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steppe

steppe

steppe Sentence Examples

  • In the hollows of this steppe region, salt water lakes occur, known.

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  • Steppe and desert formations are of the open type.

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  • They were called steppe peasants.

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  • The steppe region, whose flora begins to appear east of the western ridge, is distinguished by the variety of its species, the dry and thorny character of its shrubs, and great poverty in trees.

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  • The steppe region, whose flora begins to appear east of the western ridge, is distinguished by the variety of its species, the dry and thorny character of its shrubs, and great poverty in trees.

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  • The vegetation of the steppe is on the whole scanty.

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  • The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to the southern Amur.

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  • The destruction of the forests and the advance of wheat into the prairies are rapidly thinning the steppe fauna.

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  • It is only in the steppe governments that the situation is more hopeful.

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  • Thus, the Kaibals left the Sayan mountains and took possession of the Abakan steppe (Minusinsk region), abandoned by the Kirghizes, in the earlier years of last century, and in N.E.

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  • 1 -142), the country of the Scythae or the country over which the nomad Scythae were lords, that is, the steppe from the Carpathians to the Don.

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  • above sea-level, forming an intermediate steppe between the highest regions and the lowest, east of Lop Nor.

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  • Geographically, though not administratively, the steppe provinces of Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk belong to Siberia.

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  • The slopes of the Armenian highlands are clothed with fine forests, and the vine is grown at their base, while on the wide-stretching steppes the Turko-Tatars pasture cattle, horses and sheep. The lower part of the Kura valley assumes the character of a dry steppe, the rainfall not reaching 54 in.

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  • The slopes of the Armenian highlands are clothed with fine forests, and the vine is grown at their base, while on the wide-stretching steppes the Turko-Tatars pasture cattle, horses and sheep. The lower part of the Kura valley assumes the character of a dry steppe, the rainfall not reaching 54 in.

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  • As late as 1571 Moscow was pillaged by a Tatar horde; but there was no longer any question of permanent political subjection to the Asiatics, and the Russian frontier was being gradually pushed forward at the expense of the nomads of the steppe by the constant advance of the agricultural population in quest of virgin soil.

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  • to the Caspian, until in the Mugan steppe along that sea it measures 100 m.

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  • annually at Baku, and it is still less in the Mugan steppe, though quite abundant in the adjacent region of Lenkoran.

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  • The plateau, known as the Ogaden plateau, everywhere presents the same monotonous aspect of a boundless steppe clothed with a scanty vegetation of scrubby plants and herbaceous growths.

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  • The remainder of the province consists of a fertile steppe in the north-east (Sergiopol), and vast uninhabitable sand-steppes on the south of Lake Balkash.

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  • On the 5th of October, while on his way to Nikolayev, he died in the open steppe, 40 m.

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  • On the 5th of October, while on his way to Nikolayev, he died in the open steppe, 40 m.

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  • They are larger, but still small, in White Russia, Lithuania and the region of the lakes; but in the steppe governments they are very appreciably bigger, some of the Cossack stanitsas or settlements exceeding 20,000, and many of them numbering more than 10,000 inhabitants each.

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  • On the thick layer of black earth by which the steppe is covered a luxuriant vegetation develops in spring; after the old grass has been burned a bright green prevails over immense stretches, but this rapidly disappears under the burning rays of the sun and the hot E.

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  • The steppe, however, is not so devoid of trees as at first sight appears.

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  • Innumerable clusters of wild cherries (Prunus Chamaecerasus), wild apricots (Amygdalus nana), the Siberian pea-tree (Caragana frutescens), and other deep-rooted shrubs grow at the bottoms of the depressions and on the slopes of the ravines, imparting to the steppe that charm which manifests itself in the popular poetry.

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  • For this decision there were good reasons, for those turbulent sons of the steppe paid no taxes and were much given to brigandage, and their raiding propensities occasionally created international difficulties with the khan of the Crimea and the sultan of Turkey.

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  • The Mugan steppe is, however, in spite of its dryness, a more fertile region in virtue of the irrigation practised; but the Kura has excavated its bed too deeply to admit of that being done along its course.

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  • In 1865 the rinderpest, or steppe murrain, originating amongst the vast herds of the Russian steppes, had spread westward over Europe, until it was brought to London by foreign cattle.

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  • Since, however, the steppe edge on the east is somewhat indefinite, some early Moslem and other geographers have included all the Hamad in Syria, making of the latter a blunt-headed triangle with a base some 700 m.

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  • (3) A succession of oases lying east of the eastern mountain system on the edge of the steppe, and fed by short local streams. Of these the most important are, from north to south, (a) the Saltpan of Jebeil, fed by the North al-Dahab; (b) the oases of Kinnesrin and Aleppo, fed by the North Kuwaik; and (c) that of Sham or Damascus, fed by streams from Hermon, of which the Barada (Abana) and the Awaj (Pharpar) are the chief.

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  • Even the steppe exhibits great contrasts of temperature; there the rainfall is slight and the air exceedingly exhilarating and healthy.

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  • Urals, as well as to some of the steppe governments.

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  • Byzantine territory, threatened Constantinople with a fleet of small craft, obtained as consort for one of their princes, Vladimir I, (q.v.), a sister of the Byzantine emperor on condition of the prince becoming a Christian, adopted Christianity for themselves and their subjects, learned to hold in check the nomadic hordes of the steppe, and formed matrimonial alliances with the reigning families of Poland, Hungary, Norway and France.

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  • At the present day steamers ply from Tyumen, at the foot of the Urals, to Semipalatinsk on the border of the Kirghiz steppe and to Tomsk in the very heart of West Siberia.

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  • Although very heavy falls of snow take place in the alpine tracts - especially about Lake Baikal - on the other side, in the steppe regions of the Altai and Transbaikalia and in the neighbourhood of Krasnoyarsk, the amount of snow is so small that travellers use wheeled vehicles, and cattle are able to find food in the steppe.

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  • In the hill tracts and the marshy depression of the Ob they are unbroken, except by the bald summits of the loftier mountains (goltsy); they have the aspect of agreeable bosquets in the Baraba steppe, and they are thinly scattered through south-eastern Transbaikalia, where the dryness of the Gobi steppe makes its influence appreciably felt.

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  • The flora of Minusinsk - the Italy of Siberia - is well known; the prairies on the Ishim and of the Baraba steppe are adorned with the same rich 'vegetation, so graphically described by Middendorff and O.

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  • In south-east Siberia there are fortythree new species belonging to the north Manchurian or Amur fauna; and in south-east Transbaikalia, on the borders of the Gobi steppe, only 103 species were found by G.

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  • East Siberia suffers less from this plague than the marshy Baraba steppe; but on the Amur and the Sungari large gnats are an intolerable plague.

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  • From this region started an important trade route eastward by the Thyssagetae among the southern Urals, the Iyrcae on the Tobol and Irtysh to the Kirgiz steppe, where dwelt other Scyths, regarded as colonists of those in Europe: then by the Argippaei in the Altai and the Issedones in the Tarym basin, to the one-eyed Arimaspi on the borders of China, who stole their gold from the watchful griffins, and who marched with goat-footed men and Hyperboreans reaching to the sea.

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  • This necessitated their constantly moving in search of fresh pasture, spending the spring and autumn upon the open steppe, the winter and summer by the rivers for the sake of moisture and shelter.

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  • From this region started an important trade route eastward by the Thyssagetae among the southern Urals, the Iyrcae on the Tobol and Irtysh to the Kirgiz steppe, where dwelt other Scyths, regarded as colonists of those in Europe: then by the Argippaei in the Altai and the Issedones in the Tarym basin, to the one-eyed Arimaspi on the borders of China, who stole their gold from the watchful griffins, and who marched with goat-footed men and Hyperboreans reaching to the sea.

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  • Just as in 335 he had crossed the Danube, so he now made one raid across the frontier river, the Jaxartes (Sir Dania), to teach the fear of his name to the outlying peoples of the steppe (summer 328).

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  • steppe country.

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  • Farther south, in Patagonia, the prevailing wind is westerly, in which case the Andes again " blanket " an extensive region and deprive it of rain, turning it into an arid desolate steppe.

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  • CALARASHI (Caldrasi), the capital of the Jalomitza department, Rumania, situated on the left bank of the Borcea branch of the Danube, amid wide fens, north of which extends the desolate Baragan Steppe.

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  • European climate contends against the Asiatic, and where a struggle is carried on between the forest and the steppe.

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  • But cultivation rapidly changes the physiognomy of the steppe.

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  • The avifauna, of course, becomes poorer; nevertheless, the woods of the steppe, and still more the forests of the ante-steppe, give refuge to many 1 Bibliography of Flora: Beketov, Appendix to Russian translation of Griesebach and Reclus's Geogr.

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  • (6) The Khirgiz, whose true abodes were in Asia, in the Ishim and Khirgiz steppe.

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  • During these interminable struggles of rival princes, Kiev, which had been so long the residence of the grand-prince and of the metropolitan, was repeatedly taken by storm and ruthlessly pillaged, and finally the whole valley of the Dnieper fell a prey to the marauding tribes of the steppe.

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  • SYRIA, the name given generally to the land lying between the easternmost shore of the Levantine Gulf and a natural inland boundary formed in part by the Middle Euphrates and in part by the western edge of the Hamad or desert steppe.

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  • live by agriculture and cattle-breeding in the Abakan steppe.

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  • The central zone includes Hejaz (or Hijaz), Nejd and El Hasa; much of it is a dry, stony or sandy steppe, with few wells or watering-places, and only occupied by nomad tribes; but the great wadis which intersect it contain many fertile stretches of alluvial soil, where cultivation is possible and which support a considerable settled population, with several large towns and numerous villages.

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  • west to the peninsula of El Katr is a desolate gravelly steppe, shelving'gradually down to the salt marshes which border the shores of the gulf.

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  • The greater portion of this region is an open steppe, sandy in places and in others dotted with low volcanic hills, but with occasional ground water and in favourable seasons furnishing support for a considerable pastoral population.

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  • West of Abu Dhabi a low flat steppe with no settled inhabitants extends up to the Katr peninsula, merging on the north into the saline marshes which border the Persian Gulf, and on the south into the desert.

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  • The latter were indubitably the Ugrian nomads of the steppe, akin to the Tatar invaders of Europe, who filled the armies and convoyed the caravans of the ruling caste.

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  • Amidst this white race of the steppe the Khazars can be first historically distinguished at the end of the 2nd century A.D.

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  • The pressure of the nomads of the steppe, the quest of plunder or revenge, these seem the only motives of these early expeditions; but in the long struggle between the Roman and Persian empires, of which Armenia was often the battlefield, and eventually the prize, the attitude of the Khazars assumed political importance.

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  • Famous as the one stone structure is in that stoneless region, the post became known far and wide amongst the hordes of the steppe as Sar-kel or the White Abode.

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  • The eastern stream dies away in the sandy steppe about 25 miles from the Caspian, though it is said sometimes to reach the Kuma through the Huiduk, a tributary of the Kuma.

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  • The range has not so many offshoots as occur on the west side of Lebanon; under its precipitous slopes stretch table-lands and broad plateaus, which, especially on the east side looking towards the steppe, steadily increase in width.

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  • The plateau is partly grass land without bush and forest, partly steppe covered with mimosa bush, which sometimes is almost impenetrable.

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  • Of birds there are comparatively few on the steppe, but by rivers, lakes and swamps they are found in thousands.

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  • Zadonsk Steppe), dotted over with salt lakes.

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  • of the Don, is the fertile black earth, intermingled here and there, especially in the Zadonsk Steppe, with clay impregnated with salt.

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  • KALMUCK, or Kalmyk Steppe, a territory or reservation belonging to the Kalmuck or Kalmyk Tatars, in the Russian government of Astrakhan, bounded by the Volga on the N.E., the Manych on the S.W., the Caspian Sea on the E., and the territory of the Don Cossacks on the N.W.

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  • Mushketov, the Kalmuck Steppe must be divided into two parts, western and eastern.

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  • The eastern part of the steppe is a plain, lying for the most part 30 to 40 ft.

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  • The steppe has an estimated population of 130,000 persons, living in over 27,700 kibitkas, or felt tents.

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  • Researches in the Kalmyk Steppe in X884188 5 (St Petersburg, 1894, in Russian); Kostenkov's works (1868-1870); and other works quoted in Semenov's Geogr.

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  • The continental part consists of a gently undulating steppe (from sea-level up to 400 ft.

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  • Again, it should have been the first duty of the Republic adequately to fortify the dzikie pola, or "savage steppe," as the vast plain was called which extended from Kiev to the Black Sea, and some feeble attempts to do so were at last made.

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  • At the beginning of the 16th century the illimitable steppe of south-eastern Europe, extending from the Dnieper to the Urals, had no settled population.

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  • The steppe for miles around was strewn with corpses, and the Cossacks are said to have reaped io,000,000 guldens worth of booty when the fight was over.

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  • The most interesting poem of Bogdan Zaleski is his "Spirit of the Steppe" (Duch od stepu).

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  • It has in the east the Karnap-chul steppe, covered with grass in early summer, and in the north an intrusion of the Kara-kum sand desert.

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  • Steppe >>

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  • dulating plains and steppe.

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  • (3) From the alluvial flats upwards toward these undulating plains is an extensive stretch of steppe land almost destitute of rain.

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  • Not far above the transition from the barren steppe is a second mountain wall (125 m.

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  • (3) The country south of the mountain range is steppe land, imperfectly known, and of little use except for nomadic tribes, apart from the banks of the rivers (on which see Euphrates, Tigris).

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  • (I) In the steppe, during the sandstorms which frequently blow from the West Arabian desert the temperature may rise to 122° F.

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  • So when the hot sandstorms blow in the lower steppe the scorching heat is carried right up to the foot of the mountains.

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  • (3) In the steppe the vegetation is that which prevails in similar soil from Central Asia to Algeria; but many of the arborescent plants that grow in the rockier and more irregular plateaux of western Asia, and especially of Persia, have been reported as missing.

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  • 5 - The following abound: wild swine, hyaena, jackal, cheetah, fox; gazelle (in herds), antelope species (in the steppe); jerboa, mole, porcupine, and especially the common European rat (in the desert); bat, long-haired desert hare.

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  • Among game birds are: wild duck and goose, partridge, francolin, some kinds of dove, and in the steppe the buzzard.

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  • animals in the steppe the first place belongs to the camel; next come goat and sheep (not the ordinary fat-tailed variety); the common buffalo is often kept by the Arabs and the Turkomans on the Euphrates and the Tigris; on the Euphrates is found the Indian zebu.

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  • About that time parts of a confederation of tribes which had taken the name of Shammar from a moun tain in their neighbourhood, moved northwards from Central Arabia in search of better pasture, &c. Successfully displacing their forerunners, they made themselves at home in the Syrian steppe - until their possession was in turn disputed by a later emigrant from Arabia, for whom they finally made room by moving on into Mesopotamia, over which they spread, driving before them their predecessors the Tai (whose name the Mesopotamian Aramaeans had adopted as a designation for Arab in general), partly north of the Sinjar, partly over the Tigris.

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  • Having also succeeded in detaching part of the Shammar under Shlosh, he told the `Anaza he no longer needed their help. In the futile attempt of the three parties to dislodge the `Anaza Shlosh lost his life; but with the help of the Zubeid the other two succeeded, and Sufug was now supreme "King of the Steppe," levying blackmail as he pleased.

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  • Ferhan and the South Shammar claimed the steppe south-east of a line from Mosul to Mayadin (just below Karl isiya), and Faris and the North Shammar the north-west.

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  • The normal Castilian landscape is an arid and sterile steppe, with scarcely a tree or spring of water; and many even of the villages afford no relief to the eye, for they are built of sunburnt unbaked bricks, which share the dusty brownish-grey tint of the soil.

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  • In summer, indeed, the vast expanse is little better than an arid steppe; but in the winter it furnishes abundant pasture to flocks of sheep from the Apennines and herds of silver-grey oxen and shaggy black horses, and sheep passing in the summer to the mountain pastures.

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  • face of the Caucasus as a mountain torrent, but upon getting down to the lower-lying steppe country S.

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  • From the latitude of Bagdad northward the region between the two rivers is an arid, waterless, limestone steppe, inhabited only by roving Arabs.

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  • Zimmermann, Durch Busch and Steppe vom Campo bis zum Schari, 1892-1902 (Berlin, 1909); also British Foreign Office Reports.

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  • The bordering regions, moreover, are as varied in character as is the country itself - sea to the west, a mountainous and sandy desert to the south, a lofty steppe plateau to the east, and the great masses of Lebanon to the north.

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  • It is a wide steppe region which (though it contains many remains of ancient towns and settlements, and was evidently at one time a terri tory of great importance) is now almost entirely inhabited by nomads.

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  • in a southeasterly direction through the Moghan steppe to Pilsowar on the Bulgharu River and then south with a bend to the west to the Astara River and the port of Astara in 3~ 27 N.

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  • As we approach inner Persia the flora rapidly makes place to steppe vegetation in the plains, while the mediterranean flora predominates in the hills.

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  • The steppe vegetation extends in the south to the outer range of the hills which separate inner Persia from the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean.

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  • In inner Persia the hills and plains are bare of trees, and steppe and desert predominate.

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  • the great steppe which stretches north of the Black Sea and the Caspian., through South Russia, to Turan (Turkestan) and the Oxus and Jaxartes.

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  • To the settled peasantry, these nomads of the steppe were always the enemy (dana, daha, i~iiaL, Dahae).

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  • The motive of this, indeed, is to be found in the sanctity of Earth, which must not be polluted by a corpse; but its origin is evidently to be traced in a barbaric custom of ni~madic or semi-nomadic tribes who leave the dead to lie on the steppe; and we know from Greek sources that this custom was widely diffused among the tribes of eastern Iran.

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  • It was obviously an attempt to take the nomads of the Turanian steppe in the rear and to reduce them to quiescence, which led to his unfortunate expedition against the Scythians of the Russian steppes (c. 512 B.C.; cf.

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  • In the district of Herat, Darius established a great water-basin, designed to facilitate the cultivation of the steppe (Herod.

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  • 4); and Arsaces, a chief of the Parni or Aparnian Iranian nomad tribe (therefore often called Dahan Scythians), inhabiting the steppe east of the Caspianmade himself master of the district of Parthia (q.v.) in 248 B.C. He and his brother Tiridates were the founders of the Parthian kingdom, which, however, was confined within very modest limits during the following decades.

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  • Originally a part of the Turanian steppe belonged to the Arsacids; it was the starting-point of their power.

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  • The Yarkand-Darya and its numerous tributaries, which are fed by the glaciers of the mountain regions, as also many rivers which are now lost in the steppe or amidst the irrigated fields, bring abundance of water to the desert; one of them is called Zarafshan ("gold-strewing"), as much on account of the fertility it brings as of its auriferous sands.

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  • In the first part of its course, which may be said to end at Dorogobuzh, it flows through an undulating country of Carboniferous formation; in the second it passes west to Orsha, south through the fertile plain of Chernigov and Kiev, and then southeast across the rocky steppe of the Ukraine to Ekaterinoslay.

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  • The steppe flora penetrates into the mountains, ascending some 1100-1200 ft., and in sheltered valleys even up to 5500 ft., when it of course comes into contact with the purely alpine flora.

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  • It is the chief centre for the supply of agricultural machinery to the steppe governments of southeastern Russia.

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  • TRANSCAUCASIA, a general name given to the governments and provinces of Russian Caucasia, excluding the steppe provinces of Kuban and Terek and the steppe government of Stavropol.

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  • Agriculture is spreading but slowly among them; they still prefer to plunder the stores of bulbs of Lilium Martagon, Paeonia, and Erythronium Dens canis laid up by the steppe mouse (Mus socialis).

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  • The passes lie at relatively great altitudes and are few in number, so that although the northern versants of the various ranges all have a tolerably gentle slope, communication between the Black Sea and the valley of the Kuban, and the low steppe country beyond, is the reverse of easy.

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  • but more often worn to rolling downs; then the limestone range - writing-desk mountains that turn their steep fronts to the central snows; lastly low Cretaceous foothills, that sink softly into the steppe.

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  • Beyond, once more beyond, spreads the Scythian steppe, not the dead level of Lombardy, but an expanse of long low modulations, which would be reckoned hills in our home counties, seamed by long shining ribbons, which mark the courses of the tributaries of the Terek..

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  • Isolated tufts or tussocks are also characteristic of steppe - and savanna - vegetation and open places generally in the warmer parts of the earth.

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  • with the Dobrudja on its right, and a barren plain, called the Baragan Steppe, on its left.

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  • It is divided into three zones - steppe, forest and alpine.

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  • Moldavia and the Baragan Steppe resemble the Russian prairies in their variety of molluscs and the lower kinds of mammals.

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  • The southern Dobrudja and the Baragan Steppe, with the mountain pastures of Argeh, Buzeu, Dimbovitza, Muscel and Prahova, are occupied by large sheep-runs; 1200 farms were created in the Baragan by the Land Act of 1889.

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  • Having an open steppe behind it, this fort was often destroyed by the Tatars.

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  • There is the Famine steppe (Bekpak-dala), while in the Ak-kum steppe, which surrounds Lake Karakul, large areas consist of nothing but sands, partly shifting.

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  • The Meriones (four species) and the jerboa (five species) are only met with in the steppe region.

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  • heinsii), we find one moufflon (Musimon vignei), formerly known only in the Himalayas, the Chinese antelope (Antilope subgutturosa) and the saiga antelope in the steppe's, the Siberian ibex and another goat, the yak, the zebu or Indian ox, the common ox, the camel and the dromedary.

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  • d '?.?i E Longitude East 78° of Greenwich F 3,c in the immigration from the Central Asian plateau of such species as could adapt themselves to the dry climate and soil, in the disappearance of European and Altaic species from all the more arid parts of the region, in the survival of steppe species, and in the adaptation of many of the existing species to the needs of an arid and extreme climate and a saline soil.

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  • The invading steppe plants appear everywhere in patches in the Turkestan meadows.

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  • The flocks of sheep on the Kirghiz steppe are so large that the proprietors themselves do not know their exact numbers.

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  • Among these last two distinct elements must be noticed - the Cossacks, who are settled on the borders of the Kirghiz steppe and have assumed many Kirghiz habits, and the peasant-settlers, who are beginning to colonize the valley of the Ili and to spread farther south.

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  • The entrances to the mouths of both these offering many difficulties for navigation, trade has from the remotest antiquity selected this spot, which is situated half-way between the two estuaries, while the level surface of the neighbouring steppe allows easy communication with the lower parts of both rivers.

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  • in height, which descends by steep crags to the sea, and on the other side is continuous with the level of the "black earth" steppe.

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  • In the third place Russia's signal and unexpected successes in the Steppe had immensely increased her prestige on the continent.

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  • are steppe lands, of1575-4300ft.

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  • The ostrich is widely dispersed, but is found chiefly in the desert and steppe regions.

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  • Another peculiar tribe, also of short stature, are the Vaalpens of the steppe region of the north Transvaal.

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  • Agriculture, too, flourishes in the eastern highlands, and throughout the greater part of the steppe and savanna region of the northern and southern zones, especially the latter.

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  • Where the forest thins to the savanna and steppe, and communication is easier, are found the larger kingdoms and " empires " such as, in the north those established by the Songhai, Hausa, Fula, Bagirmi, Ba-Hima, &c., and in the south the states of Lunda, Kazembe, the Ba-Rotse, &c.

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  • Small alpine and other lakes are numerous, and small salt lakes are to be found in every steppe region.

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  • Six considerable steppe regions are counted: (I) that of Old Castile, situated to the south of Valladolid, and composed chiefly of hills of gypsum; (2) that of New Castile, in the south-east (including parts of La Mancha); (3) the Aragonese, occupying the upper part of the basin of the Ebro; (4) the littoral, stretching along the south-east coast from Alicante to the neighborhood of Almeria; (5) the Granadine, in the east of Upper Andalusia (the former kingdom of Granada); and (6) the Baetic, in Lower Andalusia, on both sides of the valley of the Jenil or Genii.

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  • West of the Nile the desert zone extends farther south than on the east, and Kordofan, which comes between the desert and the plains of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, is largely barren and steppe land.

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  • The steppe countries, Kordofan and Darfur, are also healthy except after the autumn rains.

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  • In the steppe regions of Kordofan, Darfur, &c., and in the Nubian Desert ostriches are fairly plentiful.

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  • - The population, always sparse in the desert and steppe regions, was never dense even in the more fertile southern districts.

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  • of the high range, and has therefore a smaller rainfall than the Jibal; its general character is that of a steppe increasing in aridity towards the E.

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  • 14 The portion of the Mesopotamian steppe under Osrhoenic influence was, according to Nuldeke (Zeitsch.

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  • arid steppe across which Ghengis Khan marched his vast army, was once the haunt of nomadic farmers.

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  • Steppe Buzzard buteo buteo vulpinus: Odd singles over the Nile.

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  • steppe buzzards are the common species through into early November.

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  • Typical mountain steppe mammals include Altai pika Ochotona alpina, arctic ground squirrel Citellus undulatus and Siberian chipmunk Tamias sibiricus.

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  • By these means, the steppe nomads were welded into a single ' Mongol ' people (pp.

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  • The Syrian steppe used to provide up to 60% of the diet for the country's small ruminants.

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  • shamanism of the people of the steppe.

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  • We are but four frail spinsters, and unschooled in the harsh arts of survival out here on the steppe.

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  • Italian Illustrated: Carpini and Mongols crossing the Russian steppe.

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  • These had spawned many warrior tribes, notably the Huns who roamed this steppe with impunity.

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  • We walked a couple of miles out across the flooded steppe.

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  • The five members of a sheep herding family lead a life far removed from modern civilization in the endless expanse of the Mongolian steppe.

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  • This remote and arid steppe across which Ghengis Khan marched his vast army, was once the haunt of nomadic farmers.

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  • steppe nomads were welded into a single ' Mongol ' people (pp.

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  • steppe grasslands, but also a chain of wetlands of international importance.

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  • steppe birds.

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  • steppe country to the south of the Euphrates.

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  • steppe areas in the southeast part of the country.

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  • steppe species.

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  • From the mountains we head south to an area of arid grassland steppe and striking red rocky landscapes.

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  • Crimean Terrain Crimea as described by Bidermann (2000 ): The northern part of the Crimean peninsular is a large salt steppe.

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  • Medieval traveling theater troupe The Steppe Brothers are down on their luck.

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  • Just as in 335 he had crossed the Danube, so he now made one raid across the frontier river, the Jaxartes (Sir Dania), to teach the fear of his name to the outlying peoples of the steppe (summer 328).

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  • Farther south, in Patagonia, the prevailing wind is westerly, in which case the Andes again " blanket " an extensive region and deprive it of rain, turning it into an arid desolate steppe.

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  • In the hollows of this steppe region, salt water lakes occur, known.

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  • Both in the steppe and in the desert, small ephemeral species occur on the bare ground away from the large plants and especially in the wadis.

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  • Steppe and desert formations are of the open type.

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  • The remainder of the province consists of a fertile steppe in the north-east (Sergiopol), and vast uninhabitable sand-steppes on the south of Lake Balkash.

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  • CALARASHI (Caldrasi), the capital of the Jalomitza department, Rumania, situated on the left bank of the Borcea branch of the Danube, amid wide fens, north of which extends the desolate Baragan Steppe.

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  • Small vessels carry cargo to Braila and Galatz, and a branch railway from Calarashi traverses the Steppe from south to north, and meets the main line between Bucharest and Constantza.

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  • Urals, as well as to some of the steppe governments.

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  • They are larger, but still small, in White Russia, Lithuania and the region of the lakes; but in the steppe governments they are very appreciably bigger, some of the Cossack stanitsas or settlements exceeding 20,000, and many of them numbering more than 10,000 inhabitants each.

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  • The Ural, in its lower part, constitutes the frontier between European Russia and the Kirghiz steppe; it receives the Sakmara on the right and the Ilek on the left.

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  • Four regions may be distinguished: the the Forest, the Steppe and the Circum-Mediterranean.

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  • European climate contends against the Asiatic, and where a struggle is carried on between the forest and the steppe.

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  • On the thick layer of black earth by which the steppe is covered a luxuriant vegetation develops in spring; after the old grass has been burned a bright green prevails over immense stretches, but this rapidly disappears under the burning rays of the sun and the hot E.

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  • The colouring of the steppe changes as if by magic, and only the silvery plumes of the steppe-grass (Stipa pennata) wave in the wind, tinting the steppe a bright yellow.

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  • The steppe, however, is not so devoid of trees as at first sight appears.

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  • Innumerable clusters of wild cherries (Prunus Chamaecerasus), wild apricots (Amygdalus nana), the Siberian pea-tree (Caragana frutescens), and other deep-rooted shrubs grow at the bottoms of the depressions and on the slopes of the ravines, imparting to the steppe that charm which manifests itself in the popular poetry.

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  • But cultivation rapidly changes the physiognomy of the steppe.

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  • The avifauna, of course, becomes poorer; nevertheless, the woods of the steppe, and still more the forests of the ante-steppe, give refuge to many 1 Bibliography of Flora: Beketov, Appendix to Russian translation of Griesebach and Reclus's Geogr.

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  • The destruction of the forests and the advance of wheat into the prairies are rapidly thinning the steppe fauna.

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  • (6) The Khirgiz, whose true abodes were in Asia, in the Ishim and Khirgiz steppe.

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  • It is only in the steppe governments that the situation is more hopeful.

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  • The steppe conditions extend over the greater part of the Crimea and up to the foothills of the Caucasus.

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  • steppe country.

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  • Byzantine territory, threatened Constantinople with a fleet of small craft, obtained as consort for one of their princes, Vladimir I, (q.v.), a sister of the Byzantine emperor on condition of the prince becoming a Christian, adopted Christianity for themselves and their subjects, learned to hold in check the nomadic hordes of the steppe, and formed matrimonial alliances with the reigning families of Poland, Hungary, Norway and France.

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  • During these interminable struggles of rival princes, Kiev, which had been so long the residence of the grand-prince and of the metropolitan, was repeatedly taken by storm and ruthlessly pillaged, and finally the whole valley of the Dnieper fell a prey to the marauding tribes of the steppe.

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  • As late as 1571 Moscow was pillaged by a Tatar horde; but there was no longer any question of permanent political subjection to the Asiatics, and the Russian frontier was being gradually pushed forward at the expense of the nomads of the steppe by the constant advance of the agricultural population in quest of virgin soil.

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  • For this decision there were good reasons, for those turbulent sons of the steppe paid no taxes and were much given to brigandage, and their raiding propensities occasionally created international difficulties with the khan of the Crimea and the sultan of Turkey.

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  • This region is known as Pamir; it has all the characteristics of the highest regions of Tibet, and so far fitly receives the Russian designation of steppe; but it seems to have no special peculiarities, and the reason of its having been so long regarded as a geographical enigma is not obvious.

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  • above sea-level, forming an intermediate steppe between the highest regions and the lowest, east of Lop Nor.

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  • to the Caspian, until in the Mugan steppe along that sea it measures 100 m.

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  • annually at Baku, and it is still less in the Mugan steppe, though quite abundant in the adjacent region of Lenkoran.

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  • The vegetation of the steppe is on the whole scanty.

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  • The Mugan steppe is, however, in spite of its dryness, a more fertile region in virtue of the irrigation practised; but the Kura has excavated its bed too deeply to admit of that being done along its course.

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  • In 1865 the rinderpest, or steppe murrain, originating amongst the vast herds of the Russian steppes, had spread westward over Europe, until it was brought to London by foreign cattle.

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  • SYRIA, the name given generally to the land lying between the easternmost shore of the Levantine Gulf and a natural inland boundary formed in part by the Middle Euphrates and in part by the western edge of the Hamad or desert steppe.

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  • Since, however, the steppe edge on the east is somewhat indefinite, some early Moslem and other geographers have included all the Hamad in Syria, making of the latter a blunt-headed triangle with a base some 700 m.

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  • Its eastern boundary is in great part a steppe, which breeds population, but, unable to nourish increase, sends it over its boundaries in a constant stream'of migration.

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  • (3) A succession of oases lying east of the eastern mountain system on the edge of the steppe, and fed by short local streams. Of these the most important are, from north to south, (a) the Saltpan of Jebeil, fed by the North al-Dahab; (b) the oases of Kinnesrin and Aleppo, fed by the North Kuwaik; and (c) that of Sham or Damascus, fed by streams from Hermon, of which the Barada (Abana) and the Awaj (Pharpar) are the chief.

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  • Even the steppe exhibits great contrasts of temperature; there the rainfall is slight and the air exceedingly exhilarating and healthy.

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  • The latter dies away over the plains east and south-east of Aleppo, making them afford good spring pasture, which has attracted the nomads from farther south: but below the latitude of Rakka-Homs thin steppe begins, and quickly degenerates into sheer desert broken only by a chain of poor oases, south of a low ridge running from Anti-Lebanon to Euphrates.

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  • Among cultivated trees, the olive is at home throughout Syria, except on the steppe; the mulberry is planted extensively in the lower Lebanon; and all sorts of fruittrees flourish in irrigated gardens, especially on the Phoenician coast, in the Palestinian plain, in the oasis of Damascus, and in the Buka`a, The main cereal regions are the Hauran, and the plains of Antioch and Commagene; and the lower western slopes of the coast range are largely devoted to the culture of tobacco.

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  • The plateau, known as the Ogaden plateau, everywhere presents the same monotonous aspect of a boundless steppe clothed with a scanty vegetation of scrubby plants and herbaceous growths.

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  • Thus, the Kaibals left the Sayan mountains and took possession of the Abakan steppe (Minusinsk region), abandoned by the Kirghizes, in the earlier years of last century, and in N.E.

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  • live by agriculture and cattle-breeding in the Abakan steppe.

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  • At the present day steamers ply from Tyumen, at the foot of the Urals, to Semipalatinsk on the border of the Kirghiz steppe and to Tomsk in the very heart of West Siberia.

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  • Numerous lakes and extensive marshes diversify the low plains of West Siberia; the Baraba steppe is dotted with lakes and ponds - Lake Chany (1400 sq.

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  • Although very heavy falls of snow take place in the alpine tracts - especially about Lake Baikal - on the other side, in the steppe regions of the Altai and Transbaikalia and in the neighbourhood of Krasnoyarsk, the amount of snow is so small that travellers use wheeled vehicles, and cattle are able to find food in the steppe.

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  • In the hill tracts and the marshy depression of the Ob they are unbroken, except by the bald summits of the loftier mountains (goltsy); they have the aspect of agreeable bosquets in the Baraba steppe, and they are thinly scattered through south-eastern Transbaikalia, where the dryness of the Gobi steppe makes its influence appreciably felt.

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  • The flora of Minusinsk - the Italy of Siberia - is well known; the prairies on the Ishim and of the Baraba steppe are adorned with the same rich 'vegetation, so graphically described by Middendorff and O.

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  • In south-east Siberia there are fortythree new species belonging to the north Manchurian or Amur fauna; and in south-east Transbaikalia, on the borders of the Gobi steppe, only 103 species were found by G.

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  • The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to the southern Amur.

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  • East Siberia suffers less from this plague than the marshy Baraba steppe; but on the Amur and the Sungari large gnats are an intolerable plague.

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  • Geographically, though not administratively, the steppe provinces of Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk belong to Siberia.

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  • 1 -142), the country of the Scythae or the country over which the nomad Scythae were lords, that is, the steppe from the Carpathians to the Don.

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  • This necessitated their constantly moving in search of fresh pasture, spending the spring and autumn upon the open steppe, the winter and summer by the rivers for the sake of moisture and shelter.

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  • The central zone includes Hejaz (or Hijaz), Nejd and El Hasa; much of it is a dry, stony or sandy steppe, with few wells or watering-places, and only occupied by nomad tribes; but the great wadis which intersect it contain many fertile stretches of alluvial soil, where cultivation is possible and which support a considerable settled population, with several large towns and numerous villages.

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  • west to the peninsula of El Katr is a desolate gravelly steppe, shelving'gradually down to the salt marshes which border the shores of the gulf.

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  • The greater portion of this region is an open steppe, sandy in places and in others dotted with low volcanic hills, but with occasional ground water and in favourable seasons furnishing support for a considerable pastoral population.

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  • West of Abu Dhabi a low flat steppe with no settled inhabitants extends up to the Katr peninsula, merging on the north into the saline marshes which border the Persian Gulf, and on the south into the desert.

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  • The Blemmyes, remaining pagan after the Nubas had embraced Christianity (6th century) were soon after driven from the Nile valley eastwards to the kindred Megabares, Memnons and other nomads, who, with the Troglodytes, had from time immemorial held the whole steppe region between the Nile and the Red Sea from Axum to Egypt.

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  • The latter were indubitably the Ugrian nomads of the steppe, akin to the Tatar invaders of Europe, who filled the armies and convoyed the caravans of the ruling caste.

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  • Amidst this white race of the steppe the Khazars can be first historically distinguished at the end of the 2nd century A.D.

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  • The pressure of the nomads of the steppe, the quest of plunder or revenge, these seem the only motives of these early expeditions; but in the long struggle between the Roman and Persian empires, of which Armenia was often the battlefield, and eventually the prize, the attitude of the Khazars assumed political importance.

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  • Famous as the one stone structure is in that stoneless region, the post became known far and wide amongst the hordes of the steppe as Sar-kel or the White Abode.

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  • The eastern stream dies away in the sandy steppe about 25 miles from the Caspian, though it is said sometimes to reach the Kuma through the Huiduk, a tributary of the Kuma.

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  • The range has not so many offshoots as occur on the west side of Lebanon; under its precipitous slopes stretch table-lands and broad plateaus, which, especially on the east side looking towards the steppe, steadily increase in width.

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  • The plateau is partly grass land without bush and forest, partly steppe covered with mimosa bush, which sometimes is almost impenetrable.

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  • Of birds there are comparatively few on the steppe, but by rivers, lakes and swamps they are found in thousands.

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  • Zadonsk Steppe), dotted over with salt lakes.

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  • of the Don, is the fertile black earth, intermingled here and there, especially in the Zadonsk Steppe, with clay impregnated with salt.

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  • KALMUCK, or Kalmyk Steppe, a territory or reservation belonging to the Kalmuck or Kalmyk Tatars, in the Russian government of Astrakhan, bounded by the Volga on the N.E., the Manych on the S.W., the Caspian Sea on the E., and the territory of the Don Cossacks on the N.W.

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  • Mushketov, the Kalmuck Steppe must be divided into two parts, western and eastern.

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  • The eastern part of the steppe is a plain, lying for the most part 30 to 40 ft.

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  • The steppe has an estimated population of 130,000 persons, living in over 27,700 kibitkas, or felt tents.

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  • Researches in the Kalmyk Steppe in X884188 5 (St Petersburg, 1894, in Russian); Kostenkov's works (1868-1870); and other works quoted in Semenov's Geogr.

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  • The continental part consists of a gently undulating steppe (from sea-level up to 400 ft.

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  • Again, it should have been the first duty of the Republic adequately to fortify the dzikie pola, or "savage steppe," as the vast plain was called which extended from Kiev to the Black Sea, and some feeble attempts to do so were at last made.

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  • At the beginning of the 16th century the illimitable steppe of south-eastern Europe, extending from the Dnieper to the Urals, had no settled population.

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  • The steppe for miles around was strewn with corpses, and the Cossacks are said to have reaped io,000,000 guldens worth of booty when the fight was over.

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  • The most interesting poem of Bogdan Zaleski is his "Spirit of the Steppe" (Duch od stepu).

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  • It has in the east the Karnap-chul steppe, covered with grass in early summer, and in the north an intrusion of the Kara-kum sand desert.

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  • dulating plains and steppe.

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  • (3) From the alluvial flats upwards toward these undulating plains is an extensive stretch of steppe land almost destitute of rain.

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  • Not far above the transition from the barren steppe is a second mountain wall (125 m.

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  • (3) The country south of the mountain range is steppe land, imperfectly known, and of little use except for nomadic tribes, apart from the banks of the rivers (on which see Euphrates, Tigris).

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  • (I) In the steppe, during the sandstorms which frequently blow from the West Arabian desert the temperature may rise to 122° F.

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  • So when the hot sandstorms blow in the lower steppe the scorching heat is carried right up to the foot of the mountains.

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  • (3) In the steppe the vegetation is that which prevails in similar soil from Central Asia to Algeria; but many of the arborescent plants that grow in the rockier and more irregular plateaux of western Asia, and especially of Persia, have been reported as missing.

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  • 5 - The following abound: wild swine, hyaena, jackal, cheetah, fox; gazelle (in herds), antelope species (in the steppe); jerboa, mole, porcupine, and especially the common European rat (in the desert); bat, long-haired desert hare.

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  • Among game birds are: wild duck and goose, partridge, francolin, some kinds of dove, and in the steppe the buzzard.

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  • animals in the steppe the first place belongs to the camel; next come goat and sheep (not the ordinary fat-tailed variety); the common buffalo is often kept by the Arabs and the Turkomans on the Euphrates and the Tigris; on the Euphrates is found the Indian zebu.

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  • About that time parts of a confederation of tribes which had taken the name of Shammar from a moun tain in their neighbourhood, moved northwards from Central Arabia in search of better pasture, &c. Successfully displacing their forerunners, they made themselves at home in the Syrian steppe - until their possession was in turn disputed by a later emigrant from Arabia, for whom they finally made room by moving on into Mesopotamia, over which they spread, driving before them their predecessors the Tai (whose name the Mesopotamian Aramaeans had adopted as a designation for Arab in general), partly north of the Sinjar, partly over the Tigris.

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  • Having also succeeded in detaching part of the Shammar under Shlosh, he told the `Anaza he no longer needed their help. In the futile attempt of the three parties to dislodge the `Anaza Shlosh lost his life; but with the help of the Zubeid the other two succeeded, and Sufug was now supreme "King of the Steppe," levying blackmail as he pleased.

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  • Ferhan and the South Shammar claimed the steppe south-east of a line from Mosul to Mayadin (just below Karl isiya), and Faris and the North Shammar the north-west.

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  • The normal Castilian landscape is an arid and sterile steppe, with scarcely a tree or spring of water; and many even of the villages afford no relief to the eye, for they are built of sunburnt unbaked bricks, which share the dusty brownish-grey tint of the soil.

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  • In summer, indeed, the vast expanse is little better than an arid steppe; but in the winter it furnishes abundant pasture to flocks of sheep from the Apennines and herds of silver-grey oxen and shaggy black horses, and sheep passing in the summer to the mountain pastures.

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  • face of the Caucasus as a mountain torrent, but upon getting down to the lower-lying steppe country S.

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  • From the latitude of Bagdad northward the region between the two rivers is an arid, waterless, limestone steppe, inhabited only by roving Arabs.

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  • Zimmermann, Durch Busch and Steppe vom Campo bis zum Schari, 1892-1902 (Berlin, 1909); also British Foreign Office Reports.

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  • The two easiest routes from the Mediterranean, lying through the Orontes gorge and the Beilan Pass, converge in the plain of the Antioch Lake (Balük Geul or El Bahr) and are met there by (I) the road from the Amanic Gates (Baghche Pass) and western Commagene, which descends the valley of the Kara Su, (2) the roads from eastern Commagene and the Euphratean crossings at Samosata (Samsat) and Apamea Zeugma (Birejik), which descend the valleys of the Afrin and the Kuwaik, and (3) the road from the Euphratean ford at Thapsacus, which skirts the fringe of the Syrian steppe.

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  • The bordering regions, moreover, are as varied in character as is the country itself - sea to the west, a mountainous and sandy desert to the south, a lofty steppe plateau to the east, and the great masses of Lebanon to the north.

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  • It is a wide steppe region which (though it contains many remains of ancient towns and settlements, and was evidently at one time a terri tory of great importance) is now almost entirely inhabited by nomads.

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  • Its north-western shore is bordered by a dreary plateau, known as the Famine Steppe (Bek-pak-dala).

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  • in a southeasterly direction through the Moghan steppe to Pilsowar on the Bulgharu River and then south with a bend to the west to the Astara River and the port of Astara in 3~ 27 N.

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  • As we approach inner Persia the flora rapidly makes place to steppe vegetation in the plains, while the mediterranean flora predominates in the hills.

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  • The steppe vegetation extends in the south to the outer range of the hills which separate inner Persia from the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean.

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  • In inner Persia the hills and plains are bare of trees, and steppe and desert predominate.

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  • the great steppe which stretches north of the Black Sea and the Caspian., through South Russia, to Turan (Turkestan) and the Oxus and Jaxartes.

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  • To the settled peasantry, these nomads of the steppe were always the enemy (dana, daha, i~iiaL, Dahae).

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  • The motive of this, indeed, is to be found in the sanctity of Earth, which must not be polluted by a corpse; but its origin is evidently to be traced in a barbaric custom of ni~madic or semi-nomadic tribes who leave the dead to lie on the steppe; and we know from Greek sources that this custom was widely diffused among the tribes of eastern Iran.

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  • It was obviously an attempt to take the nomads of the Turanian steppe in the rear and to reduce them to quiescence, which led to his unfortunate expedition against the Scythians of the Russian steppes (c. 512 B.C.; cf.

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  • In the district of Herat, Darius established a great water-basin, designed to facilitate the cultivation of the steppe (Herod.

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  • 4); and Arsaces, a chief of the Parni or Aparnian Iranian nomad tribe (therefore often called Dahan Scythians), inhabiting the steppe east of the Caspianmade himself master of the district of Parthia (q.v.) in 248 B.C. He and his brother Tiridates were the founders of the Parthian kingdom, which, however, was confined within very modest limits during the following decades.

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  • Originally a part of the Turanian steppe belonged to the Arsacids; it was the starting-point of their power.

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  • The Yarkand-Darya and its numerous tributaries, which are fed by the glaciers of the mountain regions, as also many rivers which are now lost in the steppe or amidst the irrigated fields, bring abundance of water to the desert; one of them is called Zarafshan ("gold-strewing"), as much on account of the fertility it brings as of its auriferous sands.

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  • In the first part of its course, which may be said to end at Dorogobuzh, it flows through an undulating country of Carboniferous formation; in the second it passes west to Orsha, south through the fertile plain of Chernigov and Kiev, and then southeast across the rocky steppe of the Ukraine to Ekaterinoslay.

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  • The steppe flora penetrates into the mountains, ascending some 1100-1200 ft., and in sheltered valleys even up to 5500 ft., when it of course comes into contact with the purely alpine flora.

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  • It is the chief centre for the supply of agricultural machinery to the steppe governments of southeastern Russia.

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  • TRANSCAUCASIA, a general name given to the governments and provinces of Russian Caucasia, excluding the steppe provinces of Kuban and Terek and the steppe government of Stavropol.

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  • Agriculture is spreading but slowly among them; they still prefer to plunder the stores of bulbs of Lilium Martagon, Paeonia, and Erythronium Dens canis laid up by the steppe mouse (Mus socialis).

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  • The passes lie at relatively great altitudes and are few in number, so that although the northern versants of the various ranges all have a tolerably gentle slope, communication between the Black Sea and the valley of the Kuban, and the low steppe country beyond, is the reverse of easy.

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  • but more often worn to rolling downs; then the limestone range - writing-desk mountains that turn their steep fronts to the central snows; lastly low Cretaceous foothills, that sink softly into the steppe.

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  • Beyond, once more beyond, spreads the Scythian steppe, not the dead level of Lombardy, but an expanse of long low modulations, which would be reckoned hills in our home counties, seamed by long shining ribbons, which mark the courses of the tributaries of the Terek..

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  • Isolated tufts or tussocks are also characteristic of steppe - and savanna - vegetation and open places generally in the warmer parts of the earth.

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  • with the Dobrudja on its right, and a barren plain, called the Baragan Steppe, on its left.

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  • It is divided into three zones - steppe, forest and alpine.

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  • Moldavia and the Baragan Steppe resemble the Russian prairies in their variety of molluscs and the lower kinds of mammals.

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  • The southern Dobrudja and the Baragan Steppe, with the mountain pastures of Argeh, Buzeu, Dimbovitza, Muscel and Prahova, are occupied by large sheep-runs; 1200 farms were created in the Baragan by the Land Act of 1889.

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  • AKMOLINSK, one of the governments belonging to the governor-generalship of the Steppes in Asiatic Russia, formerly known as the Kirghiz Steppe; bounded by the government of Turgai on the W., by that of Tobolsk on the N., of Semi-palatinsk on the E., and of Syr-darya on the S.

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  • Farther south, towards Lake Balkash, on the southeastern frontier, is a wide waterless desert, Bek-pak-dala, or Famine Steppe.

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  • Having an open steppe behind it, this fort was often destroyed by the Tatars.

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  • There is the Famine steppe (Bekpak-dala), while in the Ak-kum steppe, which surrounds Lake Karakul, large areas consist of nothing but sands, partly shifting.

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  • The Meriones (four species) and the jerboa (five species) are only met with in the steppe region.

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  • heinsii), we find one moufflon (Musimon vignei), formerly known only in the Himalayas, the Chinese antelope (Antilope subgutturosa) and the saiga antelope in the steppe's, the Siberian ibex and another goat, the yak, the zebu or Indian ox, the common ox, the camel and the dromedary.

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  • d '?.?i E Longitude East 78° of Greenwich F 3,c in the immigration from the Central Asian plateau of such species as could adapt themselves to the dry climate and soil, in the disappearance of European and Altaic species from all the more arid parts of the region, in the survival of steppe species, and in the adaptation of many of the existing species to the needs of an arid and extreme climate and a saline soil.

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  • The invading steppe plants appear everywhere in patches in the Turkestan meadows.

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  • The flocks of sheep on the Kirghiz steppe are so large that the proprietors themselves do not know their exact numbers.

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  • Among these last two distinct elements must be noticed - the Cossacks, who are settled on the borders of the Kirghiz steppe and have assumed many Kirghiz habits, and the peasant-settlers, who are beginning to colonize the valley of the Ili and to spread farther south.

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  • The entrances to the mouths of both these offering many difficulties for navigation, trade has from the remotest antiquity selected this spot, which is situated half-way between the two estuaries, while the level surface of the neighbouring steppe allows easy communication with the lower parts of both rivers.

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  • in height, which descends by steep crags to the sea, and on the other side is continuous with the level of the "black earth" steppe.

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  • In the third place Russia's signal and unexpected successes in the Steppe had immensely increased her prestige on the continent.

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  • are steppe lands, of1575-4300ft.

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  • The ostrich is widely dispersed, but is found chiefly in the desert and steppe regions.

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  • Another peculiar tribe, also of short stature, are the Vaalpens of the steppe region of the north Transvaal.

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  • Agriculture, too, flourishes in the eastern highlands, and throughout the greater part of the steppe and savanna region of the northern and southern zones, especially the latter.

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  • Where the forest thins to the savanna and steppe, and communication is easier, are found the larger kingdoms and " empires " such as, in the north those established by the Songhai, Hausa, Fula, Bagirmi, Ba-Hima, &c., and in the south the states of Lunda, Kazembe, the Ba-Rotse, &c.

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  • Small alpine and other lakes are numerous, and small salt lakes are to be found in every steppe region.

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  • Six considerable steppe regions are counted: (I) that of Old Castile, situated to the south of Valladolid, and composed chiefly of hills of gypsum; (2) that of New Castile, in the south-east (including parts of La Mancha); (3) the Aragonese, occupying the upper part of the basin of the Ebro; (4) the littoral, stretching along the south-east coast from Alicante to the neighborhood of Almeria; (5) the Granadine, in the east of Upper Andalusia (the former kingdom of Granada); and (6) the Baetic, in Lower Andalusia, on both sides of the valley of the Jenil or Genii.

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  • West of the Nile the desert zone extends farther south than on the east, and Kordofan, which comes between the desert and the plains of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, is largely barren and steppe land.

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  • The steppe countries, Kordofan and Darfur, are also healthy except after the autumn rains.

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  • In the steppe regions of Kordofan, Darfur, &c., and in the Nubian Desert ostriches are fairly plentiful.

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  • - The population, always sparse in the desert and steppe regions, was never dense even in the more fertile southern districts.

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  • of the high range, and has therefore a smaller rainfall than the Jibal; its general character is that of a steppe increasing in aridity towards the E.

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  • 14 The portion of the Mesopotamian steppe under Osrhoenic influence was, according to Nuldeke (Zeitsch.

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  • The Syrian steppe used to provide up to 60% of the diet for the country 's small ruminants.

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  • Drug religion, related to the shamanism of the people of the steppe.

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  • We are but four frail spinsters, and unschooled in the harsh arts of survival out here on the steppe.

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  • Italian Illustrated: Carpini and Mongols crossing the Russian steppe.

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  • These had spawned many warrior tribes, notably the Huns who roamed this steppe with impunity.

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  • We walked a couple of miles out across the flooded steppe.

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  • The five members of a sheep herding family lead a life far removed from modern civilization in the endless expanse of the Mongolian steppe.

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  • This is the Hortobágy, an ancient flood-plain that contains not only steppe grasslands, but also a chain of wetlands of international importance.

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  • The rest of us spent the morning in search of steppe birds.

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  • They probably came from the steppe country to the south of the Euphrates.

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  • This tour explores the best of these habitats and also the excellent coastal wetland and steppe areas in the southeast part of the country.

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  • This area of high plateau is very underwatched but contains a healthy population of Dupont 's Lark and other steppe species.

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  • From the mountains we head south to an area of arid grassland steppe and striking red rocky landscapes.

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  • Crimean Terrain Crimea as described by Bidermann (2000): The northern part of the Crimean peninsular is a large salt steppe.

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  • Medieval traveling theater troupe The Steppe Brothers are down on their luck.

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  • The Ural, in its lower part, constitutes the frontier between European Russia and the Kirghiz steppe; it receives the Sakmara on the right and the Ilek on the left.

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  • The colouring of the steppe changes as if by magic, and only the silvery plumes of the steppe-grass (Stipa pennata) wave in the wind, tinting the steppe a bright yellow.

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  • The steppe conditions extend over the greater part of the Crimea and up to the foothills of the Caucasus.

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  • Small vessels carry cargo to Braila and Galatz, and a branch railway from Calarashi traverses the Steppe from south to north, and meets the main line between Bucharest and Constantza.

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