When one or more blood vessels in the kidneys become narrowed (renal artery stenosis) because of debris and plaque build-up, or blocked because of a blood clot (renal vein thrombosis), the kidneys are unable to function properly.
The result may be a narrowing (stenosis) or blockage of blood vessels, interrupting the essential flow of blood and oxygen to the heart, brain, abdominal organs, and peripheral circulation to the arms and legs.
If, however, one of the ureters has a dead end, a stricture or stenosis (narrowing), or a leaky ureterovesical valve (between the ureter and bladder), infection is the likely result.
Kidney infections, a narrowing of the arteries that carry blood to the kidneys, called renal artery stenosis, and other kidney disorders can disturb the salt and water balance.
Duodenal atresia can occur with other conditions such as a narrowing of the duodenal lumen (duodenal stenosis) or twisting of the duodenum around itself (duodenal volvulus).
The duodenal channel may be underdeveloped (duodenal hypoplasia), narrowed (duodenal stenosis), or the duodenum channel may not be properly formed (duodenal atresia).
The malrotation, stenosis, or membranous bands are corrected surgically so that the duodenum has a normal opening and connects properly to the stomach and jejunum.
Complications include wound infections, unexpected opening near the repair site, and rarely, meatul stenosis, a narrowing of the urinary tract opening.
Many individuals with Williams syndrome have heart disorders, typically supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS), which is a narrowing of the aorta.
Valves that are narrow, tight, or stiff (valvular stenosis) do not open completely and limit the forward flow of blood through the valve.