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stress

stress

stress Sentence Examples

  • Certainly she had been under a lot of stress.

  • Diablo. He's Yancey's method of relieving stress and getting away from us women once in a while.

  • I'm not allowed to stress you out, but can you, like, try?

  • "It's good stress relief," she replied.

  • You're definitely not gonna stress me out, okay?

  • Whatever happened … There's nothing to stress about, he added when she was silent.

  • She had a mild headache, and the tension between her shoulders was aching from the stress of the discussion.

  • Mary needs an environment without stress.

  • That's what matters, not a formality that only creates more stress.

  • It would be a relief to turn all that stress over to him.

  • Maybe it was relief from the stress of worrying about that moment – or hormones.

  • Just don't put stress on yourself trying to be frugal.

  • Maybe, but you can be frugal without the stress of wondering if you can pay for it.

  • Simply purchasing needs without the stress of budgeting was a relief.

  • The last thing was stress.

  • She had thought of the stress on an adopted baby before, but in this instance, her entire focus had been on Lori.

  • Maybe she was letting the stress of the new responsibilities get her down.

  • All the piled up stress and remorse bubbled up and she was suddenly and thoroughly consumed with seething rage.

  • Was it merely all the stress?

  • And yet, like an unruly child, she had rebelled, causing him endless worry and stress.

  • I've caused you so much stress – and at a time when I should have been supporting you.

  • Think of it as a stress test.

  • When the stress came, and he retreated to the British legation, he took an active part in the defence, and spared neither risk nor toil in his exertions.

  • To a youth and womanhood of storm and stress had succeeded an old age of serene activity and then of calm decay.

  • Young, brave and handsome, he won the love and devotion of his people, and guided them through the long years of storm and stress with wisdom and ability.

  • The last years of his life were troubled by a new period of storm and stress which called for his highest powers of calculation and self-control.

  • Congress, however, had now got their opportunity, and they used the time of national stress to bring increased pressure to bear upon the president.

  • He felt then, and still more after the Reform Act of 1866, that "we must educate our masters," 1 and he rather scandalized his old university friends by the stress he laid on physical science as opposed to classical studies.

  • The superiority of the Christian faith both philosophically and ethically is set forth, the chief stress being laid on monachism, with which heathen philosophy has nothing to compare.

  • Mr Thomas laid stress on what had been advanced on the other side by Mr Caldwell (Philosophical Transactions, clxxviii.

  • But great stress was laid on the production of written evidence.

  • For some time past the relations between Napoleon and the pope, Pius VII., had been Napoleon severely strained, chiefly because the emperor insisted ~pacj~ on controlling the church, both in France and in the kingdom of Italy, in a way inconsistent with the traditions of the Vatican, but also because the pontiff refused to grant the divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and the former Miss Patterson on which Napoleon early in the year 1806 laid so much stress.

  • Under the stress of the appalling financial conditions represented by chronic deficit, crushing taxation, the heavy expenditure necessary for the consolidation of the kingdom, the reform of the army and the interest on the pontifical debt, Sella, on the 11th of December 1871, exposed to parliament the financial situation in all its nakedness.

  • Both Darwin and Wallace lay great stress on the close relation which obtains between the existing fauna of any region and that of the immediately antecedent geological epoch in the same region; and rightly, for it is in truth inconceivable that there should be no genetic connexion between the two.

  • The evidence as set out by Darwin has been added to enormously; new knowledge has in many cases altered our conceptions of the mode of the actual process of evolution, and from time to time a varying stress has been laid on what are known as the purely Darwinian factors in the theory.

  • They laid great stress on the nitrogenous nature of protoplasm, and noted that it preceded the formation of the cell-membrane.

  • Humboldt's contemporary, Carl Ritter (1779-1859), extended and disseminated the same views, and in his interpretation of " Comparative Geography " he laid stress on the importance of Iditter.

  • It ceases to lay much stress upon coincidences between Old Testament predictions or " types " and events in Christ's career.

  • With the Brethren, however, the chief stress was laid, not on doctrine, but on conduct.

  • The Lymexylonidae, a small family of this group, characterized by its slender, undifferentiated feelers and feet, is believed by Lameere to comprise the most primitive of all living beetles, and Sharp lays stress on the undeveloped structure of the tribe generally.

  • Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.

  • In the younger contemporary prophet of Ephraim, Hosea, the stress is laid on the relation of love (hesed) between Yahweh, the divine husband, and Israel, the faithless spouse.

  • In his eighteenth year, while still a student in Edinburgh, he contributed two valuable papers to the Transactions of the same society - one of which, " On the Equilibrium of Elastic Solids," is remarkable, not only on account of its intrinsic power and the youth of its author, but also because in it he laid the foundation of one of the most singular discoveries of his later life, the temporary double refraction produced in viscous liquids by shearing stress.

  • Individual leaders in times of stress acquired a recognized supremacy, and, once a tribe outstripped the rest, the opportunities for continued advance gave further scope to their authority.

  • Seers and prophets of all kinds ranged from those who were consulted for daily mundane affairs to those who revealed the oracles in times of stress, from those who haunted local holy sites to those high in royal favour, from the quiet domestic communities to the austere mountain recluse.

  • But the problems are admittedly complicated, and since one is necessarily dependent upon scanty narratives arranged and rearranged by later hands in accordance with their own historical theories, it is difficult to lay stress upon internal evidence which appears to be conclusive for this or that reconstruction.

  • There is no revulsion, as later, from dogma as such, nor is more stress laid upon one dogma than upon another; all are treated upon the same footing, and the whole dogmatic system is held, as it were, in solution by the philosophic medium in which it is presented.

  • Much stress is laid on the value of manure, and mention is made of clover.

  • Whilst much grass land has been laid down with the intention from the outset that it should be permanent, at the same time some considerable areas have through stress of circumstances been allowed to drift from the temporary or rotation grass area to the permanent list, and have thus still further diminished the area formerly under the dominion of the plough.

  • Its chief importance is perhaps the stress which it laid on the vital connexion which must subsist between true economic theory and the wider facts of social and national development.

  • This was due, no doubt, to his revulsion from the sternness of his upbringing and the period of stress through which he passed in early manhood, but also to the sympathetic and emotional qualities which manifested themselves in his early manhood.

  • horns, climbing plants, shavings of wood or metal) that too much stress must not be laid on the mutual parentage of spiraliform ornament in different civilizations.

  • The Sidra Rabba lays great stress upon the duty of procreation, and marriage is a duty.

  • Brauer in his arrangement of these orders laid special stress on the nature of the metamorphosis, and was the first to draw attention to the number of Malpighian tubes as of importance in classification.

  • In several recent attempts to group the orders into sub-classes, stress has been laid upon a few characters in the imago.

  • Klapalek (1904) lays stress on a supposed distinction between appendicular and non-appendicular genital processes.

  • Some of those zoologists who look to Peripatus, or a similar worm-like form, as representing the direct ancestors of the Hexapoda have laid stress on a larva like the caterpillar of a moth or saw-fly as representing a primitive stage.

  • Fuller knowledge has shown that Macgillivray was ill-advised in laying stress on the systematic value of adaptive characters, but his contributions to anatomy were valuable, and later investigators, in particular H.

  • A large section of her members, accordingly, laying stress on this side of her tradition, prefer to call themselves " Catholics."

  • The besiegers were no sooner in the city, than they were besieged in their turn by Kerbogha; and the twenty-five days which followed were the worst period of stress and strain which the crusaders had to encounter.

  • Then came the stress of war in Europe, a wretched neutrality at home, fierce outbreaks of human passions, and the fair structure of government by a priori theories based on the goodness of unoppressed humanity came to the ground.

  • Finally he laid stress upon the immense importance of Livonia for the development of Russian trade.

  • By the union of great moral qualities with high, though not the highest, intellectual faculties, he carried the Indian empire safely through the stress of the storm, and, what was perhaps a harder task still, he dealt wisely with the enormous difficulties arising at the close of such a war, established a more liberal policy and a sounder financial system, and left the people more contented than they were before.

  • One accent only is to be used, the acute, to denote the syllable on which stress is laid.

  • The great stress which they laid upon this aspect of Christian truth caused them to be charged with unbelief in the current orthodox views as to the inspiration of the Scriptures, and the person and work of Christ, a charge which they always denied.

  • Although there was little or no stress laid on either the joys or the terrors of a future life, the movement was not infrequently accompanied by most of those physical symptoms which usually go with vehement appeals to the conscience and emotions of a rude multitude.

  • The points on which special stress is laid are: - (i) the share of responsibility resting on each individual, whether called to vocal service or not, for the right spiritual atmosphere of the Meeting, and for the welfare of the congregation; (2) the privilege which may be enjoyed by each worshipper of waiting upon the Lord without relying on spoken words, however helpful, or on other outward matters; (3) freedom for each individual (whether a Friend or not) to speak, for the help of others, such message as he or she may feel called to utter; (4) a fresh sense of a divine call to deliver the message on that particular occasion, whether previous thought has been given to it or not.

  • John Wilbur, a minister of New England, headed a party of protest against the new evangelicalism, laying extreme stress on the " Inward Light "; the result was a further separation of " Wilburites " or " the smaller body," who, like the " Hicksites," have a separate independent organization of their own.

  • It laid stress, not on external authority, as did the Jewish law, but on individual experience and inward meditation.

  • Severus laid such stress on the human infirmities of Christ as proving that His body was like ours, created and corruptible (09ap-rov) that his opponents dubbed him and his followers Phthartolatrae - worshippers of the corruptible.2 The school of Themistius of Alexandria extended the argument to Christ's human soul, which they said was, like ours, limited in knowledge.

  • This view claims to determine the respective ages and relative chronological position of the various passages in which the Passover is referred to in the Pentateuch, and assumes that each successive stratum represents the practice in ancient Israel at the time of composition, laying great stress upon omissions as implying non-existence.

  • The "Cleveland plan," in force in the public schools, minimizes school routine, red tape and frequent examinations, puts great stress on domestic and manual training courses, and makes promotion in the grammar schools depend on the general knowledge and development of the pupil, as estimated by a teacher who is supposed to make a careful study of the individual.

  • Huss indeed laid more stress on church reform than on theological controversy.

  • Undue stress is often laid on the fact that Lingula has come down to us apparently unchanged since Cambrian times, whilst Crania, and forms very closely resembling Discina and Rhynchonella, are found from the Ordovician strata onwards.

  • All the stress now fell on the disposition, not on the outward act.

  • These deal with the casuists of the Counter - Reformation in the spirit of Milton, laying especial stress on the artificiality of their methods and the laxity of their results.

  • The Germans laid the greatest stress on measures with the heliometer; the Americans, English, and French on the photographic method.

  • Effects of Mechanical Stress on Magnetization.

  • Again, a steel wire through which an electric current has been passed will be magnetized, but so long as it is free from stress it will give no evidence of magnetization; if, however, the wire is twisted, poles will be developed at the two ends, for reasons which will be explained later.

  • On the other hand, the magnetic properties of a substance are affected by such causes as mechanical stress and changes of temperature.

  • So long as the wire (supposed isotropic) is free from torsional stress, there will be no external evidence of magnetism.

  • In weak fields the magnetic contraction is always diminished by pulling stress; in strong fields the contraction increases under a small load and diminishes under a heavy one.

  • Cobalt, curiously enough, was found to be quite unaffected by tensile stress.

  • Some experiments were next undertaken with the view of ascertaining how far magnetic changes of length in iron were dependent upon the hardness of the metal, and the unexpected result was arrived at that softening produces the same effect as tensile stress; it depresses the elongation curve, diminishing the maximum extension, and reducing the " critical value " of the magnetizing force.

  • [[[Stress And Magnetization]] magnetized under very heavy loads, the wire was indeed found to undergo slight contraction.

  • Attempts have been made to explain magnetic deformation by various theories of magnetic stress,' notably that elaborated by G.

  • Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.

  • It has been suggested 2 that an iron rod under magnetization may be in the same condition as if under a mechanically applied longitudinal stress tending to shorten the iron.

  • The width of the gap may be diminished until it is no greater than the distance between two neighbouring molecules, when it will cease to be distinguishable, but, assuming the molecular theory of magnetism to be true, the above statement will still hold good for the intermolecular gap. The same pressure P will be exerted across any imaginary section of a magnetized rod, the stress being sustained by the intermolecular springs, whatever their physical nature may be, to which the elasticity of the metal is due.

  • The whole of the rod will therefore be subject to a compressive longitudinal stress P, the associated contraction R, expressed as a fraction of the original length, being R = P/M = (B 2 -H2)/87-M, where M is Young's modulus.

  • regarded as a " correction " to be applied to the results of experiments on magnetic change of length, the magnetic stress being no less an extraneous effect than a stress applied mechanically.

  • Those who support this view generally speak of the stress as " Maxwell's stress," and assume its value to be B 2 /87r.

  • The stress in question seems, however, to be quite unconnected with the " stress in the medium " contemplated by Maxwell, and its value is not exactly B 2 /87r except in the particular case of a permanent ring magnet, when H = O.

  • Further, Maxwell's stress is a tension along the lines of force, and is equal to B 2 /87r only when B = H, and there is no magnetization.

  • 4 Some writers have indeed contended that the stress in magnetized iron is not compressive, but tensile, even when, as in the case of a ring-magnet, there are no free ends.

  • Effects Of Mechanical Stress Upon Magnetization The effects of traction, compression and torsion in relation to magnetism have formed the subject of much patient investigation, especially at the hands of J.

  • The following table shows the values of I and H corresponding to the Villari critical point in some of Ewing's experiments: The effects of pulling stress may be observed either when the wire is stretched by a constant load while the magnetizing force is varied, or when the magnetizing force is kept constant while the load is varied.

  • In the latter case the first application of stress is always attended by an increase-often a very great one-of the magnetization, whether the field is weak or strong, but after a load has been put on and taken off several times the changes of magnetization become cyclic. From experiments of both classes it appears that for a given field there is a certain value of the load for which the magnetization is a maximum, the maximum occuring at a smaller load the stronger the field.

  • In very strong fields the maximum may even disappear altogether, the effect of the smallest stress J.

  • Rowland in support of compressive stress.

  • When the load on a hardened wire is gradually increased, the maximum value of I is found to correspond with a greater stress than when the load is gradually diminished, this being an effect of hysteresis.

  • The maximum susceptibility of one of his bars rose from 5.6 to 29 under a stress of 19.8 kilos per square mm.

  • The anticipated reversal was duly found by Chree, the critical point corresponding, under the moderate stress employed, to a field of about 120 units.

  • In the same paper Nagaoka and Honda describe an important experiment on the effect of transverse stress.

  • Longitudinal stress produces change of magnetization.

  • 4 Nagaoka' has described the remarkable influence of combined torsion and 'tension upon the magnetic susceptibility of nickel, and has made the extraordinary observation that, under certain conditions of stress, the magnetization of a nickel wire may have a direction opposite to that of the magnetizing force.

  • Ewing has shown that it is diminished and may even be reversed by tensile stress.

  • In the case of iron and nickel it was found that, when correction was made for mechanical stress due to magnetization, magnetic change of thermo-electric force was, within the limits of experimental error, proportional to magnetic change of length.

  • Further, it was shown that the thermo-electric curves were modified both by tensile stress and by annealing in the same manner as were the change-of-length curves, the modification being sometimes of a complex nature.

  • Changes of elasticity are in all cases dependent, not only upon the field, but also upon the tension applied; and, owing to hysteresis, the results are not in general the same when the magnetization follows as when it precedes the application of stress; the latter is held to be the right order.

  • during the stress of the Scandinavian Seven Years' War compelled him, in 1566, to recall the great financier, when his confiscated estates were restored to him and he was reinstated in all his offices and dignities.

  • By these distinctions Abelard hoped to escape the consequences of extreme Nominalism, from which, as a matter of history, his doctrine has been distinguished under the name of Conceptualism, seeing that it lays stress not on the word as such but on the thought which the word is intended to convey.

  • His treatise De anima, on which Haureau lays particular stress, is interesting as showing the greater scope now given to psychological discussions.

  • He also followed his master in laying stress on the arbitrary will of God as the foundation of morality.

  • They also laid stress on the fact that Magyar was not, any more than German, the language of many Hungarian regiments, consisting as these did mainly of Slovaks, Vlachs, Serbs and Croats.

  • There is no clear evidence as to when the building was begun, some placing it among the temples projected by Pericles, others assigning it to the time after the peace of Nicias in 421 B.C. The work was interrupted by the stress of the Peloponnesian War, but in 409 B.C. a commission was appointed to make a report on the state of the building and to undertake its completion, which was carried out in the following year.

  • These eighteen months of storm and stress established his influence in the capital once for all and at the same time knitted him closely to Frederick III., who recognized in Nansen a man after his own heart, and made the great burgomaster his chief instrument in carrying through the anti-aristocratic Revolution of 1660.

  • The interpretation of the titles here suggested removes an objection brought against the assumption of a Maccabaean date for certain psalms, which lays stress on the fact that some of them, e.g.

  • Certainly in happier times, when the worst period of storm and stress was over, there would be a desire to enliven the services with music, which would naturally be borrowed from the traditional music of the great national sanctuary.

  • Though:with some points of difference, they agreed in emphasizing the permanence of the two separate natures in Christ, united but not mingled or confused, and laid stress on the reality of our Lord's human experience.

  • Except Gregory Magistros none of the Armenian sources lays stress on the dualism of the Paulicians.

  • According to Gregory Magistros the Thonraki would say: "We are no worshippers of matter, but of God; we reckon the cross and the church and the priestly robes and the sacrifice of mass all for nothing, and only lay stress on the inner sense."

  • But the Key lays more stress on the baptism.

  • It may be that under stress of common persecution there was a certain fusion in Armenia of Pauliani and Manicheans.

  • At Pirna the Elbe leaves behind it the stress and turmoil of the Saxon Switzerland, rolls through Dresden, with its noble river terraces, and finally, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the North German plain, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, Hamburg, Harburg and Altona on the way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the left, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Havel and Elde from the right.

  • As to such reforms in our conceptions of disease the advances of bacteriology profoundly contributed, so under the stress of consequent discoveries, almost prodigious in their extent and revolutionary effect, the conceptions of the etiology of disease underwent no less a transformation than the conceptions of disease itself.

  • In his speech at the Albert Hall on the 21st of December 1905 it was noticeable that, before the elections, the prime minister laid stress on only one subject which could be regarded as part of a constructive programme - the necessity of doing something for canals, which was soon shelved to a royal commission.

  • It is true that the philosophy of Epicurus put great stress on these, as affording the explanation of the origin of supernatural beliefs.

  • The ceaseless movement of the two children in the car caused a lot of stress during the road trip.

  • During the stress of war, Zaleucus violated this law; and, on its being pointed out to him, he committed suicide by throwing himself upon the point of his sword, declaring that the law must be vindicated.

  • In the walls and floor of the kiln special cooling channels or air passages are provided and by gradually opening these to atmospheric circulation the cooling is considerably accelerated while a very even distribution of temperature is obtained; by these means even the largest slabs can now be cooled in three or four days and are nevertheless sufficiently well annealed to be free from any serious internal stress.

  • Edward Dillon (Glass, 1902) has very properly laid stress on the importance of the enamelled Saracenic glass of the r3th, 14th and r 5th centuries, pointing out that, whereas the Romans and Byzantine Greeks made some crude and ineffectual experiments in enamelling, it was under Saracenic influence that the processes of enamelling and gilding on glass vessels were perfected.

  • All metals are elastic to this extent that a change of form, brought about by stresses not exceeding certain limit values, will disappear on the stress being removed.

  • Every solid substance is found to be plastic more or less, as exemplified by punching, shearing and cutting; but the plastic solid is distinguished from the viscous fluid in that a plastic solid requires a certain magnitude of stress to be exceeded to make it flow, whereas the viscous liquid will yield to the slightest stress, but requires a certain length of time for the effect to be appreciable.

  • According to Maxwell (Theory of Heat) " When a continuous alteration of form is produced only by a stress exceeding a certain value, the substance is called a solid, however soft and plastic it may be.

  • But when the smallest stress, if only continued long enough, will cause a perceptible and increasing change of form, the substance must be regarded as a viscous fluid, however hard it may be."

  • A fluid is a substance which yields continually to the slightest tangential stress in its interior; that is, it can be divided very easily along any plane (given plenty of time if the fluid is viscous).

  • It follows that when the fluid has come to rest, the tangential stress in any plane in its interior must vanish, and the stress must be entirely normal to the plane.

  • In considering the motion of a fluid we shall suppose it non-viscous, so that whatever the state of motion the stress across any section is normal, and the principle of the normality and thence of the equality of fluid pressure can be employed, as in hydrostatics.

  • At Boghaz Keui, Euyuk and Jerablus, the facial type is very markedly non-Semitic. But not much stress can be laid on these differences owing to (i) great variety of execution in different sculptures, which argues artists of very unequal capacity; (2) doubt whether individual portraits are intended in some cases and not in others.

  • Hence we shall not be surprised to find that the two tendencies are fully represented in primitive Christianity, and, still more strange as it may appear, that New Testament apocalyptic found a more ready hearing amid the stress and storm of the 1st century than the prophetic side of Christianity, and that the type of the forerunner on the side of its declared asceticism appealed more readily to primitive Christianity than that of Him who came "eating and drinking," declaring both worlds good and both God's.

  • In the treatment of the spiritual categories, Croce laid special stress upon those which had been least elaborated and least studied.

  • " It has long been known that proglottides of the same species often exhibit sporadic malformation from the normal shape, and the evidence goes to show that the variation was due to arrested growth or some unusual stress or pressure which, acting upon the young strobila, produced a deformation, and that the proglottides so affected could not regain their normal form.

  • Too much stress, however, cannot be laid upon these figures, since the fertility of a soil is very greatly influenced by texture and physical constitution, perhaps more so by these factors than by chemical composition.

  • Hence on the one hand it is unreal to lay stress on coincidences with Romans, as if these necessarily implied that both epistles must have been composed shortly after one another, while again the further stage of thought on Christ and the Church, which is evident in Colossians, does not prove that the latter must have followed the former.

  • is a collection of examples of military stratagems from Greek and Roman history, for the use of officers; a fourth book, the plan and style of which is different from the rest (more stress is laid on the moral aspects of war, e.g.

  • That is to say, in tracing back the later acquisitions of civilization to impulses which are as old as the dawn of primitive culture, he did not, as the modern evolutionist does, lay stress on the superiority of the later to the earlier stages of human development, but rather became enamoured of the simplicity and spontaneity of those early impulses which, since they are the oldest, easily come to look like the most real and precious.

  • Two incidents of domestic interest, one happy and the other sad, belong to that period of political storm and stress.

  • it is not an outcome of Japanese nature nor yet of Buddhist teaching, but is due to the stress of endeavouring to reach the standards of Western acquirement with grievously inadequate equipment, opportunities and resources.

  • Tarentum alone, partly from Spartan origin, partly through stress of local conditions, shows traces of militant asceticism for a while.

  • Thus pitch is a soft and yielding body under steady stress, but a bar of pitch if struck gives a musical note, which shows that it vibrates and is therefore stiff or elastic for high frequency stress.

  • The Reformers gave the sermon a higher place in the ordinary service than it had previously held, and they laid special stress upon the interpretation and application of Scripture.

  • Under (ii.) they laid stress on the fundamental articles of the faith (Art.

  • The hypothesis that the state was steady, so that interchanges arising from convection and collisions of the molecules produced no aggregate result, enabled him to interpret the new constants involved in this law of distribution, in terms of the temperature and its spacial differential coefficients, and thence to express the components of the kinetic stress at each point in the medium in terms of these quantities.

  • He lays stress on the dimensional relations of the problem, pointing out that the phenomena which occur with large vanes in highly rarefied gas could also occur with proportionally smaller vanes in gas at higher pressure.

  • Laying more stress on his position as duke of Saxony than king of Germany, he conferred great benefits on his duchy.

  • Somewhere, in actual life, the stress of craft and courage acting on the springs of human vice and weakness fails, unless the hero of the comedy or tragedy, Callimaco or Cesare, allows for the revolt of healthier instincts.

  • Charles now sought to increase his authority in Italy, where Frankish counts were set over various districts, and where Hildebrand, duke of Spoleto, appears to have recognized his overlordship. In 780 he was again in the peninsula, and at Mantua issued an important capitulary which increased the authority of the Lombard bishops, relieved freemen who under stress of famine had sold themselves into servitude, and condemned abuses of the system of vassalage.

  • Contemporary accounts lay stress upon the fact that as there was then no emperor, Constantinople being under the rule of Irene, it seemed good to Leo and his counsellors and the " rest of the Christian people " to choose Charles, already ruler of Rome, to fill the vacant office.

  • Under the stress of the Protestant attack there arose new methods on the papal side, and their authors were the Spanish Jesuits, Ribeira (ob.

  • baptismal regeneration) and lay stress on the Bible as the sole source of authority in matters of faith.

  • "Low Churchman" now became the equivalent of "Evangelical," the designation of the movement, associated with the name of Simeon, which laid the chief stress on the necessity of personal "conversion."

  • "Latitudinarian" gave place at the same time to "Broad Churchman," to designate those who lay stress on the ethical teaching of the Church and minimize the value of orthodoxy.

  • In the early winter of 1620 they made the coast of Cape Cod; they had intended to make their landing farther south, within the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company, which had granted them a patent; but stress of weather prevented their doing so.

  • Upon the (incomplete) external evidence and upon a careful criticism of the biblical history of this period, and not upon any promiscuous combination of the two sources, must depend the value of the plausible though broad reconstructions which have been proposed.4 Considerable stress is often laid upon Goliath's armour of bronze and his iron weapon, but even David himself has helmet, sword and coat-of-mail at his disposal (I Sam.

  • One school lays special stress on the general shape and outline of the hand.

  • Possibly Barrow laid more stress also on the orderly " rules of the Word " to be followed in all church actions, and so conveyed a rather different impression.

  • Partly owing to its own faults and partly owing to the stress of political excitement which followed it, the Edwardean revival was followed by nearly half a century of lethargy, during which the chief interest centred in the gradual growth of doctrinal controversy.

  • In the lecture-room he laid great stress on the importance of experimental demonstrations, paying particular attention to their selection and arrangement, though, since he himself was a somewhat clumsy manipulator, their actual exhibition was generally entrusted to his assistants.

  • In Scripture the function of the angel overshadows his personality; the stress is on their ministry; they appear in order to perform specific acts.

  • Indeed so severe a stress is laid upon the explicitly Christian life and its specific means, that orthodoxy itself interprets the rebirth by water and spirit, and the eating the flesh and drinking the blood to which entrance into the Kingdom and possession of interior life are here exclusively attached, as often represented by a simple sincere desire and will for spiritual purification and a keen hunger and thirst for God's aid, together with such cultual acts as such souls can know or find, even without any knowledge of the Christian rites.

  • By the introduction of hinges the position of the line of resistance can be fixed and the stress in the arch ring determined with less uncertainty.

  • The objection to continuity is that very small alterations of level of the supports due to settlement of the piers may very greatly alter the distribution of stress, and render the bridge unsafe.

  • In many countries the limits of working stress in public and railway bridges are prescribed by law.

  • The restricted area on which the pressure acts at the lead joints involves greater intensity of stress than has been usual in arched bridges.

  • The thermal coefficient of expansion of steel and concrete is nearly the same, otherwise changes of temperature would cause shearing stress at the junction of the two materials.

  • For concrete the coefficient of elasticity E varies with the amount of stress and diminishes as the ratio of sand and stone to cement increases.

  • But so far as the flanges are concerned the stress 15.

  • The back guys are the most heavily strained part of the structure, the stress provided for being 1200 tons.

  • The area of each anchor plate, normal to the line of stress, is 32 ft.

  • there was nothing unsafe; it was perfectly strong and the stress in vital parts moderate.

  • Roughly, if expansion is prevented, a stress of one ton per sq.

  • But if a load is so applied that the deflection increases with speed, the stress is greater than that due to a very gradually applied load, and vibrations about a mean position are set up. The rails not being absolutely straight and smooth, centrifugal and lurching actions occur which alter the distribution of the loading.

  • The weight of main girders increases with the span, and there is for any type of bridge a limiting span beyond which the dead load stresses exceed the assigned limit of working stress.

  • run, all in tons; 1= span in ft.; s =average stress in tons per sq.

  • It is not easy to fix the average stress s per sq.

  • - For a long time engineers held the convenient opinion that, if the total dead and live load stress on any section of a structure (of iron) did not exceed 5 tons per sq.

  • Baker described the condition of opinion as to the safe limits of stress as chaotic. " The old foundations," he said, " are shaken, and engineers have not come to an agreement respecting the rebuilding of the structure.

  • Baker then described the results of experiments on repetition of stress, and added that " hundreds of existing bridges which carry twenty trains a day with perfect safety would break down quickly under twenty trains an hour.

  • Baker and others, show that the breaking stress of a bar is not a fixed quantity, but depends on the range of variation of stress to which it is subjected, if that variation is repeated a very large number of times.

  • The range of stress is therefore k max.

  • = the range of stress, where A is always positive.

  • For a statical load, range of stress nil, A=0, kmax.

  • = K, the statical breaking stress.

  • The safe working stress in these different cases is kmax.

  • The real nature of the action is not well understood, but the word fatigue may be used, if it is not considered to imply more than that the breaking stress under repetition of loading diminishes as the range of variation increases.

  • It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses.

  • Let A be the dead load and B the live load, producing stress in a bar; p =B / A the ratio of live to dead load; f i the safe working limit of stress for a bar subjected to a dead load only and f the safe working stress in any other case.

  • Working Stress for combined Dead and Live Load.

  • Let t be the statical breaking strength of a bar, loaded once gradually up to fracture (t = breaking load divided by original area of section); u the breaking strength of a bar loaded and unloaded an indefinitely great number of times, the stress varying from u to o alternately (this is termed the primitive strength); and, lastly, let s be the breaking strength of a bar subjected to an indefinitely great number of repetitions of stresses equal and opposite in sign (tension and thrust), so that the stress ranges alternately from s to -s.

  • If a bar is subjected to alternations of stress having the range A = f max .-f min ., then, by Wchler's law, the bar will ultimately break, if f max

  • Putting the values of F in (1) and solving for f max ., we get for the breaking stress of a bar subjected to repetition of varying stress, f max.

  • = u(1+ (us) Iu) [Stresses of opposite sign.] The working stress in any case is f max .

  • Then Wohler's results for iron and Bauschinger's for steel give the following equations for tension or thrust: Iron, working stress, f =4.4 (1+10) Steel, =5'87 (1 +140).

  • For shearing stresses the working stress may have o 8 of its value for tension.

  • The following table gives values of the working stress calculated by these equations: Working Stress for Tension or Thrust by Launhardt and Weyrauch Formula.

  • Hence the range of stress, f max.

  • - f min ., from which the working stress is deduced, is not the ordinary range of stress which is repeated a practically infinite number of times, but is a range of stress to which the bridge is subjected only at comparatively long intervals.

  • English bridge-builders are somewhat hampered in adopting rational limits of working stress by the rules of the Board of Trade.

  • For the Dufferin bridge (steel) the working stress was taken at 6.5 tons per sq.

  • in., but in members in which the stress changes sign 4 tons per sq.

  • In the Forth bridge for members in which the stress varied from o to a maximum frequently, the limit was 5.0 tons per sq.

  • in., or if the stress varied rarely 5.6 tons per sq.

  • If A t A, are the cross sections of the tension and compression flanges or chords, and h the distance between their mass centres, then on the assumption that they resist all the direct horizontal forces the total stress on each flange is Ht=H,=M/h and the intensity of stress of tension or compression is f t = M/Ath, f c = M/Ach.

  • If A is the area of the plate web in a vertical section, the intensity of shearing stress is fs = S/A and the intensity on horizontal sections is the same.

  • If the web is a braced web, then the vertical component of the stress in the web bars cut by the section must be equal to S.

  • Still more generally if H is the stress on any bar, h the perpendicular distance from the join of the other two bars cut by the section, and M is the moment of the forces on one side of that join, Hh = M.

  • Further, the range of stress to which they are subjected is the sum of the stresses due to the load advancing from the left or the right.

  • C. Lea, dealing with the determination of stress due to concentrated loads, by the method of influence lines will be found in Proc. Inst.

  • The frame as a whole may be subject to a bending moment, but each member is simply extended or compressed so that the total stress on a given member is the same at all its cross sections, while the intensity of stress is uniform for all the parts of any one cross section.

  • Thus if the members are pinned together, the, joint consisting of a single circular pin, the centre of which lies in the axis of the piece, it is clear that the direction of the only stress which can be transmitted from pin to pin will coincide with this axis.

  • A frame used to support a weight is often called a truss; the stresses on the various members of a truss can be computed for any given load with greater accuracy than the intensity of stress on the various parts of a continuous structure such as a tubular girder, or the rib of an arch.

  • length, this will not produce a stress on any member, but will merely cause a change in the form of the frame.

  • A workman, for instance, cannot produce a stress on one member by making some other member of a wrong length.

  • 67 d as the complete reciprocal figure of the frame and forces upon it, and we see that each line in the reciprocal figure measures the stress on the corresponding member in the frame, and that the polygon of forces acting at any point, as Ijky, in the frame is represented by a polygon of the same name in the reciprocal figure.

  • The reciprocal figure for any loaded frame is a complete formula for the stress on every member of a frame of that particular class with loads on given joints.

  • The following is the approximate expression for the relation between a change Os in the length of the half chain and the corresponding change Ay in the dip s +Os =x+ (2/3x) {y2 or, neglecting the last term, 5 As= 4YAY/3x, and 6 Dy = 3xOs/4Y From these equations the deflection produced by any given stress on the chains or by a change of temperature can be calculated.

  • These ideas are further developed in various papers in the Bulletin and in his L'Anthropometrie, ou mesure des differentes facultes de l'homme (18'ji), in which he lays great stress on the universal applicability of the binomial law, - according to which the number of cases in which, for instance, a certain height occurs among a large number of individuals is represented by an ordinate of a curve (the binomial) symmetrically situated with regard to the ordinate representing the mean result (average height).

  • In later Judaism, especially from about ioo B.C., great stress was laid on the Day of Atonement, and it is now the most important religious function of the Jews.

  • Christ lived on earth the life of man, and without questioning the equally genuine Divine element laid stress on this genuine human consciousness.

  • Let E be the effective elasticity of the aether; then E = pc t, where p is its density, and c the velocity of light which is 3 X 10 10 cm./sec. If = A cos" (t - x/c) is the linear vibration, the stress is E dE/dx; and the total energy, which is twice the kinetic energy Zp(d/dt) 2 dx, is 2pn2A2 per cm., which is thus equal to 1.8 ergs as above.

  • by Torrey), who wrote in a sympathetic spirit and with special stress upon the religious side of the subject, and has been followed by many disciples, for instance, Hagenbach, Schaff and Herzog; and Baur (Das Christenthum and die christliche Kirche, 1853 ff.), the most brilliant of all, whose many historical works were dominated by the principles of the Hegelian philosophy and evinced both the merits and defects of that school.

  • In this way thin laminae would form, lying at right angles to the direction of greatest stress.

  • In his theology he laid stress on the Gospel and on no sectarian opinions - he was, however, a pre-millenarianite - and he worked with men as much more "advanced" than himself as Henry Drummond, whom he eagerly defended against orthodox attack, and George Adam Smith.

  • Menelaus on his way home was also driven by stress of winds to Egypt, where he found his wife and took her home (Herodotus 11.112-120; Euripides, Helena).

  • The calculation of the stress in the various parts of the gun due to the powder pressure is dealt with in the article Ordnance.

  • dynamics of the movement of the shot up the bore, and of the stress set up in the material of the gun, constitutes the branch of interior ballistics.

  • Stress was laid on the sense as well as the style of the author studied.

  • in 1840, was to lay a new stress on religious teaching, and to obviate the risk of overwork resulting from the simultaneous study of all subjects by the encouragement of specialization in a few.

  • The scheme of 1892 reduced the number of hours assigned to Latin from 77 to 62, and laid special stress on the German essay; but the modern training given by the Realgymnasium was still unrecognized as an avenue to a university education.

  • An increasing stress was laid on the literal sense of Scripture.

  • This fact was, naturally enough and under the same dogmatic stress, denied by those scholars who maintained that the vowels were an integral part of the text.

  • (ii.) There is a healthy tendency to lay stress on the historical value of narratives which proceed from eye-witnesses.

  • The Egyptians report the weight of a measure of various articles, amongst others water (6), but lay no special stress on it; and the fact that there is no measure of water equal to a direct decimal multiple of the weight-unit, except very high in the scale, does not seem as if the volume was directly based upon weight.

  • But the fraction 1/128, or a continued binary division repeated seven times, is such a likely mode of rude subdivision that little stress can be laid on this.

  • It was used at the Sunday noon instruction of children, on which Calvin laid much stress, and was adopted and similarly used by the Reformed Church of Scotland.

  • He, his immediate follower, Gilbert Tennent (1703-1764), other clergymen, such as James Davenport, and many untrained laymen who took up the work, agreed in the emotional and dramatic character of their preaching, in rousing their hearers to a high pitch of excitement, often amounting to frenzy, in the undue stress they put upon "bodily effects" (the physical manifestations of an abnormal psychic state) as proofs of conversion, and in their unrestrained attacks upon the many clergymen who did not join them and whom they called "dead men," unconverted, unregenerate and careless of the spiritual condition of their parishes.

  • The regulation as to convents seems partly due to a desire to avoid the worry and expenditure of time involved in the discharge of such offices and partly to a conviction that penitents living in enclosure, as all religious persons then were, would be of no effective use to the Society; whereas the founder, against the wishes of several of his companions, laid much stress on the duty of accepting the post of confessor to kings, queens and women of high rank when opportunity presented itself.

  • If the growing Christian Church, in quite a different fashion from Paul, laid stress on the literal authority of the Old Testament, interpreted, it is true, allegorically; if it took up a much more friendly and definite attitude towards the Old Testament, and gave wider scope to the legal conception of religion, this must be in part ascribed to the involuntary reaction upon it of Gnosticism.

  • It was in conjunction with Marx and Laf argue that he drew up the programme accepted by the national congress of the Labour party at Havre in 1880, which laid stress on the formation of an international labour party working by revolutionary methods.

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