They are strengthened by numerous square towers.
It only strengthened the idea that he was the caretaker, not the owner.
It was terrible, but he felt that in proportion to the efforts of that fatal force to crush him, there grew and strengthened in his soul a power of life independent of it.
These provisions were later strengthened by Clement VII.
Dubois's success strengthened him against the bitter opposition of a large section of the court.
The duke of Dorset's reappointment to the lord-lieutenancy in 1751, with his son Lord George Sackville as secretary of state for Ireland, strengthened the primate's position and enabled him to triumph over the popular party on the constitutional question as to the right of the Irish House of Commons to dispose of surplus Irish revenue, which the government maintained was the property of the Crown.
Canada and Australasia led the way, for in these countries the Methodist Church was undivided, and the sentiment was greatly strengthened by the formation in the United Kingdom of the United Methodist Church in 1907.
From 1725 onwards the fortifications were greatly strengthened.
At this crisis the hands of Orange and the patriotic party were greatly strengthened by a new compact entitled " The Union of Brussels," which was extensively signed es eciall in the southern Netherlands.
He did not find Prince Andrew in Olmutz that day, but the appearance of the town where the headquarters and the diplomatic corps were stationed and the two Emperors were living with their suites, households, and courts only strengthened his desire to belong to that higher world.
His own hopes of preferment had been strengthened by the death of many of the higher clergy at Flodden.
Solomon greatly strengthened the fortifications of Jerusalem, and was probably the builder of the line of defence, called by Josephus the first or old wall, which united the cities on the eastern and western hills.
William, however, whose position had been strengthened by his nomination to the post of ruwaard of Brabant, determined to welcome Matthias and use him for his own purposes.
Strengthened by this powerful reinforcement, Don John fell upon the patriot army at Gemblours near Namur on the 31st of January 1578, and with scarcely any loss completely routed the Netherlanders.
From 1850 onwards it was again repaired and strengthened at great cost, and was considered impregnable; but in the war of 1864 the Prussians turned it by crossing the Schlei, .and it was abandoned by the Danes on the 6th of February without a blow.
The Scaligers in Verona and the Carraresi in Padua were strengthened; and in Tuscany Castruccio Castracane, Ugucciones successor at Lucca, became formidable.
The attitude of Franci strengthened that anti-French feeling in.
The negus, however, conformed to article 17 of the treaty of IJccialli by requesting Italy to represent Ahyssinia at the Brussels anti-slavery conference, an act which strengthened Italian illusions as to Meneleks readiness to submit to their protectorate.
Italy had developed some important commercial interests in Montenegro, and anything which strengthened the position of that principality was a guarantee against further Austrian encroachments.
Who does not feel his faith in a resurrection and immortality strengthened by hearing of this?
Meanwhile the position of Charles's opponents had been considerably strengthened by the suppression of a dangerous rebellion in November 1647 by Cromwell's intervention, and by the return of troops to obedience.
The active participation of the Roman Catholics in the movement of the United Irishmen was strengthened by the appointment of Tone as paid secretary of the Roman Catholic Committee in the spring of 1792.
Fichte's general views on philosophy seem to have changed considerably as he advanced in years, and his influence has been impaired by certain inconsistencies and an appearance of eclecticism, which is strengthened by his predominantly historical treatment of problems, his desire to include divergent systems within his own, and his conciliatory tone.
They are strengthened by several detached forts and redoubts.
Towards the end of the 17th century the fortifications were greatly strengthened by Coehoorn, and in 1725 they were further extended.
Credits for the army and navy were voted almost without a dissentient voice; new battleships were laid down, the strength of the army was increased, and the defences of the exposed eastern border were strengthened.
He never changed, though he developed and perfected, the manner which he had adopted in Padua; his colouring, at first rather neutral and undecided, strengthened and matured.
2, a), while in many beetles that burrow into the earth or climb about on trees the fore-legs are broadened and strengthened for digging, or lengthened and modified for clinging to branches.
Whatever be the true explanation of this problem, it is certain (1) that Peisistratus was regarded as a leading soldier, and (2) that his position was strengthened by the prestige of his family.
This act of oppression presumably strengthened the Syrian faction of the Jews and led to the transference of the nation's allegiance.
Subsequently the Dorian element became greatly strengthened by fresh immigrations from the Peloponnesus, and during the historical period all the principal cities of the island were either Dorian colonies, or had adopted the Dorian dialect and institutions.
Stolypin was for some time in sympathy with that programme, and even contemplated the formation of a Ministry strengthened by leaders of public opinion, of whom Guchkov, Count Heyden and N.
The population of Minas Geraes is chiefly of Portuguese origin, which has been constantly strengthened by immigrants from the mother country.
He strengthened his position by giving his daughter Sophia in marriage to Vasily, grand-duke of Muscovy; but he never felt secure beneath the wing of the Teutonic Order, and when Jagiello removed Skirgiello from the government of Lithuania and offered it to Witowt, the compact of Ostrow (5th of August 1392) settled all differences between them.
His life was strengthened by the love of his petite horde, Mme de Nehra, his adopted son, Lucas de Montigny, and his little dog Chico.
Whatever may be said of the original creation of the Constitution, whether by the states or by the people, its development under the influences of a growing nationalism was a strong support to Webster's argument, and no other speech so strengthened Union sentiment throughout the North; its keynote was "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable."
During the first half of his government he materially strengthened the Tudor monarchy by the vigorous administration of justice at home and by the brilliance of his foreign policy abroad.
This suspicion is strengthened by the fact (discovered by von Sybel) that even the very preface to his book is taken almost word for word from Rufinus's translation of Origen's commentary on the epistle to the Romans.
Henrietta; but it may have been strengthened by his known connexion with Laud, as well as by his ascetic habits.
His position was strengthened by the entry of Malesherbes into the ministry (July 1775).
His constitution, weakly in childhood, strengthened with advancing years so as to allow him to get through an incredible amount of sedentary labour, while he retained to the last the fresh and cheerful temperament of a boy.
This new inner life was strengthened and enlarged by Mrs Taylor.
Where the newer methods were assimilated, the position of economics was strengthened and its practical utility increased.
The success at the bridge of Lodi (loth of May) seems first to have inspired in the young general dreams of a grander career than that of a successful general of the Revolution; while his narrow escape at the bridge of Arcola in November strengthened his conviction that he was destined for a great future.
The head is usually connected with the thorax by a distinct membranous neck, strengthened in the more generalized orders with small chitinous plates (cervical sclerites).
The chitinous layer is usually strengthened by thread like thickenings which, in the region close to the outer opening of the tube, form a network enclosing polygonal areas, but which, through most of the tracheal system, are arranged spirally, the strengthening thread not forming a continuous spiral, but being interrupted after a few turns around the tube.
1 Indeed, the study of this memoir, limited though it be in scope, could not fail to convince any one that it proceeded from the mind of one who taught with the authority derived directly from original knowledge, and not from association with the scribes - a conviction that has become strengthened as, in a series of successive memoirs, the stores of more than twenty years' silent observation and unremitting research were unfolded, and, more than that, the hidden forces of the science of morphology were gradually brought to bear upon almost each subject that came under discussion.
The governor's control over appointments was strengthened by the constitution of 1851 and by the subsequent creation of statutory offices, boards and commissions, but the right of veto was not given to him until the adoption of the constitutional amendments of 1903.
With his Palmyrene troops, 4 strengthened by what was left of the Roman army corps, he took the offensive against Shapur, defeated him at Ctesiphon, and in a series of brilliant engagements won back the East for Rome.
The caudal fin is crescent-shaped, strengthened at the base by two short ridges on each side.
The emperor Isaac Angelus had not only the old grudge of all Eastern 1 The "economic" motive for taking the cross was strengthened by the papal regulations in favour of debtors who joined the Crusade.
The latter appears mainly in Palestine, and has of late been considerably strengthened by immigration of European Jews, who have almost doubled the population of Jerusalem, and settled upon several fertile spots throughout the Holy Land.
This exclusiveness naturally strengthened the popularity and power of the districts, where energy and talent found a scope elsewhere denied.
The fact that the semi-wild tribes, which are ethnologically Malayan and distinct from the aboriginal Semang and Sakai, are met with almost invariably in the neighbourhood of the coast would seem to indicate that they reached the peninsula by a sea, not by a land route, a supposition which is strengthened by their almost amphibious habits.
With the spread of their empire to Spain the Arabs took with them their knowledge of Greek medicine and science, including alchemy, and thence it passed, strengthened by the infusion of a certain Jewish element, to the nations of western Europe, through the medium of Latin translations.
Its fortifications, though not increased, were apparently strengthened by the Tyrants.
The wall, which was strengthened with numerous towers, enclosed the quarters of Collytus on the north, Melite on the west, Limnae on the southwest and south, and Diomea on the east.
in height, and were strengthened by towers.
This law-purely empirical in origin-was strengthened by Berzelius, who redetermined many specific heats, and applied the law to determine the true atomic weight from the equivalent weight.
When the body was exhibited to the people the next day it was in a shocking state of decomposition, which of course strengthened the suspicion of poison.
It strengthened the hands of church democracy; it formed an alliance with the pure souls who held up to the church the ideal of apostolic poverty; it united itself for a time even with mysticism in a common opposition to the supremacy of the church.
In December 1901 the mullah was, however, once more raiding in the neighbourhood of Burao, and in May Wars with 1902 Colonel Swayne led another expedition against the Mullah him, the Somali levies being strengthened by the 2nd Mahomme dKing's African Rifles, consisting of Yaos from Nyasa- Abdullah.
He strengthened the position of his family and provided for the security of his kingdom by associating his two sons, Recared and Hermenegild, with himself in the kingly office and placing parts of the land under their rule.
Wesley spent some time during the summer of 1738 in visiting the Moravian settlement at Herrnhuth and returned to London on September 16, 1738, with his faith greatly strengthened.
The fortifications were strengthened in 1841, and remained in an antiquated condition until 1882, when they were renovated by Arabi Pasha.
Since satisfaction was not given for this and the forts were being strengthened at the instigation of Arabi Pasha, the war minister, the British admiral, Sir Beauchamp Seymour (afterwards Lord Alcester), sent an ultimatum on the 10th of July and opened fire on the forts the next day.
Ragusa furnished him with money and a fleet, in return for a guarantee of protection; commercial treaties with Venice further strengthened his position; and the Vatican, which had instigated the Croats to invade the dominions of their heretical neighbour (1337-40), was conciliated by his conversion to Roman Catholicism.
So strong was the opposition that the troops were recalled, and the anti-reform party was greatly strengthened.
Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz's journey to Europe and the return visits paid by foreign princes strengthened Turkey's relations with foreign states.
It was strengthened by the fact that the Young Turks had deliberately abstained from violent action.
The words are as follows: - " This letter I sent through Clement the blessed presbyter, a man virtuous and tried, whom ye know and will come to know completely, who being here by the providence and guidance of the Ruler of all strengthened and increased the church of the Lord."
On the 20th of August the Allies, strengthened by the arrival of two more brigades (4000 men), occupied some heights north of Vimiera (Vimeira or Vimeiro) where the roads branch off to Torres Vedras and Mafra.
In England a party in parliament were urging the withdrawal of the British troops, and any reverse to the allied arms would have strengthened its hands.
They consisted of three great lines, strengthened by about 150 redoubts, and earthworks Vedras, of various descriptions, mounting some 600 cannon; 1810-11.
Unfortunately siege of San a conflagration breaking out near the breaches Sebastian, caused it to be postponed until nightfall, when, the July 10.24, breaches in the interval having been strengthened, 1813' it was delivered unsuccessfully and with heavy loss.
The citadel of Wilhelmsburg remains, and also the defences on the left bank of the Danube, further extended and strengthened.
Even a permanent magnet is susceptible of induction, its polarity becoming thereby strengthened, weakened, or possibly reversed.
Throughout the 12th and 13th centuries the castle was strengthened and enlarged under successive earls palatine of Pembroke, who made this fortress their chief seat.
- Integument hard, strengthened by a continuously chitinized dorsal and ventral sclerite.
- Integument soft, strengthened by special sclerites, those on the ventral surface of the prosoma apparently representing the basal segments of the legs embedded in the skin.
Not the least of the benefits of the Hague convention of 1899 (strengthened by that of 1907) is that it contains rules of procedure which furnish a guide for all arbitrations whether conducted before the Hague court or not.
In the 14th century it was greatly strengthened and beautified by Charles III., who built a citadel on the site now occupied by.
Pornbal's arrangements extended also to the interior of the country, where he extinguished at once the now indefinite and oppressive claims of the original donatories of the captaincies, and strengthened and enforced the regulations of the mining districts.
Two years later he strengthened the claims which he had thus established by marrying Matilda, a daughter of Baldwin V.
During those critical times the government of the state was strengthened by a new executive magistracy called the balia, which from 1455 began to act independently of the priors or consistory.
These benefits the nation owed for the most part to Gabor Baross, Hungary's greatest finance minister, who entered the cabinet in 1886 and greatly strengthened it.
But the issues involved affected the stability of the Dual Monarchy and its position in Europe; and neither the king-emperor nor his Austrian advisers, their position strengthened by the success of Baron Aehrenthal's diplomatic victory in the Balkans, were prepared to make any substantial concessions to the party of Independence.
Next day he led his followers, strengthened by many Kentish recruits, on the road to London, being joined at Maidstone by John Ball, whom the mob had liberated from the archbishop's prison.
Despite the different traditions of culture due to the rival ecclesiastical influence of Rome and Byzantium, a sense of kinship had survived throughout centuries of separation, and was strengthened by continual migration.
This only precipitated the collapse, and while Count Tisza voiced Hungarian public opinion in declaring the basis of the Dual system to be shattered, the Yugoslav National Council was transplanted from Ljubljana to Zagreb and strengthened by the inclusion of representatives of all parties (Oct.
This in turn strengthened the hands of the extreme section among the Yugosla y s, who now advanced the full ethnographic claim, involving Trieste and Gorizia as well as Dalmatia and Istria, and at the same time increased their demands against Bulgaria, Austria and Albania.
The stock may be destroyed, killed out by adverse conditions, but its quality is not directly affected, and if removed to more favourable conditions it will show no hereditary results of the previous adversity; indeed it will probably have been strengthened in some ways by the destruction in severe conditions of its weaker members and the survival of the stronger individuals.
Gradually growing more or less ruinous it was acquired by government in 1855, repaired, strengthened and converted into a Tay defence, mounting several heavy guns.
Descartes strengthened these views, both by experiments and geometrical investigations, in his Meteors (Leiden, 1637).
Having strengthened his forces, he marched towards Lucera to join the Saracens.
Subsequently completed and strengthened it became and still remains (in the words of G.
It was strengthened in 190 B.C. by the sending of 6000 new settlers and soon became one of the most flourishing towns of upper Italy.
The founding of new teaching universities, in which England, and even France, had been at some disadvantage as compared with Scotland and Germany, strengthened the movement in favour of enlarging and liberalizing technical training, and of anticipating technical instruction by some broader scientific discipline; though, as in all times of transition, something was lost temporarily by a departure from the old discipline of the grammar school before a new scheme of training the mind in scientific habits and conceptions was established or fully apprehended.
He strengthened the regimental system adopted by Dingiswayo and perfected the discipline of his army.
A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected by a long narrow india-rubber tube, which must be sufficiently strong in the body (or strengthened by a linen coating) to stand an outward pressure of 1 to 2 atmospheres.
After about five years' residence he left without taking a degree, travelled abroad, and in Switzerland imbibed or strengthened those religious principles and that hostility to the Laudian church which were to be the chief motive in his future political career.
By 1176 the Florentines were masters of all the territory comprised in the dioceses of Florence and Fiesole; but civil commotion within nobles, headed by the Alberti and strengthened by the many feudal families who had been forced to leave their castles and dwell in the city (1177-1180).
But, although greatly strengthened, the Guelphs, who now may be called the democrats as opposed to the Ghibelline aristocrats, were by no means wholly victorious, and in 1251 they had to defend themselves against a league of Ghibelline cities (Siena, Pisa and Pistoia) assisted by Florentine Ghibellines; the Florentine Uberti, who had been driven into exile after their plot of 1258, took refuge in Siena and encouraged that city in its hostility to Florence.
The Sicilian Vespers by weakening Charles strengthened the commune, which aimed at complete independence of emperors, kings and popes.
Florence, alone in resisting him, engaged Hawkwood, who with an army of 7000 men more than held his own against the powerful lord of Milan, and in 1392 a peace was concluded which the republic strengthened by an alliance with Pisa and several north Italian states.
The result of the plot was that, although Giuliano was murdered, Lorenzo strengthened his position, and put to death or exiled numbers of his enemies.
The king demanded the cession of Pisa, Leghorn and other towns, which Piero granted, but on returning to Florence on the 8th of November 1494 he found the opposition greatly strengthened and his popularity forfeited, especially when the news of his disgraceful cessions to Charles became known.
Its fortifications were strengthened in 1766 by the erection of Fort George, on an eminence to the west of the town, across the river.
This evidence is, however, strengthened by the results of recent work on changes in the blood of patients suffering from helminthiasis.
The Reformed strengthened itself against the Roman Catholic theology by working itself, on the one hand, into vigorous logical consistency, and supporting itself, on the other, on the supreme authority of the Scriptures.
This strain of cosmopolitanism must have been greatly strengthened by the circumstances of his education.
Here he waited two months for reinforcements, and with his Bedouin contingent, strengthened by the adhesion of the Ateba and Bani Khalid tribes, advanced on Shakra in Wushm, which fell in January 1818 after a regular siege.
The town walls were strengthened, new wells dug, gardens planted, mosques and schools built.
He was succeeded by his son, who in 1798 made a treaty with the East India Company with the object of excluding the French from Oman, and the connexion with Great Britain was further strengthened during British in- the long reign of his grandson Sultan Said, 1804-1856.
In this instance the ultimate success of the corporation greatly strengthened the Obscurantist and reactionary element throughout Austria.
The native dynasty has been strengthened rather than weakened, and Tunisia may be pointed out as the best and wisest example of French administration over an alien land and race.
During the Thirty Years' War Mainz was occupied by the Swedes in 1631 and by the French in 1644, 'the fortifications being strengthened by the former under Gustavus Adolphus; in 1688 it was captured again by the French, but they were driven out in the following year.
From this disaster the inhabitants recovered so far as to be able to give an effectual check to an invasion of the Goths in the reign of Claudius II., and the fortifications were greatly strengthened during the civil wars which followed the abdication of Diocletian.
And these were strengthened by French influences, notably those of Renan and the Strassburg theologians.
By centralizing the financial administration by the creation of the Tresor de l'Epargne, and by developing the military establishments, Francis still further strengthened the royal power.
The demolition of the ramparts of Old Calais was followed by the construction of a new circle of defences, embracing both the old and new quarters, and strengthened by a deep moat.
It was captured from the Mahrtatas under the leadership of Perron, another French officer, by Lord Lake's army, in September 1803, since which time it has been much strengthened and improved.
To some extent the Spartans were undoubtedly relieved, in that it no longer fell to them to organize distant expeditions to Asia Minor, and this feeling was strengthened about the same time by the treacherous conduct of their king Leotychides in Thessaly.
In these years the Athenian sailors reached a high pitch of training, and by their successes strengthened that corporate pride which had been born at Salamis.
While Good Words made his name known, and helped the cause he had so deeply at heart, his relations with the queen and the royal family strengthened yet further his position in the country.
Between s o and 176 the authority of the episcopate had been immensely strengthened, and along with it a settled order had been introduced into the Churches.
Charles His son and successor, Charles Emmanuel I., surnamed the Great, strengthened the tendency of Savoy to become less of a French and more of an Italian Power.
It has been greatly strengthened by the discovery of a MS. which was presented by Bishop Leidrad of Lyons with an autograph inscription to the altar of St Stephen in'that town;some time before 814.
To remedy the evil, Casimir drew up and promulgated the severe statute of Great Poland, which went to the very root of the matter and greatly strengthened the hands of the king's justices.
King Henry was at Coventry when the news of the landing reached him, and immediately marched to Nottingham, where his army was strengthened by the addition of 6000 men.
The fortifications of the " Three Cities " were greatly strengthened under the Grand Master Cotoner.
the fortress was strengthened by a circle of detached forts, which, after 1870, were modified and completed by the Germans, who treated the fortress as the principal pivot of offensive operations against France.
From the beginning of the 14th to the middle of the 15th century it was frequented by Italians and Spaniards, and in the 16th it was held for some time by Charles V., who strengthened its citadel.
During the nine or ten years which had elapsed since the conclusion of this remarkable treaty the Dacian prince had immensely strengthened the approaches to his kingdom from the Roman side.
On his return to Florence early in January 1503, Machiavelli began to occupy himself with a project which his recent attendance upon Cesare Borgia had strengthened in his mind.
The birth of an heir to the throne (Prince Henry) in 1594 strengthened her position and influence; but the young prince, much to her indignation, was immediately withdrawn from her care and entrusted to the keeping of the earl and countess of Mar at Stirling Castle; in 1595 James gave a written command, forbidding them in case of his death to give up the prince to the queen till he reached the age of eighteen.
Its fortifications were greatly strengthened; nevertheless it was twice taken by the Imperialists and twice recovered by the French during the Spanish Succession War.
The negative criticisms of Kosters have, however, been strengthened by his replies (in the Dutch Theolog.
The brass tube, strengthened at the bearing points by strong truly turned collars, rotates in the cast iron cradle q attached to the declination axis.
The inner face is smooth, but the back is strengthened with angle brackets at the corners.
Her position was very much strengthened by the birth (Oct.
Strengthened by a considerable number of Christian Albanians, they rendered good service in defending Greece, and to some extent repressed the ravages of the Klephts; but their power and independence were disliked by the Turks.
In this he was to some extent successful, and his position was strengthened by the arrival in January 1891 of Captain (subsequently Colonel) W.
His claims on the attention of the Directors had been strengthened by his reading two papers before the French Institute, the first on the commercial relations between England and the United States (in the sense referred to above), and the second on the advantages to be derived from new colonies.
These " battalias " had their angles strengthened in the oldfashioned way that had prevailed since Marignan, with small outstanding bodies of musketeers, so that they resembled rectangular forts with bastions.
The skin was strengthened by a number of small deeply-embedded bony nodules.
There are considerable remains of the old town walls, dating from Norman times, but strengthened on various later occasions.
The wall was strengthened by towers at intervals, such as the Arundel Tower at the north-western corner.
The reconciliation thus effected was further strengthened by the marriage of Alexander to Henry's sister Joanna in 1221.
The Spaniards during their occupancy of Tunis strengthened the kasbah and built an aqueduct to supply it with water.
Both these farms were strengthened; but, still nervous about his right flank, the duke occupied Hougoumont in much greater force than La Haye Sainte, and massed the bulk of his troops on his right.
Calmly he readjusted his line and strengthened the torn centre.
The conception of the right angle is strengthened, by contrast, by the use of bricks in the form of a rhombus.
The American cause was strengthened this year also by several victories along the lower Hudson of which General Anthony Wayne's storming of the British fort at Stony Point was the most important.
The storming of their favourite positions - stockades strengthened with rifle-pits - was often costly; and a strange anti-Christian fanaticism, the Hau-Hau cult, encouraged them to face the white men's bullets and bayonets.
Under his father's patronage he joined in the conservative reaction which came to a head in 411, when hopes of a Persian alliance or peace with Sparta strengthened the existing dissatisfaction with the democratic rule.
It was no doubt largely due to his advocacy that the probuli, strengthened by further members, were commissioned to draft new measures on behalf of the public safety and to examine Cleisthenes' " ancestral code."
During their stay there they had inflicted a severe defeat on the Zulus under Dingaan (December 1838), an event which, following on the flight of Mosilikatze, greatly strengthened the position of Moshesh, whose power became a menace to that of the emigrant farmers.
In 1902 her position was strengthened by the alliance with England; in 1903 her army, though in the event it proved almost too small, was considered by the military authorities as sufficiently numerous and well prepared, and the arguments of the Japanese diplomatists stiffened with menaces.
The Eastern protective detachment, now strengthened and placed under the orders of Count Keller, was disposed with a view to countering any advance on Liao-Yang from the east by a combination of manoeuvre and fighting.
Stessel then withdrew in good order into Port Arthur, which in the two months he had gained by his fighting manoeuvre had been considerably strengthened.
The Russians strengthened their works around the captured forts in such a way as effectually to prevent farther advance, and the Japanese 3rd Army had now to resign itself to a methodical siege.
He strengthened the interstate commission for the regulation of railroads, inaugurated successful suits against monopolies - notably the Standard Oil Company and the so-called Sugar Trust, - and achieved distinct practical results in favour of a system of "industrial democracy" where all men shall have equal rights under the law and where there shall be no privileged interests exempt from the operation of the law.
Less frequently it consisted of a stack of brushwood or fascines built up from the bottom and' strengthened by stakes penetrating the mass so as to keep it from spreading.
In some cases the whole construction was further steadied and strengthened by cross beams, notched into the piles below the supports of the platform.
The latest change in the material of bridges has been the introduction of f erro-concrete, armoured concrete, or concrete strengthened with steel bars for arched bridges.
Completed in 1883, and more recently strengthened (Proc. Inst.
The pillars are strengthened against lateral yielding by horizontal and diagonal bracing.
Hence many of the earlier bridges have had to be strengthened to carry modern traffic. The following examples of some of the heaviest locomotives on English railways is given by W.
The practical result is that a bridge which would be passed by the English Board of Trade would require to be strengthened 5% in some parts and 60% in others, before it would be accepted by the German government, or by any of the leading railway companies in America."
In 1772 the famous "Forty Fort," a stockade fortification, was built here, and in 1777 it was rebuilt, strengthened and enlarged.
It comprises the chatelet a (15th century), a square entrance structure strengthened by flanking turrets and machicolation, the adjoining guard-room (13th century) with the salle des officiers above it, and behind all the Tour Perrine.
The incident strengthened Prince Albert's hands in trying to carry out sundry domestic reforms which were being stoutly resisted by vested interests.
But the sequel only strengthened the power of the minister.
Richelieu's position was much strengthened by these incidents, but to the end of life he had to struggle against conspiracies which were designed to deprive him of the king's support, and usually Gaston of Orleans had some share in these movements.
Constituted a duchy in 1452 in favour of Borso d'Este, and enlarged and strengthened by Hercules II., it became the ducal residence on the incorporation of Ferrara with the States of the Church (1598).
The evidence for this view, that all these agencies are at bottom connected together and parts of the same scheme, was enormously strengthened during the latter half of the 19th century by the development of a relation of simple quantitative equivalence between them; it has been found that we can define quantities relating to them, under the names of mechanical energy, electric energy, thermal energy, and so on, so that when one of them disappears, it is replaced by the others to exactly equal amount.
After the adventure of the "Escalade" the fortifications were once more strengthened and extended, these works being completed about 1726.
They strengthened the revolutionary Commune by decreeing its abolition, and then withdrawing the decree at the first sign of popular opposition; they increased the prestige of Marat by prosecuting him before the Revolutionary Tribunal, where his acquittal was a foregone conclusion.
This was enough to secure him the suffrages of the Paris electors ten days later, and the Mountain was strengthened by the accession of an ally whose one idea was to use his new power to revenge himself on his former colleagues.
c. 1115), that 3' who generally styled himself duke of Poland, or dux totius Poloniae, claimed a sort of supremacy among these little states, a claim materially strengthened by the wealth and growing importance of his capital, Cracow, especially after Little Poland had annexed the central principality of Sieradia (Sieradz).
This solidarity was still further strengthened by the Union of Horodlo (October 2, 1413) which enacted that henceforth Lithuania was to have the same order of dignitaries' as Poland, as well as a council of state, or senate, similar to the Polish senate.
Having passed to Spain, its fortifications were strengthened by Philip II., but they were razed by Frederick the Great, the town having been in the possession of Prussia since 1703.
There seems no doubt that the word, whatever its actual origin, is a strengthened form of "total," probably influenced by "teetotum" (q.v.).
3); he also observes that the Jesuits " have much quickened and strengthened the state of learning " matter, and with a view to their bearing on practical life.
In national affairs Maryland early took a stand of perhaps farreaching consequences in refusing to sign the Articles of Confederation (which required the assent of all the states before coming into effect), after all the other states had done so (in 1779), until those states claiming territory between the Alleghany Mountains and the Mississippi and north of the Ohio - Virginia, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut - should have surrendered such claims. As those states finally yielded, the Union was strengthened by reason of a greater equality and consequently less jealousy among the original states, and the United States came into possession of the first territory in which all the states had a common interest and out of which new states were to be created.
By a law of the 19th of December 1900, Algeria was constituted a legal personality, with power to own goods, contract loans, &c., and a decree of 1901 placed the customs department, until then directed from Paris, under the control of the governor-general, whose hands were also strengthened in various minor matters.
On the other hand, archaeology has in some cases greatly strengthened the critical judgment that certain writings (e.g.
Before returning to England they visited several of the chief American cities, and his experience strengthened Jeffrey in the conciliatory policy he had before advocated towards the States.
and Ferdinand the Catholic strengthened the power of the towns and forbade the erection of any fortified house in the country.
It was a signal triumph over Leicester; and, although Burghley had still to reckon with cabals in the council and at court, his hold over the queen strengthened with the lapse of years.
In 1571 he strengthened his position at court by his marriage with Maria, the daughter of Ivan's abominable favourite Malyuta Skuratov.
The shore and the entrance to the canal are strengthened by huge dikes.
The revolutions of 1830 strengthened Frederick William in his reactionary tendencies; the question of the constitution was indefinitely shelved; and in 1831 Prussian troops concentrated on the frontier helped the task of the Russians in reducing the military rising in Poland.
where the whole crop is strengthened by a framework of bars, the incudate mastax lies in a little postero-ventral pouch which can be everted through the crop and mouth.
Barodet, was regarded as a grave disaster for the Thiers government, and that government was not much strengthened by a dissolution and reconstitution of the cabinet on May 19th.
His military capacity, inherited from his father, Nasir-ud-din Sabuktagin, was strengthened by youthful experience in the field.
This was restored and strengthened in 1740 into a fortress that proved impregnable in all succeeding wars.
During the Thirty Years' War it was captured by the Swedes in 1631, passing by the treaty of Westphalia to the elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William I., who strengthened its fortifications.
As a frontier province, Moesia was strengthened by stations and fortresses erected along the southern bank of the Danube, and a wall was built from Axiopolis to Tomi as a protection against Scythian and Sarmatian inroads.
Sir Wilfrid Laurier became prime minister, and strengthened the cabinet which he formed by drawing into.
However, in 1251 the young prince secured his election as duke of Austria, where he strengthened his position by marrying Margaret (d.
The movement gradually assumed the form of terrorism, and aimed at the assassination of prominent officials, and even of the emperor himself, and the natural result was that the reactionary tendencies of the government were strengthened.
Federigo much strengthened his position, first by his own marriage with Battista, one of the powerful Sforza family, and secondly by marrying his daughter to Giovanni della Rovere, the favourite nephew of Pope Sixtus IV., who in return conferred upon Federigo the title of duke.
His father, a Huguenot who had been one of the conspirators of Amboise, strengthened his Protestant sympathies by showing him, while they were passing through that town on their way to Paris, the heads of the conspirators exposed upon the scaffold, and adjuring him not to spare his own head in order to avenge their death.
The careful study of the development of one Acoelous form and of certain Rhabdocoels has strengthened this hypothesis by showing that no definite enteron or gut is at first laid down, but that certain embryonic syncytial tracts become digestive tracts, others excretory, others again muscular.
The marriage had strengthened the claims of both, and they were proclaimed joint sovereigns of England on the 12th of February 1689, Scotland following the example of England on the 11th of April.
In Dr Lindsay's words, " it is one of the privileges of faith, when strengthened by hope and by love, to see the glorious ideal in the somewhat poor material reality.
We need not doubt that the first invasion was followed by a long period of warfare between the natives and the invaders, in which the latter gradually strengthened their hold on the conquered territories.
Into these fins, which are largely cuticular and strengthened by radiating bars, a single layer of ectoderm cells projects.
During the armistice of 1848-1849 the fortress was strengthened, and soon afterwards it stood a siege of two months, which was brought to a glorious close by a successful sortie on the 6th of July 1849.
On the outbreak of the war of 1864, the fortress was again strengthened by new works and an entrenched camp; but the Danes suddenly evacuated it on the 28th of April after a siege of six weeks.
It was enlarged and strengthened by Constantius II., in whose reign it was taken of ter a long siege by Shapur (Sapor) II., king of Persia.
During the Scottish wars of the Independence its fortifications were strengthened by Edward I.
To the foregoing may be added the following three additional propositions, so as to form a more complete expression of a physiognomical philosophy: (4) Certain muscles concerned in producing these skin-folds become strengthened by habitual action, and when the skin diminishes in elasticity and fulness with advancing age, the wrinkles at right angles to the course of the muscular fibres become permanent.
For the historic antagonism between the Catalans and the other inhabitants of Spain was strengthened by the industrial development of Barcelona.
The Alexandrian theology strengthened this movement against chiliasm.
In 1602 Sigismund wedded Constantia, the sister of his deceased first wife, an event which strengthened the hands of the Austrian party at court and still further depressed the chancellor.
When the Lombard kingdom fell before the Franks under Charlemagne in 774, the archbishops of Milan were still further strengthened by the close alliance between Charles and the Church, which gave a sort of confirmation to their temporal authority, and also by Charles's policy of breaking up the great Lombard fiefs and dukedoms, for which he substituted the smaller counties.
Scions from a tree which is weakly, or liable to injury by frosts, are strengthened by engrafting on robust stocks.
Like his father, Otto increased the area of his lands by purchases; and he had considerably strengthened his hold upon the duchy before he died in November 1253.
This was strengthened in 1546, when the emperor Charles V.
The South German Confederation, contemplated by the with 6th article of the treaty of Prague, never came into being; and, though Prussia, in order not prematurely to excite the alarm of France, opposed the suggestion that the southern states should join the North German Confederation, the bonds of Bavaria, as of the other southern states, with the north, were strengthened by an offensive and defensive alliance with Prussia, as the result of Napoleon's demand for "compensation" in the Palatinate.
At a later period the Hindu influence in Sumatra was strengthened by an influx of Hindus from Java, who settled in Palembang, Jambi and Indragiri, but their attachment to Sivaism prevented them from coalescing with their Buddhist brethren in the north.
against Frederick I., who captured it at length and strengthened its defensive works; and it was only after a year's siege that it yielded in 1536 to Christian III.
Honorius was also greatly strengthened by the arrival of six legions sent from Constantinople to his assistance by his nephew Theodosius II.
With the help of Christian merchants who visited the country Frumentius gave Christianity a firm footing, which was strengthened when in 326 he was consecrated bishop by Athanasius of Alexandria, who in his Epistola ad Constantinum mentions the consecration, and gives some details of the history of Frumentius's mission.
All of which suggests a personality mentally and physically phlegmatic, a suggestion strengthened by the fact that Bartholomaeus de Neocastro (quoted by Wenck) describes him as corpulent in 1290.
The position of the elector was greatly strengthened by the partition treaty of the 19th of August 1698.
The marshy lowlands, covered with forests on the western bank of the Vistula, are a natural defence against an army advancing from the west, and they are strengthened by the fortresses on that river.
His vessel, the "Iron Ram," was "bearded," that is to say, strengthened across the bows by bands of iron, and he forced her between the last and last but one of Olaf's line.
This was strengthened in 404, but in 393 Velitrae regained its freedom and was Rome's strongest opponent; it was only reduced in 338, when the freedom of Latium finally perished.
(of Isenburg); and it was partly to overawe the turbulent townsmen that successive archbishops built and strengthened the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein (q.v.) that dominates the city.
The general truth of the tradition is strengthened by the fact that it has come down from two independent sources.
Early in the 12th century the city was enlarged by the inclusion of suburbs of Oversburg, Niederich and St Aposteln; in 1180 these were enclosed in a permanent rampart which, in the 13th century, was strengthened with the walls and gates that survived till the 19th century.
Republican and Socialist agitation, culminating in a series of dangerous risings, strengthened the position of the king as defender of middle-class interest; and since the middle classes constituted the pays legal which alone was represented in Parliament, he came to regard his position as unassailable, especially after the suppression of the risings under Blanqui and Barbes in 1839.
John's self-restraint had strengthened his position, and he began again to think of his Spanish scheme.
These walls are strengthened at intervals by numerous towers, occupying the full width of the wall, which occur in some parts at a distance of only about too yds., but in general much less frequently.
About this time he received from his brother Louis the Saxon palatinate, over which he strengthened his authority by marrying Sophia, sister of Adalbert, count of Sommerschenburg, a former count palatine.
"We do not award praise to beings which submit merely in virtue of their nature; but we do award high praise to beings which submit because their attitude is one of love; and so submitting because their inspiring motive is one and the same, they are confirmed and strengthened by one and the same indwelling power, of which the force ever grows, so that it never ceases to stir.
It was already surrounded by a wall of crude brick, which rested on stone foundations and was strengthened at certain points by courses of burnt brick.
In return for Wild's services in tracking down such thieves as he did not himself control, the authorities for some time tolerated the offences of his numerous agents, each a specialist in a particular kind of robbery, and so themselves strengthened his position.
The cities, notwithstanding every kind of discouragement, formed new associations for mutual defence or strengthened those which already existed.
The league was soon joined by other strong cities, among them Strassburg, Ulm, Constance, Lhbeck and Goslar; but it was not until after the defeat and death of Zwingli atKappel in October 1531 that it was further strengthened by the adhesion of those towns which had hitherto looked for leadership to the Swiss reformer.
While Prussia was thus established on the Rhine, Austria, by exchanging the Netherlands for LombardoVenetia and abandoning her claims to the former Habsburg possessions in Swabia, definitively resigned to Prussia the task of defending the western frontier of Germany, while she strengthened her power in the south-east by recovering from Bavaria, Salzburg, Vorarlberg and Tirol.
The ambitions of Prussia were notorious, and Austria had no wish to see her rival still further strengthened by ~ the annexation of the duchies.
Essentially a German, not a Prussian, party, they were joined by the Nationalists from the annexed provinces of Hanover and Hesse; in 1871 they were greatly strengthened by the addition of the National representatives from the southern states; out of fourteen representatives from Baden twelve belonged to them, seventeen out of eighteen Wurttemberger, and a large majority of the Bavarians.
After 1881 the parties of opposition were considerably strengthened.
It was notably the part played by Austria in supporting the German point of view throughout at the conference that strengthened the position of Germany in Europe, by drawing closer the bonds of sympathy between the two empires.
This step was favoured by the pope, and Ottakar, eagerly accepting the offer, strengthened his position by marrying Margaret, a sister of Duke Frederick II., and in return for his investiture promised his assistance to William of Holland.
The treaties of Utrecht, Rastadt and Baden had also re-established and strengthened the position of the Austrian monarchy in western Europe.
In 1731 Great Britain and Holland agreed to respect it, in return for the cession of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla to Don Carlos; but the hostility of the Bourbon powers continued, resulting in 1733 in the War of Polish Succession, the outcome of which was the acquisition of Lorraine by France, and of Naples, Sicily and the Tuscan ports by Don Carlos, while the power of the Habsburg monarchy in northern Italy was strengthened by the acquisition of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
In Italy the influence of the House of Austria had been strengthened by the marriage of the archduke Ferdinand with the heiress of the d'Estes of Modena, and the establishment of the archduke Leopold in the grand-duchy of Tuscany.
The new doctrine of the fraternization of the Austrian races would inevitably soon come into conflict with the traditional German ascendancy strengthened by the new sentiment of a united Germany.
It was strengthened in 1882 by the adhesion of Italy, for after 1881 the Italians required support, owing to the French occupation of Tunis, and after five years it was renewed.
This time, however, the government, whose position in the Balkans had been much strengthened by the occupation of the new provinces, did not fear to act with decision.
This Greek element was strengthened at a later time by the long connexion of Sicily with the Eastern, the Greek-speaking, division of the Roman empire.
But Roman ascendancy nowhere crushed out Greek life where it already existed, and in some ways it strengthened it.
Acragas, strengthened by Syracusan exiles, now stands out again as the rival of Syracuse.
This was of course strengthened by union with a power which had already a Greek side, and where the Greek side soon became dominant.
But the Lombard element was constantly strengthened by settlement from outside.
By virtue of the old relations between the popes and the Normans of Apulia, he held his kingdom in fief of the Holy See, a position which on the whole strengthened the royal power.
Thus strengthened he sailed to Lampsacus on the Hellespont and laid siege to it.
Two years after, in order that the Arab element in Egypt might be strengthened, a colony of North Arabians (Qaisites) was sent for and planted near Bilbeis, reaching the number of 3000 persons; this immigration also restored the balance between the two branches of the Arab race, as the first immigrants had belonged almost exclusively to the South Arabian stock.
- Our position will he much strengthened when the Nile rises.
They did not, however, follow up their victory, and under the leadership of Fadl-el-Maula Bey remained al?out Wadelai, while the dervishes strengthened their post at Rejaf.
Pop. (1901) 10,369: Above the town is a castle erected by the Angevin kings, and strengthened at various periods.
Its fortifications were strengthened in the 15th century.
The fortifications were again strengthened; and in 1799 it was temporarily occupied by the French.
At the first of these assemblies held at Nyborg, Midsummer Day 1314, the bishops and councillors solemnly promised that the commonalty should enjoy all the ancient rights and privileges conceded to them by Valdemar II., and the wise provision that the Danehof should meet annually considerably strengthened its authority.
The wheels and body of the chariot were usually of wood, strengthened in places with bronze or iron; the wheels had from four to eight spokes and tires of bronze or iron.
The "iron" chariots in use among the Jews appear to have been chariots strengthened or plated with metal, and no doubt were of the form above described, which prevailed generally among the other ancient nations.
He built Castelfranco on the northern frontier; fortified the port of Civita Vecchia; and strengthened the Castel Sant' Angelo, equipping it with cannon made from the bronze of the Pantheon, an act of vandalism which the Romans punished by the epigram, "Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini."
From this time Charles's policy was strengthened.
During the years of Unionist ascendancy Mr Asquith divided his energies between his legal work and politics; but his adhesion to Lord Rosebery (q.v.) as a Liberal Imperialist at the time of the Boer War, while it strengthened his position in the eyes of the public, put him in some difficulty with his own party, led as it was by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who was identified with the "proBoer" policy.
But public opinion in England was not yet ripe, and the unsuccessful conference at Arras, with the consequent defection of Burgundy, strengthened the war party.
In 1535, combating Laurentius Valla, he did not deny the spiritual incapacity of the will per se, but held that this is strengthened by the word of God, to which it can cleave.
Froude's biography, and the Memorials of Mrs Carlyle, published soon afterwards, strengthened the hostile feeling.
The county councils are strengthened by certain special committees, such as the secondary education committee, whose duties have already been defined, and the standing joint committee - one half appointed by the county council, the other half by the Commissioners of Supply - which manages the county police and whose consent in writing must be obtained before the county council can undertake any work involving capital outlay.
He strengthened his fleet, but his admiral, Sir Andrew Barton, fell in a fight with English privateers equipped by the earl of Surrey and commanded by his sons (15 r r).
That it was used for other than literary purposes strengthened that sentiment in a way which mere scholarly or literary interest could not have done.
This feeling was not weakened by the advent of Christianity, in fact, we may say that it was appreciably strengthened.
Two:new interests, however, strengthened the ties between Goethe and Weimar, - ties which the Italian journey had threatened to sever: his appointment in 1791 as director of the ducal theatre, a post which he occupied for twenty-two years, and his absorption in scientific studies.
Moreover, among the Jewish families settled in the 5th century B.C. in Egypt (Elephantine) and Babylonia (Nippur), the Babylonian-Assyrian principles are in vogue, and the presumption that they were not unfamiliar in Palestine is strengthened further by the otherwise unaccountable appearance of Babylonian-Assyrian elements later in the Talmudic law.
The great multitude was given into his hand, but he was not to be strengthened permanently by his triumph (Dan.
From 1840 onwards the Ottoman government gradually strengthened its hold on Palestine.
In 1816 the fortifications, which had been razed by Frederick the Great after the Seven Years' War, were restored and strengthened, and as a fortress of the second rank it remained the chief military place of Westphalia down to 1873, when the works were finally demolished.
The fortifications, erected in 1 755 and strengthened in 1816, were demolished in 1882.
It is further said that in some cases at least the English vessels were "bearded," that is to say, strengthened by iron bands across the bows for ramming, and that they sank many of the French.
Tyrone and other Irish clan chieftains resented this summary interference with their ancient social organization, and their resistance was strengthened by the ill-advised measures against the Roman Catholics which Chichester was compelled to take by the orders of the English ministers.
He wished however to retire permanently from public life, a wish strengthened by the illness and death of his wife.
The schools of thought for which they stood have since contended for mastery in American politics: Hamilton's gradually strengthened by the necessities of stronger administration, as time gave widening amplitude and increasing weight to the specific powers - and so to Hamilton's great doctrine of the" implied powers "- of the general government of a growing country; Jefferson's rooted in colonial life, and buttressed by the hopes and convictions of democracy.
disclosures strengthened the Federalists, until these, mistaking the popular resentment against France for a reaction against democracy - an equivalence in their own minds - passed the alien and sedition laws.
Aurangzeb had indeed enlarged the empire, but he had not strengthened its foundations.
He now became head of the Ghibellines or Imperialists of Italy, and his position was strengthened by the marriage of his daughter Costanza to Peter, son of King James of Aragon.
The Austrian victories in Lombardy had strengthened the court party, or Camarilla as it was called, and on the 13th of March the assembly was again dissolved, and never summoned again.
A born politician, he greatly strengthened the papal position in Italy.
She was thus brought into line with Great Britain, whose traditional friendship with Turkey was strengthened by the rise of a new power whose rapid advance threatened the stability of British rule in India.
The international position of the Ottoman empire was strengthened by the able, if Machiavellian, statecraft of the sultan; while the danger of disruption from within was lessened by the more effective central control made possible by railways, telegraphs, and the other mechanical improvements borrowed from western civilization.
- Merwan strengthened his position according to the old oriental fashion by marrying the widow of Yazid, and soon felt himself strong enough to substitute his own son Abdalmalik for Khalid b.
Abdalmalik not only brought triumph to the cause of the Omayyads, but also extended and strengthened the Moslem power as a whole.
The first care of Mansur was now to get rid of the powerful Abu Moslim, who had thus by another brilliant service strengthened his great reputation.
The chief punishment, however, the burning of the fleet, was a very impolitic measure, as it strengthened the hands of the Byzantines.
Driven by his mother's Puritanism and his father's contempt for academic learning to outside society, he became intimate with Charles Hay Cameron, who strengthened him in his love of philosophy, and George W.
When the claim of the United States to the Oregon territory was being strengthened by occupation, Fremont was sent, at his urgent request, to explore the frontier beyond the Missouri river, and especially the Rocky Mountains in the vicinity of the South Pass, through which the American immigrants travelled.
Henry strengthened his position still further by his marriage with Catherine, daughter of John of Gaunt and of Constance, elder daughter of Peter the Cruel and Maria de Padilla.
In the towns, however, this right was strengthened at an early date by the jus negotiale.
The Roman genius for law strengthened and systematized this tendency.
This view is strengthened by what we can gather of the conditions obtaining in such districts as Aetolia, Acarnania and Samnium, as in modern times among primitive peoples and tribes.
Such a belief greatly strengthened the king's authority, for the spirits of his ancestors were necessarily more powerful than any other spirits.
Not all these provinces suffered alike, but on the whole plague steadily strengthened its hold on India generally, and hardly relaxed it in any part.
The castle, built in 1169, and strengthened in 1233, lies on the W.
The outward sign of this was the substitution of the Roman ritual for the English pre-Reformation use hitherto followed in the services, while English Roman Catholicism became increasingly ultramontane in temper, a tendency much strengthened under Cardinal Manning.
It stimulated the curiosity of latent sensibilities, provoked fresh inquisition into the groundwork of existence, and strengthened man's self-esteem by knowledge of what men had thought and felt and done in ages when Christianity was not.
The council of Trent, opened in 1545 and closed in 1563, decreed a formal purgation of the church, affirmed the fundamental doctrines of Catholicism, strengthened the papal supremacy, and inaugurated that movement of resistance which is known as the Counter-Reformation.
Of the 365 bastions which formerly strengthened the walls, however, nearly too are still in situ, and a few of the interesting old gateways have also been preserved.
As the result of the conflict, Calhoun was greatly strengthened in his position as the leader of his party in the South.
He supplied the city with water, adorned it with fine buildings, and strengthened it with walls.
Other acts followed by which the episcopate was strengthened, though the act of 1587 annexing the temporalities of the bishops to the crown, while fatal to the old episcopate, made the prospects of the new more doubtful.
The discovery that chemical action was involved in the process led to the advancement of the chemical theory of the pile and this was strengthened by the growing insight into the principle of the conservation of energy.
This conservative attitude was inevitably strengthened by the attacks first of Lollard and then of Lutheran heretics; and Sir Thomas More was driven to declare, in answer to Tyndale, that the marriage of priests, being essentially null and void, "defileth the priest more than double or treble whoredom."
Ossipaga strengthened his bones; Levana helped him to get up, and Statina to stand.'
One particular god may be eminent enough, like Zeus, to rise above all others, and supply cultivated thought with a name for the supreme power; and this may be strengthened by the national motive as in the case of Israel.
The impulse towards natural science which he had received from Van den Ende would be strengthened by the reading of Descartes; he gave over divinity, we are told, to devote himself entirely to these new studies.
In command of the "Royal George" he forced the passage of the Dardanelles, but sustained considerable loss in effecting his return, the Turks having strengthened their position while he was being kept in play by their diplomatists and Napoleon's ambassador General Sebastiani.
705) considerably strengthened the Moslem power by instituting a thorough system of Moslem coins and enforcing Arabic, as the official language throughout the empire.
The relationship naturally strengthened the envoys position at the court, and he was permitted to visit the queen in the name of the republic which he represented.
Alamut had taken refuge at Diarbekr; but his brother Murad, at the head of an army strengthened by Turkish auxiliaries, was still in the field with the object of contesting the paternal crown.
He strengthened his position in Khorasan by planting colonies of Kurdish horsemen on the frontier, or along what is called the atak or skirt of the Turkoman mountains north of Persia.
Shortly afterwards the alliance with Russia was strengthened, and that with England slackened in proportion.
Unfortunately, he did not boast the confidence of the queen-mother; and this circumstance greatly strengthened the hands of those enemies whom an honest minister must ever raise around him in a corrupt Oriental state.
When England was engaged in the Crimean War of 185455 her alliance with a Mahommedan power in no way added to her popularity or strengthened her position in Persia.
On the other hand, he found the weakened virus could be again strengthened by inoculating a feeble animal such as a guinea-pig a day or two old with it, and then inoculating stronger and stronger animals: an increase in strength was gained with each inoculation, until at last the virus could attack the strongest.
The tribal system of government is maintained, and the authority of the chiefs has been strengthened by the British.
More settlers were landed from time to time, including a number of orphan girls from Amsterdam, and during1688-1689the colony was greatly strengthened by the arrival of some three hundred Huguenots (men, women and children), who were located at Stellenbosch, Drakenstein, Frenchhoek and Paarl.
Though the authority of the courts had been strengthened by the Petition of Right and the act of 1640, it was still rendered insufficient by reason of the insecurity of judicial tenure, the fact that only the chancellor (a political as well as a legal officer) and the court of king's bench had undoubted right to issue the writ, and the inability or hesitation of the competent judges to issue the writ except during the legal term, which did not cover more than half the year.
It will appear from the foregoing statement that the issue and enforcement of the writ rests on the common law as strengthened by the acts of 1627,1640, 1679 and 1816, and subject also to the regulations as to procedure contained in the Crown Office Rules, 1906.
Fulk also strengthened the kingdom on the south; while his butler, Paganus, planted the fortress of Krak to the south of the Dead Sea, and helped to give the kingdom an access towards the Red Sea, he himself constructed Blanche Garde and other forts on the S.
His health, which had hitherto been but indifferent, strengthened with the demands made upon it; his talents, his power of endurance, and his ambition all expanded together.
He had laid the foundation of its navy and had strengthened, if he did not inaugurate, that system of co-operation between the Crown and the military orders which afterwards proved of incalculable service in the maritime and colonial development of the nation.
At the cortes of Coimbra (1261), he further strengthened his position by conciliating the representatives of the cities, who denounced the issue of a debased coinage, and by recognizing that taxation could not be imposed without consent of the cortes.
Throughout his reign he strengthened the central government at the expense of the aristocracy and the Church, by a stern enforcement of law and order.
over the king's mind which lasted until the end of the reign, and was strengthened by the courage and wisdom shown by Pombal at the time of the great earthquake.
His power at court had previously been strengthened by the so-called Tavora plot.
He maintained that there is a rapid variation of density near the surface of a liquid, and he gave very strong reasons, which have been only strengthened by subsequent discoveries, for believing that this is the case.
ventriculus, &c., really form more than one spore in the cell, these analogies are strengthened.
The harbour, which is important as a harbour of refuge, is protected on the east by land, and the Federal government has strengthened this protection by dikes and groins and other sand-catching devices; it has five lighthouses.
Knox's return in 1559 strengthened its position, and in 1562 the General Assembly enjoined the uniform use of it as the "Book of Our Common Order" in "the administration of the Sacraments and solemnization of marriages and burials of the dead."
After twice defeating the forces of the Achaean League in Arcadia, near Mount Lycaeum and at Leuctra,he strengthened his position by assassinating four of the ephors, abolishing the ephorate, which had usurped the supreme power, and banishing some eighty of the leading oligarchs.
The great wall of Delhi, which was constructed by Shah Jahan, was strengthened by the English by the addition of a ditch and glacis, after Delhi was captured by Lord Lake in 1803; and its strength was turned against the British at the time of the Mutiny.
high, and is strengthened with ninety-six massive bastions of various designs.
It is, after all, little more than a suggestion, and is certainly not strengthened by anything in the body of the work.
By his marriage with Aurelia, daughter of Nicola Borghese, another very influential citizen, he still further strengthened his authority.
Meanwhile Taylor had strengthened his base of supplies at Point Isabel, where he was reinforced by militia from Texas and Louisiana, and during the return march from this post was fiercely attacked at Palo Alto (about 8 m.
Strengthened by this success the king, on his return to Paris in the following January, exacted vengeance on the citizens by fines, executions and the suppression of the privileges of the city.
The houses, mostly of two storeys, are of wood, strengthened on the first and ground floors by brickwork.
At the same time, the authority of the chairman, as supreme executive officer, is considerably strengthened.
The common material for re ceiving the impressions from the matrices was beeswax, generally strengthened and hardened by admixture with other substances, such as resin, pitch and even hemp and hair.
A board of arbitration and conciliation to hear and determine labour questions and disputes was formed, and by later legislation its powers have been strengthened.
In the Cirripedia it forms a fleshy " mantle " strengthened by shelly plates or valves which may assume a very complex structure.
All through these declining years his friendship with Boccaccio was maintained and strengthened.
The bodies, frames and aeroplanes of the aerodromes were strengthened by vertical and other supports, to which were attached aluminium wires to ensure absolute rigidity so far as that was possible.
The machine was strengthened in every direction by vertical and other supports and securely wired together at all points.
Though this kindness towards the Germanic tribes was resented by the Romans, and in some cases ill requited, yet it may be said that it not only averted a great danger to the empire, but considerably strengthened Theodosius' army.
His religious convictions were strengthened by his marriage to Johanna von Puttkamer, which took place in 1847.
This despatch failed to evoke any response from the powers, with the single exception of Turkey, but the public agitation against the Congo State regime continued to grow in force, being greatly strengthened by the publication in February 1904 of a report by Mr Roger Casement, then British consul at Boma, on a journey which he had made through the middle Congo region in 1903 (described as the "Upper" Congo in the report).
" He strengthened the ruler," it is said, " and repressed the barons.
The ramparts are strengthened by two massive towers containing an inclined plane on which horses and carriages may ascend.
This means that the appetite is strengthened, and digestion rendered more rapid and complete.
His position was strengthened by the birth of a son (2nd of November 1470, during his exile), and by the wealth which he acquired through the confiscation of the estates of his opponents.
greatly strengthened her position.
In 1737 there was once more a reversion to the stadholdership in the person of William IV., William whose powers were strengthened and declared heredi- /V.
The terms he demanded were, however, refused; and his determination to continue the struggle was strengthened by the prospect of help from Philip II.
In spite of some failures, largely due to Demaratus's jealousy, Cleomenes strengthened Sparta in the position, won during his father's reign, of champion and leader of the Hellenic race; it was to him, for example, that the Ionian cities of Asia Minor first applied for aid in their revolt against Persia (Herod.
After his return to Paris he strengthened the understanding between Alexander I.
The islands were colonized by Mauritian and Bourbon creoles; the white element, still prevailingly French, has been strengthened by the settlement of several British families.
This had been strengthened by the hattisherif of 1802; while the treaties of 1812, 1826 and 1829 had respectively yielded up Bessarabia, the Sulina mouth of the Danube and the St George mouth to the tsar.
The radiation from a spot changes little as it approaches the sun's limb; in fact Hale and Adams find that the absorption from the limb itself differs from that of the centre of the disk in a manner exactly resembling that from a spot, the same lines being strengthened or weakened in the same way, though in much less degree, with, however, one material exception: if a line is winged in the photosphere the wings are generally increased in the spot, but on the limb they are weakened or obliterated.
The lines are broadened (as was already known), the intensity of emission is much increased, but some are weakened and some strengthened, nor is the amount of broadening the same for all lines, nor is it always symmetrical, being sometimes greater on the red side; but besides the effect of unsymmetrical broadening, every line is displaced towards the red; different lines again behave differently, and they may be arranged somewhat roughly in a few groups according to their behaviour; reversals are also effected, and the reversed line does not always correspond with the most intense part of the emission line.
Previous to 1886, the departments were practically independent, but under the constitution of that year the powers of the national government were enlarged and strengthened, while those of the departments were restricted to purely local affairs.
The reef-building corals are polyp-colonies, strengthened by the formation of a firm skeleton.
It has since been of considerable importance as a fortress: it successfully resisted the Austrians in 1849, and was strengthened in 1852.
In 298 Constantius overthrew the Alamanni in the territory of the Lingones (Langres) and strengthened the Rhine frontier.
After nearly four months of strenuous opposition to the bill in Parliament, he renewed and strengthened his encouragement to Ulster by declaring, at a large Unionist gathering at Blenheim on July 27, that the Ulster people would submit to no ascendancy, and that he could imagine no lengths of resistance to which they might go in which he would not be ready to support them, and in which they would not be supported by the overwhelming majority of the British people.
The result of the general election greatly strengthened his position, as the Unionists had a considerable predominance in the new House of Commons.
In opposition, however, to the feudal and military system, the former aspect of which had been strengthened by the restoration, he advocated an arrangement by which the industrial chiefs should control society.
The new government encountered the opposition of the missionaries and of the non-American population, but it was soon strengthened by the "Great Immigration" in 1843, when nearly nine hundred men, women and children, after assembling at Independence, Missouri, crossed the plains in a body and settled in the Columbia Valley.
In 1758, Nanjiraj, the powerful minister of the raja, caused Bangalore to be granted, as a jagir or fief, to Hyder Ali, afterwards usurper of Mysore, who greatly enlarged and strengthened the fort, which, in 1760, on his expulsion from Seringapatam, served as his refuge from destruction.
During the campaign of 1854 it was successfully defended by General Krach against the Russians under Paskievich; the circuit of its defences had been strengthened before this time by the outlying fortresses Medjid-tabia (built by English engineers) and Arab-tabia.
Poole Harbour, extending inland 6 m., with a general breadth of 4 m., has a very narrow entrance, and is studded with low islands, on the largest of which, Brownsea or Branksea, is a castle, transformed into a residence, erected as a defence of the harbour in Tudor times, and strengthened by Charles I.
Strengthened by the cessation of any fear of military violence, the Commons placed the crown in financial dependence on themselves by granting a large part of the revenue only for a limited term of years, and by putting strictly in force their right of appropriating that revenue to special branches of expenditure.
Even more significant was the change in the cabinet, which was strengthened by the admission of some of the more conservative section of the Opposition, Lord Sidmouth retiring and Robert Peel becoming home secretary.
This success, to a certain extent, strengthened the position of the new ministry.
In the south of Europe, however, the Turkish armies on the Danube, strengthened by the advice of British officers, were more successful.
The India Bill strengthened the anticourt party by transferring the government of India to seven persons named in the bill, and neither appointed nor removable by the crown.
We cannot wonder that the whole nation was stirred to the very depths, or that they strengthened the aversion of the king, of Windham and other important personages in the government against the plans of Pitt.
Such producers, frequently strengthened by a wrought iron casing, are even now used to a great extent.
into the sea, and is composed of Norwegian granite and Belgian limestone, strengthened at intervals by projecting jetties of piles and fascines.
At first he repaired and strengthened its fortifications, but afterwards, alarmed at the capture of St Jean d'Acre (Acre) by Richard Coeur de Lion in 1191, he caused it to be dismantled.
Botha strengthened an influence thus already very strong, and when in 1909 the S.
It is a noteworthy fact that other tubes in these same terrestrial Arthropoda - namely, the ducts of glands - are similarly strengthened by a chitinous cuticle, and that a spiral or annular thickening of the cuticle is developed in them also.
In his case, moreover, it was strengthened by a naive piety that forbade him to search into things of which the gods seemed to have reserved the knowledge to themselves.
1030), who set up a "fifth court " as the ultimate tribunal in criminal matters, and strengthened the community against the chiefs.
The medieval citadels of Belgrade, Nish, Pirot and Semendria have no military value, but some strategic points on the Bulgarian frontier were entrenched between 1889 and 1899, while the modern forts of Nish, Pirot and Zayechar were strengthened and re-armed at the beginning of the 10th century.
Deficits appeared, which had to be covered temporarily by new loans, and which forced the government to establish monopolies on salt, tobacco, matches, mineral oils, &c. Every such step increased the unpopularity of the government and strengthened the opposition.
Clinton strengthened his rearguard, which turned upon the Americans and compelled them to retreat.
Ross, who had commanded a brig during the English occupation of Java, settled with his family (who continued in the ownership) on Direction Island, and his little colony was soon strengthened by Hare's runaway slaves.
He not only terminated a disastrous civil war and brought under control the spirit of ancient feudalism, but with a clear survey of the conditions of foreign powers he secured England in almost uninterrupted peace while he developed her commerce, strengthened her slender navy and built, apparently for the first time, a naval dock at Portsmouth.
These and the Pleissenburg were rebuilt by the elector Maurice, who also strengthened the fortifications.
After 1650 its fortifications were strengthened; its finances were put on a better footing; and its trade, especially with England, began again to prosper; important steps being taken with regard to its organization.
The Achaeans having strengthened and enlarged Aroe, called it Patrae, as the exclusive residence of the ruling families, and it was recognized as one of the twelve Achaean cities.
At the celebrated council of Clermont (1095), at which the first crusade was preached, Urban strengthened the former prohibitions by declaring that no one might accept any spiritual office from a layman, or take an oath of fealty to any layman.
aristocracy of the kingdom dominated the other classes, strengthened by the prestige of birth, the ownership of the soil and the practice of arms. Side by side with this martial nobility the Druids constituted a priesthood unique in ancient times; neither hereditary as in India, nor composed of isolated priests as in Greece, nor -of independent colleges as at Rome, it was a true corporation, which at first possessed great moral authority, though by Caesars time it had lost both strength and prestige.
Still, certain disturbances made him see that aristocratic approval of his kingship might be strengthened if it could claim a divine sanction which no Merovingian had ever received.
Thirdly, Charlemagnes title of emperor strengthened his other title of king of the Franks, as is proved by the fact that at the great assembly of Aix-la-Chapeile in 802 he demanded from all, whether lay or spiritual, a new oath of allegiance to himself as Caesar.
Louis once more held Laon, and in the following year further strengthened his position by a successful expedition into Burgundy.
Hugh strengthened his position in Burgundy, Lorraine and Normandy by means of marriages; but just as his power was at its height he died (956).
He maintained a defiant attitude towards (996Germany; increased his heritage; strengthened his 1031).
Henceforward royalty, strengthened by victory and organized for the struggle, was able to reduce the centrifugal social forces to impotence.
The Guises, strengthened by the failure of the conspiracy of Amboise, which had been aimed at them, abused the advantage due to their victory.
be strengthened in order to crush all who were hostile to the Revolution.
The provocations of Talleyrand and England strengthened the illusion: Why should not the Austrians emulate the Spaniards?
While retaining the principles of feudal recruiting, he had endeavoured to establish a system of rigid discipline among his troops, which he had strengthened by taking into his pay foreign mercenaries, particularly Englishmen and Italians, and by developing his artillery.
The defences had been strengthened, a fort was built at Cataraqui (now Kingston), Ontario, bearing the governor's name, and conditions of peace had been fairly maintained between the Iroquois on the one hand and the French and their allies, the Ottawas and the Hurons, on the other.
The decision was entirely in favour of Caecilian, and Donatus was found guilty of various ecclesiastical offences, An appeal was taken and allowed; but the decision of the synod of Arles in 314 not only confirmed the position of Caecilian, but greatly strengthened it by passing a canon that ordination was not 1 There were three prominent men named Donatus connected with the movement - Donatus of Casae Nigrae; Donatus surnamed Magnus, who succeeded Majorinus as the Donatist bishop of Carthage; and Donatus of Bagoi, a leader of the circumcelliones, who was captured and executed c. 350.
Early in the 8th century Gijon was captured and strengthened by the Moors, who used the stones of the Roman city for their fortifications, but were expelled by King Pelayo (720-737).
Even in the time of Copernicus some well-meaning persons, especially those of the reformed persuasion, had suspected a discrepancy between the new view of the solar system and certain passages of Scripture - a suspicion strengthened by the antiChristian inferences drawn from it by Giordano Bruno; but the question was never formally debated until Galileo's brilliant disclosures, enhanced by his formidable dialectic and enthusiastic zeal, irresistibly challenged for it the attention of the authorities.