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sternal

sternal

sternal Sentence Examples

  • Eventually, when the right and left feet of the coracoids overlap each other, the anterior sternal spine contains a foramen.

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  • The large and heavy crop has caused a unique modification of the sternal apparatus.

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  • Division Odontolcae.-Marine, flightless, without sternal keel.

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  • For example, the con Head muscles y traction of the tergo A 's sternal muscles, connect r.

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  • Moreover, the author goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed mark the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the sternum.

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  • But Merrem, who subsequently communicated to the Academy of Berlin a more detailed memoir on the " flat-breasted " birds, 3 was careful not here to rest his divisions on the presence or absence of their sternal character alone.

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  • Notice has next to be taken of a Memoir on the Employment of Sternal Characters in establishing Natural Families among Birds, which was read by De Blainville before the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1815, 5 but not published in full for more than five years later (Journal de physique.

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  • This is a very disappointing performance, since the author observes that, notwithstanding his new classification of birds is based on a study of the form of the sternal apparatus, yet, because that lies wholly within the body, he is compelled to have recourse to such outward characters as are afforded by the 1 From carin g, a keel.

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  • 3-93) the " Recherches sur l'appareil sternal des Oiseaux," which the precept and example of his master had prompted him to undertake, and Cuvier had found for him the means of executing.

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  • We have already seen that De Blainville, though fully persuaded of the great value of sternal features as a method of classification, had been compelled to fall back upon the old pedal characters so often employed before; but now the scholar had learnt to excel his teacher, and not only to form an at least provisional arrangement of the various members of the Class, based on sternal characters, but to describe these characters at some length, and so give a reason for the faith that was in him.

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  • He of course knew the investigations of L'Herminier and De Blainville on sternal formation, and he also seems to have been aware of some pterylological differences exhibited by birds - whether those of Nitzsch or those of Jacquemin is not stated.

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  • On the whole the remarks of this esteemed author do not go much beyond such as might occur to any one who had made a study of a good series of specimens; but many of them are published for the first time, and the author is careful to insist on the necessity of not resting solely on sternal characters, but associating with them those drawn from other parts of the body.

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  • Important as are the characters afforded by the sternum, that bone even with the whole sternal apparatus should obviously not be.

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  • That the palatal structure must be taken into consideration by taxonomers as affording hints of some utility there can no longer be a doubt; but perhaps the characters drawn thence owed more of their worth to the extraordinary perspicuity with which they were presented by Huxley than to their own intrinsic value, and if the same power had been employed to elucidate in the same way other parts of the skeleton - say the bones of the sternal apparatus or even of the pelvic girdle - either set might have been made to appear quite as instructive and perhaps more so.

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  • Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.

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  • The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).

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  • Their minute structure is closely similar in the two cases; the leaf-like plates receive blood from the great sternal sinus, and serve as respiratory organs.

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  • That is neces sarily a blood-holding structure and is obliterated and fused with soft tissues of the sternal region so that the lamellae cannot be detached and presented as standing out from it.

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  • This has not been demonstrated by an actual following out of the development, but the position of these pieces and the fact that they are (in Limulus) supplied by an independent segmental nerve, favours the view that they may comprise the sternal area of the vanished praegenital somite.

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  • Palamnaeus indus, de Geer, to show the arrangement of the coxae of the limbs, the sternal elements, genital plate and pectens.

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  • --Diagrams of the meta-sternite st, who showed that with genital operculum op, and the first lamellithe statements of gerous pair of appendages ga, with uniting von Graber were sternal element st of Scorpio (left) and Limulus erroneous, and (right).

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  • - Diagram to show the way in which an outgrowing gill - process I bearing blood-holding lamellae, may give rise, if the sternal body wall sinks inwards, to a lung-chamber with air-holding lamellae.

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  • A is the condition of insinking of the sternal surface and consequent enclosure of the lamelligerous surface of the appendage in a chamber with narrow orifice - the pulmonary air - holding chamber.

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  • The entosternite was probably in origin part of the fibrous connective tissue lying close to the integument of the sternal surface - giving attachment to muscles corresponding more or less to those at present attached to it.

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  • - Prosoma covered by a single dorsal shield, bearing typically median and lateral eyes; its sternal elements reduced to a single plate lodged between or behind the basal segments of the 5th and 6th pairs of appendages.

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  • - Thelyphonus sp. Ventral view of the anterior portion of the body to show the three prosomatic sternal plates a, b, c, and the rudimentary sternal element of the praegenital somite; opisth 1, first somite of the opisthosoma.

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  • - Prosoma longer than wide, its sternal area very narrow, furnished with a large prosternal and metasternal plate, and often with a small mesosternal sclerite.

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  • Sternal area broad, with prosternal, two mesosternal, and metasternal plates, the prosternum projecting forwards beneath the coxae of the 2nd pair of appendages.

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  • st 1, Anterior sternal plate of the prosoma.

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  • s1 2, Posterior sternal plate of the prosoma.

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  • (Original drawing by Pocock.) freely movable; claw free or fused; basal segments of 4th and 5th pairs widely separated by the sternal area; appendages of 3rd pair with all the segments except the proximal three, forming a manyjointed flagellum.

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  • The sternal surface wide, continuously chitinized, but with prosternal and metasternal FIG.

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  • - Opisthosoma dis tinctly segmented, furnished with tergal plates, as in the Ambly pygi; the ventral surface of the 1st and 2nd somites with large sternal plates, covering the genital aperture and the two pairs of FIG.

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  • Between the bases of the prosomatic limbs an anterior III and a posterior sternal plate (black) are seen.

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  • In front of it the narrow waist is formed by the soft sternal area of the praegenital somite; 2, the sternite of the 2 second opisthosomatic somite covering the posterior pair of lung-sacs; and 4, the spinning appendages (limbs) of the opisthosoma; a, inner, b, outer ramus of the appendage; I I, sternite of the eleventh --

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  • (Original as above.) pulmonary sacs, the sternal plates from the 6th to the 11th somites represented by integumental ridges, weakly chitinized in the middle.

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  • Opisthosoma consisting of only ten somites, which have no tergal and sternal elements, the prae-genital somite contracted to form a " waist," as in the Pedipalpi; the last three narrowed to form a A B prae-1 2345 6789 io I I111I IV V VI gen Opisttaosoma Prosoma FIG.

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  • Sternal elements of prosoma almost entirely absent, traces of a prosternum and metasternum alone remaining.

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  • Remaining pairs of appendages with their basal segments immovably fixed to the sternal surface, similar in form, the posterior three pairs furnished with two claws supported on long stalks; the basal segments of the 6th pair bearing five pairs of tactile sensory organs or malleoli.

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  • - Prosoma covered by a single dorsal shield, at most furnished with one or two diplostichous lateral eyes; sternal elements obliterated or almost obliterated.

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  • I, Sternite of the genital or first opisthosomatic somite; the prae-genital somite, though represented by a tergum, has no separate sternal plate.

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  • The prae-genital somite wide, not constricted, with large tergal plate, but with its sternal plate small or inconspicuous.

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  • Ventral area without distinct sternal plates.

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  • Sternal elements much reduced.

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  • Sternal plate of prosoma long and narrow, with a distinct prosternal element underlying the mouth.

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  • Sternal plate of prosoma usually short and wide, rarely longer than broad; with a larger or smaller prosternal element underlying the mouth.

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  • Orifice of coxal gland probably situated at base of coxa of 5th appendage; sternal plate of prosoma minute or absent; no prosternal element underlying the mouth.

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  • In the Phalangiotarbi the appendages resembled those of the Anthracomarti, except that the basal segments of the last four pairs were usually approximated in the middle line leaving a long and narrow sternal area between; and the carapace of the prosoma was unsegmented.

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  • In conformity with these reductions the breastbone of the moas is devoid of any coracoidal facets; there is no trace of a keel, and the number of sternal ribs is reduced to three or even two pairs.

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  • (7) The endopoditic ramus is greatly enlarged and flattened, without or with only one jointing, the corm (basal segment) is evanescent; often the plate-like endopodites of a pair of such appendages unite in the middle line with one another or by the intermediary of a sternal up-growth and form a single broad plate.

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  • The ribs are eighteen or nineteen in number on each side, flattened, and united to the sternum by short, stout, tolerably well ossified sternal ribs.

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  • In these batrachians the pectoral arch falls into two distinct types - the arciferous, in which the precoracoid (+clavicle) and coracoid are widely separated from each other distally and connected by an arched cartilage (the epicoracoid), the right usually overlapping the left; and the firmi- sternal, in which both precoracoid and coracoid nearly abut on the median line, and are only narrowly separated by the more or less fused epicoracoids.

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  • sternal notch.

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  • sternal fractures: determining the risk of cardiac injury.

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  • sternal recumbency on a soft mat for as long as possible.

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  • sternal wound infection following cardiac surgery.

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  • sternal wound where heart and pericardium were exposed.

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  • sternal recession in small children with airway obstruction.

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  • Eventually, when the right and left feet of the coracoids overlap each other, the anterior sternal spine contains a foramen.

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    0
  • The large and heavy crop has caused a unique modification of the sternal apparatus.

    0
    0
  • Without sternal keel.

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  • Division Odontolcae.-Marine, flightless, without sternal keel.

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    0
  • For example, the con Head muscles y traction of the tergo A 's sternal muscles, connect r.

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    0
  • Moreover, the author goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed mark the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the sternum.

    0
    0
  • But Merrem, who subsequently communicated to the Academy of Berlin a more detailed memoir on the " flat-breasted " birds, 3 was careful not here to rest his divisions on the presence or absence of their sternal character alone.

    0
    0
  • Notice has next to be taken of a Memoir on the Employment of Sternal Characters in establishing Natural Families among Birds, which was read by De Blainville before the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1815, 5 but not published in full for more than five years later (Journal de physique.

    0
    0
  • This is a very disappointing performance, since the author observes that, notwithstanding his new classification of birds is based on a study of the form of the sternal apparatus, yet, because that lies wholly within the body, he is compelled to have recourse to such outward characters as are afforded by the 1 From carin g, a keel.

    0
    0
  • 3-93) the " Recherches sur l'appareil sternal des Oiseaux," which the precept and example of his master had prompted him to undertake, and Cuvier had found for him the means of executing.

    0
    0
  • We have already seen that De Blainville, though fully persuaded of the great value of sternal features as a method of classification, had been compelled to fall back upon the old pedal characters so often employed before; but now the scholar had learnt to excel his teacher, and not only to form an at least provisional arrangement of the various members of the Class, based on sternal characters, but to describe these characters at some length, and so give a reason for the faith that was in him.

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  • It was only when, after a close examination of the sternal apparatus of one hundred and thirty species, which he carefully described, that he arrived (pp. 177-183) at the conclusion - astonishing to us who know of L'Herminier's previous results - that the sternum of birds cannot be used as a help to their classification on account of the egregious anomalies that would follow the proceeding - such anomalies, for instance, as the separation of Cypselus from Hirundo and its alliance with Trochilus, and the grouping of Hirundo and Fringilla together.

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  • He of course knew the investigations of L'Herminier and De Blainville on sternal formation, and he also seems to have been aware of some pterylological differences exhibited by birds - whether those of Nitzsch or those of Jacquemin is not stated.

    0
    0
  • On the whole the remarks of this esteemed author do not go much beyond such as might occur to any one who had made a study of a good series of specimens; but many of them are published for the first time, and the author is careful to insist on the necessity of not resting solely on sternal characters, but associating with them those drawn from other parts of the body.

    0
    0
  • Important as are the characters afforded by the sternum, that bone even with the whole sternal apparatus should obviously not be.

    0
    0
  • That the palatal structure must be taken into consideration by taxonomers as affording hints of some utility there can no longer be a doubt; but perhaps the characters drawn thence owed more of their worth to the extraordinary perspicuity with which they were presented by Huxley than to their own intrinsic value, and if the same power had been employed to elucidate in the same way other parts of the skeleton - say the bones of the sternal apparatus or even of the pelvic girdle - either set might have been made to appear quite as instructive and perhaps more so.

    0
    0
  • Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.

    0
    0
  • The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).

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  • Once the identity of the chilaria with the pentagonal sternal plate of the scorpion is recognized - an identification first insisted on by Lankester - the whole series of segments and appendages in the two animals, Limulus and Scorpio, are seen to correspond most closely, segment for segment, with one another (see figs.

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  • Their minute structure is closely similar in the two cases; the leaf-like plates receive blood from the great sternal sinus, and serve as respiratory organs.

    0
    0
  • That is neces sarily a blood-holding structure and is obliterated and fused with soft tissues of the sternal region so that the lamellae cannot be detached and presented as standing out from it.

    0
    0
  • It appears not improbable that the sternal plates wedged in between Fll '` vu...

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  • The unsegmented dense chitinous sternal plate of the metasoma (XIII to XVIII) is not removed.

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  • This has not been demonstrated by an actual following out of the development, but the position of these pieces and the fact that they are (in Limulus) supplied by an independent segmental nerve, favours the view that they may comprise the sternal area of the vanished praegenital somite.

    0
    0
  • Palamnaeus indus, de Geer, to show the arrangement of the coxae of the limbs, the sternal elements, genital plate and pectens.

    0
    0
  • --Diagrams of the meta-sternite st, who showed that with genital operculum op, and the first lamellithe statements of gerous pair of appendages ga, with uniting von Graber were sternal element st of Scorpio (left) and Limulus erroneous, and (right).

    0
    0
  • - Diagram to show the way in which an outgrowing gill - process I bearing blood-holding lamellae, may give rise, if the sternal body wall sinks inwards, to a lung-chamber with air-holding lamellae.

    0
    0
  • A is the condition of insinking of the sternal surface and consequent enclosure of the lamelligerous surface of the appendage in a chamber with narrow orifice - the pulmonary air - holding chamber.

    0
    0
  • The entosternite was probably in origin part of the fibrous connective tissue lying close to the integument of the sternal surface - giving attachment to muscles corresponding more or less to those at present attached to it.

    0
    0
  • - Prosoma covered by a single dorsal shield, bearing typically median and lateral eyes; its sternal elements reduced to a single plate lodged between or behind the basal segments of the 5th and 6th pairs of appendages.

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    0
  • - Thelyphonus sp. Ventral view of the anterior portion of the body to show the three prosomatic sternal plates a, b, c, and the rudimentary sternal element of the praegenital somite; opisth 1, first somite of the opisthosoma.

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  • - Prosoma longer than wide, its sternal area very narrow, furnished with a large prosternal and metasternal plate, and often with a small mesosternal sclerite.

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  • Sternal area broad, with prosternal, two mesosternal, and metasternal plates, the prosternum projecting forwards beneath the coxae of the 2nd pair of appendages.

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  • st 1, Anterior sternal plate of the prosoma.

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  • s1 2, Posterior sternal plate of the prosoma.

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  • (Original drawing by Pocock.) freely movable; claw free or fused; basal segments of 4th and 5th pairs widely separated by the sternal area; appendages of 3rd pair with all the segments except the proximal three, forming a manyjointed flagellum.

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  • The sternal surface wide, continuously chitinized, but with prosternal and metasternal FIG.

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  • - Opisthosoma dis tinctly segmented, furnished with tergal plates, as in the Ambly pygi; the ventral surface of the 1st and 2nd somites with large sternal plates, covering the genital aperture and the two pairs of FIG.

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  • Between the bases of the prosomatic limbs an anterior III and a posterior sternal plate (black) are seen.

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  • In front of it the narrow waist is formed by the soft sternal area of the praegenital somite; 2, the sternite of the 2 second opisthosomatic somite covering the posterior pair of lung-sacs; and 4, the spinning appendages (limbs) of the opisthosoma; a, inner, b, outer ramus of the appendage; I I, sternite of the eleventh --

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  • (Original as above.) pulmonary sacs, the sternal plates from the 6th to the 11th somites represented by integumental ridges, weakly chitinized in the middle.

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    0
  • Opisthosoma consisting of only ten somites, which have no tergal and sternal elements, the prae-genital somite contracted to form a " waist," as in the Pedipalpi; the last three narrowed to form a A B prae-1 2345 6789 io I I111I IV V VI gen Opisttaosoma Prosoma FIG.

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  • Sternal elements of prosoma almost entirely absent, traces of a prosternum and metasternum alone remaining.

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  • Remaining pairs of appendages with their basal segments immovably fixed to the sternal surface, similar in form, the posterior three pairs furnished with two claws supported on long stalks; the basal segments of the 6th pair bearing five pairs of tactile sensory organs or malleoli.

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  • - Prosoma covered by a single dorsal shield, at most furnished with one or two diplostichous lateral eyes; sternal elements obliterated or almost obliterated.

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    0
  • I, Sternite of the genital or first opisthosomatic somite; the prae-genital somite, though represented by a tergum, has no separate sternal plate.

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  • The prae-genital somite wide, not constricted, with large tergal plate, but with its sternal plate small or inconspicuous.

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  • Ventral area without distinct sternal plates.

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  • Sternal elements much reduced.

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  • Sternal plate of prosoma long and narrow, with a distinct prosternal element underlying the mouth.

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    0
  • Sternal plate of prosoma usually short and wide, rarely longer than broad; with a larger or smaller prosternal element underlying the mouth.

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  • Orifice of coxal gland probably situated at base of coxa of 5th appendage; sternal plate of prosoma minute or absent; no prosternal element underlying the mouth.

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  • The appendages of the 2nd pair were slender and pediform; those of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th pairs were similar in form and ambulatory in function with their basal segments arranged round a sternal area as in the order Araneae.

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  • In the Phalangiotarbi the appendages resembled those of the Anthracomarti, except that the basal segments of the last four pairs were usually approximated in the middle line leaving a long and narrow sternal area between; and the carapace of the prosoma was unsegmented.

    0
    0
  • In conformity with these reductions the breastbone of the moas is devoid of any coracoidal facets; there is no trace of a keel, and the number of sternal ribs is reduced to three or even two pairs.

    0
    0
  • (7) The endopoditic ramus is greatly enlarged and flattened, without or with only one jointing, the corm (basal segment) is evanescent; often the plate-like endopodites of a pair of such appendages unite in the middle line with one another or by the intermediary of a sternal up-growth and form a single broad plate.

    0
    0
  • The ribs are eighteen or nineteen in number on each side, flattened, and united to the sternum by short, stout, tolerably well ossified sternal ribs.

    0
    0
  • In these batrachians the pectoral arch falls into two distinct types - the arciferous, in which the precoracoid (+clavicle) and coracoid are widely separated from each other distally and connected by an arched cartilage (the epicoracoid), the right usually overlapping the left; and the firmi- sternal, in which both precoracoid and coracoid nearly abut on the median line, and are only narrowly separated by the more or less fused epicoracoids.

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  • Keeping the needle horizontal, advance posterior to the clavicle aiming for the sternal notch.

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  • Management of isolated sternal fractures: determining the risk of cardiac injury.

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  • It may be preferable to keep these foals confined in sternal recumbency on a soft mat for as long as possible.

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  • Tang (2000) described a case study using VAC to treat a deep sternal wound infection following cardiac surgery.

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  • The case study does not report any contraindications using VAC therapy when treating the dehisced sternal wound where heart and pericardium were exposed.

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  • This results in intercostal and sternal recession in small children with airway obstruction.

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  • Without sternal keel.

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  • It appears not improbable that the sternal plates wedged in between Fll '` vu...

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  • The unsegmented dense chitinous sternal plate of the metasoma (XIII to XVIII) is not removed.

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    1
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