two systems of lines mutually at right angles show the directions of the maximum and minimum stresses respectively.

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  • Such stresses.

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  • are termed principal stresses.

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  • The shearing stresses are zero along the lines of principal stress and reach a maximum on lines at 45° thereto.

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  • The magnitudes of the maximum shearing stresses are indicated by the algebraic differences of the thicknesses of the lines of principal stress.

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  • Line ab is in such a position that the stresses.

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  • along and above it are not materially affected by the more irregular stresses below that line produced by the sudden change in section at the base of the dam.

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  • stresses.

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  • 4f ' 'i?11' 1 ?11Ul ' '1111rmnNSUasua um tlsseus1u111111111W111111'r..'lhl._ ' i 'Shearing Stresses ' ';%¦[[Iiiiiiiiu1111111iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii1111 Fig]].

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  • - Showing Stresses at base of model dam determined experimentally.

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  • In narrow rock gorges extremely interesting and complex problems relating to the combined action of horizontal and vertical stresses arise, and in some such cases it is evident that much may be done by means of horizontal curvature to reduce the quantity of masonry without reduction of strength.

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  • Pulleys are usually cast in one piece, and the proportions of the various parts are designed to resist the unknown stresses due to contraction of the casting in cooling, in addition to the stresses to which pulleys are subjected in use.

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  • The combination of these stresses generally limits the rim velocity of cast-iron pulleys to 80 or loo ft.

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  • These assumptions are probably not nearly correct and, as the stresses caused by the cooling of the casting are unknown, it is necessary to choose a low working stress of about one ton per square inch.

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  • The analogy with stress appears complete; the motion of the "driving link" of a machine is communicated to all the other parts, modified or unchanged as the case may be, by the stresses in those parts; but the actual setting in motion of the driving link itself cannot come about by stress, but must have for its production force obtained directly from the expenditure of some form of energy.

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  • abrasion resistance, even under high contact stresses.

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  • adsorption of surfactant at expanding liquid surfaces using an overflowing cylinder apparatus to examine Marangoni stresses.

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  • autonomist movement, which stresses direct action and eschews parties.

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  • The towering medieval cathedrals were in fact heaps of stone without any significant tensile stresses.

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  • chromo therapy lighting, the bathroom is a wonderful place to forget about the stresses and strains of daily life.

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  • Some shapes are more prone to defects as a result of the stresses encountered in the powder compaction process.

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  • compressive stresses in the masonry is taken into account in these tests.

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  • In fact, most of these films have internal stresses that are highly compressive (tending to contract ).

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  • Here the crack continues to propagate, although the stresses in the rod become compressive.

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  • This hex stresses proper conduct, watching your step.

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  • cortisol responses may only need steroid cover for major illnesses or stresses.

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  • These stresses are a consequence of the loadings but as service proceeds and creep deformation occurs the stresses will change with time.

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  • On the other hand David didn't complain against other believers, as some do when stresses occur and so cause further discouragement.

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  • This is in line with Government's desire to take a tougher stance on environmental crime and stresses the seriousness of illegally disposed waste.

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  • hillock growth relieves compressive stresses.

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  • The study has included the effects of initial imperfections, and has investigated the minor axis bending stresses that are induced.

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  • Dress On Board In keeping with our expedition atmosphere, the dress code on board stresses informality.

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  • If you have a foot shape that increases the stresses on your Achilles tendon, a molded insole in your shoe may help.

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  • In addition, the paper stresses the government's intention to continue to discourage tax motivated incorporation.

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  • mitigate the effects of the impact of work stresses on family life.

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  • Infant Hearing screening - Stresses the importance of screening newborns for hearing loss.

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  • permafrost regions are very susceptible to damage from mechanical stresses, and large spills are not uncommon in the Russian north.

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  • Axial internal stresses due to thermal expansion mismatch and cure shrinkage were taken into account, but radial stresses were ignored.

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  • soothe away the everyday stresses of your hectic daily schedule.

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  • spalling of a surface due to stresses beyond the endurance limit of the material.

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  • It can result in stresses in the amber known as sun spangles.

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  • In addition, residual stresses may also be present which remain when all external stresses have been removed.

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  • It thus stresses the link between theory and practice, and examines the often tacit assumptions which underlie translation practice.

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  • triaxial stress states to core plugs, with three independent principal stresses, has been developed.

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  • While artificial weathering is reproducible; the acute aggressive stresses mitigate against reliably replicating natural conditions.

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  • In most mechanical systems the working stresses acting between the parts can be determined when the relative positions of all the parts are known; and the energy which a system possesses in virtue of the relative positions of its parts, or its configuration, is classified as "potential energy," to distinguish it from energy of motion which we shall presently consider.

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  • When the stresses acting between the parts of a system depend only on the relative positions of those parts, the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of the system is always the same, provided the system be not acted upon by anything outside it.

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  • As subscribers' lines are invariably short, the smallest gauge of wire possessing the mechanical strength necessary to withstand the stresses to which it may be subjected can be employed, and bronze wire weighing 40 lb per mile is commonly used.

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  • Judd that this structure may be due to mechanical stresses.

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  • Availing himself of the admirable generalized co-ordinate system of Lagrange, Maxwell showed how to reduce all electric and magnetic phenomena to stresses and motions of a material medium, and, as one preliminary, but excessively severe, test of the truth of his theory, he pointed out that (if the electromagnetic medium be that which is required for the explanation of the phenomena of light) the velocity of light in vacuo should xvii.

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  • Maxwell explained electric and magnetic forces, not by the action at a distance assumed by the earlier mathematicians, but by stresses in a medium filling all space, and possessing qualities like those attributed to the old luminiferous ether.

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  • To prevent excessive bending stresses the diameter of drum and sheave must bear a proper ratio to that of the rope.

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  • All metals are elastic to this extent that a change of form, brought about by stresses not exceeding certain limit values, will disappear on the stress being removed.

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  • was whether the mechanical impulsion was a direct effect of the light, or whether the radiation only set up internal stresses, acting in and through the residual air, between the vanes and the walls of the enclosure.

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  • On the other hand, if the effects arose from balanced stresses set up inside the globe by the radiation, the effects on the vanes and on the case would be of the nature of action and reaction, so that the establishment of motion of the vanes in one direction would involve impulsion of the case in the opposite direction; but when the motion became steady there would no longer be any torque either on the vanes or on the case, and the latter would therefore come back to its previous position of equilibrium; finally, when the light was turned off, the decay of the motion of the vanes would involve impulsion of the case in the direction of their motion until the moment of the restoring torque arising from the suspension of the case had absorbed the angular momentum in the system.

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  • In later memoirs Reynolds followed up this subject by proceeding to establish definitions of the velocity and the momentum and the energy at an element of volume of the molecular medium, with the precision necessary in order that the dynamical equations of the medium in bulk, based in the usual manner on these quantities alone, without directly considering thermal stresses, shall be strictly valid - a discussion in which the relation of ordinary molar mechanics to the more complete molecular theory is involved.

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  • For stresses of different kinds Weyrauch found F

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  • The main girder is then virtually a continuous girder hinged at the points of contrary flexure, so that no ambiguity can arise as to the stresses.

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  • Whatever type of bridge is adopted, the engineer has to ascertain the loads to be carried, and to proportion the parts so that the stresses due to the loads do not exceed limits found by experience to be safe.

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  • development of theory has advanced poi passe with the demand for bridges of greater strength and span and of more complex design, and there is now little uncertainty in calculating the stresses in any of the types of structure now adopted.

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  • But if hinges are introduced at crown and springings, the calculation of the stresses in the arch ring becomes simple, as the line of pressures must pass through the hinges.

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  • In any case the position of the line of pressures is confined at the lead articulations within very narrow limits, and ambiguity as to the stresses is greatly diminished.

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  • The stresses were calculated to be 15, 17 and 12 tons per sq.

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  • of the internal stresses, which balance the external forces, shows that most of the material should be arranged in a top flange, boom or chord, subjected to compression, and a bottom flange Or chord, subjected to tension.

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  • The horizontal stresses in the flanges are greatest at the centre of a span.

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  • The stresses in the web are greatest at the ends of the span.

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  • But girders may have curved chords and then the stresses in the web are diminished.

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  • The earliest published theoretical investigations of the stresses in bracing bars were perhaps those in the paper by W.

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  • Not only were the bracing bars designed to calculated stresses, and the continuity of the girders taken into account, but the validity of the calculations was tested by a verification on the actual bridge of the position of the points of contrary flexure of the centre span.

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  • the bending moment changes sign, and therefore the magnitude and distribution of the stresses, generally prevents the adoption of continuity.

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  • If, however, hinges or joints are introduced at the points of contrary flexure, they become necessarily points where the bending moment is zero and ambiguity as to the stresses vanishes.

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  • It is available for spans greater than those practicable with independent girders; in fact, on this system the spans are virtually reduced to smaller spans so far as the stresses are concerned.

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  • road to pass between the springings and ensured the transmission of the wind stresses to the abutments without interrupting the crossbracing.

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  • In bridges so erected the straining action during erection must be studied, and material must be added to resist erecting stresses.

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  • Straining Actions and Working Stresses.

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  • (7) In some cases, especially in arch and suspension bridges, changes of temperature set up stresses equivalent to those produced by an external load.

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  • I In Austria the official regulations require that railway bridges shall be designed for at least the following live loads per foot run and per track: It would be simpler and more convenient in designing short bridges if, instead of assuming an equivalent uniform rolling load, agreement could be come to as to a typical heavy locomotive which would produce stresses as great as any existing locomotive on each class of railway.

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  • For all these reasons the stresses due to the live load are greater than those due to the same load resting quietly on the bridge.

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  • The impact stresses depend so much on local conditions that it is difficult to fix what allowance should be made.

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  • These results are for the centre deflections of main girders, but Stone infers that the augmentation of stress for any member, due to causes included in impact allowance, will be the same percentage for the same ratios of live to dead load stresses.

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  • (4) The increase per cent of boom stresses due to impact is about the same as that of deflection; that in web bracing bars is rather greater.

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  • A purely empirical allowance for impact stresses has been proposed, amounting to zo% of the live load stresses for floor stringers; 15 for floor cross girders; and for main girders, io% for 40-ft.

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  • These percentages are added to the live load stresses.

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  • The weight of main girders increases with the span, and there is for any type of bridge a limiting span beyond which the dead load stresses exceed the assigned limit of working stress.

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  • Hence the formula is more useful in the form w = (w i +w2)1 2 / (Kd -1 2) = (wl +w 2)lr/ (K -lr) where k= (wl+w2-1-w3)lr/w3 is to be deduced from the data of some bridge previously designed with the same working stresses.

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  • The committee recommended that a factor of safety of 4 should be taken for wind stresses.

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  • Stresses Permitted.

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  • In the present day engineers are in accord as to the principles of estimating the magnitude of the stresses on the members of a structure, but not so in proportioning the members to resist those stresses.

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  • for steel, was safe or more than safe for long bridges with large ratio of dead to live load, it was not safe for short ones in which the stresses are mainly due to live load, the weight of the bridge being small.

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  • be the breaking strength of the same bar when subjected to stresses varying from k max .

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  • It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses.

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  • =0, where 4 is-For-according as the stresses are of the same or opposite signs.

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  • = u (1+ (t - u) 4)/u) [Stresses of same sign.] fmax.

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  • = u(1+ (us) Iu) [Stresses of opposite sign.] The working stress in any case is f max .

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  • For shearing stresses the working stress may have o 8 of its value for tension.

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  • Determination of Stresses in the Members of Bridges.

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  • - It is convenient to consider beam girder or truss bridges, and it is the stresses in the main girders which primarily require to be determined.

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  • - In the case of braced structures the following method is convenient: When a section of a girder can be taken cutting only three bars, the stresses in the bars can be found by taking moments.

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  • Further, the range of stress to which they are subjected is the sum of the stresses due to the load advancing from the left or the right.

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  • Then the bridge is designed, so far as the direct stresses are concerned, for bending moments due to a uniform dead load and the uniform equivalent load we.

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  • The axis becomes, therefore, a line of resistance, and in reasoning of the stresses on frames we may treat the frame as consisting of simple straight lines from joint to joint.

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  • It is found in practice that the stresses on the several members do not differ sensibly whether these members are pinned together with a single pin or more rigidly jointed by several bolts or rivets.

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  • A frame used to support a weight is often called a truss; the stresses on the various members of a truss can be computed for any given load with greater accuracy than the intensity of stress on the various parts of a continuous structure such as a tubular girder, or the rib of an arch.

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  • Many assumptions are made in treating of the flexure of a continuous structure which are not strictly true; no assumption is made in determining the stresses on a frame except that the joints are flexible, and that the frame shall be so stiff as not sensibly to alter in form under the load.

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  • These stresses will be unknown quantities, which the designer cannot take into account, and such a combination should if possible be avoided.

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  • The cantilever and suspended girder types are as economical and free from uncertainty as to ' ??` the stresses.

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  • Reciprocal figures are easily drawn by following definite rules, and afford therefore a simple method of computing the stresses on members of a frame.

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  • Rankine gives the approximate rule Working deflection =5= l a /t o,000h, where l is the span and h the depth of the beam, the stresses being those usual in bridgework, due to the total dead and live load.

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  • It is never exhibited except by rocks which have been sub jected to the tangential stresses set up in the earth's crust by folding.

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  • These stresses may operate in several ways.

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  • But if a concrete slab be "reinforced" with a network of small steel rods on its under surface where the tensile stresses occur (see fig.

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  • Concrete by itself, though strong in compression, can offer but little resistance to tensile and shearing stresses, and as these stresses always occur in beams the problem arises how best to arrange the steel so as to assist the concrete in bearing them.

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  • To meet tensile stresses the steel is nearly always inserted in the form of bars running along the beam.

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  • In each case the object is to place the bars as nearly as possible where the tensile stresses occur.

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  • In cases where all the stresses are heavy, that portion of the beam which is under compression is similarly reinforced, though with smaller bars (figs.

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  • generally placed near the under and upper surface of the beam they are of little use in helping to resist the shearing stresses which are great- 1 est at its neutral axis.

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  • (See Bridges.) These shearing stresses in a heavily loaded beam would cause it to split horizontally at or near the centre.

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  • Floor slabs may be regarded as wide and shallow beams, and the remarks made about the stresses in the one apply to the other also; accordingly, the various devices which are used for strengthening beams recur in the slabs.

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  • But in a thin slab, with its comparatively small span and light load, the concrete is generally strong enough to bear the shearing stresses unaided, and the reinforcement is devoted to assisting it where the tensile stresses occur.

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  • A concrete arch is reinforced in much the same way as a wall, the stresses being somewhat similar.

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  • Troostite and Sorbite, indeed, seem to be chiefly very finely divided mixtures of ferrite and cementite, and it is probably because of this fineness that sorbitic steel has its remarkable combination of strength and elasticity with ductility which fits it for resisting severe vibratory and other dynamic stresses, such as those to which rails and shafting are exposed.

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  • this coarseness and the consequent brittleness are removed, by reheating them much above Ac 3, which also relieves the internal stresses due to the different rates at which different layers cool, and hence contract, during and after solidification.

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  • The combination of ductility, which lessens the tendency to break when overstrained or distorted, with a very high limit of elasticity, gives it great value for shafting, the merit of which is measured by its endurance of the repeated stresses to which its rotation exposes it whenever its alignment is not mathematically straight.

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  • Another branch of meaning stresses the formal, customary aspect; and hence in such phrases as "solemn act," probate in "solemn form," it means that which is done with all due forms and ceremonies.

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  • There are no regulations in England limiting the working stresses that may safely be placed upon timber, although in some districts the least sizes that may be used for timbers in roofs and floors are specified.

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  • In some European and other countries, however, the safe working stresses of timber used for constructional purposes are defined.

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  • The building by-laws of the municipality of Johannesburg, in South Africa, contain the following table: Safe Working Stresses for Timber.

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  • - The compression stresses are for short struts and columns where the length does not exceed for timber 15 times the least transverse dimension, and where the ends are fixed.

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  • Severe simplicity is also most in harmony with constructional designs in plated work, where stresses occur in straight lines.

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  • In some regions, notably in the Baltic province and in parts of the United States, the rocks still retain their original horizontality of deposition, the muds are scarcely indurated and the sands are still incoherent; but in most parts of the world they bear abundant evidence of the many movements and stresses to which they have been exposed through so enormous a period of time.

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  • When a plane frame which is just rigid is subject to a given system of equilibrating extraneous forces (in its own plane) acting on the joints, the stresses in the bars are in general uniquely determinate.

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  • For the conditions of equilibrium of the forces on each pin furnish vi equations, viz, two for each point, which are linear in respect of the stresses and the extraneous forces.

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  • This system of equations must involve the three conditions of equilibrium of the extraneous forces which are already identically satisfied, by hypothesis; there remain therefore 2n ~ independent relations to determine the 2n3 unknown stresses.

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  • The stresses produced by extraneous forces in a simple frame can be found by considering the equilibrium of the various joints in a proper succession; and if the graphical method be employed the various polygons of force can be combined into a single force-diagram.

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  • The stresses in the bars, in the problem as thus modified, may be supposed found by the preceding methods; it remains to infer from the results thus obtained the reactions in the original form of the problem.

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  • The principle can of course be extended to any system of particles or rigid bodies, connected together in any, way, provided we take into account the internal stresses, or reactions, between the various parts.

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  • We are thus able tc imagine a great variety of mechanical systems to which tht principle of virtual work can be applied without any regard tc the internal stresses, provided the hypothetical displacements be such that none of the connections of the system are violated.

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  • The principle of virtual work is specially convenient in the theory of frames (~ 6), since the reactions at smooth joints and the stresses in inextensible bars may be left out of account.

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  • We have seen that the stresses produced by an equilibrating system of extraneous forces in a frame which is just rigid, according to the criterion of 6, are in general uniquely determinate; in particular, when there are no extraneous forces the bars are in general free from stress.

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  • When a frame has a critical form it may be in a state of stress independently of the action of extraneous forces; moreover, the stresses due to extraneous forces are F indeterminate, and may be infinite.

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  • In a critical form we _____________________ have Os = o, and the equation is satisfied FIG C2 by an arbitrary value of S; a consistent system of stresses in the remaining bars can then be found by preceding rules.

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  • Again, when extraneous forces P act on the joints, the equation is Z(P.&P)+S.Os=-o, where op is the displacement of any joint in the direction of the corresponding force P. If ~(P. Op) =o, the stresses are merely indeterminate as before; but if ~ (P. op) does not vanish, the equation cannot be satisfied by any finite value of S, since Os =0.

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  • This means that, if the material of the frame were absolutely unyielding, no finite stresses in the bars would enable it to withstand the extraneous forces.

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  • The stresses in the bars would then be comparatively very great, although finite.

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  • We may note that a frame of n joints which is just rigid must have 3116 bars; and that the stresses produced in such a frame by a given system of extraneous forces in equilibrium are statically determinate, subject to the exception of critical forms.

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  • The statement may be extended to a system of rigid bodies, provided the mutual reactions consist of the stresses in inextensible links, or the pressures between smooth surfaces, or the reactions at rolling contacts (~ 9).

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  • It is shown that a machine may at any instant be represented by a frame of links the stresses in which are identical with the pressures at the joints of the mechanism.

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  • The driving and resisting efforts are represented by elastic links in the dynamic frame, and when the frame with its elastic links is drawn the stresses in the several members of it may be determined by means of reciprocal figures.

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  • Dalby (London, 1906), where the inertia stresses brought upon the several links of a Joy valve gear, belonging to an express passenger engine of the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway, are investigated for an engine-speed of 68 m.

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  • Let us consider the stresses which are c d exerted across this imaginary section by the 9.

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  • All portions of the frame are united by hot rivets of mild steel or wrought iron, care being taken that the sum of the sectional areas of rivets affords in each case a sufficient amount of metal for the safe transfer of the stresses.

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  • In transferring the loads from the column bases to the bottom of the footings the greatest care must be taken in all systems of construction that the stresses throughout at no point exceed the safe limits of stress for the various materials used.

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  • In calculations for wind pressures, the working stresses set forth in the code may be increased by fifty per centum.

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  • There is no serious difficulty in so constructing walls of this kind as to be practically water-tight while they remain unbroken; but owing to the settlement of the earthen embankments and the changing level of saturation they are undoubtedly subject to irregular stresses which cannot be calculated, and under which, speaking generally, plastic materials are much safer.

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  • If, therefore, the centre of that became so far removed to the right as to make j coincident with b, the diagram of stresses would become the triangle j'l'c', and the vertical pressure at the inner face would be nil.

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  • During the last few years attention has been directed to the stresses - including shearing stresses - on planes other than horizontal.

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  • 2 Dr Unwin took two horizontal planes, one close above the other, and calculated the vertical stresses on each by the law of uniformly varying stresses.

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  • The weights being known, the principal stresses may be determined.

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  • These researches led to a wide discussion of the sufficiency of the law of uniformly varying stress when applied to horizontal joints as a test of the stability of dams. Professor Karl Pearson showed that the results are dependent upon the assumption that the distribution of the vertical stresses on the base of the structure also followed the law of uniformly varying stress.

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  • He stated that it wa g practically impossible to determine the stresses by purely mathematical means.

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  • The late Sir Benjamin Baker, F.R.S., suggested that the stresses might be measured by experiments with elastic models, and among others, experiments were carried out by Messrs Wilson and Gore a with indiarubber models of plane sections of dams (including the foundations) who applied forces to represent the gravity and water pressures in such a manner that the virtual density of the rubber was increased many times without interfering with the proper ratio between gravity and water pressure, and by this means the strains produced were of sufficient magnitude to be easily measured.

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  • The maximum principal stresses are represented by the directions and thicknesses of the two systems of intersecting lines mutually at right angles.

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  • Tensile stresses (indicated by broken lines on the diagram) are shown at the upstream toe notwithstanding that the line of resistance is well within the middle third of the section.

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  • Similar experiments upon models with rounded toes but otherwise of the same form showed a considerable reduction in the magnitude of the tensile stresses.

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  • On examining the diagram it will be observed that the maximum compressive stresses are parallel to and near to the down stream face of the section, which values are approximately equal to the maximum value of the vertical stress determined by the law of uniformly varying stress divided by the cosine squared of the angle between the vertical and the resultant.

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  • Arrow heads at the ends of an axis of an ellipse indicate tension as distinct from compression, and the semi-axes in magnitude and direction represent the principal stresses.

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  • The two systems of lines mutually at right angles show the directions of the maximum and minimum stresses respectively.

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  • Such stresses.

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  • are termed principal stresses.

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  • The shearing stresses are zero along the lines of principal stress and reach a maximum on lines at 45° thereto.

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  • The magnitudes of the maximum shearing stresses are indicated by the algebraic differences of the thicknesses of the lines of principal stress.

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  • Line ab is in such a position that the stresses.

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  • along and above it are not materially affected by the more irregular stresses below that line produced by the sudden change in section at the base of the dam.

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  • 4f ' 'i?11' 1 ?11Ul ' '1111rmnNSUasua um tlsseus1u111111111W111111'r..'lhl._ ' i 'Shearing Stresses ' ';%¦[[Iiiiiiiiu1111111iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii1111 Fig]].

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  • - Showing Stresses at base of model dam determined experimentally.

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  • There are many structures at present in existence bearing considerably greater loads than this, and the granite ashlar masonry of at least one, the Bear Valley dam in California, is subject to compressive stresses, reaching, when the reservoir is full, at least 40 to 50 tons per sq.

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  • ft., while certain brickwork linings in mining shafts are subject to very high circumferential stresses, due to known water-pressures.

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  • In portions of the structure liable to important changes of pressure from the rise, and fall of the water and subject to the additional stresses which expansion and contraction by changes of temperature and of moisture induce, and in view of the great difficulty of securing that the average modulus of elasticity in all parts of the structure shall be approximately the same, it is probably desirable to limit the calculated load upon any external work, even of the best kind, to 15 or 20 tons per sq.

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  • In narrow rock gorges extremely interesting and complex problems relating to the combined action of horizontal and vertical stresses arise, and in some such cases it is evident that much may be done by means of horizontal curvature to reduce the quantity of masonry without reduction of strength.

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  • Pulleys are usually cast in one piece, and the proportions of the various parts are designed to resist the unknown stresses due to contraction of the casting in cooling, in addition to the stresses to which pulleys are subjected in use.

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  • The combination of these stresses generally limits the rim velocity of cast-iron pulleys to 80 or loo ft.

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  • These assumptions are probably not nearly correct and, as the stresses caused by the cooling of the casting are unknown, it is necessary to choose a low working stress of about one ton per square inch.

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  • The analogy with stress appears complete; the motion of the "driving link" of a machine is communicated to all the other parts, modified or unchanged as the case may be, by the stresses in those parts; but the actual setting in motion of the driving link itself cannot come about by stress, but must have for its production force obtained directly from the expenditure of some form of energy.

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  • German codes were changed in the 1980s, omitting limitations on tensile stresses in concrete roadway decks under service conditions.

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  • Axial internal stresses due to thermal expansion mismatch and cure shrinkage were taken into account, but radial stresses were ignored.

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  • With our warm welcome and Thai hospitality, soothe away the everyday stresses of your hectic daily schedule.

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  • Fatigue Cracking, flaking or spalling of a surface due to stresses beyond the endurance limit of the material.

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  • It can result in stresses in the amber known as sun spangles.

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  • In addition, residual stresses may also be present which remain when all external stresses have been removed.

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  • It thus stresses the link between theory and practice, and examines the often tacit assumptions which underlie translation practice.

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  • A test cell for applying true triaxial stress states to core plugs, with three independent principal stresses, has been developed.

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  • While artificial weathering is reproducible; the acute aggressive stresses mitigate against reliably replicating natural conditions.

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  • It wasn't a single event, but the confluence of multiple stresses that caused her massive anxiety.

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  • KidsHealth.org stresses the importance of watching closely for allergic reactions as well as keeping your child on a safe and strict feeding schedule.

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  • This is due to the stresses created in tempered glass by the tempering process.

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  • These stresses are revealed when the light filters through the polarized lens.

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  • If company stresses him out, try gently moving him to a quiet room until your guests leave.

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  • If you and your vet decide that stress is causing the loss, you will need to take measures to reduce stress in your cat's environment as well as make sure that she is receiving proper nutrition to help her body deal with the stresses.

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  • There's a disclaimer that stresses "All terms, including the APRs and fees, are subject to change at any time, for any reason, in accordance with the credit card agreement and applicable law."

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  • A front loader is gentler on your clothes because instead of an agitator, which beats the clothes through the water and thus stresses and twists the fabric, the machines boast a horizontal axis, which tumbles them in and out of the water.

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  • Turn your bathroom into a peaceful retreat from all of the day's stresses and troubles with elegant bathroom designs.

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  • These soothing, warm colors are perfect for the bedroom to help create a tranquil, relaxing atmosphere for unwinding, resting or just escaping the stresses of everyday life.

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  • Though controlling anger might seem a daunting and formidable task, anger management worksheets can help alleviate anger and reduce the accumulative stresses associated with these powerful emotions.

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  • From there, we can more readily understand which kinds of stresses are the most dangerous to the body and then learn the various techniques for dealing with them.

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  • By practicing cosmic meditation, we can renew our connections to the universe and realize that our stresses, no matter how crucial they may seem at the moment, are really insignificant in the vastness of all things cosmic.

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  • If travel time stresses you out, look for employment you can perform closer to home.

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  • The focus of this book is to help you identify what stresses you out, the effects of the stress, and how to find ways to decrease it by using relaxation techniques.

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  • If the place you are at right now stresses you out, take your mind to a different place.

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  • They find it difficult to control their worry and may not be able to stop thinking about the thing that they have become fixated on that stresses them out.

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  • If being in social situations stresses you out or just hanging out with family is enough to make you cringe to the point of almost having an anxiety attack, don't feel obligated to deal with the situation for more time than you can.

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  • There are movies that humorously display typical holiday stresses and poke fun at these events, but in reality stressful situations can really take a toll.

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  • When something stresses you out, your heart beats faster, your muscles tense and your blood pressure may rise.

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  • With any important event in life, there are bound to be some stresses.

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  • After the initial feelings of euphoria have subsided, the addict feels relaxed and drowsy, and this may be a welcome alternative to the stresses in his or her life.

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  • Choosing a nonprofit or community-based rehab center can help make treatment more affordable, especially for those who have experienced challenges such as job loss, financial hardship and other life stresses.

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  • After the challenges and stresses of a long work day, there is nothing like stepping through the doors of your own home, especially when you have invested a great deal of your own talents toward developing the comfort that you enjoy within.

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  • With a year that included the death of her mother and the continued estrangement from her dad, Jon Voight, Jolie blamed her weight loss on the stresses of her life.

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  • One mom blogs about her tips for saving money at Gymboree and stresses how much she saves using Gymbucks at various times of the year.

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  • The college also stresses cultural enrichment and leadership values.

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  • For educators, a program that stresses independent reading and research may not be as useful as on-site opportunities in a practical teaching environment.

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  • With its gorgeous beaches, sun-filled days and cobalt blue waters, a Mexican voyage can melt away stresses of everyday life.

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  • Could the stresses caused by a recent move have contributed to the behavior?

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  • Tiring workdays and everyday stresses can make it hard to stay in shape.

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  • For anyone who has ever cared for an ailing family member, the stresses can be quite high.

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  • The caregiver can fill the gap on days when the family caregiver has other commitments, or can just ease some of the time related stresses.

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  • Caregivers also benefit from much needed support and counseling to help them cope with the stresses involved with the caregiver role.

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  • Genetics and environmental stresses are primary causes.

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  • Structural Engineering: Understanding architecture, construction, track layouts, and structural stresses is necessary to ensure that a coaster can run smoothly.

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  • Sitting too close to your television while playing video games stresses the eyes and, over time, can weaken the muscles that allow you to focus.

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  • This is a professional organization that stresses ethics, education, and support for professional appraisers and can give you a few referrals in your area.

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  • The LeBoyer method stresses a relaxed delivery in a quiet, dimly lit room.

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  • Fantasy characters and situations appeal to young imaginations and provide an escape from everyday routine and the stresses presented by parents, friends, and school.

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  • Stepfamilies are at greater risk for failure and broken marriage due to the increased stresses of stepfamily life.

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  • These stresses include the unclear role and authority of the stepparent, financial responsibility for stepchildren, conflict between custodial and noncustodial parents, and emotional tensions.

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  • Adolescents are especially vulnerable to psychological and emotional problems resulting from a combination of puberty and family stresses.

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  • One workplace psychologist estimates that businesses in the United States lose more than $10 billion annually due to problems related to stepfamily issues, working parents, and other marital stresses.

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  • Any unfamiliar activity that stresses a muscle or joint may cause a strain or sprain.

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  • The degree of aggressiveness during each episode is grossly out of proportion to any stresses.

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  • Inflammation of a tendon (tendinitis) and inflammation of one of the fluid-filled sacs that allow tendons to move easily over bones (bursitis) usually result from minor stresses that repeatedly aggravate the same part of the body.

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  • Not only is the immature digestive tract less able to protect itself, but premature infants are subjected to many stresses on the body in their attempt to survive.

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  • They tend to be inflexible, rigid, and unable to respond to the changes and normal stresses of life and find it very difficult to participate in social activities.

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  • Stresses at home, such as parents arguing a lot, and problems at school, such as difficult lessons, being bullied, or not having friends, can have a negative impact on a child's self-esteem.

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  • Nightmares are common throughout childhood, changing somewhat in content and frequency as children move through different developmental phases and acquire more skills to cope with the changing realities and stresses in their lives.

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  • Most experts agree that the teacher should emphasize the association between simple phonetic units with letters or letter groups, rather than an approach that stresses memorizing whole words.

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  • Parents may find it helpful to track their child's moods and behaviors and to help children learn to track their own moods and behaviors to help identify possible stresses and causative factors.

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  • A firm bond between mother and child affects all later development, and it influences how well children will react to new experiences, situations, and stresses.

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  • Bleeding from the nose, therefore, usually follows these seasonal stresses.

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  • One researcher in Australia stated that the stresses on families with children diagnosed with moderate or severe AD are greater than the burdens on families with children with type 1 diabetes.

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  • These stresses include loss of sleep, loss of employment for the parents, time taken for direct care of the skin disorder, and the financial costs of treatment.

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  • In many cases the entire family's quality of life is affected by the stresses and frustrations of coping with the disease, and other family members' reactions may in turn upset the child with AD.

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  • Many young people have difficulty coping with these stresses.

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  • On the other end of the spectrum is the fact that dance (along with other physical activities) engages a different part of the brain than intellectual exercises like writing or dealing with the day-to-day stresses.

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  • Many people find that dance helps them let go of the stresses and then come back to deal with problems in a more positive light.

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  • The key is to create a room that is serene, calm and relaxing - in essence, a room that could quickly chip away at your stresses as soon as you walk through the door.

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  • The New York Cosmetic Laser Surgery center stresses that people with dark hair colors (brown and black) respond the best to treatments.

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  • Wen hair care products are free of harsh chemicals and detergents, making them the perfect choice for anyone experiencing the stresses of long-term chemical and styling damage.

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  • If you find it challenging to deal with the daily stresses of ethnic hair, you'll find plenty of support and suggestions for taming your resilient hair type.

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  • The organization stresses providing customers with service that is personal, friendly, and helpful.

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  • The stigma and emotional stresses from becoming a teen mom will also be a factor in Jamie Lynn's ability to raise a child.

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  • The ABC News story stresses that Beatie as well as any transgender pregnant person should avoid taking testosterone during the pregnancy since the hormone can cause complications in female babies.

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  • As a married mother of two, Tenison understands the stresses and demands of juggling both career and family, and she keeps that in mind with all of her designs.

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  • Again, the company stresses their sizes are brief, and by comparison, you can expect a Wicked Weasel size large to cover almost as much as the average size small of other swimwear lines.

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  • Nutritional deficiencies can contribute greatly to your hair's appearance, and there are vitamins for hair that you can take that may help reduce environmental stresses and make the most of the genetics of your specific head of hair.

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  • They make great gifts and the high quality oils used in them provide for hours of relaxation from the stresses of life.

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  • She also stresses the importance of verifying everything a potential online match tells you.

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  • For most couples, one of the stresses mentioned above is enough to end a relationship; you face both challenges to overcome should you get back with your ex-girlfriend.

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  • Both the giver and the receiver need to stay flexible in terms of when the coupon is used, because things like work and kids and all of life's other stresses can get in the way.

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  • With the hyperstimulation and multiple stresses of everyday life, actually getting to the point of being able to really focus on your partner and the act of lovemaking can be difficult.

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  • She stresses that having multiple situations for social interaction is also crucial.

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  • The vast majority of diamonds are colorless - what gives a diamond its color is one of two things: either impurities in the chemical composition (diamonds are pure crystal carbon), or unusual stresses while the diamond is being formed.

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  • Durability: Couples who ride frequently may not want to subject a specialized wedding ring to the stresses that riding and caring for motorcycles can create.

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  • This sun sign enjoys being at home and creating a nurturing respite away from the stresses of every day life.

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  • Between dealing with work pressures, stresses at home, and the rigors of parenting, even the best parents lose their cool sometimes.

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  • Everyday stresses cannot be completely eliminated, but there are things you can do to help reduce the problematic, ongoing stress.

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  • It means the insole cushioning is in the right place and working hard to absorb as many of the stresses of walking in heels as possible.

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  • Without pressure or stresses, this creature is known to live a life of freedom.

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  • These all-inclusive vacations allow people to really turn their minds off and to step out of the stresses of the real world for a few days and enter a place where they can truly unwind and recharge.

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  • Three years later, a professional diver from Hiroshima contacted Seiko requesting a watch that could withstand the tremendous pressures and stresses of saturation dives to 350 meters.

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  • Yoga for the Rest of Us by Peggy Cappy stresses that yoga can and should be done by all people - you don't need to be "young, thin, or a contortionist".

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  • Kripalu stresses the acceptance of every detail of the present (whether physical or mental), and encourages yoga practitioners to be at rest within themselves.

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  • Take a deep breath, get into the downward facing dog position and feel your stresses eased away.

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  • For the intermediate or advanced student, Power yoga is a specialized class intended to invigorate students, and "Yoga-on-the-Go'' is designed to bring your day to a satisfying close regardless of the stresses you encountered that day.

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  • Ashtanga ispopular among athletes because it stresses the physical aspects (and provides many physical benefits) of yoga.

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  • Although some of the conferences address behavioral interventions, DAN stresses that a biomedical approach is necessary to treat autistic disorders.

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  • While it may seem to you that cheerleading is a workout in and of itself, cheerleading puts different kinds of stresses on your shoes than jogging or dancing.

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  • The cornerstone of an effective diet is one that stresses overall health, not just weight loss.

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  • Since Weight Watchers stresses the importance of moderation, no foods are "off-limits."

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  • In all of his books, Dr. Atkins stresses eating luxurious and satiating foods such as steak, lobster, bacon, and butter.

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  • In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stresses that it costs 1,000 times more to treat these diseases than to prevent them!

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  • Atkins stresses sumptuous, high fat foods like bacon, heavy cream, butter and beef along with a limited number of vegetables.

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  • Dr. Barry Sears created the Zone diet, which restricts carbohydrates and stresses eating healthy foods.

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  • The program takes into account the 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines and stresses the importance of eating three well-balanced meals as well as healthy snacks.

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  • You will be able to find relief from the stresses of everyday life.

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  • It is an antidote to the stresses on which life places on you.

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  • Your body will adapt to the new stresses by increasing its ability to use oxygen more effectively and produce more energy.

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  • Since the main marketing focus for this company is minimum insurance coverage, Safe Auto stresses the fact that it sends out documents that can serve as the required "proof of insurance."

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  • From a bubbling brook to the rustling leaves of a rainforest, sometimes you just need to return to nature to ground yourself, find peace, and relieve yourself of worldly stresses.

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  • The significance of seven days is its relation to the Nguzo Saba, which stresses the importance of communitarian values and practices.

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  • The QuiverFull movement also stresses family organization, homesteading and homeschooling, all of which is prominent in the Duggar household.

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  • Of course they also deal with everyday things like helping their children choose a college as well as dealing with stresses in their marriages.

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  • While he acknowledges that polygamy is not considered legal, he also stresses that his family life is not the same as the typical view that most people have of polygamist families.

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  • Founder and owner of the highly regarded Skinsational Spa in North San Diego, Joyce stresses both professional and home care to keep skin at its best.

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  • Chris Brogan stresses that the true "gold" of LinkedIn lies in the recommendations, which need to be genuine and business related.

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  • This is a thicker, tougher thread than most streetwear is made with, and it's designed to handle the extreme stresses of dancing and rapid, repetitive movement.

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  • All metals are elastic to this extent that a change of form, brought about by stresses not exceeding certain limit values, will disappear on the stress being removed.

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  • was whether the mechanical impulsion was a direct effect of the light, or whether the radiation only set up internal stresses, acting in and through the residual air, between the vanes and the walls of the enclosure.

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  • On the other hand, if the effects arose from balanced stresses set up inside the globe by the radiation, the effects on the vanes and on the case would be of the nature of action and reaction, so that the establishment of motion of the vanes in one direction would involve impulsion of the case in the opposite direction; but when the motion became steady there would no longer be any torque either on the vanes or on the case, and the latter would therefore come back to its previous position of equilibrium; finally, when the light was turned off, the decay of the motion of the vanes would involve impulsion of the case in the direction of their motion until the moment of the restoring torque arising from the suspension of the case had absorbed the angular momentum in the system.

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  • The problem of the stresses in rarefied gaseous media arising from inequalities of temperature, which is thereby opened out, involves some of the most delicate considerations in molecular physics.

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  • As far as the order to which he carried the approximations - which, however, were based on a simplifying hypothesis that the molecules influenced each other through mutual repulsions inversely as the fifth power of their distance apart--the result was that the equations of motion of the gas, considered as subject to viscous and thermal stresses, could be satisfied by a state of equilibrium under a modified internal pressure equal in all directions.

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  • In later memoirs Reynolds followed up this subject by proceeding to establish definitions of the velocity and the momentum and the energy at an element of volume of the molecular medium, with the precision necessary in order that the dynamical equations of the medium in bulk, based in the usual manner on these quantities alone, without directly considering thermal stresses, shall be strictly valid - a discussion in which the relation of ordinary molar mechanics to the more complete molecular theory is involved.

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  • Launhardt found that, for stresses always of the same kind, F = (t-u)/(t-fmax.) approximately agreed with experiment.

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  • For stresses of different kinds Weyrauch found F

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  • Whatever type of bridge is adopted, the engineer has to ascertain the loads to be carried, and to proportion the parts so that the stresses due to the loads do not exceed limits found by experience to be safe.

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  • development of theory has advanced poi passe with the demand for bridges of greater strength and span and of more complex design, and there is now little uncertainty in calculating the stresses in any of the types of structure now adopted.

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  • But if hinges are introduced at crown and springings, the calculation of the stresses in the arch ring becomes simple, as the line of pressures must pass through the hinges.

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  • of the internal stresses, which balance the external forces, shows that most of the material should be arranged in a top flange, boom or chord, subjected to compression, and a bottom flange Or chord, subjected to tension.

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  • It is available for spans greater than those practicable with independent girders; in fact, on this system the spans are virtually reduced to smaller spans so far as the stresses are concerned.

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  • (7) In some cases, especially in arch and suspension bridges, changes of temperature set up stresses equivalent to those produced by an external load.

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  • I In Austria the official regulations require that railway bridges shall be designed for at least the following live loads per foot run and per track: It would be simpler and more convenient in designing short bridges if, instead of assuming an equivalent uniform rolling load, agreement could be come to as to a typical heavy locomotive which would produce stresses as great as any existing locomotive on each class of railway.

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  • For all these reasons the stresses due to the live load are greater than those due to the same load resting quietly on the bridge.

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  • The weight of main girders increases with the span, and there is for any type of bridge a limiting span beyond which the dead load stresses exceed the assigned limit of working stress.

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  • Stresses Permitted.

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  • In the present day engineers are in accord as to the principles of estimating the magnitude of the stresses on the members of a structure, but not so in proportioning the members to resist those stresses.

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  • for steel, was safe or more than safe for long bridges with large ratio of dead to live load, it was not safe for short ones in which the stresses are mainly due to live load, the weight of the bridge being small.

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  • = u (1+ (t - u) 4)/u) [Stresses of same sign.] fmax.

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  • The problem of the stresses in rarefied gaseous media arising from inequalities of temperature, which is thereby opened out, involves some of the most delicate considerations in molecular physics.

    0
    1
  • As far as the order to which he carried the approximations - which, however, were based on a simplifying hypothesis that the molecules influenced each other through mutual repulsions inversely as the fifth power of their distance apart--the result was that the equations of motion of the gas, considered as subject to viscous and thermal stresses, could be satisfied by a state of equilibrium under a modified internal pressure equal in all directions.

    0
    1
  • Launhardt found that, for stresses always of the same kind, F = (t-u)/(t-fmax.) approximately agreed with experiment.

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    1
  • These stresses may operate in several ways.

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