How to use Stress in a sentence
But I stress the word "reasonably."
Just don't put stress on yourself trying to be frugal.
Diablo. He's Yancey's method of relieving stress and getting away from us women once in a while.
Mary needs an environment without stress.
I'm not allowed to stress you out, but can you, like, try?Advertisement
I've caused you so much stress – and at a time when I should have been supporting you.
Finally he laid stress upon the immense importance of Livonia for the development of Russian trade.
The superiority of the Christian faith both philosophically and ethically is set forth, the chief stress being laid on monachism, with which heathen philosophy has nothing to compare.
It ceases to lay much stress upon coincidences between Old Testament predictions or " types " and events in Christ's career.
Simply purchasing needs without the stress of budgeting was a relief.Advertisement
Certainly she had been under a lot of stress.
The last thing was stress.
Much stress is laid on the value of manure, and mention is made of clover.
The last years of his life were troubled by a new period of storm and stress which called for his highest powers of calculation and self-control.
To a youth and womanhood of storm and stress had succeeded an old age of serene activity and then of calm decay.Advertisement
Both Darwin and Wallace lay great stress on the close relation which obtains between the existing fauna of any region and that of the immediately antecedent geological epoch in the same region; and rightly, for it is in truth inconceivable that there should be no genetic connexion between the two.
The evidence as set out by Darwin has been added to enormously; new knowledge has in many cases altered our conceptions of the mode of the actual process of evolution, and from time to time a varying stress has been laid on what are known as the purely Darwinian factors in the theory.
They laid great stress on the nitrogenous nature of protoplasm, and noted that it preceded the formation of the cell-membrane.
She had thought of the stress on an adopted baby before, but in this instance, her entire focus had been on Lori.
He felt then, and still more after the Reform Act of 1866, that "we must educate our masters," 1 and he rather scandalized his old university friends by the stress he laid on physical science as opposed to classical studies.Advertisement
But great stress was laid on the production of written evidence.
All the stress now fell on the disposition, not on the outward act.
That's what matters, not a formality that only creates more stress.
With the Brethren, however, the chief stress was laid, not on doctrine, but on conduct.
Individual leaders in times of stress acquired a recognized supremacy, and, once a tribe outstripped the rest, the opportunities for continued advance gave further scope to their authority.Advertisement
Seers and prophets of all kinds ranged from those who were consulted for daily mundane affairs to those who revealed the oracles in times of stress, from those who haunted local holy sites to those high in royal favour, from the quiet domestic communities to the austere mountain recluse.
There is no revulsion, as later, from dogma as such, nor is more stress laid upon one dogma than upon another; all are treated upon the same footing, and the whole dogmatic system is held, as it were, in solution by the philosophic medium in which it is presented.
Its chief importance is perhaps the stress which it laid on the vital connexion which must subsist between true economic theory and the wider facts of social and national development.
In several recent attempts to group the orders into sub-classes, stress has been laid upon a few characters in the imago.
Some of those zoologists who look to Peripatus, or a similar worm-like form, as representing the direct ancestors of the Hexapoda have laid stress on a larva like the caterpillar of a moth or saw-fly as representing a primitive stage.
A large section of her members, accordingly, laying stress on this side of her tradition, prefer to call themselves " Catholics."
By the union of great moral qualities with high, though not the highest, intellectual faculties, he carried the Indian empire safely through the stress of the storm, and, what was perhaps a harder task still, he dealt wisely with the enormous difficulties arising at the close of such a war, established a more liberal policy and a sounder financial system, and left the people more contented than they were before.
The "Cleveland plan," in force in the public schools, minimizes school routine, red tape and frequent examinations, puts great stress on domestic and manual training courses, and makes promotion in the grammar schools depend on the general knowledge and development of the pupil, as estimated by a teacher who is supposed to make a careful study of the individual.
These deal with the casuists of the Counter - Reformation in the spirit of Milton, laying especial stress on the artificiality of their methods and the laxity of their results.
It would appear, however, that Cerinthus laid stress on the rite of circumcision and on the observance of the Sabbath.
Our Health & Beauty Rooms offer the perfect antidote to stress.
Whatever happened … There's nothing to stress about, he added when she was silent.
And yet, like an unruly child, she had rebelled, causing him endless worry and stress.
When the stress came, and he retreated to the British legation, he took an active part in the defence, and spared neither risk nor toil in his exertions.
Young, brave and handsome, he won the love and devotion of his people, and guided them through the long years of storm and stress with wisdom and ability.
Congress, however, had now got their opportunity, and they used the time of national stress to bring increased pressure to bear upon the president.
Under the stress of the appalling financial conditions represented by chronic deficit, crushing taxation, the heavy expenditure necessary for the consolidation of the kingdom, the reform of the army and the interest on the pontifical debt, Sella, on the 11th of December 1871, exposed to parliament the financial situation in all its nakedness.
Humboldt's contemporary, Carl Ritter (1779-1859), extended and disseminated the same views, and in his interpretation of " Comparative Geography " he laid stress on the importance of Iditter.
The Lymexylonidae, a small family of this group, characterized by its slender, undifferentiated feelers and feet, is believed by Lameere to comprise the most primitive of all living beetles, and Sharp lays stress on the undeveloped structure of the tribe generally.
In his eighteenth year, while still a student in Edinburgh, he contributed two valuable papers to the Transactions of the same society - one of which, " On the Equilibrium of Elastic Solids," is remarkable, not only on account of its intrinsic power and the youth of its author, but also because in it he laid the foundation of one of the most singular discoveries of his later life, the temporary double refraction produced in viscous liquids by shearing stress.
The great stress which they laid upon this aspect of Christian truth caused them to be charged with unbelief in the current orthodox views as to the inspiration of the Scriptures, and the person and work of Christ, a charge which they always denied.
Huss indeed laid more stress on church reform than on theological controversy.
Maybe it was relief from the stress of worrying about that moment – or hormones.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
In the younger contemporary prophet of Ephraim, Hosea, the stress is laid on the relation of love (hesed) between Yahweh, the divine husband, and Israel, the faithless spouse.
But the problems are admittedly complicated, and since one is necessarily dependent upon scanty narratives arranged and rearranged by later hands in accordance with their own historical theories, it is difficult to lay stress upon internal evidence which appears to be conclusive for this or that reconstruction.
Whilst much grass land has been laid down with the intention from the outset that it should be permanent, at the same time some considerable areas have through stress of circumstances been allowed to drift from the temporary or rotation grass area to the permanent list, and have thus still further diminished the area formerly under the dominion of the plough.
This was due, no doubt, to his revulsion from the sternness of his upbringing and the period of stress through which he passed in early manhood, but also to the sympathetic and emotional qualities which manifested themselves in his early manhood.
The Sidra Rabba lays great stress upon the duty of procreation, and marriage is a duty.
Brauer in his arrangement of these orders laid special stress on the nature of the metamorphosis, and was the first to draw attention to the number of Malpighian tubes as of importance in classification.
Klapalek (1904) lays stress on a supposed distinction between appendicular and non-appendicular genital processes.
The besiegers were no sooner in the city, than they were besieged in their turn by Kerbogha; and the twenty-five days which followed were the worst period of stress and strain which the crusaders had to encounter.
Then came the stress of war in Europe, a wretched neutrality at home, fierce outbreaks of human passions, and the fair structure of government by a priori theories based on the goodness of unoppressed humanity came to the ground.
One accent only is to be used, the acute, to denote the syllable on which stress is laid.
Although there was little or no stress laid on either the joys or the terrors of a future life, the movement was not infrequently accompanied by most of those physical symptoms which usually go with vehement appeals to the conscience and emotions of a rude multitude.
John Wilbur, a minister of New England, headed a party of protest against the new evangelicalism, laying extreme stress on the " Inward Light "; the result was a further separation of " Wilburites " or " the smaller body," who, like the " Hicksites," have a separate independent organization of their own.
It laid stress, not on external authority, as did the Jewish law, but on individual experience and inward meditation.
Severus laid such stress on the human infirmities of Christ as proving that His body was like ours, created and corruptible (09ap-rov) that his opponents dubbed him and his followers Phthartolatrae - worshippers of the corruptible.2 The school of Themistius of Alexandria extended the argument to Christ's human soul, which they said was, like ours, limited in knowledge.
This view claims to determine the respective ages and relative chronological position of the various passages in which the Passover is referred to in the Pentateuch, and assumes that each successive stratum represents the practice in ancient Israel at the time of composition, laying great stress upon omissions as implying non-existence.
Undue stress is often laid on the fact that Lingula has come down to us apparently unchanged since Cambrian times, whilst Crania, and forms very closely resembling Discina and Rhynchonella, are found from the Ordovician strata onwards.
The Germans laid the greatest stress on measures with the heliometer; the Americans, English, and French on the photographic method.
Again, a steel wire through which an electric current has been passed will be magnetized, but so long as it is free from stress it will give no evidence of magnetization; if, however, the wire is twisted, poles will be developed at the two ends, for reasons which will be explained later.
On the other hand, the magnetic properties of a substance are affected by such causes as mechanical stress and changes of temperature.
So long as the wire (supposed isotropic) is free from torsional stress, there will be no external evidence of magnetism.
In weak fields the magnetic contraction is always diminished by pulling stress; in strong fields the contraction increases under a small load and diminishes under a heavy one.
Cobalt, curiously enough, was found to be quite unaffected by tensile stress.
Some experiments were next undertaken with the view of ascertaining how far magnetic changes of length in iron were dependent upon the hardness of the metal, and the unexpected result was arrived at that softening produces the same effect as tensile stress; it depresses the elongation curve, diminishing the maximum extension, and reducing the " critical value " of the magnetizing force.
Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.
It has been suggested 2 that an iron rod under magnetization may be in the same condition as if under a mechanically applied longitudinal stress tending to shorten the iron.
In the latter case the first application of stress is always attended by an increase-often a very great one-of the magnetization, whether the field is weak or strong, but after a load has been put on and taken off several times the changes of magnetization become cyclic. From experiments of both classes it appears that for a given field there is a certain value of the load for which the magnetization is a maximum, the maximum occuring at a smaller load the stronger the field.
The ceaseless movement of the two children in the car caused a lot of stress during the road trip.
There is considerable distortion of the clay, resulting from combined shearing and tensile stress, above each of the steps of rock, and reaching its maximum at and above the highest rise ab, where it has proved sufficient to produce a dangerous line of weakness ac, the tension at a either causing actual rupture, or such increased porosity as to permit of percolation capable of keeping open the wound.
The width of the gap may be diminished until it is no greater than the distance between two neighbouring molecules, when it will cease to be distinguishable, but, assuming the molecular theory of magnetism to be true, the above statement will still hold good for the intermolecular gap. The same pressure P will be exerted across any imaginary section of a magnetized rod, the stress being sustained by the intermolecular springs, whatever their physical nature may be, to which the elasticity of the metal is due.
The whole of the rod will therefore be subject to a compressive longitudinal stress P, the associated contraction R, expressed as a fraction of the original length, being R = P/M = (B 2 -H2)/87-M, where M is Young's modulus.
Those who support this view generally speak of the stress as " Maxwell's stress," and assume its value to be B 2 /87r.
Further, Maxwell's stress is a tension along the lines of force, and is equal to B 2 /87r only when B = H, and there is no magnetization.
When the load on a hardened wire is gradually increased, the maximum value of I is found to correspond with a greater stress than when the load is gradually diminished, this being an effect of hysteresis.
The maximum susceptibility of one of his bars rose from 5.6 to 29 under a stress of 19.8 kilos per square mm.
The anticipated reversal was duly found by Chree, the critical point corresponding, under the moderate stress employed, to a field of about 120 units.
In the same paper Nagaoka and Honda describe an important experiment on the effect of transverse stress.
Ewing has shown that it is diminished and may even be reversed by tensile stress.
In the case of iron and nickel it was found that, when correction was made for mechanical stress due to magnetization, magnetic change of thermo-electric force was, within the limits of experimental error, proportional to magnetic change of length.
Further, it was shown that the thermo-electric curves were modified both by tensile stress and by annealing in the same manner as were the change-of-length curves, the modification being sometimes of a complex nature.
Changes of elasticity are in all cases dependent, not only upon the field, but also upon the tension applied; and, owing to hysteresis, the results are not in general the same when the magnetization follows as when it precedes the application of stress; the latter is held to be the right order.
By these distinctions Abelard hoped to escape the consequences of extreme Nominalism, from which, as a matter of history, his doctrine has been distinguished under the name of Conceptualism, seeing that it lays stress not on the word as such but on the thought which the word is intended to convey.
His treatise De anima, on which Haureau lays particular stress, is interesting as showing the greater scope now given to psychological discussions.
He also followed his master in laying stress on the arbitrary will of God as the foundation of morality.
They also laid stress on the fact that Magyar was not, any more than German, the language of many Hungarian regiments, consisting as these did mainly of Slovaks, Vlachs, Serbs and Croats.
There is no clear evidence as to when the building was begun, some placing it among the temples projected by Pericles, others assigning it to the time after the peace of Nicias in 421 B.C. The work was interrupted by the stress of the Peloponnesian War, but in 409 B.C. a commission was appointed to make a report on the state of the building and to undertake its completion, which was carried out in the following year.
These eighteen months of storm and stress established his influence in the capital once for all and at the same time knitted him closely to Frederick III., who recognized in Nansen a man after his own heart, and made the great burgomaster his chief instrument in carrying through the anti-aristocratic Revolution of 1660.
The interpretation of the titles here suggested removes an objection brought against the assumption of a Maccabaean date for certain psalms, which lays stress on the fact that some of them, e.g.
Certainly in happier times, when the worst period of storm and stress was over, there would be a desire to enliven the services with music, which would naturally be borrowed from the traditional music of the great national sanctuary.
Except Gregory Magistros none of the Armenian sources lays stress on the dualism of the Paulicians.
But the Key lays more stress on the baptism.
It may be that under stress of common persecution there was a certain fusion in Armenia of Pauliani and Manicheans.
At Pirna the Elbe leaves behind it the stress and turmoil of the Saxon Switzerland, rolls through Dresden, with its noble river terraces, and finally, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the North German plain, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, Hamburg, Harburg and Altona on the way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the left, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Havel and Elde from the right.
As to such reforms in our conceptions of disease the advances of bacteriology profoundly contributed, so under the stress of consequent discoveries, almost prodigious in their extent and revolutionary effect, the conceptions of the etiology of disease underwent no less a transformation than the conceptions of disease itself.
In his speech at the Albert Hall on the 21st of December 1905 it was noticeable that, before the elections, the prime minister laid stress on only one subject which could be regarded as part of a constructive programme - the necessity of doing something for canals, which was soon shelved to a royal commission.
It is true that the philosophy of Epicurus put great stress on these, as affording the explanation of the origin of supernatural beliefs.
During the stress of war, Zaleucus violated this law; and, on its being pointed out to him, he committed suicide by throwing himself upon the point of his sword, declaring that the law must be vindicated.
In the walls and floor of the kiln special cooling channels or air passages are provided and by gradually opening these to atmospheric circulation the cooling is considerably accelerated while a very even distribution of temperature is obtained; by these means even the largest slabs can now be cooled in three or four days and are nevertheless sufficiently well annealed to be free from any serious internal stress.
Edward Dillon (Glass, 1902) has very properly laid stress on the importance of the enamelled Saracenic glass of the r3th, 14th and r 5th centuries, pointing out that, whereas the Romans and Byzantine Greeks made some crude and ineffectual experiments in enamelling, it was under Saracenic influence that the processes of enamelling and gilding on glass vessels were perfected.
All metals are elastic to this extent that a change of form, brought about by stresses not exceeding certain limit values, will disappear on the stress being removed.
Every solid substance is found to be plastic more or less, as exemplified by punching, shearing and cutting; but the plastic solid is distinguished from the viscous fluid in that a plastic solid requires a certain magnitude of stress to be exceeded to make it flow, whereas the viscous liquid will yield to the slightest stress, but requires a certain length of time for the effect to be appreciable.
According to Maxwell (Theory of Heat) " When a continuous alteration of form is produced only by a stress exceeding a certain value, the substance is called a solid, however soft and plastic it may be.
But when the smallest stress, if only continued long enough, will cause a perceptible and increasing change of form, the substance must be regarded as a viscous fluid, however hard it may be."
A fluid is a substance which yields continually to the slightest tangential stress in its interior; that is, it can be divided very easily along any plane (given plenty of time if the fluid is viscous).
It follows that when the fluid has come to rest, the tangential stress in any plane in its interior must vanish, and the stress must be entirely normal to the plane.
In considering the motion of a fluid we shall suppose it non-viscous, so that whatever the state of motion the stress across any section is normal, and the principle of the normality and thence of the equality of fluid pressure can be employed, as in hydrostatics.
At Boghaz Keui, Euyuk and Jerablus, the facial type is very markedly non-Semitic. But not much stress can be laid on these differences owing to (i) great variety of execution in different sculptures, which argues artists of very unequal capacity; (2) doubt whether individual portraits are intended in some cases and not in others.
Hence we shall not be surprised to find that the two tendencies are fully represented in primitive Christianity, and, still more strange as it may appear, that New Testament apocalyptic found a more ready hearing amid the stress and storm of the 1st century than the prophetic side of Christianity, and that the type of the forerunner on the side of its declared asceticism appealed more readily to primitive Christianity than that of Him who came "eating and drinking," declaring both worlds good and both God's.
In the treatment of the spiritual categories, Croce laid special stress upon those which had been least elaborated and least studied.
Too much stress, however, cannot be laid upon these figures, since the fertility of a soil is very greatly influenced by texture and physical constitution, perhaps more so by these factors than by chemical composition.
Hence on the one hand it is unreal to lay stress on coincidences with Romans, as if these necessarily implied that both epistles must have been composed shortly after one another, while again the further stage of thought on Christ and the Church, which is evident in Colossians, does not prove that the latter must have followed the former.
That is to say, in tracing back the later acquisitions of civilization to impulses which are as old as the dawn of primitive culture, he did not, as the modern evolutionist does, lay stress on the superiority of the later to the earlier stages of human development, but rather became enamoured of the simplicity and spontaneity of those early impulses which, since they are the oldest, easily come to look like the most real and precious.
Tarentum alone, partly from Spartan origin, partly through stress of local conditions, shows traces of militant asceticism for a while.
Thus pitch is a soft and yielding body under steady stress, but a bar of pitch if struck gives a musical note, which shows that it vibrates and is therefore stiff or elastic for high frequency stress.
The Reformers gave the sermon a higher place in the ordinary service than it had previously held, and they laid special stress upon the interpretation and application of Scripture.
The hypothesis that the state was steady, so that interchanges arising from convection and collisions of the molecules produced no aggregate result, enabled him to interpret the new constants involved in this law of distribution, in terms of the temperature and its spacial differential coefficients, and thence to express the components of the kinetic stress at each point in the medium in terms of these quantities.
He lays stress on the dimensional relations of the problem, pointing out that the phenomena which occur with large vanes in highly rarefied gas could also occur with proportionally smaller vanes in gas at higher pressure.
Laying more stress on his position as duke of Saxony than king of Germany, he conferred great benefits on his duchy.
Somewhere, in actual life, the stress of craft and courage acting on the springs of human vice and weakness fails, unless the hero of the comedy or tragedy, Callimaco or Cesare, allows for the revolt of healthier instincts.
Charles now sought to increase his authority in Italy, where Frankish counts were set over various districts, and where Hildebrand, duke of Spoleto, appears to have recognized his overlordship. In 780 he was again in the peninsula, and at Mantua issued an important capitulary which increased the authority of the Lombard bishops, relieved freemen who under stress of famine had sold themselves into servitude, and condemned abuses of the system of vassalage.
Contemporary accounts lay stress upon the fact that as there was then no emperor, Constantinople being under the rule of Irene, it seemed good to Leo and his counsellors and the " rest of the Christian people " to choose Charles, already ruler of Rome, to fill the vacant office.
One school lays special stress on the general shape and outline of the hand.
Possibly Barrow laid more stress also on the orderly " rules of the Word " to be followed in all church actions, and so conveyed a rather different impression.
In the lecture-room he laid great stress on the importance of experimental demonstrations, paying particular attention to their selection and arrangement, though, since he himself was a somewhat clumsy manipulator, their actual exhibition was generally entrusted to his assistants.
In Scripture the function of the angel overshadows his personality; the stress is on their ministry; they appear in order to perform specific acts.
Indeed so severe a stress is laid upon the explicitly Christian life and its specific means, that orthodoxy itself interprets the rebirth by water and spirit, and the eating the flesh and drinking the blood to which entrance into the Kingdom and possession of interior life are here exclusively attached, as often represented by a simple sincere desire and will for spiritual purification and a keen hunger and thirst for God's aid, together with such cultual acts as such souls can know or find, even without any knowledge of the Christian rites.
By the introduction of hinges the position of the line of resistance can be fixed and the stress in the arch ring determined with less uncertainty.
The objection to continuity is that very small alterations of level of the supports due to settlement of the piers may very greatly alter the distribution of stress, and render the bridge unsafe.
In many countries the limits of working stress in public and railway bridges are prescribed by law.
The restricted area on which the pressure acts at the lead joints involves greater intensity of stress than has been usual in arched bridges.
The thermal coefficient of expansion of steel and concrete is nearly the same, otherwise changes of temperature would cause shearing stress at the junction of the two materials.
But so far as the flanges are concerned the stress 15.
The back guys are the most heavily strained part of the structure, the stress provided for being 1200 tons.
The area of each anchor plate, normal to the line of stress, is 32 ft.
Roughly, if expansion is prevented, a stress of one ton per sq.
But if a load is so applied that the deflection increases with speed, the stress is greater than that due to a very gradually applied load, and vibrations about a mean position are set up. The rails not being absolutely straight and smooth, centrifugal and lurching actions occur which alter the distribution of the loading.
The weight of main girders increases with the span, and there is for any type of bridge a limiting span beyond which the dead load stresses exceed the assigned limit of working stress.
It is not easy to fix the average stress s per sq.
Baker described the condition of opinion as to the safe limits of stress as chaotic. " The old foundations," he said, " are shaken, and engineers have not come to an agreement respecting the rebuilding of the structure.
Baker then described the results of experiments on repetition of stress, and added that " hundreds of existing bridges which carry twenty trains a day with perfect safety would break down quickly under twenty trains an hour.
Baker and others, show that the breaking stress of a bar is not a fixed quantity, but depends on the range of variation of stress to which it is subjected, if that variation is repeated a very large number of times.
The range of stress is therefore k max.
The safe working stress in these different cases is kmax.
The real nature of the action is not well understood, but the word fatigue may be used, if it is not considered to imply more than that the breaking stress under repetition of loading diminishes as the range of variation increases.
It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses.
Let A be the dead load and B the live load, producing stress in a bar; p =B / A the ratio of live to dead load; f i the safe working limit of stress for a bar subjected to a dead load only and f the safe working stress in any other case.
Working Stress for combined Dead and Live Load.
Let t be the statical breaking strength of a bar, loaded once gradually up to fracture (t = breaking load divided by original area of section); u the breaking strength of a bar loaded and unloaded an indefinitely great number of times, the stress varying from u to o alternately (this is termed the primitive strength); and, lastly, let s be the breaking strength of a bar subjected to an indefinitely great number of repetitions of stresses equal and opposite in sign (tension and thrust), so that the stress ranges alternately from s to -s.
If a bar is subjected to alternations of stress having the range A = f max .-f min ., then, by Wchler's law, the bar will ultimately break, if f max
Putting the values of F in (1) and solving for f max ., we get for the breaking stress of a bar subjected to repetition of varying stress, f max.
For shearing stresses the working stress may have o 8 of its value for tension.
English bridge-builders are somewhat hampered in adopting rational limits of working stress by the rules of the Board of Trade.
For the Dufferin bridge (steel) the working stress was taken at 6.5 tons per sq.
In the Forth bridge for members in which the stress varied from o to a maximum frequently, the limit was 5.0 tons per sq.
If A t A, are the cross sections of the tension and compression flanges or chords, and h the distance between their mass centres, then on the assumption that they resist all the direct horizontal forces the total stress on each flange is Ht=H,=M/h and the intensity of stress of tension or compression is f t = M/Ath, f c = M/Ach.
If A is the area of the plate web in a vertical section, the intensity of shearing stress is fs = S/A and the intensity on horizontal sections is the same.
Further, the range of stress to which they are subjected is the sum of the stresses due to the load advancing from the left or the right.
C. Lea, dealing with the determination of stress due to concentrated loads, by the method of influence lines will be found in Proc. Inst.
The frame as a whole may be subject to a bending moment, but each member is simply extended or compressed so that the total stress on a given member is the same at all its cross sections, while the intensity of stress is uniform for all the parts of any one cross section.
Thus if the members are pinned together, the, joint consisting of a single circular pin, the centre of which lies in the axis of the piece, it is clear that the direction of the only stress which can be transmitted from pin to pin will coincide with this axis.
A frame used to support a weight is often called a truss; the stresses on the various members of a truss can be computed for any given load with greater accuracy than the intensity of stress on the various parts of a continuous structure such as a tubular girder, or the rib of an arch.
A workman, for instance, cannot produce a stress on one member by making some other member of a wrong length.
The reciprocal figure for any loaded frame is a complete formula for the stress on every member of a frame of that particular class with loads on given joints.
These ideas are further developed in various papers in the Bulletin and in his L'Anthropometrie, ou mesure des differentes facultes de l'homme (18'ji), in which he lays great stress on the universal applicability of the binomial law, - according to which the number of cases in which, for instance, a certain height occurs among a large number of individuals is represented by an ordinate of a curve (the binomial) symmetrically situated with regard to the ordinate representing the mean result (average height).
In later Judaism, especially from about ioo B.C., great stress was laid on the Day of Atonement, and it is now the most important religious function of the Jews.
Christ lived on earth the life of man, and without questioning the equally genuine Divine element laid stress on this genuine human consciousness.
Let E be the effective elasticity of the aether; then E = pc t, where p is its density, and c the velocity of light which is 3 X 10 10 cm./sec. If = A cos" (t - x/c) is the linear vibration, the stress is E dE/dx; and the total energy, which is twice the kinetic energy Zp(d/dt) 2 dx, is 2pn2A2 per cm., which is thus equal to 1.8 ergs as above.
In this way thin laminae would form, lying at right angles to the direction of greatest stress.
In his theology he laid stress on the Gospel and on no sectarian opinions - he was, however, a pre-millenarianite - and he worked with men as much more "advanced" than himself as Henry Drummond, whom he eagerly defended against orthodox attack, and George Adam Smith.
Menelaus on his way home was also driven by stress of winds to Egypt, where he found his wife and took her home (Herodotus 11.112-120; Euripides, Helena).
The calculation of the stress in the various parts of the gun due to the powder pressure is dealt with in the article Ordnance.
Stress was laid on the sense as well as the style of the author studied.
An increasing stress was laid on the literal sense of Scripture.
This fact was, naturally enough and under the same dogmatic stress, denied by those scholars who maintained that the vowels were an integral part of the text.
The Egyptians report the weight of a measure of various articles, amongst others water (6), but lay no special stress on it; and the fact that there is no measure of water equal to a direct decimal multiple of the weight-unit, except very high in the scale, does not seem as if the volume was directly based upon weight.
It was used at the Sunday noon instruction of children, on which Calvin laid much stress, and was adopted and similarly used by the Reformed Church of Scotland.
He, his immediate follower, Gilbert Tennent (1703-1764), other clergymen, such as James Davenport, and many untrained laymen who took up the work, agreed in the emotional and dramatic character of their preaching, in rousing their hearers to a high pitch of excitement, often amounting to frenzy, in the undue stress they put upon "bodily effects" (the physical manifestations of an abnormal psychic state) as proofs of conversion, and in their unrestrained attacks upon the many clergymen who did not join them and whom they called "dead men," unconverted, unregenerate and careless of the spiritual condition of their parishes.
The regulation as to convents seems partly due to a desire to avoid the worry and expenditure of time involved in the discharge of such offices and partly to a conviction that penitents living in enclosure, as all religious persons then were, would be of no effective use to the Society; whereas the founder, against the wishes of several of his companions, laid much stress on the duty of accepting the post of confessor to kings, queens and women of high rank when opportunity presented itself.
If the growing Christian Church, in quite a different fashion from Paul, laid stress on the literal authority of the Old Testament, interpreted, it is true, allegorically; if it took up a much more friendly and definite attitude towards the Old Testament, and gave wider scope to the legal conception of religion, this must be in part ascribed to the involuntary reaction upon it of Gnosticism.
It was in conjunction with Marx and Laf argue that he drew up the programme accepted by the national congress of the Labour party at Havre in 1880, which laid stress on the formation of an international labour party working by revolutionary methods.
Hence the stress laid on will as the realizing factor, in opposition to thought, a view through which Schelling connects himself with Schopenhauer and Von Hartmann, and on the ground of which he has been recognized by the latter as the reconciler of idealism and realism.
All that was done or taught in Rome was immediately echoed through all the other Churches; Irenaeus and Tertullian constantly lay stress upon the tradition of the Roman Church, which in those very early days was almost without rivals, save in Asia, where there were a number of flourishing Churches, also apostolic in origin, forming a compact group and conscious of their dignity.
During his first period of discovery, besides the induction of electric currents, Faraday established the identity of the electrification produced in different ways; the law of the definite electrolytic action of the current; and the fact, upon which he laid great stress, that every unit of positive electrification is related in a definite manner to a unit of negative electrification, so that it is impossible to produce what Faraday called "an absolute charge of electricity" of one kind not related to an equal charge of the opposite kind.
It has certain histological resemblances with the Nematoda and certain primitive Annelids, but little stress must be laid on these.
Various finishing processes, and particularly the mercerizing of yarn and cloth, have increased the possibilities in cotton materials, and while staples still form the bulk of our foreign trade, it seems that as the stress of competition in these grows acute, more and more of our energy may be transferred to the production of goods which appeal to a growing taste or fancy.
His early religious doubts, awakened especially by Strauss's Life of Jesus, made him throughout life sympathetic with those who underwent a similar stress.
But during the course of the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries crowds of fugitives poured into southern Italy from Greece and Sicily, under stress of the Saracenic, Arab and other invasions; and from the middle of the 9th century Basilian monasteries, peopled by Greek-speaking monks, were established in great numbers in Calabria and spread northwards as far as Rome.
Not at all systematic, it is occasional, practical, poetical and dominantly evangelical, laying stress on the hope of the righteous rather than the doom of the wicked.
After a period of stress and uncertainty, due very largely to the variety of denominational creed and polity, matters assumed an easier condition, the missionaries recognizing the national characteristics and aiming at guidance rather than control.
All planters lay great stress on the preservation of the fibrils; the point principally disputed is to what extent they can with safety be allowed to be cut off in transplantation.
These are cementite, a definite iron carbide, Fe 3 C, harder than glass and nearly as brittle, but probably very strong under gradually and axially applied stress; and ferrite, pure or nearly pure metallic a-iron, soft, weak, with high electric conductivity, and in general like copper except in colour.
The presence of a small quantity of the hard cementite ought naturally to strengthen the mass, by opposing the tendency of the soft ferrite to flow under any stress applied to it; but more cementite by its brittleness naturally weakens the mass, causing it to crack open under the distortion which stress inevitably causes.
Such an intermittently applied stress is far more destructive to iron than a continuous one, and even if it is only half that of the limit of elasticity, its indefinite repetition eventually causes rupture.
Vanadium in small quantities, 0.15 or 0.20%, is said to improve steel greatly, especially in increasing its resistance to shock and to often-repeated stress.
Hume wavers somewhat in his division of the various kinds of cognition, laying stress now upon one now upon another of the points in which mainly they differ from one another.
For Philo lays stress upon the weakness of the analogical argument, points out that the demand for an ultimate cause is no more satisfied by thought than by nature itself, shows that the argument from design cannot warrant the inference of a perfect or infinite or even of a single deity, and finally, carrying out his principles to the full extent, maintains that, as we have no experience of the origin of the world, no argument from experience can carry us to its origin, and that the apparent marks of design in the structure of animals are only results from the conditions of their actual existence.
As Heeren's pupil, he laid enormous stress on the importance of original authorities.
This action and reaction between layers in relative motion is equivalent to a frictional stress tending to equalize the velocities of adjacent layers.
The magnitude of the stress per unit area parallel to the direction of flow is evidently proportional to the velocity gradient, or the rate of change of velocity per cm.
As an ecclesiastic he was not so successful; he helped to compile his church's Confession of Faith in 1823, and laid great stress on a clause which limited the scope of the atonement to the elect.
Such dissatisfaction as they caused in the border slave states died out in the stress of war.
It was not confined to any one departmeiit of life, but included Protection as against Free Trade, State Socialism as against individualism, the defence of religion as against a separation of Church and State, increased stress laid on the monarchical character of the state, continued increase of the army, and colonial expansion.
The Agrarians tjons, believed that the Berlin Exchange was partly re sponsible for the fall of prices in corn; the Anti Semites laid stress on the fact that many of the financiers were of Jewish extraction; the Centre feared the moral effects of speculation.
The present article deals mainly with the third group, to which the title "Clementine literature" is usually confined, owing to the stress laid upon it in the famous Tubingen reconstruction of primitive Christianity, in which it played a leading part; but later criticism has lowered its importance as its true date and historical relations have been progressively ascertained.
Hence Rothe, unlike Schleiermacher, lays great stress, for instance, on the personality of God, on the reality of the worlds of good and evil spirits, and on the visible second coming of Christ.
They laid much stress on the historic task of Austria in bringing German culture to the half-civilized races of the east.
Against them were 227 Constitutionalists, and it seemed to matter little that they were divided into three groups; there were 105 in the Liberal Club under the leadership of Herbst, 57 Constitutionalists, elected by the landed proprietors, and a third body of Radicals, some of whom were more democratic than the old Constitutional party, while others laid more stress on nationality.
There is evidence that the amount of stress on syllables, and the consequent length of vowels, varied greatly in spoken Coptic, and that the variation gave much trouble to the scribes; the early Christian writers must have taken as a model for each dialect the deliberate speech of grave elders or preachers, and so secured a uniform system of accentuation.
The synapse appears to be a weak spot in the chain of conduction, or rather to be a place which breaks down with comparative ease under stress, e.g.
The inevitable ecclesiastical crisis was still further postponed by the superior stress of two urgent political events - Christian II.'s invasion of Norway (1531) and the outbreak, in 1533, of " Grevens fejde," or " The Count's War " (1534-36), The the count in question being Christopher of Oldenburg, count's great-nephew of King Christian I., whom Lubeck and War, her allies, on the death of Frederick I., raised up 1533= against Frederick's son Christian III.
He therefore took counsel merely with his interest as a temporal prince, threw in his lot with France, supported the duke of Nevers in the Mantuan Succession, and, under stress of ' fear of Habsburg supremacy, suffered himself to be drawn into closer relations with the Protestants than beseemed his office, and incurred the reproach of rejoicing in the victories of heretics.
The new subjects compared with the old show some falling off in dramatic stress and intensity of expression, but on the other hand a marked gain in largeness of design and clearness of composition.
Melanchthon, however, for whom ethics possessed a special interest, laid more stress on the law.
Melanchthon was led to lay more and more stress upon the law and moral ideas; but the basis of the relation of faith and good works was never clearly brought out by him, and he at length fell back on his original position, that we have justification and inheritance of bliss in and by Christ alone, and that good works are necessary by reason of immutable Divine command.
Treviranus, in the beginning of the 10th century, laid stress on the indefiniteness of variation, but assumed that some of it was adaptive response to the environment, and some due to sexual crossing.
In 1831 Patrick Matthew, in the appendix to a book on naval timber and arboriculture, laid stress on the extreme fecundity of nature "who has in all the varieties of her offspring a prolific power much beyond (in many cases a thousandfold) what is necessary to fill up the vacancies caused by senile decay.
Herbert Spencer from 1852 onwards maintained the principle of evolution and laid special stress on the moulding forces of the environment which called into being primarily new functions and secondarily new structures.
He laid much stress on the unity of the organism in every stage of its existence, with the resulting correlation of variations, so that the favouring of one particular variation entailed modifications of correlated structures.
Those who yielded to stress of persecution fell back into Papalism and went to swell the tide of the Catholic reaction.
All the ordinary social virtues such as truthfulness, honesty, kindness, chastity are emphasized and a great stress is laid on care for the poor (a social necessity at a tine when there were no well organized public charities).
He lays special stress on the point that abstract ideas when held in their abstraction are almost interchangeable with their opposites - that extremes meet, and that in every true and concrete idea there is a coincidence of opposites.
The reasons were not understood until the researches of Wailer demonstrated the difference between the effects of merely dead loads and of live loads, and between repetitions of stress of one kind only, and the vastly more destructive effects of both kinds alternating.
Wrought iron and mild steel may be made to show a short and crystalline fracture by a sudden application of stress, while if drawn asunder slowly they develop the silky, fibrous appearance.
Severus loses no opportunity for laying stress on the crimes and follies of rulers, and on their cruelty, though he once declares that, cruel as rulers.
Again, as the Socratics - Plato himself, when he established himself at the Academy, being no exception - were, like their master, educators rather than philosophers, and in their teaching laid especial stress upon discussion, they, too, were doubtless regarded as sophists, not by Isocrates only, but by their contemporaries in general; and it may be conjectured that the disputatious tendencies of the Megarian school made it all the more difficult for Plato and others to secure a proper appreciation of the difference between dialectic, or discussion with a view to the discovery of truth, and eristic, or discussion with a view to victory.
In particular he allows that " there was at any rate enough of charlatanism in Protagoras and Hippias to prevent any ardour for their historical reputation," that the sophists generally " had in their lifetime more success than they deserved," that it was " antagonism to their teaching which developed the genius of Socrates," and, above all, that, " in his anxiety to do justice to the Sophist, Grote laid more stress than is at all necessary on the partisanship of Plato."
On his outward voyage Cabral was driven by stress of weather to the coast of Brazil.
Though, in accounting for the anger of the gods, no sharp distinction is made between moral offences and a ritualistic oversight or neglect, yet the stress laid in the hymns and prayers, as well as in the elaborate atonement ritual prescribed in order to appease the anger of the gods, on the need of being clean and pure in the sight of the higher powers, the inculcation of a proper aspect of humility, and above all the need of confessing one's guilt and sins without any reserve - all this bears testimony to the strength which the ethical factor acquired in the domain of the religion.
He lays too much stress upon the "concept," and explains too much by the Hegelian antithesis of subjective and objective.
Habib, the eldest son of Abdarrahman, who had fled in the night of his father's murder, was captured, but the vessel which was to convey him to Spain having been detained by stress of weather, his partisans took arms and rescued him.
But he laid too much stress on reasoning as syllogism or deduction, and on deductive science; and he laid too much stress on the linguistic analysis of rational discourse into proposition and terms. These two defects remain ingrained in technical logic to this day.
Stress was to be laid upon the constructive character of the act of thought which Kant had recognized, and without Kant's qualifications of it.
If logic were treated as merely formal, the stress of the problem of knowledge fell upon the determination of the Log and processes of thepsychological mechanism.
For at the basis of Herbart's speculation there lies a conception of identity foreign to the thought of Kant with his stress on synthesis, in his thoroughgoing metaphysical use of which Herbart goes back not merely to Wolff but to Leibnitz.
The theorem that any coplanar system of forces can be reduced to a force acting through any assigned point, together with a couple, has an important illustration in the theory of the distribution of shearing stress and bending moment in a horizontal beam, or other structure, subject to vertical extraneous forces.
The force measures the shearing stress, and the couple the bending moment at P; we will reckon these quantities positive when the senses are as indicated in the figure.
It is evident that a system of jointed bars having the shape of the funicular polygon would be in equilibrium under the action of the given forces, supposed applied to the joints; moreover any bar in which the stress is of the nature of a tension (as distinguished from a thrust) might be replaced by a string.
This combination of equal and opposite forces is called the stress in the member; it may be a tension or a thrust.
When extraneous forces act on the bars themselves the stress in each bar no longer consists of a simple longitudinal tension or thrust.
Again, if two bodies are connectedbya string or rod, and if the hypothetical displacements be adjusted so that the distance between the points of attachment is unaltered, the corresponding stress may be ignored.
In particular, in the case of a frame which is just rigid, the principle enables us to find the stress in any one bar independently of the rest.
As a simple example, take the case of a light frame, whose bars form the slides of a rhombus ABCD with the diagonal BD, suspended from A and carrying a weight W at C; and let it be required to find the stress in BD.
Consider, for example, a frame whose sides form the six sides of a hexagon ABCDEF and the three diagonals AD, BE, CF; and suppose that it is required to find the stress in CF due to a given system of extraneous forces in equilibrium, acting on the joints.
Amongst these forces we must include the two equal and opposite forces S which take the place of the stress in the removed bar FC.
We have seen that the stresses produced by an equilibrating system of extraneous forces in a frame which is just rigid, according to the criterion of 6, are in general uniquely determinate; in particular, when there are no extraneous forces the bars are in general free from stress.
When a frame has a critical form it may be in a state of stress independently of the action of extraneous forces; moreover, the stresses due to extraneous forces are F indeterminate, and may be infinite.
Os = o, where S is the stress in the removed bar, and Os is the change in the distance between the joints which it connected.
It is assumed that the form can be sufficiently represented by a plane curve, that the stress (tension) at any point P of the curve, between the two portions which meet there, is in the direction of the tangent at P, and that the forces on any linear element s must satisfy the conditions of equilibrium laid down in I.
The effect of the pressures applied to a piece, consisting of the load and the sispporting resistances, is to force the piece into a state of strain or disfigurement, which increases until the elasticity, or resistance to strain, of the material causes it to exert a stress, or effort to recover its figure, equal and opposite to the system of applied pressures.
The condition of stiffness is that the strain or disfigurement shall not be greater than is consistent with the purposes of the structure; and the condition of strength is that the stress shall be within the limits of that which the material can bear with safety against breaking.
The ratio in which the utmost stress before breaking exceeds the safe working stress is called the factor of safety, and is determined empirically.
The mixed type of government described by Homer - consisting of a king guided by a council of elders, and bringing all important resolutions before the assembly of the fighting men - does not seem to have been universal in Indo-European communities, but to have grown up in many different parts of the world under the stress of similar conditions.
But in the Iliad the whole stress is laid on the anger of Achilles, which can only be satisfied by the defeat and extreme peril of the Greeks.'
On the other hand, under stress of his revolt the papacy could not but develop in a strongly anti-Protestant direction, laying exaggerated emphasis on every point he challenged.
The other laid the chief stress on free-will; it was known as Molinism from its inventor, the Jesuit Louis de Molina, and was in great favour with the society.
Modern inquiry, however, tends towards the conclusion that it was under the stress of the Peloponnesian War that this impost was intro duced (428 B.C.).
He does, however, lay much stress upon the naturally social character of man; and this points forward to that treatment of morality as a function of the social organism which characterizes modern ethical theory.
He puts far greater stress than his predecessors upon the sympathetic pleasures, and thus quite avoids that appearance of mean prudential selfishness that is such a depressing feature in Paley and Bentham.
The proposition that our knowledge of nature necessarily begins with observation and experience, is common to Bacon and many contemporary reformers of science, but he laid peculiar stress upon it, and gave it a new meaning.
His theological position was that of a mild and large-hearted orthodoxy, which laid more stress upon Christian experience than upon rigid dogmatic belief.
Smyth was appointed preacher of the city of Lincoln in 1600 as an ordained clergyman, but became a separatist in 1605 or 1606, and, soon after, emigrated under stress of persecution with the Gainsborough Independents to Amsterdam.
But theory is one thing and practice another; and he will often lay most stress on the theory who is most conscious of defects in the practice.
Charles's subsequent endeavour, in stress of circumstances, to gain a friend by dividing his Polish conquests with the aspiring elector of Brandenburg was a reversal of his original policy and only resulted in the establishment on the southern confines of Sweden of a new rival almost as dangerous as Denmark, her ancient rival in the west.
He persuaded his ministers to constitute a special inquiry into the proposed abolition of land taxes, and in the address with which he opened the Riksdag of 1875 laid particular stress upon the necessity of giving attention to the settlement of these two burning questions, and in 1880 again came forward with a new proposal for increasing the number of years of service with the militia.
The new rgime obviously laid much more stress on the Oriental character of their state, though Philostratus, in his life of Apollonius of Tyana(who visited the Parthian court), states that Vardanes I.
The orator laid especial stress on the necessity of the sacrifice of all party animosities to the common weal, and volunteered, as "the first citizen of a free people," to be the mediator between the contending factions.
The Analogy was written to counteract the practical mischief which he considered wrought by deists and other freethinkers, and the Sermons lay a good deal of stress on everyday Christian duties.
Evidently the stress of the whole question is here.
Under stress of these preoccupations, however, organic unity of structure went very much to the wall, and Telemaque is a grievous offender against its author's own canons of literary taste.
The intensity of this surface-tension is measured by the stress which it exerts across a line of unit length.
Let us measure it in the case of the spherical soap-bubble by considering the stress exerted by one hemisphere of the bubble on the other, across the circumference of a great circle.
It is found, however, that strict reliance cannot be placed on the distinction between the Monotrichous, Lophotrichous and Amphitrichous conditions, since one and the same species may have one, two or more cilia at one or both poles; nevertheless some stress may usually be laid on the existence of one or two as opposed to several - e.g.
We may, however, observe that our book points to the period already past - of stress and persecution that preceded the recovery of national independence under the Maccabees, and presupposes as its historical background the most flourishing period of the Maccabean hegemony.
They rejected the doctrine of the Trinity, and protested against mediatorship, atonement and the imputed righteousness of Christ, always laying more stress on the teaching of Christ than on the teaching of the church about him; but they repeatedly laid claim to the name of Christians or of Christian deists.
By thus laying stress upon Bodhisatship, rather than upon Arahatship, the new school, though they doubtless merely thought themselves to be carrying the older orthodox doctrines to their I logical conclusion, were really changing the central point of Buddhism, and were altering the direction of their mental vision.
He laid stress on the self-culture involved in the practice of the paramitas or cardinal virtues, and established an annual national fast or week of prayer to be held during the first days of each year.
Everywhere the author lays stress on the excellence of "Pantagruelism," and the reader who is himself a Pantagruelist (it is perfectly idle for any other to attempt the book) soon discovers what this means.
For it was on the artistic rather than on the critical side of history that stress was almost universally laid in antiquity, and the thing that above all others was expected from the historian was not so much a scientific investigation and accurate exposition of the truth, as its skilful presentation in such a form as would charm and interest the reader.
He appears to have laid even more stress on this point than Aristotle himself, being doubtless led to do so, partly by the heat of controversy and partly by the importance which leisure and freedom from harassing cares naturally assumed to a man of his studious temperament.
His own speculations led him rather to lay stress on the qualitative aspect of the world.
Indeed, for a definition of that limitless subject which includes all the phenomena that stand the warp and stress of change, one might adapt a famous epitaph - si historiam requiris, circumspice.
Outside of his dialectic, it was in ethics that Abelard showed greatest activity of philosophical thought; laying very particular stress upon the subjective intention as determining, if not the moral character, at least the moral value, of human action.
Canning in Calcutta, John Lawrence in the Punjab, were men indeed equal to any burden; and the stress of the Mutiny, ending once and for ever the bad old system of seniority, brought to the front so many subordinates of dauntless gallantry and soldierly insight that a ring of steel was rapidly drawn round the vast territory affected.
In transferring the loads from the column bases to the bottom of the footings the greatest care must be taken in all systems of construction that the stresses throughout at no point exceed the safe limits of stress for the various materials used.
In girders and beams the maximum fibre stress is usually limited to 16,000 lb.
In 1654 the directors of the Company drew Cromwell's attention to this suggestion, laying stress on the excellence of its harbour and its safety from attack by land.
Great stress is laid upon virginity (although there is not a sign of monasticism), upon fasting (especially for the bishop), upon the regular attendance of the whole clerical body and the " more perfect " of the laity at the hours of prayer.
Sumner laid great stress upon " national claims."
Thus conditions of stress are conceivable in which the maximum would be tangential to the slope or nearly so, and would therefore increase the vertical stress in proportion to the cosecant squared of the slope.
It is very doubtful whether this pressure is ever reached, but such a limit rather than that of the vertical stress must be considered when the height of a dam demands it.
Hence it follows that on the assumption of uniformly varying stress the line of pressures, when the reservoir is full, should not at any horizontal plane fall outside the middle third of the width of that plane.
After Rankine, a French engineer, Bouvier, gave the ratio of the maximum stress in a dam to the maximum vertical stress as 1 to the cosine squared of the angle between the vertical and the resultant which, in dams of the usual form, is about as 13 is to 9.
In one of these papers Levy formulated the requirement now generally adopted in France that the vertical pressure at the upstream end of any joint, calculated by the law of uniformly varying stress, should not be less than that of the water pressure at the level of that joint in order to prevent intrusive water getting into the structure.
These researches led to a wide discussion of the sufficiency of the law of uniformly varying stress when applied to horizontal joints as a test of the stability of dams. Professor Karl Pearson showed that the results are dependent upon the assumption that the distribution of the vertical stresses on the base of the structure also followed the law of uniformly varying stress.
In view of the irregular forms and the uncertainties of the nature of the materials at the foundation, the law of uniformly varying stress was not applicable to the base of the dam.
On examining the diagram it will be observed that the maximum compressive stresses are parallel to and near to the down stream face of the section, which values are approximately equal to the maximum value of the vertical stress determined by the law of uniformly varying stress divided by the cosine squared of the angle between the vertical and the resultant.
The distributions of stress on the base line of the model for " reservoir empty " and " reservoir full " are shown in fig.
The magnitudes of the maximum shearing stresses are indicated by the algebraic differences of the thicknesses of the lines of principal stress.
The vertical distance above the line ab of any point in the dotted line dc is proportional to the vertical component of the compressive stress on the line ale assumed to vary uniformly from face to face, and similarly the vertical distance of any point in the3-dot-and-dash line ae above the line ab is proportional to the vertical component of the stress determined experimentally.
The rim is slightly wider than the belt, and is of such a section as will suffice to resist the stress due to the pull of the belt, which is commonly taken as 80 lb per inch of width for single belting and 140 lb per inch of width for double belting.
This stress amounts to 1043 lb per square inch, if the velocity is loo ft.
These assumptions are probably not nearly correct and, as the stresses caused by the cooling of the casting are unknown, it is necessary to choose a low working stress of about one ton per square inch.
Pulleys are also built up of wrought iron and steel, and can then be constructed entirely free from internal stress; they are thus much lighter and stronger, and are not liable to fly to pieces like cast iron if they break.
In course of time the popes, under stress of financial crises, claimed the privilege for themselves, though at first only temporarily.
So much slaughter had gone on during that period of storm and stress that it was long impossible to excavate in any direction without coming on human remains.
In his lectures and sermons he was always laying stress on the unsatisfactory state of the national church and the infamous corruption of the papacy.
King Edward, as indolent In the and pleasure-loving in times of ease as he was active north and and ruthless in times of stress and battle, set himself west.
In his later years he fell into the vice of hoarding money for its own sake; so necessary was it to his policy that he should be free, as far as possible, from the need for applying to parliament for money, that he became morbidly anxious to have great hoards in readiness for any possible day of financial stress.
The succeeding period, after so much storm and stress, might seem dull and unprofitable; but it witnessed the instructive experiment of the government of Europe by a concert of the great powers, and the first victory of the new principle of nationality in the insurrection of the Greeks.
As nationalism developed, the patriotic motive supplanted the ecclesiastical, and stress is laid on the famous history of England.
The antithesis is largely false; science lays stress on analysis, art on synthesis.
Unlike most mathematicians, De Morgan always laid much stress upon the importance of logical training.
Laying more stress upon independence than upon loyalty, Hugh appears to have acted in a haughty manner toward Lothair, and also towards his son and successor Louis V.; but neither king was strong enough to punish this powerful vassal, whose clerical supporters already harboured the thought of securing for him the Frankish crown.
Although the former of these lays stress upon the fact that the sheriff's supervisory powers are universal many men did not attend his tourn.
But though Plato holds this inseparable connexion of best and pleasantest to be true and important, it is only for the sake of the vulgar that he lays this stress on pleasure.
But he has not failed to observe that practical reasonings are not commonly of this kind, but are rather concerned with actions as means to ulterior ends; indeed, he lays stress on this as a characteristic of the " political " life, when he wishes to prove its inferiority to the life of pure speculation.
The stress that their psychology laid on the essential unity of the rational self that is the source of voluntary action prevented them from accepting Plato's analysis of the soul into a regulative element and elements needing regulation.
So again, in the stress that he lays on the misery which the most secret wrong-doing must necessarily cause from the perpetual fear of discovery, and in his exuberant exaltation of the value of disinterested friendship, he shows a sincere, though not completely successful, effort to avoid the offence that consistent egoistic hedonism is apt to give to ordinary human feeling.
Rabbinic erudition could not forget the repression of vicious desires in the tenth commandment, the stress laid in Deuteronomy on the necessity of service to God, or the inculcation by later prophets of humility and faith.
The same may be said of the stricter regulation which Christianity enforced on the relations of the sexes; except so far as the prohibition of divorce is concerned, and the stress laid on " purity of heart " as contrasted with merely outward chastity.
We have, however, yet to notice the enlargement of the sphereof ethics due to its close connexion with theology; for while this added religious force and sanction to ordinary moral obligations, it equally tended to impart a moral aspect to religious, belief and worship. " Duty to God " - as distinct from duty to man - had not been altogether unrecognized by pagan moralists; but the rather dubious relations of even the more orthodox philosophy to the established polytheism had generally prevented them from laying much stress upon it.