497; Suetonius, Caligula, 35; Strabo, v.
Caecilius Metellus was proconsul and earned a triumph after two years' fighting: but even in the time of Strabo there was considerable brigandage.
In 1815 he was commissioned by government to complete the translation of Strabo which had been begun by Laporte-Dutheil, and in March 1816 he was one of those who were admitted to the Academy of Inscriptions by royal ordinance, having previously contributed a Memoire, " On the Metrical System of the Egyptians," which had been crowned.
See Strabo ix.
Even in Strabo's time (v.
Henceforth the place lost its importance; in Strabo's time the original site was apparently deserted, and the citadel alone remained inhabited.
Strabo p. 428; Herodotus vii.
Another town of the name in Thessaly was Larissa Cremaste, surnamed Pelasgia (Strabo ix.
The Via Egnatia, which Strabo (vii.
The settlements to which Strabo refers (viii.
the barbarians," says Strabo (x.
Amphilochus is also said to have been killed by Apollo (Strabo xiv.
In 84 Sulla removed Apellicon's library to Rome (Strabo xiii.
The distance from Pisa to the mouth in the time of Strabo was only 22 m.
Strabo mentions linen-weaving as an ancient industry of Panopolis, and it is not altogether a coincidence that the cemetery of Akhmim is one of the chief sources of the beautiful textiles of Roman and Coptic age that are brought from Egypt.
They are described by Strabo as a mixed race of Celts and Illyrians, who used Celtic weapons, tattooed themselves, and lived chiefly on spelt and millet.
See Strabo iv.
this event is uncertain (Strabo vii.
At the time of Strabo and Horace, however, it was the practice to travel by canal from Forum Appii to Lucus Feroniae; to Nerva and Trajan were due the paving of the road and the repair of the bridges along this section.
A shorter route, brit more fitted for mule traffic, though Horace drove along part of it,2 ran by Aequum Tuticum, Aecae, Herdoniae, Canusium, Barium, and Gnatia (Strabo vi.
Later writers, Posidonius, Diodorus, Strabo and others, call them smallish islands off (Strabo says, some way off) the north-west coast of Spain, which contained tin mines, or, as Strabo says, tin and lead mines - though a passage in Diodorus derives the name rather from their nearness to the tin districts of north-west Spain.
21, 22, 38; Strabo ii.
The natural features of Persis are described very exactly by Nearchus, the admiral of Alexander the Great (preserved by Arrian Indic. 40 and Strabo xv.
from the coast rise the chains of the mountains, through which some steep passes lead into the interior valleys (called Kock)) Ilepais, Strabo xv.
Names of other Persian tribes, partly of very doubtful authority, are given by Strabo xv.
Another Persian palace lay in Taoke, near the coast (Strabo xv.
1069); Gabae, which Strabo mentions besides, is Isfahan in Paraetacene and belonged already to Media.
Persis never became a part of the empire of the Arsacids, although her kings recognized their supremacy when they were strong (Strabo xv.
Strabo (c. 50 B.C.-A.D.
geography, but, following the model of Strabo, described the world according to its different political divisions, and entered with great zest into the question of the productions ' Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography (2 vols., London, 1879), Muller's Geographi Graeci minores (2 vols., Paris, 1855, 1861) and Berger's Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1893) are standard authorities on the Greek geographers.
It does not seem that any maritime trade followed these discoveries, and indeed it is doubtful whether his contemporaries accepted the truth of Pytheas's narrative; Strabo four hundred years later certainly did not, but the critical studies of modern scholars have rehabilitated the Massilian explorer.
After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
72; Strabo xiii.
16; Strabo xv.
Further, according to Strabo (vi.
It was never afterwards rebuilt, and Strabo (vi.
p. III; Walafrid Strabo, De Rebus Eccles.
Strabo mentions a tradition that Ravenna was founded by Thessalians, who afterwards, finding themselves pressed by the Etrurians, called in their Umbrian neighbours and eventually departed, leaving the city to their allies.
Strabo, writing probably a few years after Ravenna had been thus selected as a naval arsenal, gives us a description of its appearance which certainly corresponds more closely with modern Venice than with modern Ravenna.
According to Strabo he was a courteous man and in many ways useful to the Jews.
Others shared this conviction: Strabo speaks of embassies from Egypt and Judaea bearing presents - one deposited in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus bore the inscription of Alexander, the king of the Jews.
As.) See Strabo vi.
No definite number of Belgian tribes is given by Caesar; according to Strabo (iv.
Ilavap-y ibat, Strabo xv.
Parts of this story are preserved also in Strabo xv.
24.2; Strabo xv.
Ephorus ap. Strabo, viii.
A Roman colony was sent to the place, as Strabo mentions, in the reign of Augustus.
1207; Theocritus xiii.; Strabo xii.
4; the Parni are said by Strabo [ibid.] to have immigrated from southern Russia, a tradition wrongly transferred to the Parthians themselves by Justin xli.
The earlier ethnographers, like Strabo, put forward three theories as to the original home of the race.
Strabo himself talks of Armoric Heneti, and supposes them to have come from the neighbourhood of Brittany; another theory gives us Sarmatian Heneti, from the Baltic provinces; while the most widely accepted view was that they reached Italy from Paphlagonia.
See Strabo, pp. 401, 418, 424-425; Pausanias x.
New Paphos became the administrative capital of the whole island in Ptolemaic and Roman days, as well as the head of one of the four Roman districts; it was also a flourishing commercial city in the time of Strabo, and famous for its oil, and for "diamonds" of medicinal power.
In the time of Strabo (xvii.
Tortosa, the Dertosa of Strabo and the Colonia Julia Augusta Dertosa of numerous coins, was a city of the Ilercaones in Hispania Tarraconensis.
We are, however, informed by Diodorus and Strabo that this class was composed of Druids, bards and soothsayers.
In Strabo we find the Druids still acting as arbiters in public and private matters, but they no longer deal with cases of murder.
Herodotus describes the oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and the pitch spring of Zacynthus (Zante), whilst Strabo, Dioscorides and Pliny mention the use of the oil of Agrigentum, in Sicily, for illumination, and Plutarch refers to the petroleum found near Ecbatana (Kerkuk).
But Strabo, Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as the y better Moslem geographers, drew the eastern only under the Graeco-Roman administration that we find a definite district known as Syria, and that was at first restricted to the Orontes basin.
The system, however, was not even then extinct, for it was described by Chaeremon the Stoic, a contemporary of Strabo's.
155); its "opisthodomos " served as the Athenian treasury in the 5th and 4th centuries; the temple is the apXa ios veWS Tijs lloAcaSos mentioned by Strabo (ix.
The Phaleric wall, proving indefensible, was abandoned towards the close of the Peloponnesian war; with the other two walls it was completely destroyed after the surrender of the city, and was not rebuilt when they were restored by Conon in 393 B.C. The parallel walls fell into decay, during the Hellenistic period, and according to Strabo (ix.
ATARGATIS, a Syrian deity, known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derketo (Strabo xvi.
Between Yemen and India the traffic till Roman times was mainly in the hands of Arabians or Indians; between Alexandria and Yemen it was carried by Greeks (Strabo ii.
The offering of divine honours to the king, which we saw begin under Alexander, became stereotyped in the institutions of the succeeding Hellenistic kingdoms. Alexander himself was after his death the object of various local cults, like that which centred in the shrine near Erythrae (Strabo, xiv.
The Arsacids also were afraid of destroying the wealth and commerce of Seleucia, if they entered it with their large retinue of barbarian officials and soldiers (Strabo xvi.
3 We are indebted to Strabo for nearly all we know about Greek cartographers anterior to Ptolemy, for none of their maps has been preserved.
Eratosthenes is the author of a treatise which deals systematically with the geographical knowledge of his time, but of which only fragments have been preserved by Strabo and others.
Even Strabo (c. 30 B.C.) adopted its main features, but while he improved the European frontier, he rejected the valuable information secured by Pytheas and retained the connexion between the Caspian and the outer ocean.
Among geographers should be mentioned Posidonius (13-551), the head of the Stoic school of Rhodes, who is stated to be responsible for having reduced the length of a degree to 500 stadia; Artemidorus of Ephesus, whose " Geographumena " (c. Ioo B.C.) are based upon his own travels and a study of itineraries, and above all, Strabo, who has already been referred to.
In Strabo's time, (latter half of 1st century B.C.) the principal buildings were as follows, enumerated as they were to be seen from a ship entering the Great Harbour.
As to cultivation of the plant in Europe, according to Strabo the Romans obtained the papyrus plant from Lake Trasimene and other lakes of Etruria, but this statement is unsupported by any other ancient authority.
The worship of the Persian gods spread to Armenia and Cappadocia and over the whole of the Near East (Strabo, xv.
But the most extensive catacombs at Alexandria are those of Egypto-Greek origin, from the largest of which, according to Strabo (lib.
This corresponds to the Trachones of Strabo (xvi.
Strabo refers to a great cave in Trachonitis capable of holding 4000 robbers.
Thus there was an Illyrian tribe Brygi, a Thracian one Bryges; some of the latter had passed into Asia and settled in the land called from them Phrygia, whence some of them later passed into Armenia; some of the Mysians (regarded by Strabo as Thracians) had also crossed into what was later known as Mysia: closely connected with the Mysians were the Dardanii, of Trojan fame, who had a city Dardania or Dardanus.
In Strabo's time a tribe called Dardanii, then reckoned Illyrian, living next the Thracian Bessi (in whose land was the oldest oracle of Dionysus), were probably as much Thracian as Illyrian.
The Thracians differed only dialectically from the Illyrians (Strabo), their tongue being closely allied to Greek.
Strabo (c. A.D.
Strabo (c. 63 B.C. - A.D.
Ancient Amasia has left little trace of itself except on the castle rock, on the left of the river, where the acropolis walls and a number of splendid rock-cut tombs, described by Strabo as those of the kings of Pontus, can be seen.
It was the birthplace of Strabo.
Originally a town of the Vascones, Pamplona was rebuilt in 68 B.C. by Pompey the Great, whence the name Pompaelo or Pompelo (Strabo).
j Strabo viii.
It is said by Strabo (v.
Now Strabo (xvii.
Henry suggests that the Homeric lotus was really the nroa of Strabo, i.e.
322; Strabo vi.
With the disappearance of the Scythae as an ethnic and political entity, the name of Scythia gives place in its original seat to that of Sarmatia, and is artificially applied by geographers, on the one hand, to the Dobrudzha, the lesser Scythia of Strabo, where it remained in official use until Byzantine times; on the other, to the unknown regions of northern Asia, the Eastern Scythia of Strabo, the "Scythia intra et extra Imaum" of Ptolemy; but throughout classical literature Scythia generally meant all regions to the north and north-east of the Black Sea, and a Scythian (Scythes) any barbarian coming from those parts.
5, speaks of "mare-milkers," and Hesiod, ap. Strabo vii.
This is also the view of the reasonable Strabo; but it does not account for the genesis of the other story.
1-142 (editions of Blakesley, Rawlinson, Macan); Hippocrates, De Aere, &c., c. 24 sqq.; for geography alone: Strabo vii.
For the later period he uses the Greek Esther, with its additions, I Maccabees, Polybius, Strabo and Nicolaus of Damascus.
Several Roman inscriptions are built into it, and many others that have been found indicate the ancient importance of the place, which, though it does not appear in early history, is vouched for by Cicero and Strabo.'
127; Ephorus in Strabo viii.
In a war against the Elymaeans (in Susiana) he took the Greek town Seleucia on the Hedyphon, and forced their king to become a vassal of the Parthians (Justin 41, 6; Strabo xv.
According to Strabo (vi.
There is, on the other hand, no conclusive evidence for the previous existence of a ' Strabo goes on to say that Archias fell in with certain men who had come from the Sicilian Megara, and took them with him to share in his enterprise.
by Augustus in 21 B.C., and established in the island and in the immediately adjoining part of Achradina (Strabo vi.
17; Strabo vi.
Strabo describes a river which he terms Catarractes as a large stream falling with a great noise over a lofty cliff.
Near the mouth of the latter was a lake called Caprias, mentioned by Strabo; but it is now a mere salt marsh.
The legend related by Herodotus and Strabo, which ascribed the origin of the Pamphylians to a colony led into their country by Amphilochus and Calchas after the Trojan War, is merely a characteristic myth.
Certainly it soon lost its independence, and in Strabo's time was a mere village.
A Persian poem celebrated the 360 uses of the palm (Strabo xvi.
A Scythian power had grown up in the old kingdom of Ellip, to the east of Assyria, where Ecbatana was built by a " Manda " prince; Asia Minor was infested by the Scythian tribe of Cimmerian;, and the death of the Scythian leader Dugdamme (the Lygdamis of Strabo i.
But at the time his spirit of inquiry provoked Strabo's criticism as something alien to the school (re) alrloXo'ylKOv Kai rò apuQror X ov, Orep EKl Xlvovaty of igirep,I).
In Strabo's time they had passed under the Roman dominion, though still governed by their own petty chiefs and retaining to a considerable extent their predatory habits (giving rise to such wars as that carried on by Quirinius, about 8-6 B.C.).
Some writers, indeed, considered the Pisidians as the same people with the Milyans, while others regarded them as descendants of the Solymi, but Strabo speaks of the language of the Pisidians as distinct from that of the Solymi, as well as from that of the Lydians.
The most important of them are Termessus, near the frontier of Lycia, a strong fortress in a position of great natural strength and commanding one of the principal passes into Pamphylia; Cremna, another mountain fortress, north of the preceding, impending over the valley of the Cestrus; Sagalassus, a little farther north, a large town in a strong position, the ruins of which are among the most remarkable in Asia Minor; Selge, on the right bank of the Eurymedon, surrounded by rugged mountains, notwithstanding which it was in Strabo's time a large and opulent city; and Antioch, known for distinction's sake as Antioch of Pisidia, and celebrated for the visit of St Paul.
by Strabo, as a city of Phrygia.
We have no clue to the ethnic character and relations of the Pisidians, except that we learn from Strabo that they were distinct from the neighbouring Solymi, who were probably a Semitic race, but we find mention at an early period in these mountain districts of various other tribes, as the Cabali, Milyans, &c., of all which, as well as the neighbouring Isaurians and Lycaonians, the origin is wholly unknown, and the absence of monuments of their languages must remain so.
28; Strabo vii.
Strabo, however, says (xiv.
26), of Strabo (vii.
34), and by the time of Strabo it was the common Greek name for the Spanish peninsula.
The Campo Santo, lying to the north of the cathedral, owes its origin to Archbishop Ubaldo 1 In Strabo's time it was only 2 m.
WALAFRID 1 Strabo (or Strabus, i.e.
Walafrid Strabo's works are theological, historical and poetical.
The wealth of Amathus was derived partly from its corn (Strabo 340, quoting Hipponax, ft.
The geographer Strabo, however, detected the probable volcanic origin of the cone and drew attention to its cindery and evidently fire-eaten rocks.
17.5; Strabo 1 5.73 6; Trogus, Prol.
Patavium acquired Roman citizenship with the rest of Gallia Transpadana in 49 B.C. Under Augustus, Strabo tells us, Patavium surpassed all the cities of the north in wealth, and in the number of Roman knights among its citizens in the census of Augustus was only equalled by Gades, which had also Soo.
114; Aristotle, Politics, 1303a sqq.; Strabo p. 325; Polybius xxii.
These inaccessible slopes were inhabited even in Strabo's time by wild, half-barbarous tribes, of whose ethnical relations we are ignorant - the Chalybes (identified by the Greeks with Homer's Chalybes), Tibareni, Mosynoeci and Macrones, on whose manners and condition some light is thrown by Xenophon (Anab.
But the fringe of coast-land from Trebizond westward is one of the most beautiful parts of Asia Minor and is justly extolled by Strabo for its wonderful productiveness.
The chief towns in the interior were Amasia, on the Iris, the birthplace of Strabo, the capital of Mithradates the Great, and the burial-place of the earlier kings, whose tombs still exist; Comana, higher up the river, a famous centre of the worship of the goddess Ma (or Cybele); Zela, another great religious centre, refounded by Pompey, now Zilch; Eupatoria, refounded by Pompey as Magnopolis at the junction of the Lycus and Iris; Cabira, Pompey's Diospolis, afterwards Neocaesarea, now Niksar; Sebastopolis on the Scylax, now Sulu Seral; Sebasteia, now Sivas; and Megalopolis, a foundation of Pompey, somewhere in the same district.
While hardly mentioned in connexion with the Punic or Civil Wars, Reate is described by Strabo as exhausted by these long contests.
The Buka'a used to be known as Coelesyria (Strabo.
He was a friend of the geographer Strabo, who gives an account of the expedition (xvi.
Andron in Strabo 475) derived the Cretan Dorians of Homer from those of Histiaeotis, and that other legends connected Cretan peoples and places with certain districts of Macedon.
It is mentioned by Strabo as the chief town of the Bruttii, and frequently spoken of in classical authors as an important place.
Thus Strabo states that in his time a process was employed for refining and purifying gold in large quantities by cementing or burning it with an aluminous earth, which, by destroying the silver, left the gold in a state of purity.
Its prosperity, as also its profligacy, is attested by the New Testament, by Strabo and Pausanias.
- Strabo, pp. 378-382; Pausanias ii.
We are equally unfortunate in regard to Strabo's splendid marble Sisyphaeum just below the summit.
Pompeius Strabo, and given Latin rights with the rest of Gallia Transpadana.
38; Philostratus, Heroica, 6; Strabo vi.
- Strabo pp. 337, 388; Pausanias viii.
Servilius and all the Roman citizens within its walls being massacred by the inhabitants in 90 B.C. It was captured after a long siege by Pompeius Strabo in 89 B.C. The leader, Judacilius, committed suicide, the principal citizens were put to death, and the rest exiled.
Greater depths These preliminary trips of scientific marine investigation were than those usually sounded by a hand-line may possibly not have followed by the greatest purely scientific expedition ever underbeen beyond the reach of the earlier navigators, for Strabo taken, the voyage of H.M.S.
The skill displayed by the Tentyrites in capturing the crocodile is referred to by Strabo and other Greek writers.
ALBANIA, the ancient name of a district in the eastern Caucasus, consisting, according to Strabo (xi.
Strabo describes them as tall, well made, and in character simple and honest; he says that payment was in kind and that the people could not count beyond a hundred.
In Strabo's time they appear to have been ruled by a single king, though previously there were twenty-six, each one ruling over a community distinct only in point of language.
2), Strabo (viii.
About twelve fragments (three of them complete poems) are preserved in Strabo, Lycurgus, Stobaeus and others.
See Strabo viii.
Built at the head of a gulf, the Sinus Immundus, or Foul Bay, of Strabo, it was sheltered on the north by Ras Benas (Lepte Extrema).
4; Lucian, Macrobii, 18; Strabo xiii.
24); just as Strabo regards the Jews, the Idumaeans, the Gazans and the Ashdodites as four cognate peoples having the common characteristic of combining agriculture with commerce.
According to Strabo he was the first to invent an anchor with two flukes.
the 4000 cleruchs settled in 506 B.C. upon the lands of the conquered oligarchs of Euboea, known as the Hippobotae) was unquestionably military, and in the later days of the Delian 1 It seems (Strabo, p. 635) that similar colonies were sent out by the Milesians, e.g.
Strabo especially takes Onesicritus to task for his exaggeration and love of the marvellous.
75; Plutarch, Alexander, 46, 65; Strabo xv.
Strabo speaks of its hot baths and quarries.
According to the statement of Walafrid Strabo, Einhard was born in the district which is watered by the river Main, and his birth has been fixed at about 770.
His most famous work is his Vita Karoli Magni, to which a prologue was added by Walafrid Strabo.
After this it does not appear in history, and in the time of Cicero and Strabo was almost entirely deserted if not destroyed.
It was already frequented, especially by the rich, at the end of the republican period; and in Strabo's day it was as large as Puteoli.
The earliest Greek accounts of the Sabaeans and other SouthArabian peoples are of the 3rd century B.C. Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.) in Strabo (xv.
Artemidorus (loo B.C.), quoted by Strabo, gives a similar account of the Sabaeans and their capital Mariaba, of their wealth and trade, adding the characteristic feature that each tribe receives the wares and passes them on to its neighbours as far as Syria and Mesopotamia.
The accounts of the wealth of the Sabaeans brought back by traders and travellers excited the cupidity of Rome, and Augustus entrusted Aelius Gallus with an expedition to South Arabia, of which we have an authentic account in Strabo (xvi.
If this Ilsharh is identical with the 'I%aavapos of Strabo, king of Mariaba at the time of the Roman invasion, the inscription preserves a trace of the influence of that event on the union of the two kingdoms.
Eratosthenes (in Strabo xvi.
He was further to be commended for drawing (though not always) a sharp line of demarcation between the mythical and historical (Strabo ix.
19 and 24 (Strabo, xvii.
The city never revived; Strabo asserts that no trace of it remained in his time, but Pausanias describes the ruins.
Strabo gave it still greater extent, treating it as covering the whole region from the Rhine to the North Sea.
His disciple, Abbot Walaf rid Strabo of Reichenau (d.
Other examples of priestly princes are given by Strabo in speaking of Pessinus (p. 567) and Olbe (p. 672).
According to Strabo (v.
Those who remained on the Danube were exterminated by the Dacian king, Boerebista, and the district they had occupied was afterwards called the "desert of the Boii" (Strabo vii.
According to Strabo it was bounded on the E.
According to ancient authors (Herodotus, Xenophon, Strabo, &c.), the Bithynians were an immigrant Thracian tribe.
60, 61; Strabo viii.
According to tradition, reinforced by the similarity of names, it was founded by colonists from the Thessalian tribe of the Magnetes, with whom were associated, according to Strabo, some Cretan settlers (Magnesia retained a connexion with Crete, as inscriptions found there attest).
Thibron, the Spartan, persuaded the Magnesians to leave their indefensible and mutinous city in 399 B.C. and build afresh at Leucophrys, an hour distant, noted for its temple of Artemis Leucophryne, which, according to Strabo, surpassed that at Ephesus in the beauty of its architecture, though inferior in size and wealth.
His pupil, Walafrid Strabo, the abbot of Reichenau (d.
At Ferrara he spent the last thirty years of his long life (1370-1460), producing textbooks of Greek and Latin grammar, and translations from Strabo and Plutarch.
The ferret was well known to the Romans, Strabo stating that it, was brought from Africa into Spain, and Pliny that it was employed in his time in rabbithunting, under the name Viverra.
A Segesta, on the Save, is mentioned by Appian, and Strabo distinguishes between this town and the neighbouring Siscia.
It seems likely, as St Aymour suggests, that two towns, the native Segesta and the Roman fortress called by Strabo /bract 'Ipoupcov, ultimately united under the single name of Siscia.
Among the Greeks, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Xenophon (430-357 B.C.) and Strabo (63 B.C.-A.D.
Several more or less contradictory traditions may be found in Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Strabo and other writers.
In the time of Cicero it had lost all importance; Strabo names it as a mere village, in private hands, while for Pliny it was one of the lost cities of Latium.
The constitution of the Galatian state is described by Strabo: conformably to Gaulish custom, each tribe was divided into four cantons (Gr.
The inhabitants appear to have accepted as their legendary founder Anthes, mentioned by Strabo, and were proud of the title of Antheadae.
We know from Strabo that they had a democratic constitution save in time of war, when a dictator was chosen from among the regular magistrates.
In the time of Strabo the Greek cities on the coast had fallen into insignificance, and owing to the decrease of population and cultivation the malaria began to obtain the upper hand.
STRABO (born c. 63 B.C.), Greek geographer and historian, was born at Amasia in Pontus, a city which had been much Hellenized, and was the royal residence of the kings of Pontus.
Some were of Hellenic, others of Asiatic origin, but Strabo himself was by language and education thoroughly Greek.
Probably Strabo was then in Rome; the fact that his work passed unnoticed by Roman writers such as the elder Pliny does not prove the contrary.
Plutarch, who calls him, " the Philosopher," quotes Strabo's Memoirs (Luc. 28), and cites him as an historian (Sulla, 26).
Strabo made considerable alterations, but not always for the better.
Its small size prevented it from containing any such general description of separate countries as Strabo rightly conceived to fall within the scope of the geographer.
" Strabo indeed appears to be the first who conceived a complete geographical treatise as comprising the four divisions of mathematical, physical, political and historical geography, and he endeavoured, however imperfectly, to keep all these objects in view."
These digressions at times interrupt the symmetry of his plan; but Strabo had all the Greek love of legendary lore, and he discusses the journeyings of Heracles as earnestly as if they were events within recent history.
in regard to the Caspian) than Strabo himself.
Again, Strabo may be censured for discarding the statements of Pytheas respecting the west and north of Europe, accepted as they had been by Eratosthenes.
It must be admitted that the statements of Pytheas did not accord with the theory of Strabo just in those very points where he was at variance with Eratosthenes.
Strabo chiefly employed Greek authorities (the Alexandrian geographers Polybius, Posidonius and Theophanes of Mytilene, the companion of Pompey) and made comparatively little use of Roman authorities.
Moreover Strabo probably amassed his material in the library of Alexandria, so that Greek authorities would naturally furnish the great bulk of his collections.
Napoleon I., an admirer of Strabo, caused a French translation of the Geography to be made by Coraes, Letronne and others (Paris 1805-1819); Grosskurd's German translation(Berlin, 1831-1834), with notes, is a monumental work.
This is the less improbable because it lies in the neighbourhood of a line of earthquake movement, and both from Thucydides and from Strabo we hear of the northern part of the island being shaken at different periods, and the latter writer speaks of a fountain at Chalcis being dried up by a similar cause, and a mud volcano formed in the neighbouring plain.
Strabo speaks of it as varying seven times in the day, but it is more accurate to say, with Livy, that it is irregular.
From this time its neighbour Chalcis, which, though it suffered from a lack of good water, was, as Strabo says, the natural capital from its commanding the Euripus, held an undisputed supremacy.
The discovery of the goldfields near the modern Klagenfurt in 150 B.C. (Strabo iv.
He was, says Strabo (608), the first we knew who collected books and taught the kings in Egypt the arrangement of a library.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 19.7rEpL 7ropetas: De animalium incessu: On the going of animals.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 22.1 7repi a.Kovarwv: De audibilibus.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 234 4,vacoyvw,uovtci: Physiognomonica: On physiognomy, and the sympathy of body and soul.
On the one hand, there is the curious story given partly by Strabo (608-609) and partly in Plutarch's Sulla (c. 26), that Aristotle's successor Theophrastus left the books of both to their joint pupil, Neleus of Scepsis, where they were hidden in a cellar, till in Sulla's time they were sold to Apellicon, who made new copies, transferred after Apellicon's death by Sulla to Rome, and there edited and published by Tyrannio and Andronicus.
Strabo and Velleius, moreover, classify them as Germani, and this is perhaps the more probable view, although apparently the distinction between Celt and Teuton was not clearly realized by some of the earlier historians.
Of these references the most important are, perhaps, Strabo v.
- Strabo vi.
Strabo states that in his day it went as far as Corfinium, and this important place must have been in some way accessible from Rome, but probably, beyond Cerfennia, only by a track.
- The principalreferences to early Britain in classical writers occur in Strabo, Diodorus, Julius Caesar, the elder Pliny, Tacitus, Ptolemy and Cassius Dio, and in the lists of the Antonine Itinerary (probably about A.D.
The only information as to his work (even the title is unknown) is derived from Strabo.
See Strabo ii.
That agriculture of some kind was practised is clear enough from Caesar's account, and Strabo's statement to the contrary must be attributed to ignorance or exaggeration.
Caesar, moreover, says that the clans or kindreds to whom the lands were allotted changed their abodes also from year to year - a statement which gives a certain amount of colour to Strabo's description of the Germani as quasi-nomadic. Yet there is good reason for believing that this representation of early Teutonic life was by no means universally true.
Further, that the tribes were not normally of a migratory character, as Strabo seems to imply, is shown by the existence of sanctuaries of immemorial age and by frontier ramparts such as that raised by the Angrivarii against the Cherusci.
21-24), Strabo (esp. p. 290 ff.), Pliny, Hist.
Strabo speaks of an oracle of Calchas on the top of the mountain, and a healing spring at Podalirius at the bottom, 12 m.
The Parapotamia of Strabo xvi.
That the mines were invaded by the sea is still evident; and by Strabo's time the inhabitants of the island were noted for their poverty.
The fragments, some thirty in number, chiefly preserved in Aelian and Strabo, will be found in C. Miiller's Scriptores Rerum Alexandri Magni (in the Didot Arrian, 1846); monographs by C. Raun, De Clitarcho Diodori, Curtii, Justini auctore (1868), and F.
Its chief city is called Tape by Strabo, Zadracarta by Arrian (probably the modern Astarabad).
The latter is evidently the same as Carta, mentioned by Strabo as an important city.
and his successors between 281 and 197, Aradus remained in the kingdom of the Seleucids, who greatly favoured the city and increased its privileges (Strabo xvi.
At last in the time of Tigranes, the Armenian holder of the kingdom of the Seleucids, or soon afterwards, the coins of Marathus cease; the city was levelled to the ground, and its land, with that of Simyra, was parcelled out among the Aradians (Strabo xvi.
37; Strabo xvi.
Byblus and Tripolis fell into the hands of " tyrants " (Strabo xvi.
Strabo dates the settlements beyond the Pillars of Hercules soon after the Trojan War (i.
principiis, 125) and received at his hands a Neoplatonic interpretation; this cosmogony was probably the writing which Strabo ascribes to a Sidonian philosopher, Mochus, who lived before the Trojan times (xvi.
In the Roman period it was favoured by Caesar, and took the name of Julia; and, though it suffered severely when the fugitive Dolabella stood his last siege within its walls (43 B.C.), Strabo describes it as a flourishing port, which supplied, from the vineyards on the mountains, the greater part of the wine imported to Alexandria.
Strabo pp. 450 sqq.; Thucydides iii.
Polybius and the authors who copy him regard the Bastarnae as Galatae; Strabo, having learned of the Romans to distinguish Celts and Germans, first allows a German element; Tacitus expressly declares their German origin but says that the race was degraded by intermarriage with Sarmatians.
681): the Ambarvalia too were celebrated even in Strabo's day (v.
speaks of Gabii, Labici and Bovillae as places that had fallen into abject poverty, while Horace refers to Gabii and Fidenae as mere " deserted villages," and Strabo as " once fortified towns, but now villages, belonging to private individuals."
On the slopes of the mountain there are three distinct zones of vegetation, distinguished by Strabo (vi.
34 seq.; Aeschylus, Prometheus Vinctus, 351 seq.; Strabo xiii.
But it may be well in this place to observe that his successors continued his work by giving Pausanias, Strabo, Aeschylus, Galen, Hippocrates and Longinus to the world in first editions.
From the time of Strabo until about two centuries ago, the country was famed for its wine, but now more for its tobacco (especially at Latakia).
During the early Tertiary age it belonged to the Sarmatian Ocean, which reached from the middle Danube eastwards through Rumania, South Russia, and along both flanks of the Caucasus to the Aralo-Caspian region, and westwards had open communication with the great ocean, as indeed the ancient geographers Eratosthenes, Strabo and Pliny believed it still had in their day.
This eminence is itself due to an outflow of lava from that mountain, during some previous eruption in prehistoric times, for we know from Strabo that Vesuvius had been quiescent ever since the first records of the Greek settlements in this part of Italy.
(Strabo, p. 825).
Strabo states that he discovered that the solar year is longer than 365 days by 6 hours; Vitruvius that he invented a sun-dial.
They were said to offer sacrifice to a nameless god (Strabo iii.
Strabo's notice (bk.
105 if.; Strabo, especially pp. 193 if., 290 if.; Pliny, Natural History, iv.
Another blow was the occupation of Messana by Sextus Pompeius in 43 B.C. He was master of Sicily for seven years, and during this period the corn supply of Rome was seriously affected, while Strabo (vi.
In some cases an outlying colony would coalesce with a native population, and a fusion of Hellenism with barbarian customs take place, as at Emporium in Spain (Strabo iii.
Alexandria and Antioch were both traversed from end to end by one long straight street, crossed by shorter ones at right angles; Nicaea was a square from the centre of which all the four gates could be seen at the ends of the intersecting thoroughfares (Strabo xii.
Apollodorus, Strabo's authority for Parthian history (c. 80 B.C. ?), was from the Greek city of Artemita in Assyria.
In Lydia " not a trace " of the old language was left in Strabo's time (Strabo xiv.
Cappadocia at the beginning of the Christian era was still comparatively townless (Strabo xii.
Babylon is said by Strabo to have been founded by emigrants from the 'ancient city of the same name in 525 B.C., i.e.
They comprise fragments of the native historian Manetho, the descriptions of Egypt in Herodotus and Diodorus, the geographical accounts of Strabo and Ptolemy, the treatise of Plutarch on Isis and Osiris and other monographs or scattered notices of less importance.
He was a personal friend of Strabo, from whom we derive our knowledge of his life.
According to Eusebius and Strabo he was a learned scientist for his day, and some attribute to him a history of Tarsus.
10) and Petra (Strabo).
The vast salt mines of northern India were worked before the time of Alexander (Strabo v.
Though some of the masonry in the ruins is certainly pre-Roman, Suidas's identification of it with Cyinda, famous as a treasure city in the wars of Eumenes of Cardia, cannot be accepted in the face of Strabo's express location of Cyinda in western 'Cilicia.
104; Strabo, 487) and Parium on the Hellespont.
An eastern sage Achaicarus is mentioned by Strabo.
It is said to have been founded before the Christian era (perhaps about 340 B.C.) by colonists from Marseilles, and is mentioned by Strabo.
Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid out, probably on the east and by Antiochus I., which, from an expression of Strabo, appears to have been the native, as contrasted with the Greek, town.
According to Artemidorus (whose authority is followed by Strabo), the towns that formed the Lycian league in the days of its integrity were twentythree in number; but Pliny states that Lycia once possessed seventy towns, of which only twenty-six remained in his day.
According to Strabo the principal towns in the league were Xanthus, Patara, Pinara, Olympus, Myra and Tlos; each of these had three votes in the general assembly, while the other towns had only two or one.
From the Greek authors only a few notices have been preserved, especially by Justin (and in the prologues of Trogus) and Strabo; for the later times we get some information from the Byzantine authors and from Persian and Armenian sources; cf.
He was the son of Seius Strabo, prefect of the praetorians, and was adopted into the Aelian gens.
According to Strabo (p. 200) the Britons also bred dogs well adapted for hunting purposes.
Doubtless the early inhabitants of Britain shared to a large extent in the habits of the other Celtic peoples; the fact that they kept good hunting dogs is vouched for by Strabo; and an interesting illustration of the manner in which these were used is given in the inscription quoted by Orelli (n.
The old trade-route from Cappadocia to Sinope, which had passed out of use centuries before the time of Strabo (pp. 540, 546), fixes this centre with precision.
Strabo mentions that the great cities of ancient Phrygia were in his time either deserted or marked by mere villages.
2, z9) includes Iconium on the southeast within the province, whereas Strabo makes Tyriaeum the boundary in this direction.
(2) Axylon, the vast treeless plains on the upper Sangarius; there burst forth at various points great perennial springs, the Sakaria fountains (Strabo p. 543), Ilije Bashi, Bunar Bashi, Geuk Bunar, Uzuk Bashi, &c., which feed the Sangarius.
3 I Strabo, p. 577, EXac60vro ' must be wrong; a k ur €X6(Vtov is true to fact, and is probably the right reading.
HaQ6apya&au; Strabo xv.
According to a fragment of the same tradition, preserved by Strabo (xv.
The river Cyrus is the Kur of the Persians, now generally named Bandamir; the historians of Alexander call it Araxes, and give to its tributary, the modern Pulwar, which passes by the ruins of Murghab and Persepolis, the name Medos (Strabo xv.
29; Strabo xv.
It revolted in the Social War, in which it would appear to have suffered, inasmuch as Strabo (vi.
33) and afterwards by Strabo and Pliny.
The seismic' wave was also his work; the destruction of Helice in Achaea by such a wave (373 B.C.) was attributed to his wrath (Strabo viii.
The island of Delos was thought to have been raised by him, and about 198, when a new island appeared between Thera and Therasia, the Rhodians founded a temple of Poseidon on it (Strabo i.
All that we know concerning the voyage of Pytheas (apart from detached notices) is contained in a brief passage of Polybius, cited by Strabo, in which he tells us that Pytheas, according to his own statement, had not only visited Britain, but had personally explored a large part of it ("travelled all over it on foot," according to one reading of the text in Strabo, bk.
those bordering on the ocean) as far as the Tanais (Strabo, bk.
But the mines continued to be worked, though Strabo records that in his time the tailings were being worked over, and Pausanias speaks of the mines as a thing of the past.
It changed hands several times, is mentioned by Strabo (xvi.
The name also belongs to the river which flowed into the sea immediately to the S.E., at the mouth of which there was, according to Strabo, an anchorage.
In fact Jason established in Jerusalem the institutions which Strabo expressly describes as visible signs of the Greek way of life - " gymnasia and associations of ephebi and clans and Greek names borne by Romans " (v.
It seems to have been at this time the most important city in the island, to judge from the language of Strabo and the number of inscriptions found there.
- Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon; Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 30-34; Strabo pp. 373-374; Pausanias ii.
Strabo, on the other hand, says that the Heraeum was 40 stadia from Argos and 10 from Mycenae.
We learn from Strabo that the Heraeum was the joint sanctuary for Mycenae and Argos.
The Ariana of Strabo corresponds generally with the existing dominions of Kabul, but overpasses their limits on the west and south.
About 310 B.C. Seleucus is said by Strabo to have given to the Indian Sandrocottus (Chandragupta), in consequence of a marriage-contract, some part of the country west of the Indus occupied by an Indian population, and no doubt embracing a part of the Kabul basin.
India to the east of the Indus was first made known in Europe by the historians' and men of science who accompanied Alexander the Great in 327 B.C. Their narratives, although now lost, are condensed in Strabo, Pliny and Arrian.
Strabo follows up the topographical data with a few brief historical statements - "OaKot €t ov Kai raur'v Kai 111v e0-js no,u?rniav.
Further topographical details are supplied by Strabo, who, after speaking about Naples, continues iX6 P dEvov cpo, pL6v fUTLY 'HpcLKXELOv Ekkel,f1 V9]v Kpav g KaralrvE6 b lEvov Oav j eorWS 15yLElv1% v 7rotEav T?
The descriptions of Strabo (xvi.
At the age of seventeen he served in the social war successively under Pompeius Strabo and Sulla (89 B.C.).
2, II, 12, 13; Germania, 36; Strabo, p. 291 f.; E.
According to Strabo, the river Parthenius formed the western limit of the region, which was bounded on the east by the Halys.
Their language, however, would appear from Strabo to have been distinct.
The most considerable towns of the interior were Gangra, in ancient times the capital of the Paphlagonian kings, afterwards called Germanicopolis, situated near the frontier of Galatia, and Pompeiopolis, in the valley of the Amnias (a tributary of the Halys), near which were extensive mines of the mineral called by Strabo sandarake (red arsenic), which was largely exported from Sinope.
8 Strabo xiii.
Ephorus says (Strabo viii.
5, 31; Strabo iv.
Among the teachers here were Alcuin, Hrabanus Maurus, who was abbot from 822 to 842, and Walaf rid Strabo.
Many of these were famous in antiquity and occur in a list given by Strabo.
The tomb of one of them, Parthenope, was shown in Strabo's (v.
According to Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus (who calls him Sesoosis) and Strabo, he conquered the whole world, even Scythia and Ethiopia, divided Egypt into administrative districts or nomes, was a great law-giver, and introduced a system of caste and the worship of Serapis.
When we recollect that the Ethiopian Tearchus (Tirhaka) of the 7th century B.C., who was hopelessly worsted by the Assyrians and scarcely ventured outside the Nile valley, was credited by Megasthenes (4th century) and Strabo with having extended his conquests as far as India and the pillars of Hercules, it is not surprising if the dim figures of antiquity were magnified to a less degree.
53-59; Strabo xv.
Strabo also says that the Chians put forward the Homeridae as an argument in support of their claim to Homer.
Strabo mentions the existence here of a look-out tower for the shoals of tunny-fish.
According to Virgil the town sent a contingent to the help of Aeneas, and it furnished Scipio with iron in 205 B.C. It offered considerable resistance to Sulla, who took it by siege; and from this dates its decline, which Strabo, who describes it well (v.
- Strabo, pp. 382, 389; Herodotus v.
In the time of Strabo it was inferior in population, as we should expect, to Messana and Catana; its marble, wine and mullets were highly esteemed.