Both have fleshy caps, whitish, moist and clammy to the touch; instead of a pleasant odour, they have a disagreeable one; the stems are ringless, or nearly so; and the gills, which are palish-clay-brown, distinctly touch and grow on to the solid or pithy stem.
Speaking generally, stems grow upwards and roots downwards.
He considered, for instance, that stems, leaves, roots and flowers differ as they do because the plastic substances entering into their structure are diverse.
The absence of the ordinary bright green colours of vegetation is another peculiarity of this flora, almost all the plants having glaucous or whitened stems. Foliage is reduced to a minimum, the moisture of the plant being stored up in massive or fleshy stems against the long-continued drought.
Many species produce gums and resins, their stems being encrusted with the exudations, and pungency and aromatic odour is an almost universal quality of the plants of desert regions.
The fresh-water spider (Argyroneta) lives amongst the weeds of lakes and ponds and, like Desis, is quite at home beneath the water either swimming from spot to spot or crawling amongst the stems of aquatic plants.
Solitary polyps are unknown in this sub-order; the colony may be creeping or arborescent in form; if the latter, the budding of the polyps, as already stated, is of the sympodial type, and either biserial, forming stems capable of further branching, or uniserial, forming pinnules not capable of further branching.
The stems are frequently characterized by aeration channels, which connect the aerial parts with the parts which are buried in practically airless mud or silt.
How do you think it feels to live with the regret that stems from having done something beyond reparation to someone as beautiful as she is in this life?
They shelter in crevices of the bark of trees, in the dried stems of herbaceous plants, or among moss and fallen leaves on the ground.
It is the principal genus of the natural order of Monocotyledous Potamogetonaceae, and contains plants with slender branched stems, and submerged and translucent, or floating and opaque,.
The fructification appears in March and April, terminating in short unbranched stems. It is said to produce diarrhoea in such cattle as eat it.
In this species the fructification is conical or lanceolate, and is found in April on short, stout, unbranched stems which have large loose sheaths.
The tree breaks into thin stems close to the ground, and these branch again and again, the leaves being developed umbrellafashion on the outer branches.
Maas in Results of In its arrangement the muscular tissue the "Albatross " Expedition, forms two s stems: the one composed Museum of Comparative Y P Zoology, Cambridge, Masse, of striated fibres arranged circularly, that U.S.A. is to say, concentrically round the central FIG.
Obelia forms numerous polyserial stems of the characteristic zigzag pattern growing up from a creeping basal stolon, and buds the medusa of the same name.
In addition to the stems bearing cups, there are found vesicles associated with them, which have been interpreted as gonothecae or as floats, that is to say, air-bladders, acting as hydrostatic organs for a floating polyp-colony.
IFor the histology of the comparatively simple but in many respects aberrant Bog-mosses (Sphagnaceae), see BRYOPHYTA.] The stems of the other mosses resemble one another in their main histological features.
This is probably homologous with the hydrom cylinder in the stems of other mosses.
or many protoxylems. When the protoxylem strands are situated at the periphery of the stele, abutting on the pericycle, as in all roots, and many of the more primitive Pteridophyte stems, the stele is said to be exarch.
This is the case in the stems of must Phanerogams and of some Pteridophytes.
In some astelic L- ~ stems (Nymphaeaceae) the number of bundles is greatly increased and they are scattered throughout the ground tissue.
In some Pteridophyte stems the apical eel is wedge-shaped, in others prismatic; in the latter case segment~
Adventitious roots, arising from stems, usuall) take origin in the pericycle, but sometimes from other parts of th Conjunctive.
stems. But in nearly all perennial Dicotyledons, in all dicotyledonous and gymnospermous trees and shrubs and in fossil Pteridophytes belonging to all the great groups, certain layers of cells remain meristematic among the permanent tissues, or after passing through a resting stage reacquire menstematic properties, and give rise to secondary tissues.
The in Stems. bundles of plants which form cambium are, on the contrary, called open.
In stems with open bundles the formation of cambium and secondary tissue may be confined to these, when it is sard to be entirely fascicular.
The significance of these phenomena, which present many minor modifications in different cases, is nol fully understood, but one purpose of the formation of phloem promontories and islands seems to be the protection of the sieve-tubes from crushing by the often considerable peripheral pressure that is e~ercised on the stems of these lianes.
A peculiar modification of periderm is formed by the phellogen in the submerged organs (roots or stems) of many aquatic or marsh-loving plants.
This pressure leads to the filling of the vessels of the wood of both root and stem in the early part of the year, before the leaves have expanded, and gives rise to the exudation of fluid known as bleeding when young stems are cut in early spring.
In such stems and roots as increase in thickness there are other growing regions, which consist of cylindrical sheaths known as cambium layers or phellogens.
The young roots grow vertically downwards, the young stems vertically upwards.
But some stems grow parallel to the surface of the soil, while the branches both of stems and roots tend to grow at a definite angle to the main axis from which they come.
They may occur on all parts, buds, leaves, stems or roots, as shown by the numerous species of Cynips on oak, Phylloxera on vines, &c. The local damage is small, - but the general injury to assimilation, absorption and other functions, may be important if the numbers increase.
Schinzia, which forms galllike swellings on the roots of rushes; Gymnosporangium, causing excrescences on juniper stems; numerous leaf Fungi such as Puccinia, Aecidium, Sep/one, &c., causing yellow, brown or black spots on leaves; or Ustilago in the anthers of certain flowers.
Fungus-galls on leaves and stems are exemplified by the pocket-plums caused by the Exoasceae, the black blistering swellings of Ustilago Maydis, the yellow swellings on nettles due to Aecidium, &c.
Aquatic plants with submerged leaves and erect leaves or stems:
The submerged stems are slender or hollow.
The stems of some xerophytes, e.g.
The obturatorius nerve invariably comes from the two main stems of the crural.
The vegetable-feeders attack leaves, herbaceous or woody stems and roots; frequently different parts of a plant are attacked in the two active stages of the life-history; the cockchafers, for example, eating leaves, and their grubs gnawing roots.
Beetles and larvae are frequently carnivorous in habit, hunting for small insects under stones, or pursuing the soft-skinned grubs of beetles and flies that bore in woody stems or succulent roots.
The larvae of the beautiful, elongate, metallic Donaciae live in the roots and stems of aquatic plants, obtaining thence both food and air.
The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe: cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the common crowberry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called by the Falklanders the " diddle-dee " berry; of Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis and Bostkovia grandif ora.
When cut open, it displays an infinity of tiny leaf-buds and stems, and at intervals there exudes from it an aromatic resin, which from its astringent properties is used by the shepherds as a vulnerary, but has not been converted to any commercial purpose.
The trunk is usually flattened, and twisted as though composed of several stems united; the bark is smooth and light grey; and the leaves are in two rows, 2 to 3 in.
The nature of the integument and its hairy clothing in all spiders enables them to be plunged under water and withdrawn perfectly dry, and many species, even as large as the common English house-spider (Tegenaria), are so lightly built that they can run with speed over the surface of standing water, and this faculty has been perfected in genera like Pirata, Dolomedes and Triclaria, which are always found in the vicinity of lakes or on the edges of rivers and streams, readily taking to the water or running down the stems of water plants beneath its surface when pursued.
They are bulbous plants, the slender stems of which support themselves by tendril-like prolongations of the tips of some of the narrow generally lanceolate leaves.
ln, Longitudinal nerve stems.
It stretches forward as far as the brain, and in Carinella is again continued in front of it, whereas in the Heteronemertines the innervation of the anterior extremity of the head, in front of the brain, takes the form of more definite and less numerous branching stems. The presence of this plexus in connexion with the central stems, sending out nervous filaments amongst the muscles, explains the absence, in Pro-, Mesoand Heteronemertines, of separate and distinct peripheral nerve stems springing from the central stems innervating the different organs and body-regions, the only exceptions being the L.N.
In the Metanemertini, where the longitudinal stems lie inside the muscular body-wall, definite and metamerically placed nerve branches spring from them and divide dichotomously in the different tissues they innervate.
In others there is an approximation of the lateral stems towards the median ventral line (Drepanophorus); in a genus of Heteronemertines (Langia), on the other hand, an arrangement occurs by which the longitudinal stems are no longer lateral, but have more or less approached each other dorsally.
18, in the Heteronemertines the lateral stems, while entirely uniform all through the posterior portion of the body, no longer individually exist in the oesophageal region, but here dissolve themselves into a network of vascular spaces surrounding this portion of the digestive tract.
It lives on the shores of lakes and rivers, swimming and diving with facility, feeding on the roots, stems and leaves of water-plants, or on fruits and vegetables which grow near the margin of the streams it inhabits.
That the plant was itself used also as the principal material in the construction of light skiffs suitable for the navigation of the pools and shallows of the Nile, and even of the river itself, is shown by sculptures of the fourth dynasty, in which men are represented building a boat with stems cut from a neighbouring plantation of papyrus (Lepsius, Denkm.
When, as with some plants like Verbascum, the thick hard stems are liable to cause the leaves to wrinkle in drying by removing the pressure from them, small pieces of bibulous paper or cotton wool may be placed upon the leaves near their point of attachment to the stem.
It is limited to Disco Island, and perhaps to a small part of the Noursoak Peninsula, and the neighbouring country, and consists of numerous thin beds of sandstone, shale and coal - the sideritic shale containing immense quantities of leaves, stems, fruit, &c., as well as some insects, and the coal pieces of retinite.
Castren considers that three of their stems are of Ostiak origin, the remainder being Samoyedic. The Kamasins, in the Kansk district of Yeniseisk, are either herdsmen or agriculturists.
They speak a language with an admixture of Tatar words, and some of their stems contain a large Tatar element.
The rubber is obtained by incising the stems of the vines and coagulating the latex by exposure, by admixture with acid vegetable juices or by heating.
The vines grow upon forest trees, and the stems are periodically tapped.
7), so called from the seal-like scars on the rhizome of stems of previous seasons, the hanging flowers of which contain no honey, but are visited by bees for the pollen.
One of the commonest tropical weeds, Evolvulus alsinoides, has slender, long-trailing stems with small leaves and flowers.
They are generally perennial herbs with a creeping underground stem and erect, unbranched, aerial stems, bearing slender Juncus effusus, common rush.
Vines have woody climbing stems, with alternate, entire or palmately lobed leaves, provided at the base with small stipules.
The periodical thorough cleansing of the vine stems and every part of the houses is of the utmost importance.
The fungus is most conspicuous on the grapes, but the leaves and stems From Hartig's Lehrbuch der Pfanzenkrankheiten, by permission of Julius Springer.
(X.) Sugar Manufacture Sugar-cane is a member of the grass family, known botanically as Saccharum officinarum, the succulent stems of which are the source of cane sugar.
It is a tall perennial grass-like plant, giving off numerous erect stems 6 to 12 ft.
The stems are solid and marked with numerous shining, polished, yellow, purple or striped joints, 3 in.
The nitrogen in decaying roots, in the dead stems. and leaves of plants, and in humus generally is sooner or later changed into a nitrate, the change being effected by bacteria.
In this condition the leaves are stripped from the stems and sorted into qualities, such as " lugs, " or lower leaves, " firsts " and " seconds.
On the old clearings of another village Mr Bates himself, although he did not see a gorilla, saw the fresh tracks of these great apes and the torn stems and discarded fruit rinds of the "mejoms," as well as the broken stalks of the latter, which had been used for beds.
On the rocky hill-sides in Yemen the Adenium Obesum is worthy of notice, with its enormous bulb-like stems and brilliant red flowers.
The jalap plant has slender herbaceous twining stems, with alternately placed heart-shaped pointed leaves and salver-shaped deep purplish-pink flowers.
The underground stems are slender and creeping; their vertical roots enlarge and form turnip-shaped tubers.
anthaceous plant, whose stems ramify through the sandhills; the other two are a 1M M Iartynia and an Aniseia, which maintain a subterranean existence during many years, and only produce leafy stems in those rare seasons when sufficient moisture penetrates to the roots.
into the ground and the whole frameworkconsisting of posts, beams, rafters, door-posts and window-frames was tied together with cords made by twisting the long fibrous stems of climbing plants.
perforatum, small shrubby plants with slender stems, sessile opposite leaves which are often dotted with pellucid glands, and showy yellow flowers.
The underground stems (rhizomes or tubers) are rich in starch; from that of Arum maculatum Portland arrowroot was formerly extensively prepared by pounding with water and then straining; the starch was deposited from the strained liquid.
In the latter case the larva crawls about the bottom of the water or up the stems of plants, with its thickly-chitinized head and legs protruding from the larger orifice, while it maintains a secure hold of the silk lining of the tube by means of a pair of strong hooks at the posterior end of its soft defenceless abdomen.
The lift is effected by cams acting on the under surface of tappets, and formed by cylindrical boxes keyed on to the stems of the lifter about onefourth of their length from the top. As, however, the cams, unlike those of European stamp mills, are placed to one side of the stamp, the latter is not only lifted but turned partly round on its own axis, whereby the shoes are worn down uniformly.
The rather small tubular yellow or red flowers are borne on simple or branched leafless stems, and are generally densely clustered.
The Cacti may be described in general terms as plants having a woody axis, overlaid with thick masses of cellular tissue forming the fleshy stems. These are extremely various in character and form, being globose, cylindrical, columnar or flattened into leafy expansions or thick joint-like divisions, the surface being either ribbed like a melon, or developed into nipple-like protuberances, or variously angular, but in the greater number of the species furnished copiously with tufts of horny spines, some of which are exceedingly keen and powerful.
The stems are in most cases leafless, using the term in a popular sense; the leaves, if present at all, being generally reduced to minute scales.
In one genus, however, Peireskia, the stems are less succulent, and the leaves, though rather fleshy, are developed in the usual form.
The habitats which they affect are the hot, dry regions of tropical America, the aridity of which they are enabled to withstand in consequence of the thickness of their skin and the paucity of evaporating pores or stomata with which they are furnished, - these conditions not permitting the moisture they contain to be carried off too rapidly; the thick fleshy stems and branches contain a store of water.
They have the fleshy stems characteristic of the order, these being either globose, oblong or cylindrical, and either ribbed as in Melocactus, or broken up into distinct tubercles, and most of them armed with stiff sharp pines, set in little woolly cushions occupying the place of the buds.
The stems are columnar or elongated, some of the latter creeping on the ground or climbing up the trunks of trees, rooting as they grow.
C. giganieus, the largest and most striking species of the genus, is a native of hot, arid, desert regions of New Mexico, growing there in rocky valleys and on mountain sides, where the tall stems with their erect branches have the appearance of telegraph poles.
The stems grow to a height of from 50 ft.
which grow out at right angles from the main stem, and then curve upwards and continue their growth parallel to it; these stems have from twelve to twenty ribs, on which at intervals of about an inch are the buds with their thick yellow cushions, from which issue five or six large and numerous smaller spines.
In the allied genus Echinocereus, with 25 to 30 species in North and South America, the stems are short, branched or simple, divided into few or many ridges all armed with sharp, formidable spines.
Pilocereus, the old man cactus, forms a small genus with tallish erect, fleshy, angulate stems, on which, with the tufts of spines, are developed hair-like bodies, which, though rather coarse, bear some resemblance to the hoary locks of an old man.
They are fleshy shrubs, with rounded, woody stems, and numerous succulent branches, composed in most of the species of separate joints or parts, which are much compressed, often elliptic or suborbicular, dotted over in spiral lines with small, fleshy, caducous leaves, in the axils of which are placed the areoles or tufts of barbed or hooked spines of two forms. The flowers are mostly yellow or reddish-yellow, and are succeeded by pear-shaped or egg-shaped fruits, having a broad scar at the top, furnished on their soft, fleshy rind with tufts of small spines.
Peireskia Aculeata, or Barbadoes gooseberry, the Cactus peireskia of Linnaeus, differs from the rest in having woody stems and leaf-bearing branches, the leaves being somewhat fleshy, but otherwise of the ordinary laminate character.
The soft, white larvae have the thoracic legs very small and feed in the stems of various plants.
They feed entirely by suction, and the majority of the species pierce plant tissues and suck sap. The leaves of plants are for the most part the objects of attack, but many aphids and scale-insects pierce stems, and some go underground and feed on roots.
At Princess Marianne Straits tribes much wilder than those farther west, naked and painted, swarm like monkeys in the trees, the stems of which are submerged at high tide.
Beavers are sociable animals, living in streams, where, so as to render the water of sufficient depth, they build dams of mud and of the stems and boughs of trees felled by their powerful incisor teeth.
The materials on the coast were clay and gravel wrought into concrete, sun-dried bricks and pise, or rammed work, cut stalks of plants formed with clay a kind of staff, and lintels were made by burying stems of cana brava (Gynerium saccharoides) in blocks of pise.
The plants are herbs or small shrubs, generally with thick fleshy stems and leaves, adapted for life in dry, especially rocky places.
The eggs are laid in the stems of water plants.
Impressions of plants and silicified stems are frequently found.
Each house consisted of two apartments; the floor was formed of split stems of trees set close together and covered with mats; they were reached from the shore by dug-out canoes poled over the shallow waters, and a notched tree trunk served as a ladder.
When piles were used they were the rough stems of trees of a length proportioned to the depth of the water, sharpened sometimes by fire and at other times chopped to a point by hatchets.
The platform itself was usually composed of rough layers of unbarked stems, but occasionally it was formed of boards split from larger stems. When the mud was too soft to afford foothold for the piles they were mortised into a framework of tree trunks placed horizontally on the bottom of the lake.
They are formed of split oak trunks, while those of the two first settlements are round stems chiefly of soft wood.
The coast region is characterized by mangroves, Pandanus, rattans, and similar palms with long flexible stems, and the middle region by the great rice-fields, the coco-nut and areca palms, and the usual tropical plants of culture.
Early in the 19th century Andrew Knight showed by experiment that the vertical growth of stems and roots is due to the influence of gravitation, and made other observations on the relation between the position assumed by plant organs and external directive forces, and later Dutrochet, H.
The most destructive is Botrytis cinerea which forms orangebrown or buff specks on the stems, pedicels, leaves and flower-buds, which increase in size and become covered with a delicate grey mould, completely destroying or disfiguring the parts attacked.
The diseased stems should be removed and burned before the leaves fall; as the bulb is not attacked the plant will start growth next season free from disease.
It is generally found on or near the surface of the ground, but it can not only pursue its prey through holes and crevices of rocks and under dense tangled herbage, but follow it up the stems and branches of trees, or even into the water, swimming with perfect ease.
The stems are cylindrical, and clothed with short hair, and grow in clusters of from 2 to 10 ft.
They are generally obtained during the dry summer months, as at other times their adherence to the stems is so firm as often to cause the uprooting of the plants in the attempt to remove them.
There is a somewhat vague dividing line, in popular nomenclature, between "shrubs" and "trees," the former term being usually applied to plants with several stems, of lower height, and bushy in growth.
The wood of the fly honeysuckle is extremely hard, and the clear portions between the joints of the stems, when their pith has been removed, were stated by Linnaeus to be utilized in Sweden for making tobacco-pipes.
Its highly nutritious leaves and stems are usually consumed by folding the sheep upon it where it grows, there is no green food upon which they fatten faster.
Hence, to obtain great sensibility along with a considerable range, we require very long slender stems, and to these two objections apply in addition to the question of portability; for, in the first place, an instrument with a very long stem requires a very deep vessel of liquid for its complete immersion, and, in the second place, when most of the stem is above xIv.
The plan commonly adopted to obviate the necessity of inconveniently long stems is to construct a number of hydrometers as nearly alike as may be, but to load them differently, so that the scaledivisions at the bottom of the stem of one hydrometer just overlap those at the top of the stem of the preceding.
The marine hydrometers, as supplied by the British government to the royal navy and the merchant marine, are glass instruments with slender stems, and generally serve to indicate specific gravities from 1.000 to 1.040.
When these fires occur while the trees are full of sap, a curious mucilaginous matter is exuded from the half-burnt stems; when dry it is of pale reddish colour, like some of the coarser kinds of gum-arabic, and is soluble in water, the solution resembling gumwater, in place of which it is sometimes used; considerable quantities are collected and sold as " Orenburg gum "; in Siberia and Russia it is occasionally employed as a semi-medicinal food, being esteemed an antiscorbutic. For burning in close stoves and furnaces, larch makes tolerably good fuel, its value being estimated by Hartig as only one-fifth less than that of beech; the charcoal is compact, and is in demand for iron-smelting and other metallurgic uses in some parts of Europe.
In Germany a fungus (Polyporus Laricis) grows on the roots and stems of decaying larches, which was formerly in esteem as a drastic purgative.
The liquid which exudes from the glandular hairs clothing the leaves and stems of the plant, more especially during the cold season when the seeds ripen, contains a notable proportion of oxalic acid.
The gardener aims usually at producing stout, robust, short-jointed stems, instead of long lanky growths defective in woody tissue.
Thus the Jerusalem artichoke, though able to produce stems and tubers abundantly, only flowers in exceptionally hot seasons.
The same ends may sometimes be effected by merely working fine soil in amongst the base of the stems, and giving them time to throw out roots before parting them.
In some Monocotyledons, ordinarily in Chlorophytum, and exceptionally in Phalaenopsis and others, new plants arise on the flower stems.
The parts are, however, sometimes so small that the tongue of the graft is dispensed with, and the two stems simply pared smooth and bound together.
In cooler structures it becomes necessary in the dull season of the year to prevent the slopping of water over the plants or on the floor, as this tends to cause " damping off," - the stems assuming a state of mildewy decay, which not infrequently, if it once attacks a plant, will destroy it piece by piece.
The plants should be prepared for this by keeping them rather dry at the root, and after cutting they must stand with little or no water till the stems heal over, and produce young shoots, or " break," as it is technically termed.
45, two vertical stems are adopted, but there is no particular advantage in this, and a single-stemmed tree is more manageable.
Handsome border plants, the tall stems crowned by racemes of showy hooded flowers.
margaritacea, 12 to 2 ft., has white woolly stems and leaves, an,' white flower-heads.
Handsome liliaceous plants, with fleshy roots, erect stems, and showy flowers, thriving in any good garden soil.
C. babylonica, 5 to 7 ft., has winged stems, silvery leaves, and yellow flower-heads from June to September; C. montana, 3 ft., deep bright blue or white.
rivularis, 4 in., from La Plata, has slender, creeping, rooting stems, bearing stalked ovate leaves, and large funnel-shaped white flowers, with a remarkably long slender tube; especially adapted for rockwork, requiring moist sandy loam.
Flowers tubular scarlet, on branching stems, 2 to 3 ft.
high, has fleshy poisonous roots, erect purple stems and white flowers.
Elegant liliaceous plants, with rhizomatous stems. P. multiflorum (Solomon's Seal), 2 to 3 ft., with arching stems, and drooping white flowers from the leaf axils, is a handsome border plant, doing especially well in partial shade amongst shrubs, and also well adapted for pot culture for early forcing.
The flowers are borne on erect branching stems and are chiefly white in colour.
The flowers are stellate, cymose, on stems rising from the heart of the leafy rosettes.
Young standard trees should be tied to stakes so as to prevent their roots being ruptured by the windwaving of the stems and to keep them erect.
Between these, trees with tall stems, called riders, are planted as temporary occupants of the upper part of the wall.
Be careful to protect the stems of vines that are outside the forcing-houses.
Propagate by slips, or by earthing up the old stems, the various pot-herbs.
Dig and dress such flower borders and shrubberies as may now be cleared of annuals and the stems of herbaceous plants.
Sow a few peas and beans, in case of accident to those sown in November, drawing up the soil towards the stems of those which are above ground as a protection; earth up celery; blanch endive with flower-pots; sow radishes in a very sheltered place.
Carnations and other plants that are throwing up flower stems, if wanted to flower in winter, should be cut back, that is, the flower stems should be cut off to say 5 in.
The old stems of raspberries and blackberries that have borne fruit should be cut away, and the young shoots thinned to three or four canes to each hill or plant.
The Carboniferous forerunners of the tiny club-moss were then great trees with dichotomously branching stems and crowded linear leaves, such as Lepidodendron (with its fruit cone called Lepidostrobus), Halonia, Lepidophloios and Sigillaria, the largest plants of the period, with trunks sometimes 5 ft.
They are remarkable for their dark spores developed in gall-like excrescences on the leaves, stems, &c., or in the fruits of the host.
Hymenomycetes are a very large group containing over 11,000 species, most of which live in soil rich in humus or on fallen wood or stems, a few only being parasites.
Dematophora necatrix on roots, Calyptospora Goeppertiana on stems, Ustilago Scabiosae in anthers, Claviceps purpurea in ovaries, &c. Associated with these relations are the specializations which parasites show in regard to the age of the host.
Bacher, Berlin, 1888), was marked by methodical comprehensiveness, and introduced into the theory of the verbs a new classification of the stems which has been retained by later scholars.
On the other hand, the thick layer of fallen leaves on the ground, and the bulk of the stems of the forest trees are bluish brown and russet, thus closely resembling the decaying leaves in an European forest after heavy rain; while the whole effect is precisely similar to that produced by the russet head and body and the striped thighs and limbs of the okapi.
An additional difficulty arises in the case of observations made with long mercury thermometers buried in vertical holes, that the correction for the expansion of the liquid in the long stems is uncertain, and that the holes may serve as channels for percolation, and thus lead to exceptionally high values.
The native supply of wood for industrial purposes was exceedingly bad: there was no native wood long enough and straight enough to be used in joiners work or sculpture without fitting and patching: palm trees were abundant, and if the trees could be spared, their split stems could be used for roofing.
For boatbuilding papyrus stems and acacia wood were employed, and for the best work cedar-wood was imported from Lebanon.
Papyrus, which grew wild in the marshes, was also cultivated, at least in the later ages: its stems were used for boat-building, and according to the classical authors for rope-making, as well as for the famous writing material.
in suitable conditions, as the horticultural practice of propagation by cuttings shows; in nature we see plants spreading by the rooting of their shoots, and buds we know may be freely formed not only on stems but on leaves and on roots.
The females lay a vast number of eggs upon grass stems near water.
When the lower part shows a tendency to go bare the strong stems may be "plashed," i.e.
lat., while in Siberia its range extends to the Arctic Circle; in Norway its upper limit is said to coincide with that of the pine; trees exist near the western coast having stems 15 ft.
The bark of the older stems is of a bright brown, mottled with grey, that of the young twigs is ash-coloured, and glandular and hairy.
Among these the beetle Balaninus nucum, the nut-weevil, seen on hazel and oak stems from the end of May till July, is highly destructive to the nuts.
long and about an inch wide, closely arranged in two rows as in the true Flag (Iris); the tall, flowering stems (scapes), which very much resemble the leaves, bear an apparently lateral, blunt, tapering spike of densely packed, very small flowers.
For the same reason it must be thickly seeded, the effect of this being to produce tall, slender stems, free from branches.
These are old stem endings left after the loss of the original -es; thus latro gives lleidr, latrones gives lladron; the forms having dd represent i stems, i becoming dd in certain positions.
(12) Uq.sin (" stems "), on the relation between fruit and the stems and stalks as regards defilement, &c.
He has mana, power, and by means of this mana, felt inwardly by himself, acknowledged by his fellows, he stems the social impulse to run away from a mystery.
They are grass-like herbs, sometimes annual, but more often persist by means of an underground stem from which spring erect solitary or clustered, generally three-sided aerial stems, with leaves in three rows.
angelus, an angle), shaped with corners or angles; an adjective used in botany and zoology for the shape of stems, leaves and wings.
to separate the tobacco leaf from the stems, to remove the overlying soil from a mineral deposit before opening and working it, to turn a gun-barrel in a lathe, &c. In architecture, a "strippilaster" is a narrow pilaster such as is found in Saxon work and in the Italian Romanesque churches.
Closely allied to the Scotch pine, and perhaps to be regarded as a mere alpine form of that species, is the dwarf P. montana (or P. Pumilio), the " kummholz " or " knieholz " of the Germans - a recumbent bush, generally only a few feet high, but with long zigzag stems, that root occasionally at the knee-like bends where they rest upon the ground.
The nature of these tubers is further rendered evident by the presence of "eyes" or leaf-buds, which in due time lengthen into shoots and form the haulm or stems of the plant.
to 3 ft., the distance being regulated by the height of the stems, and that between the sets varying from 6 to 12 in., 8 in.
Thomas Dickson of Edinburgh long ago observed that the most healthy and productive crop was to be obtained by planting unripe tubers, and proposed this as a preventive of the disease called the "curl," which sometimes attacks the young stems, causing them and also the leaves to become crumpled, and few or no tubers to be produced; in this connexion it is interesting to note that Scottish and Irish seed potatoes give a larger yield than English, probably on account of their being less matured.
To the unaided eye the disease is seen as purplish brown or blackish blotches of various sizes, at first on the tips and edges of the leaves, and ultimately upon the leaf-stalks and the larger stems. On gathering the foliage for examination, especially in humid weather, these dark blotches are seen to be putrid, and when the disease takes a bad form the dying leaves give out a highly offensive odour.
The fungus, which is chiefly within the leaves and stems, seldom emerges through the firm upper surface of the leaf; it commonly appears as a white bloom or mildew on the circumference of the diseasepatches on the under surface.
The germinating spores are not only able to pierce the leaves and stems of the potato plant, and so gain an entry to its interior through the epidermis, but they are also able to pierce the skin of the tuber, especially in young examples.
They are large perennial climbers growing from short thick underground stems, from which rise numerous semi-woody flexuous angular stems, bearing large alternate stalked long-persistent and prominently net-veined leaves, from the base of which spring the tendrils which support the plant.
BAMBOO, the popular name for a tribe of grasses, Bambuseae, which are large, often tree-like, with woody stems. The stems spring from an underground root-stock and are often crowded to form dense clumps; the largest species reach 120 ft.
quadrangularis, remarkable for its square stems; Phyllostachys mitis, growing to 60 ft.
It consists generally of a fiat, upright leaf standing on stems.
In a young state, when the stems are not above 2 in.
Under the same name of gaz-angubin there are sold commonly in the Persian bazaars round cakes, of which a chief ingredient is a manna obtained to the south-west of Ispahan, in the month of August, by shaking the branches or scraping the stems of Astragalus florulentus and A.
Under the leadership of his grandson (Batu) they moved westwards, driving with them many stems of the Turkish Ural-Altaians towards the plains of Russia.
On the Volga they mingled with remnants of the old Bulgarian empire, and elsewhere with Finnish stems, as well as with remnants of the ancient Italian and Greek colonies in Crimea and Caucasians in Caucasus.
The name of Tatars, or Tartars, given to the invaders, was afterwards extended so as to include different stems of the same Turkish branch in Siberia, and even the bulk of the inhabitants of the high plateau of Asia and its N.W.
The discrimination of the separate stems included under the name is still far from completion.
(1) The Kazan Tatars, descendants of the Kipchaks settled on the Volga in the 13th century, where they mingled with survivors of the old Bulgarians and partly with Finnish stems. They number about half a million in the government of Kazan, about 100,000 in each of the governments of Ufa, Samara and Simbirsk, and about 300,000 in Vyatka, Saratov, Tambov, Penza, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm and Orenburg; some 15,000 belonging to the same stem have migrated to Ryazan, or have been settled as prisoners in the 16th and 17th centuries in Lithuania (Vilna, Grodno and Podolia); and there are some 2000 in St Petersburg, where they pursue the callings of coachmen and waiters in restaurants.
They originated in the agglomerations of Turkish stems which in the region north of the Altai reached some degree of culture between the 4th and the 8th centuries, but were subdued and enslaved by the Mongols.
(7) The Baraba Tatars, who take their name from one of their stems (Barama), number about 50,000 in the government of Tobolsk and about 5000 in Tomsk.
It is evident from the above that the name Tatars was originally applied to both the Turkish and Mongol stems which invaded Europe six centuries ago, and gradually extended to the Turkish stems mixed with Mongol or Finnish blood in Siberia.
" When the antlers are freed from the velvet - a process usually assisted by the animal rubbing them against tree stems or boughs - they have a more or less rugose surface, owing to the grooves formed in them by the nutrient blood-vessels.
Still farther removed are the bamboos of the tropics, the columnar stems of which reach to the height of forest trees.
Ammophila arundinacea (or Psamma arenaria) (Marram grass) with its long creeping stems forms a useful sand-binder on the coasts of Europe, North Africa and the Atlantic states of America.
- Stems tuberous or columnar, not infrequently branched, rarely epiphytic (Peruvian species of Zamia); fronds pinnate, bi-pinnate in the Australian genus Bowenia.
Stems and roots increase in diameter by secondary thickening, the secondary wood being produced by one cambium or developed from successive cambium-rings.
The stems of cycads are often described as unbranched; it is true that in comparison with conifers, in which the numerous branches, Stem springing from the main stem, give a characteristic form to the tree, the tuberous or columnar stem of the Cyca daceae constitutes a striking distinguishing feature.
These latter bundles may be seen in sections of old stems to pursue a more or less horizontal course, passing outwards through the main woody cylinder.
Short and reticulately-pitted tracheal cells, similar to tracheids, often occur in the circummedullary region of cycadean stems. In an old stem of Cycas, Encephalartos or Macrozamia the secondary wood consists of several rather unevenly concentric zones, while in some other genera it forms a continuous mass as in conifers and normal dicotyledons.
type of vascular structure, which Fossil (Eocene) leaf from the characterized the stems of many Island of Mull.
Palaeozoic genera, has not entirely disappeared from the stems of modern cycads; but the mesarch bundle is now confined to the leaves and peduncles.
The roots of some cycads resemble the stems in producing several cambiumrings; they possess 2 to 8 protoxylem-groups, and are characterized by a broad pericyclic zone.
An examination of the wood of branches, stems and roots of the same species or individual usually reveals a fairly wide variation in some of the characters, such as the abundance and size of the medullary rays, the size and arrangement of pits, the presence of wood-parenchyma - characters to which undue importance has often been attached in systematic anatomical work.
Araucaria, the leaf-traces persist for a considerable time, perhaps indefinitely, and may be seen in tangential sections of the wood of old stems. The leaf-trace in the Coniferales is simple in its course through the stem, differing in this respect from the double leaf-trace of Ginkgo.
The finer branches are green, and bear a close resemblance to the stems of Equisetum and to the slender twigs of Casuarina; the surface of the long internodes is marked by fine longitudinal ribs, and at the nodes are borne pairs of inconspicuous scale-leaves.
Sometimes they float above the surface, sometimes they are connected with it by stems or branches, and they show delicate striated detail like cirrus cloud.
Sailors capture the bird for its long wing-bones, which they manufacture into tobacco-pipe stems. The albatross lays one egg; it is white, with a few spots, and is about 4 in.
(1) By the confusion of original e and o, both long and short, with the original long and short a sound; (2) the short schwa-sound a is represented here, and in this group only, by i (pita, " father," as compared with 1raT;jp, &c.); (3) original s after i, u and some consonants becomes s; (4) the genitive plural of stems ending in a vowel has a suffix-nam borrowed by analogy from the stems ending in -n (Skt.
Contorted stems, sometimes of considerable thickness, very hard, and covered with a grey cracked bark, rise out of the sand, bearing green plumes with small greyish leaves and pink fruit.
The young stems, and the older stems of certain species, are clearly monostelic; but in other species an inner and outer endodermis may be present, or an endodermal layer surrounds each bundle.
The stems, the surface of which exhibits a number of ridges with intervening furrows, perform the greater part of the work of assimilation.
Psilotum lives epiphytically or in soil rich in humus, while Tmesipteris is epiphytic (and, it has been suggested, partially parasitic) upon stems of tree ferns: the former has small scale-like leaves; those of the latter are of considerable size.
The upright stems were attached to the soil by a number of dichotomously branched members (Stigmaria), which, whatever their morphological nature may be, appear to have performed the function of roots: they bore numerous cylindrical appendages, which penetrated the soil on all sides.
The two genera of this group, Osmunda and Todea, have thick erect stems, covered with the closely crowded leaf bases.
It is an annual plant, with hollow, erect, knotted stems, and pro duces, in addition to the direct developments from the seedling plant, secondary roots and secondary shoots (tillers) from the base.
Though specially developed in the cork-oak, the substance cork is an almost universal product in the stems (and roots) of woody plants which increase in diameter year by year.
There are two forms of the plant, an annual and a biennial, which spring indifferently from the same crop of seed - the one growing on during summer to a height of from to 2 ft., and flowering and perfecting seed; the other producing the first season only a tuft of radical leaves, which disappear in winter, leaving under ground a thick fleshy root, from the crown of which arises in spring a branched flowering stem, usually much taller and more vigorous than the flowering stems of the annual plants.
It is a small, submerged plant with long, slender branching stems bearing whorls of narrow toothed leaves; the flowers appear at the surface when mature.
At the launching of a war-canoe living men were tied hand and foot between two plantain stems making a human ladder over which the vessel was pushed down into the water.
Studer (Crustacea of the Gazelle, 1882) records Balanus amphitrite (Darwin?) from roots and stems of mangroves in the Congo, where, he says, " it follows the mangroves as far as their vegetation extends along the stream, to six sea-miles from the mouth."
These mountains consist of detached remnants of a sheet of quartz conglomerates, interbedded with sandstones, containing crinoid stems and obscure brachiopods.
In some species of Annularia the extremely delicate ultimate twigs, bearing whorls of small lanceolate leaves, give a characteristic habit, suggesting that they may have belonged to herbaceous plants; other Annulariae, however, have been traced with certainty into connexion with the stems of large Calamites.
Using Calamites as a generic name for all those Calamarian stems in which the ribs alternate at the nodes, we have, on Weiss's system, the following sub-genera: Stylocalamites, branches rare and irregularly arranged; Calamitina, branches in regular verticils, limited to certain nodes, which surmount specially short internodes; Eucalamites, branches present on every node.
In the old stems the primary cortex was replaced by periderm, giving rise to a thick mass of bark.
The above description applies to the stems of Calamites in the narrower sense (Arthropitys of the French authors), to which the specimens from the British Coal Measures mostly belong.
There are no recent stems with a structure quite like that of Sphenophyllum; so far as the primary structure is concerned, the nearest approach is among the Psiloteae, with which other characters indicate some affinity; the base of the stem in Psilotum forms some secondary wood.
The long, slender stems, somewhat tumid at the nodes, were ribbed, the ribs running continuously through the nodes, a fact correlated with the superposition of the whorled leaves, the number of which in each verticil was some multiple of 3, and usually 6.
The cortex was deeply furrowed on its youngest stems; secondary growth (Scott, Studies.) FIG.
In the genus Lepidophloios the leaf-cushions are more prominent than in Lepidodendron, and their greatest diameter is in the transverse direction; on the older stems the leaf-scar lies towards the lower side of the cushion.
In the larger stems of most species there was a central pith, but in certain of the smaller branches, and throughout the stem in some species (L.
The analogies with chief difference is in the micropyle, In one great division of the genus - the Eusigillariae - the stems are ribbed, each rib bearing a vertical row of leaf-scars; the ribbed Sigillariae were formerly divided into two sub-genera - Rhytidolepis, (From a drawing by Mrs D.
These organs, to which the name Stigmaria was given by Brongniart, have been found in connexion with the upright stems both of Sigillaria and Lepidodendron.
It has been maintained by some palaeobotanists that the aerial stems of Sigillaria arose as buds on a creeping rhizome, but the evidence for this conclusion is as yet unconvincing.
There is evidence that in many cases these Pecopteroid fronds belonged to arborescent plants, the stems on which they were borne reaching a height of as much as 60 ft.
These stems, known as Megaphytum when the leaves were in two rows, and as Caulopteris in the case of polystichous arrangement, are frequent, especially in the Permian of the Continent; when petrified, so that their internal structure is preserved, the name Psaronius is employed.
A few Coal Measure and Permian stems (Cycadoxylon and Ptychoxylon) resemble Lyginodendron in the general character of their tissues, but show a marked reduction of the primary wood, together with an extensive development of anomalous wood and bast around the pith, a peculiarity which appears as an individual variation in some specimens of Lyginodendron oldhamium.
It is probable that these stems belonged to plants with the fructification and foliage of Cycads, taking that group in the widest sense.
The Medullosa stems have been found chiefly in the Permo-Carboniferous of France and Germany, but a Coal Measures species (M.
In those stems which have been referred with certainty to the Cordaiteae there is no centripetal wood; the spiral elements are adjacent to the pith, as in a recent Conifer or Cycad; certain stems, however, are known which connect this type of structure with that of the Lyginodendreae; this, for example, is the case in the Permian genus Poroxylon, investigated by Bertrand and Renault, which in general structure has much in common with Cordaiteae, but possesses strands of primary wood, mainly centripetal, at the (After Grand' Eury, modified.
Stems (Mesoxylon) intermediate in structure between Poroxylon and Cordaites have lately been discovered in the English Coal Measures.
Corresponding strands of primary xylem have been observed in stems of the genus Pitys (Witham), of Lower Carboniferous age, which consisted of large trees, probably closely allied to Cordaites.
Of Gymnosperms we have Cordaitean leaves, and the stems known as Pitys, which probably belonged to the same family.
Ferns of the genera referred to Marattiaceae are common, but arborescent stems of the Psaronius type are still comparatively rare.
Cordaites, Dorycordaites and many stems of the Mesoxylon type represent Gymnosperms; the seeds of Pteridosperms and Cordaiteae begin to be common.
The stems, long known from Australia and India as Vertebraria, have in recent years been proved to be the rhizomes of Glossopteris.
4), some large Equisetaceous stems apparently identical, except in size, with modern Horsetails.