Stratum Sentence Examples
The stratum of ashes was from 50 cm.
He considered, at every instant, the actual motion of a stratum as composed of a motion which it had in the preceding instant and of a motion which it had lost; and the laws of equilibrium between the motions lost furnished him with equations representing the motion of the fluid.
The second stratum of the town lies ten minutes' climb up the side of the island.
As there are only one or two small stretches of arable land in Ithaca, the inhabitants are dependent on commerce for their grain supply; and olive oil, wine and currants are the principal products obtained by the cultivation of the thin stratum of soil that covers the calcareous rocks.
Symbols like the letters of the alphabet have been found in European soil painted upon pebbles belonging to a stratum between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic age.Advertisement
This has continued regularly ever since, but has been carried down no farther than the imperial stratum.
If the liquid forms a stratum of thickness c, then x = x' - 47rpo(o) +27rpo(z) +27rpo(Z - c).
The 7th tablet continues the Eabani stratum.
After this the metal is allowed to rest for a time in the pot at a temperature above its freezing point and is then ladled out into ingot forms, care being taken at each stage to ladle off the top stratum.
Six chambers were thus formed which showed the chaste beauty of Greek workmanship, while the stratum of native rock which covered them gave a touch of nature and made them caves.Advertisement
The Blue Clay forms, at the higher levels, a stratum impervious to water, and holds up the rainfall, which soaks through the spongy mass of the superimposed coralline formations.
In repairing the modern road just outside the south entrance to the tunnel, a stratum of carbonized corn, beans, &c., and a quantity of burnt wood, stones, tiles, pottery, &c., was found under and above the modern road, for a distance of some Soo yds.
It is one of the most important problems in ancient history to determine what was the ethnological relation of these tribes, whom we may call " Safine," to the people of Rome on the one hand, and the earlier stratum or strata of population in Italy on the other.
When the subsoil is too compact to be pervious to water, effectual drainage must be resorted to; when it is very loose, so that it drains away the fertile ingredients of the soil as well as those which are artificially supplied, the compactness of the stratum should be increased by the addition of clay, marl or loam.
It is asserted, too, that some of the earliest tombs of the necropolis of Alba Longa were found beneath a stratum of peperino.Advertisement
The south-western part of the country, a vast and almost level plain, is known as Dar Homr. A granitic sand with abundance of mica and feldspar forms the upper stratum throughout the greater part of Kordofan; but an admixture of clay, which is observable in the north, becomes strongly marked in the south, where there are also stretches of black vegetable mould.
It is estimated that (apart from those in a few areas where the sand stratum is thin and water is reached at the depth of a few feet) there are about 900 of these wells.
The quantity of heat absorbed by the stratum (x' x") in the interval considered can also be expressed in terms of the calorimetric conductivity k.
The heat absorbed is the difference of the quantities transmitted through the bounding planes of the stratum.
A new standard of sumptuousness and splendour was set up in the richest stratum of society.Advertisement
Great as it was, it created no empire outside the Nile valley, and its most imposing monument, which according to the testimony of the ancients rivalled the pyramids, is now represented by a vast stratum of chips.
He nominates the Sheikh ul-Islam or mufti (q.v.) of Constantinople (grand mufti), who is his representative in the imamate and issues judgments in points of faith and law from which there is no appeal; but the nomination must fall on one of the mollahs, 2 who form the upper stratum of the hierarchy of ulema.
A cement for Derbyshire spar and china, &c., is composed of 7 parts of rosin and i of wax, with a little plaster of Paris; a small quantity only should be applied to the surfaces to be united, for, as a general rule, the thinner the stratum of a cement, the more powerful its action.
In summer this wind produces a dense stratum of sea-cloud (cumuloni), 500 ft.
This does not reach up to the mountains, which have on every side a stratum of their own, about 1000 ft.Advertisement
For the layer, which he now assigns to the Mycenaean period, is the sixth stratum from below.
Struve developed the view that the stars are contained in a comparatively thin stratum bounded by two parallel planes.
Imagine this stratum to be uniformly filled with stars (of course in the actual universe instead of sharply defined boundaries AB and CD, we shall have a gradual thinning out of the stars) it follows that in the two directions SP and SP' the fewest stars will be seen; these then are the directions of the galactic poles.
One stratum is marked by painted pottery of good make, similar to that found in a corresponding stratum in Susa, and resembling the early pottery of the Aegean region more closely than any later pottery found in Babylonia.
The upper stratum is struck at a depth of 600 to 700 ft., and yields a natural liquid fuel of heavy specific gravity.
The rippled stalks are tied in small bundles and packed, roots downwards, in the dams till they are quite full; over the top of the upper layer is placed a stratum of rushes and straw, or sods with the grassy side downwards, and above all stones of sufficient weight to keep the flax submerged.
Mannhardt, and a lower stratum of beliefs and rites began to emerge into view beneath the poetic forms of the more developed mythologies.
Wood removed the whole stratum of superficial deposit, nearly 20 ft.
But the restriction of the clearance to the upper stratum of deposit has prevented the acquisition of much further knowledge.
The chapter as a whole must be assigned to a later stratum of P, for while vv.
The direct effect of the attraction is to increase the pressure of the stratum of the fluid in contact with the solid, so as to make it greater than the pressure in the interior of the fluid.
The result of this pressure if unopposed is to cause this stratum to spread itself over the surface of the solid as a drop of water is observed to do when placed on a clean horizontal glass plate, and this even when gravity opposes the action, as when the drop is placed on the under surface of the plate.
If the thickness of the film is greater than 2E, there will be a stratum of thickness c-2E in the middle of the film, within which the values of p and x will be pc and In the two strata on either side of this the law, according to which p and x depend on the depth, will be the same as in a liquid mass of large dimensions.
Let us examine the case in which the particle m is placed at a distance z from a curved stratum of the substance, whose principal radii of curvature are R 1 and R2.
Let the plane of the paper be a normal section of the surface of the stratum at the point B, making an angle w with the FIG.
The surface-density of this stratum is a = cp. The energy per unit of area is e = f xpdz=cp(X' -4lrpe(o))+27rp'f c 0(z) dz+27rp fee(c - z)dz.
Since the two sides of the stratum are similar the last two terms are equal, and Differentiating with respect to c, we find dc = P' d p(x ' -41rpe (0))+47rp20(c).
The second minus the first, or the increase in the sum of tensions, is thus 2 (U n - o' n+l) (o n+ 1 - Q n +2) Hence, if an+1 be intermediate in magnitude between a,, and a71+2, the sum of tensions is increased by the abolition of the stratum; but, if a-n+1 be not intermediate, the sum is decreased.
We see, then, that the removal of a stratum from between neighbours where it is out of order and its introduction between neighbours where it will be in order is doubly favourable to the reduction of the sum of tensions; and since by a succession of such steps we may arrive at the order of magnitude throughout, we conclude that this is the disposition of minimum tensions and energy.
But it is not likely that any birth-legend belongs to the earliest stratum of the Zeus-religion.
It was hoped that when the aeroplanes were wedged forward in the air by vertical screws, or by the body to be flown, each aeroplane would rest or float upon a stratum of undisturbed air, and that practically the aeroplanes would give the same support as if spread out horizontally.
The chalk and limestone plateaus are usually almost without inhabitants, and the villages of these districts occur grouped together in long strings, either in drift-floored valleys in the calcareous plateaus, or along the exposure of some favoured stratum at their base.
The dissection of the great east and west anticline in the south-east of England has resulted in a remarkable piece of country, occupying the east of Hampshire and practically the whole of Sussex, Surrey and Kent, in which each geological stratum produces its own type of scenery, and exercises its own specific influence on every natural distribution.
This is due to a stratum of hot air at some distance above the sea level, the rays of light near the horizon being practically horizontal, while those at greater elevations are fairly concave.
No traces of the ancient city, except of its necropolis, the tombs of which are overlaid with a stratum of peperino 3 ft.
A deep stratum through which water can percolate, but in which it can never stagnate, is therefore necessary.
On the other hand, in advancing southwards along the synclinal axis, he loses stratum after stratum and gets into lower portions of the series.
Again, the most convenient site for oil wells is the crest of an anticline or "dome," where an impervious stratum imprisons the gas and oil in a subjacent saturated layer under pressure.
The deepest water stratum in the Skagerrak is certainly of oceanic origin; it has been found to suffer changes of long period, and it is probably not always composed of water derived from the same part or the same depth of the North Atlantic; this water is, as a rule, deficient in oxygen.
The main difficulty in Numbers is to determine to which stratum of P certain sections should be assigned.
In 1880 and 1881 Schliemann cleared out the ruined dometomb of Orchomenus, finding little except remains of its beautiful ceiling; and in 1885, with DOrpfeld, he laid bare the upper stratum on the rock of Tiryns, presenting scholars with a complete ground plan of a Mycenaean palace.
His great wealth was left mainly to the two families that he had in Russia and Greece; but a sum was reserved for Hissarlik, where Dorpfeld in 1891 and 1892, by clearing away the debris of the former excavations, exposed the great walls of the sixth stratum which Schliemann had called Lydian, and proved their synchronism with Mycenae, and identity with Mycenaean remains; that is to say, with Homer's Troy, if Troy ever was.
Consequently the facts of moral development imply with the emergence of human consciousness the appearance of something qualitatively different from the facts with which physiology for instance deals, imply a stratum as it were in development which no examination of animal tissues, no calculation of consequences with regard to the preservation of the species can ever satisfactorily explain.
Hence Leviticus, so far from belonging to an earlier stratum of the Pentateuch than Deuteronomy, as de Wette thought, must belong to a much later stratum, and be at least exilic, if not post-exilic.
Side by side with these old stories come fragments of a different stratum of thought, Christian ideas, the belief in a supreme God, the notion of Doomsday.
Other uses, more or less technical, of the word are, in leather-dressing, for the whole untrimmed hide; in mining and geology, for the "outcrop" or appearance at the surface of a vein or stratum and, particularly in tin mining, of the best part of the ore produced after dressing.
Stratum corneum is also the primary defense against ultraviolet irradiation.
The leading socialist and trade union cliques have their roots intertwined with those of the ruling stratum of the Third Republic.
Thus the infinite totality is not completely absent from a given stratum.
If there be n similar particles per unit volume, the energy emitted from a stratum of thickness dx and of unit area is found from (9) by the introduction of the factor ndx.
Moreover, if OP = r, and AO=x, then r 2 =x 2 + p2, and pdp=rdr. The resultant at 0 of all the secondary vibrations which issue from the stratum dx is by (3), with sin ¢ equal to unity, ndx f ?
It was on that occasion pointed out that the ethnica or tribal and oppidan names of communities belonging to the Sabine stock were marked by the use of the suffix -NOas in Sabini; and that there was some linguistic evidence that this stratum of population overcame an earlier population, which used, generally, ethnica in -CO-- or -TI- (as in Marruci, Ardeates, transformed later into Marrucini, A rdeatini).
In 1866 primitive structures were discovered in the island of Therasia by quarrymen extracting pozzolana for the Suez Canal works; and when this discovery was followed up in 1870, on the neighbouring Santorin (Thera), by representatives of the French School at Athens, much pottery of a class now known immedi ately to precede the typical late Aegean ware, and many stone and metal objects, were found and dated by the geologist Fouque, somewhat arbitrarily, to 2000 B.C., by consideration of the superincumbent eruptive stratum.
But the "Burnt City" of his second stratum, revealed in 1873, with its fortifications and vases, and a hoard of gold, silver and bronze objects, which the discoverer connected with it, began to arouse a curiosity which was destined presently to spread far outside the narrow circle of scholars.
Given the area A of the plane between the two horizontal contours, the height h of the upper above the lower contour, the length of the upper contour 1, and the area of the face presented by the edge of the upper stratum l.h = A 1, the slope a is found to be tan a = h.l I (A - A i); hence its superficies, A = A2 sec a.
Yet it is in this stratum, and in this alone, that the catacombs are constructed; their engineers avoiding with equal care the solid stone of the tufa litoide and the friable pozzolana, and selecting the stratum of medium hardness, which enabled them to form the vertical walls of their galleries, and to excavate the loculi and cubicula without severe labour and also without fear of their falling in.
It is a reasonable conjecture that this extraordinary relic of barbarism was characteristic of the earlier stratum of the population who presumably called themselves Arici.
The subsequent chapters (xxxv.-xl.), however, can hardly belong to the original stratum of P, if only because they presuppose ch.
They appear to owe their position to the latest redactor (akin to the latest stratum in the Hexateuch) who has heavily worked over xix.- xxi., and put the book into its present form by the addition of i.-ii.
Then if 0 is the centre of curvature in the plane of the paper, and BO =u, I _ cos sinew u R 1 R2 Let POQ=o, PO=r, PQ=f, BP=z, f 2 = u 2 +r 2 -2ur cos 0 (26) The element of the stratum at Q may be expressed by ou t sin o do dw, or expressing do in terms of df by (26), our 1fdfdw.
Homer calls the God of the lower world Zeus KaraxOovcos, 6 and the title of Zeus XOovcos which was known to Hesiod, occurred in the worship of Corinth;';' and there is reason to believe that Eubouleus of Eleusis and Trophonius of Lebadeia are faded forms of the nether Zeus; in the Phrygian religion of Zeus, which no doubt contains primitive Aryan elements, we find the Thunder-God associated also with the nether powers.8 A glimpse into a very old stratum of Hellenic religion is afforded us by the records of Dodona.
In the paleomagnetic method, the remanence directions of the site will be distinctly different from other areas of the same stratum.
You ca n't avoid any stratum of American society.
Firstly, the matrix in which the cells of the stratum corneum are embedded is rich in lipid.
In light skinned people, the melanin is concentrated deep in the epidermis, particularly in the stratum basale layer.
They were first seen in America in 1908 and, depending on what stratum you occupied in society, were either embraced or condemned as Parisian.
Consider the particles which occupy a thin stratum dx perpendicular to the primary ray x.
The coprolitic stratum of the Speeton Clay, on the coast to the north of Flamborough Head, is included by Professor Judd with the Portland beds of that formation.
In prehistoric times they were spread over the whole of India, but were driven to the centre and south of the peninsula by the third stratum of Aryans, and perhaps also by invasions of so-called Mongolian races from the north-west.
But by laying bare in 1884 the upper stratum of remains on the rock of Tiryns (q.v.), Schliemann made a contribution to our knowledge of prehistoric domestic life which was amplified two years later by Chr.
South-eastern Sicily, ever since P. Orsi excavated the Sicel cemetery near Lentini in 1877, has proved a mine of early remains, among which appear in regular succession Aegean fabrics and motives of decoration from the period of the second stratum at Hissarlik.
Thanks to the exploration of Cnossus, we now know that Aegean civilization had its roots in a primitive Neolithic period, of uncertain but very long duration, represented by a stratum which (on that site in particular) is in places nearly 20 ft.
At Phylakope, a "megaron" appears only in the uppermost Aegean stratum, the underlying structures being more in conformity with the earlier Cretan.
The Neolithic stratum varies very much in depth, ranging from nearly 20 ft.
Its variations may be due equally to natural denudation of a stratum once of uniform depth, or to the artificial heaping up of a mound by later builders.
A trench was dug in the soft upper mud until the stratum of stiff blue clay was reached.
The famous Venetian pozzi, or wells for storing rain-water from the roofs and streets, consisted of a closed basin with a water-tight stratum of clay at the bottom, upon which a slab of stone was laid; a brick shaft of radiating bricks laid in a permeable jointing material of clay and sand was then built.
The soil is composed of red ferruginous kankar, with a stratum of clay in the more elevated parts, covered by a thin layer of vegetable mould, or by recent alluvial deposits.
Thus, while the mineral may be formed in a stratum other than that in which it is found, though in many cases it is indigenous to it, for the formation of a natural reservoir of the fluid (whether liquid or gas) it is necessary that there should be a suitable porous rock to contain it.
Similarly it is necessary, in view of the hydrostatical relations of water and mineral oils, and the volatile character of the latter, that the porous stratum should be protected from water and air by an overlying shale or other impervious deposit.
To the south of the Nerbudda the Satpura range stretches across the province, containing the greater part of five districts, its crystalline and sandstone rocks rising in places through the superficial stratum of trap, and with large areas of shallow stony land still covered to a great extent with forest interspersed by black-soil valleys of great fertility.
A separate stratum in the Gilgamesh epic is formed by the story of Eabani - introduced as the friend of Gilgamesh, who joins him in his adventures.
This adventure against Khumbaba belongs to the Eabani stratum of the epic, into which Gilgamesh is artificially introduced.
This view claims to determine the respective ages and relative chronological position of the various passages in which the Passover is referred to in the Pentateuch, and assumes that each successive stratum represents the practice in ancient Israel at the time of composition, laying great stress upon omissions as implying non-existence.
The original top stratum is the purest, and each succeeding lower stratum has a greater proportion of impurities; the lowest consists largely of a solid or semi-solid alloy of tin and iron.
A quartz vein or bed of hard rock may show itself as a sharp ridge or as a well-defined bench; a stratum of soft rock or the line of a great fissure, or the weakening of the strata by an anticlinal fold, may produce a ravine or a deep valley.
At a time when the Cartesian system of vortices universally prevailed, he found it necessary to investigate that hypothesis, and in the course of his investigations he showed that the velocity of any stratum of the vortex is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the strata which enclose it; and from this it evidently follows that the velocity of a filament of water moving in a pipe is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the filaments which surround it.
In order to determine the motion of each stratum, he employed the principle of the conservatio virium vivarum, and obtained very elegant solutions.
It was built up in front of a more simple Greek fountain-structure which consisted of seven cross-walls placed under the edge of the stratum forming the upper terrace.
From this stratum came also various fragments of bas reliefs of high artistic excellence.
Its roof is a single flat stratum of limestone; its walls are well marked by lines of stratification; dripstone also partly covers the walls, fills a deep fissure at the end of the cave, and spreads over the floor, where it mingles with an ancient bed of ashes, forming an ash-breccia (mostly firm and solid) that encloses fragments of sandstone, flint spalls, flint implements, charcoal and bones.
This method necessitates the use of very considerable pumping power during the sinking, as the water has to be kept down in order to allow the sinkers to reach a water - tight stratum upon which the foundation of the tubbing FIG.
Formerly when bridge piers had to be placed where a firm bearing stratum could only be reached at a considerable depth, a timber cofferdam was used in which piles were driven down to the firm stratum.
The most striking addition which is here made to previous researches consists in the treatment of a planet supposed entirely fluid; the general equation for the form of a stratum is given for the first time and discussed.
The surface is shown to be a plain of degradation by a gradual ascent here and there to the crest of a ragged escarpment, the cuesta-remnant of a resistant stratum; and by the presence of lava-capped mesas and dike-ridges, surmounting the general level by 500 ft.
But we have little record of his cult in this aspect, except at Athens, where his worship was of real importance, belonging to the oldest stratum of Attic religion.
At one point this is continuous with a layer of cells called the stratum granulosum which lines the outer wall of the follicle, but elsewhere the two layers are separated by fluid, the liquor folliculi.
Once it chanced that I stood in the very abutment of a rainbow's arch, which filled the lower stratum of the atmosphere, tinging the grass and leaves around, and dazzling me as if I looked through colored crystal.
Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
The Cambridgeshire coprolites are believed to be derived from deposits of Gault age; they are obtained by washing from a stratum about a foot thick, resting on the Gault, at the base of the Chalk Marl, and probably homotaxeous with the Chloritic Marl.
The mountain mass, moreover, is not less important in causing a complete separation between the atmospheric conditions on its opposite flanks, by reason of the extent to which it penetrates that stratum of the atmosphere which is in contact with the earth's surface and is effective in determining climate.
In many parts of southern Asia are found semi-barbarous races representing the earliest known stratum of population, such as the Veddahs of Ceylon, and various tribes in China General a nd the Malay Archipelago.
Their possible place in the earlier stratum of, Indo-European population is discussed under SABINI.
The discovery of a single fossil creature in a geological stratum of a wrong period, the detection of a single anatomical or physiological fact irreconcilable with origin by descent with modification, would have been destructive of the theory and would have made the reputation of the observer.