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sternum

sternum

sternum Sentence Examples

  • The last I to 5 of these vertebrae have movable ribs which do not reach the sternum, and are called cervico-dorsals.

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  • The last I to 5 of these vertebrae have movable ribs which do not reach the sternum, and are called cervico-dorsals.

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  • The median and posterior extension of the body of the sternum is a direct outgrowth of the latter, therefore FIG.

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  • (I) Cervical vertebrae, or those between the skull and the first vertebra which is connected with the sternum by a pair of complete ribs.

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  • Often it reaches the keel of the sternum, with subsequent syndesmosis or even synostosis, e.g.

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  • (Original as preceding.) appendages on the sternum of the 3rd somite.

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  • The keel, or carina sterni, is formed as a direct cartilaginous outgrowth of the body of the sternum, ossifying from a special centre.

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  • - Sternum of a Chick (Gallus domesticus) three days old, lower view, X three diameters.

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  • Lindsay, " On' the Avian Sternum," P.Z.S., 1885; E.

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  • This arises mostly from the angle formed by the keel with the body of the sternum, passes by a strong tendon through the foramen triosseum, and is inserted upon the upper tubercle of the humeral crest, which it rotates and abducts.

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  • The keel is pushed back to the distal third of the sternum, whilst the original anterior margin of the keel is correspondingly elongated,and the furcula fused with the rostral portion.

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  • The most novel feature, and one the importance of which most ornithologists of the present day are fully prepared to admit, is the separation of the class A y es into two great divisions, which from one of the most obvious distinctions they present were called by its author Carinatae' and Ratitae, 2 according as the sternum possesses a keel (crista in the phraseology of many anatomists) or not.

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  • But it was now made to appear that the struthious birds in this respect resembled, not only the duck, but a great many other groups - waders, birds-of-prey, pigeons, passerines and perhaps all birds not gallinaceous - so that, according to Cuvier's view, the five points of ossification observed in the Gallinae, instead of exhibiting the normal process, exhibited one quite exceptional, and that in all other birds, so far as he had been enabled to investigate the matter, ossification of the sternum began at two points only, situated near the anterior upper margin of the side of the sternum, and gradually crept towards the keel, into which it presently extended; and, though he allowed the appearance of detached portions of calcareous matter at the base of the still cartilaginous keel in ducks at a certain age, he seemed to consider this an individual peculiarity.

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  • At the same time he states that authors who have occupied themselves with the sternum alone have often produced uncertain results, especially when they have neglected its anterior for its posterior part; for in truth every bone of the skeleton ought to be studied in all its details.

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  • The meeting of the coxae of all the prosomatic limbs in front of the pentagonal sternum; the space for a genital operculum; the pair of pectens, and the absence of any evidence of pulmonary stigmata are noticeable in this specimen.

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  • Lindsay, " On' the Avian Sternum," P.Z.S., 1885; E.

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  • The meeting of the coxae of all the prosomatic limbs in front of the pentagonal sternum; the space for a genital operculum; the pair of pectens, and the absence of any evidence of pulmonary stigmata are noticeable in this specimen.

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  • - A side view of the Chick's sternum.

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  • Soc., 1875; " Monograph on the Structure and Development of the Shoulder-girdle and Sternum," Ray Soc. London, 1868; W.

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  • The chief muscular mass, arising from the sternum in the shape of a U, is the pectoralis muscle; its fibres converge into a strong tendon, which is inserted upon the greater tubercle and upper crest of the humerus, which it depresses and slightly rotates forwards during the downstroke.

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  • The extent of the origin of this muscle from the sternum, on which it leaves converging, parallel or diverging impressions, is of some taxonomic value.

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  • The whole ventral surface of the pericardium is exposed when the sternum is removed.

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  • Division Carinatae.-With keeled sternum.

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  • Nidifugous; vomer large; sternum without processus obliqui.

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  • The ventral region of the thoracic skeleton is complex, each segment usually possessing a median sternum with paired episterna (in front) and epimera (behind).

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  • b, Sternum.

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  • The ejaculatory duct which opens on the ninth abdominal sternum in the adult male arises in the tenth abdominal embryonic segment and subsequently moves forward.

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  • Moreover, the author goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed mark the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the sternum.

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  • 6 There is no appearance of his having at all taken into consideration the far more trustworthy characters furnished by the anterior part of the sternum, as well as by the coracoids and the furcula.

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  • disastrous failure in his attempt to throw light on their arrangement by means of a comparison of their sternum.

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  • So far as his introductory chapter went - the development of the sternum - he was, for his time, right enough and somewhat instructive.

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  • At the very beginning of the year 1832 Cuvier laid before the Academy of Sciences of Paris a memoir on the progress of ossifi cation in the sternum of birds, of which memoir an cuvier abstract will be found in the Annales des sciences and naturelles (xxv.

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  • detail, illustrating his statements by the preparations he exhibited, the progress of ossification in the sternum of the fowl and of the duck, pointing out how it differed in each, and giving his interpretation of the differences.

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  • The duck, on the other hand, when newly hatched, and for nearly a month after, has the sternum wholly cartilaginous.

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  • Then, it is true, two lateral points of ossification appear at the margin, but subsequently the remaining three are developed, and when once formed they grow with much greater rapidity than in the fowl, so that by the time the young duck is quite independent of its parents, and can shift for itself, the whole sternum is completely bony.

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  • In their case the sternum begins to ossify from three very distinct points - one of which is the centre of ossification of Nitzsch's grouping.

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  • L'Herminier arrived at the conclusion that, so far from there being only two or three different modes by which the process of ossification in the sternum is carried out, the number of different modes is very considerable - almost each natural group of birds having its own.

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  • The principal theory which he hence conceived himself justified in propounding was that instead of five being (as had been stated) the maximum number of centres of ossification in the sternum, there are no fewer than nine entering into the composition of the perfect sternum of birds in general, though in every species some of these nine are wanting, whatever be the condition of development at the time of examination.

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  • Be that as it may, he declares that characters drawn from the sternum or the pelvis - hitherto deemed to be, next to the bones of the head, the most important portions of the bird's framework - are scarcely worth more, from a classificatory point of view, than characters drawn from the bill or the legs; while pterylological considerations, together with many others to which some systematists had attached more or less importance, can only assist, and apparently must never be taken to control, the force of evidence furnished by this bone of all bones - the anterior palatal.

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  • Yet this distinguished zoologist selects the sternum as furnishing the key to his primary groups or " Orders " of the class, adopting, as Merrem had done long before, the same two divisions Cartnatae and Ratitae, naming, however, the former Tropidosternii and the latter Homalosternii.

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  • him from making known to the world the rest of his researches in regard to the other bones of the skeleton till he reached the head, and in the memoir cited he treats of the sternum of only a portion of his first " Order."

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  • As it is, so much of them as we have are of considerable importance; for, in this unfortunately unfinished memoir, he describes in some detail the several differences which the sternum in a great many different groups of his Tropidosternii presents, and to some extent makes a methodical disposition of them accordingly.

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  • Important as are the characters afforded by the sternum, that bone even with the whole sternal apparatus should obviously not be.

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  • The skull and sternum were at the time unknown, and indeed the whole order, without doubt entirely extinct, rested exclusively on the celebrated fossil, then unique, Archaeopteryx.

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  • The sternum has no keel, and ossifies from lateral and paired centres only; the axes of the scapula and cora.coid have the same general direction; certain of the cranial bones have characters very unlike those possessed by the next order - the vomer, for example, being broad posteriorly and generally intervening between the basisphenoidal rostrum and the palatals and pterygoids; the barbs of the feathers are disconnected; there is no syrinx or inferior larynx; and the diaphragm is better developed than in other birds.'

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  • 2 The notion of the superiority of the palatal bones to all others for purposes of classification has pleased many persons, from the fact that these bones are not unfrequently retained in the dried skins of birds sent home by collectors in foreign countries, and are therefore available for study, while such bones as the sternum and pelvis are rarely preserved.

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  • pp. 403-408), to which were assigned as other characters vertebrae of a saddle-shape and not biconcave, a keelless sternum, and wings consisting only of the humerus.

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  • Hesperornis too, with its keelless sternum, had aborted wings but strong legs and feet adapted for swimming, while Ichthyornis had a keeled sternum and powerful wings, but diminutive legs and feet.

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  • Kl., p. 259) to the "flat-breasted birds," in opposition to the Carinatae, or those which normally possess a keeled sternum.

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  • A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.

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  • 13 and 20), may in part represent in the adult the sternum of the excalated praegenital somite.

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  • x, The sternum of the pectiniferous somite.

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  • 1, The sternum of the first opisthosomatic or genital somite covering the V "' genital aperture and the first pair of lung sacs.

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  • Intromittent organ of male beneath sternum of the 1st somite of the opisthosoma.

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  • Respiratory organs tracheal, opening by a pair of stigmata situated immediately behind the basal segments of the 6th pair of appendages on what is probably the sternum of the 2nd opisthosomatic somite and also in some cases upon the 5th segment of the legs.

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  • No 1 Internally there Is a great difference in the form of the posterior margin of the sternum, as long ago remarked by Nitzsch.

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  • 2 It possesses only a single pair of posterior " emarginations on its sternum, in this respect resembling the Ruff.

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  • Society, 18 74, p. 594) to be "lost," whereas the clavicles, which in most birds unite to form that bone, are present, though they do not meet, while in like manner the bird has been declared (op. cit., 1867, p. 624, note) to furnish among the Carinatae " the only apparent exception to the presence of a keel" to the sternum.

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  • So far as is known the sternum of all the Snipes, except the Jack-Snipe, departs from the normal Limicoline formation, a fact which tends to justify the removal of that species to a separate genus, Limnocryptes.

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  • On the other hand L'Herminier in 1827 saw features in the Tinamou's sternum that in his judgment linked the bird to the Rallidae.

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  • There is a compound abdominal sternum.

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  • 7 Thus the leg-bones and what appeared to him the sternum were described and figured (Trans.

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  • xlii., xliii.); but the supposed sternum afterwards proved not to be that of Notornis, and Owen (Proc. 1882, p. 689) rectified the error, to which his attention had been drawn, and which he had already suspected (Trans.

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  • Scarcely anything is known of the sternum, and little of the shoulder-girdle, except the very stout furcula; scapula typically bird-like.

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  • long, with a strong crista lateralis, which indicates a strongly developed great pectoral muscle and hence, by inference, the presence of a keel to the sternum.

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  • The trunk is relatively small, with few slender ribs and a keeled breastbone (sternum).

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  • A dorsal and a ventral plate are often distinguished, known respectively as the tergum and the sternum, and the tergum may overhang the insertion of the limb on each side as a free plate called the pleuron.

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  • t, tergum; s, sternum; p1, pleuron.

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  • The ribs are eighteen or nineteen in number on each side, flattened, and united to the sternum by short, stout, tolerably well ossified sternal ribs.

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  • The sternum consists of six pieces; the anterior or presternum is compressed and projects forwards like the prow of a boat.

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  • Ribs are present in the lower Ecaudata (Discoglos- sidae and larval R.0- but they are never connected with a sternum.

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  • It is in fact doubtful whether the so-called sternum of batrachians, in most cases a mere plate of cartilage, has been correctly identified as such.

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  • A cartilage in the median line in front of the precoracoids, sometimes supported by a bony style, is the so-called omosternum; a large one behind the coracoids, also sometimes provided with a bony style, has been called the sternum.

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  • When you have your surgery, it is necessary for the surgeon to cut the breastbone (sternum) to get to the heart.

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  • I had a broken sternum many years ago; other than that, nothing too bad.

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  • Injuries: The claimant sustained a burst fracture to her right knee and a fractured sternum.

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  • sternum strap to keep it all secure.

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  • sternum fracture has not been put at risk.

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  • The sternum is rejoined using wires and the skin on the chest is closed with dissolvable stitches.

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  • (I) Cervical vertebrae, or those between the skull and the first vertebra which is connected with the sternum by a pair of complete ribs.

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  • Sternum (figs.

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  • The median and posterior extension of the body of the sternum is a direct outgrowth of the latter, therefore FIG.

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  • - A side view of the Chick's sternum.

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  • The anterior margin of the sternum, between the right and left anterior lateral processes receives in sockets the feet of the coracoids.

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  • The keel, or carina sterni, is formed as a direct cartilaginous outgrowth of the body of the sternum, ossifying from a special centre.

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  • Often it reaches the keel of the sternum, with subsequent syndesmosis or even synostosis, e.g.

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  • - Sternum of a Chick (Gallus domesticus) three days old, lower view, X three diameters.

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  • Soc., 1875; " Monograph on the Structure and Development of the Shoulder-girdle and Sternum," Ray Soc. London, 1868; W.

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  • The chief muscular mass, arising from the sternum in the shape of a U, is the pectoralis muscle; its fibres converge into a strong tendon, which is inserted upon the greater tubercle and upper crest of the humerus, which it depresses and slightly rotates forwards during the downstroke.

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  • This arises mostly from the angle formed by the keel with the body of the sternum, passes by a strong tendon through the foramen triosseum, and is inserted upon the upper tubercle of the humeral crest, which it rotates and abducts.

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  • The extent of the origin of this muscle from the sternum, on which it leaves converging, parallel or diverging impressions, is of some taxonomic value.

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  • The whole ventral surface of the pericardium is exposed when the sternum is removed.

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  • in the cranes and in the hooper swan, even the whole crest of the sternum becomes invaded by the much elongated, manifolded trachea.

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  • The keel is pushed back to the distal third of the sternum, whilst the original anterior margin of the keel is correspondingly elongated,and the furcula fused with the rostral portion.

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  • Division Carinatae.-With keeled sternum.

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  • Nidifugous; vomer large; sternum without processus obliqui.

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  • The ventral region of the thoracic skeleton is complex, each segment usually possessing a median sternum with paired episterna (in front) and epimera (behind).

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  • Ventrally, each segment of the thorax has a sternum with which a median pre-sternum and paired episterna and epimera are often associated (see figs.

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  • b, Sternum.

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  • The ejaculatory duct which opens on the ninth abdominal sternum in the adult male arises in the tenth abdominal embryonic segment and subsequently moves forward.

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  • In the following year .another set of hints - of a kind so different that probably no one then living would have thought it possible that they should ever be brought in correlation with those of Nitzsch - are contained in a memoir on Fishes contributed to the tenth volume of the Annales du Museum d'histoire naturelle of Paris by Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire in 1807.1 Here we have it stated as a general truth (p. too) that young birds have the ' sternum formed of five separate pieces - one in the middle, being its keel, and two " annexes " on each side to which the ribs are .articulated - all, however, finally uniting to form the single " breast-bone."

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  • Moreover, the author goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed mark the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the sternum.

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  • The most novel feature, and one the importance of which most ornithologists of the present day are fully prepared to admit, is the separation of the class A y es into two great divisions, which from one of the most obvious distinctions they present were called by its author Carinatae' and Ratitae, 2 according as the sternum possesses a keel (crista in the phraseology of many anatomists) or not.

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  • It is evident that the features of the sternum of which De Blainville chiefly relied were those drawn from its posterior margin, which no very extensive experience of specimens is needed to show are of comparatively slight value; for the number of " echancrures - notches as they have sometimes been called in English - when they exist, goes but a very short way as a guide, and is so variable in some very natural groups as to be even in that shot way occasionally misleading.

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  • 6 There is no appearance of his having at all taken into consideration the far more trustworthy characters furnished by the anterior part of the sternum, as well as by the coracoids and the furcula.

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  • There is no evidence, so far as we can see, of his having been aware of Merrem's views; but like that anatomist he without hesitation divided the class into, two great " coupes," to which he gave, however, no other names than " Oiseaux normaux " and" Oiseaux anomaux "-exactly corresponding with his predecessor's Carinatae and Ratitae-and, moreover, he had a great advantage in founding these groups, since he had discovered, apparently from his own investigations, that the mode of ossification in each was distinct; for hitherto the statement of there being five centres of ossification in every bird's sternum seems to have been accepted as a general truth, without contradiction, whereas in the ostrich and the rhea, at any rate, L'Herminier found that there were but two such primitive points, 3 and from analogy 1 Their value was, however, understood by Gloger, who in 1834, as will presently be seen, expressed his regret at not being able to use them.

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  • But the latter used this privilege wisely and well-not, after the manner of De Blainville and others subsequent to him, relying solely or even chiefly on the character afforded by the posterior portion of the sternum, but taking also into consideration those of the anterior, as well as of the in some cases still more important characters presented by the pre-sternal bones, such as the furcula, coracoids and scapulae.

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  • disastrous failure in his attempt to throw light on their arrangement by means of a comparison of their sternum.

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  • So far as his introductory chapter went - the development of the sternum - he was, for his time, right enough and somewhat instructive.

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  • It was only when, after a close examination of the sternal apparatus of one hundred and thirty species, which he carefully described, that he arrived (pp. 177-183) at the conclusion - astonishing to us who know of L'Herminier's previous results - that the sternum of birds cannot be used as a help to their classification on account of the egregious anomalies that would follow the proceeding - such anomalies, for instance, as the separation of Cypselus from Hirundo and its alliance with Trochilus, and the grouping of Hirundo and Fringilla together.

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  • At the very beginning of the year 1832 Cuvier laid before the Academy of Sciences of Paris a memoir on the progress of ossifi cation in the sternum of birds, of which memoir an cuvier abstract will be found in the Annales des sciences and naturelles (xxv.

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  • detail, illustrating his statements by the preparations he exhibited, the progress of ossification in the sternum of the fowl and of the duck, pointing out how it differed in each, and giving his interpretation of the differences.

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  • But it was now made to appear that the struthious birds in this respect resembled, not only the duck, but a great many other groups - waders, birds-of-prey, pigeons, passerines and perhaps all birds not gallinaceous - so that, according to Cuvier's view, the five points of ossification observed in the Gallinae, instead of exhibiting the normal process, exhibited one quite exceptional, and that in all other birds, so far as he had been enabled to investigate the matter, ossification of the sternum began at two points only, situated near the anterior upper margin of the side of the sternum, and gradually crept towards the keel, into which it presently extended; and, though he allowed the appearance of detached portions of calcareous matter at the base of the still cartilaginous keel in ducks at a certain age, he seemed to consider this an individual peculiarity.

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  • The duck, on the other hand, when newly hatched, and for nearly a month after, has the sternum wholly cartilaginous.

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  • Then, it is true, two lateral points of ossification appear at the margin, but subsequently the remaining three are developed, and when once formed they grow with much greater rapidity than in the fowl, so that by the time the young duck is quite independent of its parents, and can shift for itself, the whole sternum is completely bony.

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  • In their case the sternum begins to ossify from three very distinct points - one of which is the centre of ossification of Nitzsch's grouping.

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  • L'Herminier arrived at the conclusion that, so far from there being only two or three different modes by which the process of ossification in the sternum is carried out, the number of different modes is very considerable - almost each natural group of birds having its own.

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  • The principal theory which he hence conceived himself justified in propounding was that instead of five being (as had been stated) the maximum number of centres of ossification in the sternum, there are no fewer than nine entering into the composition of the perfect sternum of birds in general, though in every species some of these nine are wanting, whatever be the condition of development at the time of examination.

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  • Be that as it may, he declares that characters drawn from the sternum or the pelvis - hitherto deemed to be, next to the bones of the head, the most important portions of the bird's framework - are scarcely worth more, from a classificatory point of view, than characters drawn from the bill or the legs; while pterylological considerations, together with many others to which some systematists had attached more or less importance, can only assist, and apparently must never be taken to control, the force of evidence furnished by this bone of all bones - the anterior palatal.

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  • de Castelnau's Expedition dans les parties centrales de l'Amerique du Sud some important memoirs describing the anatomy of the hoactzin and certain other birds of doubtful or anomal ous position, published some remarks on the characters which could be drawn from the sternum of birds (Ann.

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  • The-considerations are not very striking from a general point of view; but the author adds to the weight of evidence which some of his predecessors had brought to bear on certain matters, particularly in aiding to abolish the artificial groups " Deodactyls," "Syndactyls," and " Zygodactyls," on which so much reliance had been placed by many of his countrymen; and it is with him a great merit that he was the first apparently to recognize publicly that characters drawn from the posterior part of the sternum, and particularly from the " echancrures," commonly called in English " notches " or " emarginations," are of comparatively little importance, since their number is apt to vary in forms that are most closely allied, and even in species that are usually associated in the same genus or unquestionably belong to the same family, 2 while these " notches " sometimes become simple foramina, as in certain pigeons, or on the other hand foramina may exceptionally change to " notches," and not unfrequently disappear wholly.

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  • At the same time he states that authors who have occupied themselves with the sternum alone have often produced uncertain results, especially when they have neglected its anterior for its posterior part; for in truth every bone of the skeleton ought to be studied in all its details.

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  • Yet this distinguished zoologist selects the sternum as furnishing the key to his primary groups or " Orders " of the class, adopting, as Merrem had done long before, the same two divisions Cartnatae and Ratitae, naming, however, the former Tropidosternii and the latter Homalosternii.

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  • him from making known to the world the rest of his researches in regard to the other bones of the skeleton till he reached the head, and in the memoir cited he treats of the sternum of only a portion of his first " Order."

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  • As it is, so much of them as we have are of considerable importance; for, in this unfortunately unfinished memoir, he describes in some detail the several differences which the sternum in a great many different groups of his Tropidosternii presents, and to some extent makes a methodical disposition of them accordingly.

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  • Important as are the characters afforded by the sternum, that bone even with the whole sternal apparatus should obviously not be.

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  • The skull and sternum were at the time unknown, and indeed the whole order, without doubt entirely extinct, rested exclusively on the celebrated fossil, then unique, Archaeopteryx.

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  • The sternum has no keel, and ossifies from lateral and paired centres only; the axes of the scapula and cora.coid have the same general direction; certain of the cranial bones have characters very unlike those possessed by the next order - the vomer, for example, being broad posteriorly and generally intervening between the basisphenoidal rostrum and the palatals and pterygoids; the barbs of the feathers are disconnected; there is no syrinx or inferior larynx; and the diaphragm is better developed than in other birds.'

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  • 2 The notion of the superiority of the palatal bones to all others for purposes of classification has pleased many persons, from the fact that these bones are not unfrequently retained in the dried skins of birds sent home by collectors in foreign countries, and are therefore available for study, while such bones as the sternum and pelvis are rarely preserved.

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  • pp. 403-408), to which were assigned as other characters vertebrae of a saddle-shape and not biconcave, a keelless sternum, and wings consisting only of the humerus.

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  • Hesperornis too, with its keelless sternum, had aborted wings but strong legs and feet adapted for swimming, while Ichthyornis had a keeled sternum and powerful wings, but diminutive legs and feet.

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  • The spider owes its name Argyroneta or the silver swimmer to its silvery appearance as it swims about under water enveloped in air, and its power to retain an envelope of air on its sternum and abdomen depends upon the circumstance that these areas are beset with hairs which prevent the water reaching the integument; but the air retained by these hairs can be released when the spider wishes to fill its subaqueous home with that element.

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  • Kl., p. 259) to the "flat-breasted birds," in opposition to the Carinatae, or those which normally possess a keeled sternum.

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  • A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.

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  • - Modern views as to the classification and affinities of the Arachnida have been determined by the demonstration that Limulus and the extinct Eurypterines (Pterygotus, &c.) are Arachnida; that is to say, are identical in the structure and relation of so many important parts with Scorpio, whilst differing in those respects from other Arthropoda, that it is impossible to suppose that the identity is due to homoplasy or convergence, and the conclusion must be accepted that the resemblances arise from close genetic relationship. The view that Limulus, the king-crab, is an Arachnid was maintained as long ago as 182 9 by Strauss-Diirckheim (1), on the ground of its possession of an internal cartilaginous sternum - also possessed by the Arachnida (see figs.

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  • 13 and 20), may in part represent in the adult the sternum of the excalated praegenital somite.

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  • x, The sternum of the pectiniferous somite.

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  • Basal segments of the 5th and 6th pairs of appendages abutting against the sternum of the prosoma (see fig.

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  • (Original as preceding.) appendages on the sternum of the 3rd somite.

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  • 1, The sternum of the first opisthosomatic or genital somite covering the V "' genital aperture and the first pair of lung sacs.

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  • Intromittent organ of male beneath sternum of the 1st somite of the opisthosoma.

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  • Respiratory organs tracheal, opening by a pair of stigmata situated immediately behind the basal segments of the 6th pair of appendages on what is probably the sternum of the 2nd opisthosomatic somite and also in some cases upon the 5th segment of the legs.

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  • No 1 Internally there Is a great difference in the form of the posterior margin of the sternum, as long ago remarked by Nitzsch.

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  • 2 It possesses only a single pair of posterior " emarginations on its sternum, in this respect resembling the Ruff.

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  • Society, 18 74, p. 594) to be "lost," whereas the clavicles, which in most birds unite to form that bone, are present, though they do not meet, while in like manner the bird has been declared (op. cit., 1867, p. 624, note) to furnish among the Carinatae " the only apparent exception to the presence of a keel" to the sternum.

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  • So far as is known the sternum of all the Snipes, except the Jack-Snipe, departs from the normal Limicoline formation, a fact which tends to justify the removal of that species to a separate genus, Limnocryptes.

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  • On the other hand L'Herminier in 1827 saw features in the Tinamou's sternum that in his judgment linked the bird to the Rallidae.

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  • There is a compound abdominal sternum.

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  • 7 Thus the leg-bones and what appeared to him the sternum were described and figured (Trans.

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  • xlii., xliii.); but the supposed sternum afterwards proved not to be that of Notornis, and Owen (Proc. 1882, p. 689) rectified the error, to which his attention had been drawn, and which he had already suspected (Trans.

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  • Scarcely anything is known of the sternum, and little of the shoulder-girdle, except the very stout furcula; scapula typically bird-like.

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  • long, with a strong crista lateralis, which indicates a strongly developed great pectoral muscle and hence, by inference, the presence of a keel to the sternum.

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  • In general structure they all closely resemble human beings, as in the absence of tails; in their semi-erect position (resting on finger-tips or knuckles); in the shape of vertebral column, sternum and pelvis; in the adaptation of the arms for turning the palm uppermost at will; in the possession of a long vermiform appendix to the short caecum of the intestine; in the size of the cerebral hemispheres and the complexity of their convolutions.

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  • The trunk is relatively small, with few slender ribs and a keeled breastbone (sternum).

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  • A dorsal and a ventral plate are often distinguished, known respectively as the tergum and the sternum, and the tergum may overhang the insertion of the limb on each side as a free plate called the pleuron.

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  • t, tergum; s, sternum; p1, pleuron.

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  • The ribs are eighteen or nineteen in number on each side, flattened, and united to the sternum by short, stout, tolerably well ossified sternal ribs.

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  • The sternum consists of six pieces; the anterior or presternum is compressed and projects forwards like the prow of a boat.

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  • The segments which follow gradually widen, and tie hinder part of the sternum is broad and flat.

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  • Ribs are present in the lower Ecaudata (Discoglos- sidae and larval R.0- but they are never connected with a sternum.

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  • It is in fact doubtful whether the so-called sternum of batrachians, in most cases a mere plate of cartilage, has been correctly identified as such.

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  • A cartilage in the median line in front of the precoracoids, sometimes supported by a bony style, is the so-called omosternum; a large one behind the coracoids, also sometimes provided with a bony style, has been called the sternum.

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  • I had a broken sternum many years ago; other than that, nothing too bad.

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  • Injuries: The claimant sustained a burst fracture to her right knee and a fractured sternum.

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  • The straps and back are padded and there is also a waist and sternum strap to keep it all secure.

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  • His position in the general job market as a result of his sternum fracture has not been put at risk.

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  • The sternum is rejoined using wires and the skin on the chest is closed with dissolvable stitches.

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  • Place the tape measure at the base of your dog's throat and measure to his sternum, which is the area just below his rib cage.

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  • If you're top heavy, you should find a V-neck coat that has its first button higher than the top of your sternum.

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  • Pectus excavatum is a malformation of the chest in which the child's breastbone, or sternum, is sunken inward.

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  • In other children with Marfan, the sternum is pushed outward and narrowed.

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  • Pectus carinatum-An abnormality of the chest in which the sternum (breastbone) is pushed outward.

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  • Pectus excavatum-An abnormality of the chest in which the sternum (breastbone) sinks inward; sometimes called "funnel chest."

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  • Physical examination of the infant may show arched type fingerprint patterns, while x rays may reveal a short breast bone (sternum).

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  • Chest compressions are delivered by placing two fingers of one hand over the lower half of the infant's sternum slightly below the nipple line and pressing down about one half inch to one inch.

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  • Chest compressions are delivered by placing the heel of one hand over the lower half of the sternum and depressing about one to one and one half inches per compression.

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  • For a child aged eight years and older, and for larger children under age eight, two hands are used for compressions, with the heel of one hand on the lower half of the sternum and the heel of the other hand on top of that hand.

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  • The other end splits, with one end attaching to the clavicle (collarbone) and the other to the top of the sternum (breastbone).

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  • Sternum piercings can run horizontally or vertically around the sternum.

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  • An experienced piercer will be able to tell if a person is suitable for this type of piercing, as not every person will be a good candidate for a sternum piercing.

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  • Place a long, thin Celtic knot stretched horizontally across the lower back, with the middle of the knot dipping toward the sternum for a delicately balanced design.

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  • Surface piercings are used to put piercings in areas where piercing through a body part is not an option, such as the nape of the neck, hips, wrist, sternum, arms and stomach.

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  • This will open up the chest between the shoulder and the sternum.

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  • Firm the shoulder blades against the back and lift the sternum.

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  • Weighted crunch: This exercise targets your rectus abdominus, the "six pack muscles" that run down your abdomen between your sternum and your hips.

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  • They are attached from your sternum or breastbone to the top of each of your upper arms.

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  • Finally, the showcase muscle, the rectus abdominus, runs down your abdomen from your sternum to your pelvis.

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  • It consists of an adjustable collar with three straps - one angling down toward each breast, one going straight down the sternum.

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  • Sternum (figs.

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  • - Characteristic features of the sternum are the following.

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  • The anterior margin of the sternum, between the right and left anterior lateral processes receives in sockets the feet of the coracoids.

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  • But the latter used this privilege wisely and well-not, after the manner of De Blainville and others subsequent to him, relying solely or even chiefly on the character afforded by the posterior portion of the sternum, but taking also into consideration those of the anterior, as well as of the in some cases still more important characters presented by the pre-sternal bones, such as the furcula, coracoids and scapulae.

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  • - Characteristic features of the sternum are the following.

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