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stem

stem

stem Sentence Examples

  • Dean tried to remember all the methods he'd been taught to stem panic and act rationally.

  • The next fifteen minutes were an embarrassed blur as Dean tried to stem his bleeding face at the kitchen table.

  • She twisted the stem of her glass.

  • Carmen broke off a long stem of grass and poked it in her mouth.

  • The parts of a mushroom consist chiefly of stem and cap; the stem has a clothy ring round its middle, and the cap is furnished underneath with numerous radiating coloured gills.

  • arvensis, is probably a variety of the pasture mushroom; it grows in rings in woody places and under trees and hedges in meadows; it has a large scaly round cap, and the flesh quickly changes to buff or brown when cut or broken; the stem too is hollow.

  • An allied fungus peculiar to woods, with a less fleshy cap than the true mushroom, with hollow stem, and strong odour, has been described as a close ally of the pasture mushroom under the name of A.

  • In both these species the gills distinctly touch and grow on to the stem.

  • Both have fleshy caps, whitish, moist and clammy to the touch; instead of a pleasant odour, they have a disagreeable one; the stems are ringless, or nearly so; and the gills, which are palish-clay-brown, distinctly touch and grow on to the solid or pithy stem.

  • cervinus; it has a tall, solid, white, ringless stem and somewhat thin brown cap, furnished underneath with beautiful rose-coloured gills, which are free from the stem as in the mushroom, and which FIG.

  • The stem is Lsolid and corky, much more solid than the flesh of the cap, and perfectly smooth, never being furnished with the slightest trace of a ring.

  • maximum, grows in wet sandy declivities by railway embankments or streams, &c., and is remarkable for its beauty, due to the abundance of its elegant branches and the alternately green and white appearance of the stem.

  • 2 The stem of David is superseded by the house of Zadok, the kingship has yielded to the priesthood, and the extinction of national hopes gives new importance to that strict organization of the hierarchy for which Ezekiel had prepared the way by his sentence of disfranchisement against the nonZadokite priests.

  • The s stem air.

  • It is seen as a clump of wire-like leaves, a few feet in diameter, surrounding a stem, hardly thicker than a walking-stick, rising to a height of Jo or 12 ft.

  • The stem sometimes grows 80 or 90 ft.

  • These vary in form, but essentially they consist of a stem of porcelain, coarse earthenware, glass or other non-conducting substance, protected by an overhanging roof or screen.

  • Canal system of flow lines of current through the sea, and these might be detected by any other ships furnished with two plates dipping into the sea at stem and stern, and connected by a wire having a telephone in its circuit, provided that the two plates were not placed on the same equipotential surface of the original current flow lines.

  • Insects are attracted to the mouth of the pitcher by a series of glands, yielding a sweet excretion, which occurs on the stem and also on the leaf from the base of the leaf-stalk to the lid and peristome.

  • Insects, especially running insects, which have followed the track of honey glands upwards from the stem along the leaf, reach the mouth of the pitcher, and in their efforts to sip the attractive marginal glands fall over into the liquid.

  • (From Lubbock, after Allman.) by the founder proceeds to grow and to bud in the same way as the founder did, producing a side branch of the main stem.

  • Hence, in a colony of gymnoblastic hydroids, the oldest polyp of each system, that is to say, of the main stem or of a branch, is the topmost polyp; II  ?a ` FIG.

  • continues the stem or branch of which its parent forms a part.

  • - Diagram of sympodial 18) there is formed a main stem budding, uniserial type, shown on tithe i ma in t emeafh r m s polyp in four stages (1-4).

  • In this way are formed the familiar feathery colonies of Plumularia, in which the pinnules are all in one plane, while in the allied Antennularia the pinnules are arranged in whorls round the main biserial stem.

  • Or a polyp on the main stem, after having budded a second time to form a pinnule, may give rise to a third bud, which starts a new biserial FIG.

  • Polyp 7 has proof sense, 1 o c oduced as its first bud, 8; as its second bud, a7, motion and nutriwhich starts a uniserial pinnule; and as a third t i on, until its bud I', which starts a biserial branch (I I'-VI') medusoid nature that repeats the structure of the main stem and and organization gives off pinnules.

  • The main stem is indicated become scarcely by - - -, the new stem by recognizable.

  • (After Allman.) Hydrocaulus (stem).

  • Trophosome polyps forming branching colonies of which the stem and main branches are thick and composed of a network of anastomosing coenosarcal tubes covered by a common ectoderm and supported by a thick chitinous perisarc; hydranths similar to those of Coryne; gonosome, sessile gonophores.

  • In the biserial type the polyps on the two sides of the stem have primitively an alternating, zigzag arrangement; but, by a process of differential growth, quickened in the 1st, 3rd, 5th, &c., members of the stem, and retarded in the 2nd, 4th, 6th, &c., members, the polyps may assume secondarily positions opposite to one another on the two sides of the stem.

  • The stem may contain a single coenosarcal tube (" monosiphonic ") or several united in a common perisarc (" polysiphonic ").

  • An important variation is seen, in the form of the hydrotheca itself, which may come off from the main stem by a stalk, as in Obelia, or may be sessile, without a stalk, as in Sertularia.

  • - Hydrothecae sessile, biserial, alternating or opposite on the stem.

  • - Hydrothecae sessile, biserial on the main stem, uniserial on the lateral branches or pinnules, which give the colony its characteristic feathery form; with nematophores.

  • The coenosarc may consist of a single elongated tube or stolon, forming the stem or axis of the cormus on which, usually, the appendages are arranged in groups termed cormidia; or it may take the form of a compact mass of ramifying, anastomosing tubes, in which case the cormus as a whole has a compact form and cormidia are not distinguishable.

  • 68, k), absent in Chondrophorida and Cystophorida; they are contractile and resemble, both in appearance, structure and function, the umbrella of a medusa, with radial canals, ring-canal and velum; but they are without manubrium, tentacles or sense-organs, and are always bilaterally symmetrical, a peculiarity of form related with the fact that they are attached on one side to the stem.

  • The difference between the theories of Haeckel and Chun is connected with a further divergence in the interpretation of the stem or axis of the cormus.

  • Chun and Woltereck, on the other hand, regard the stem as a stolo prolifer arising from the aboral pole, that is to say, from the ex-umbrella, similar to that which grows out from the ex-umbral surface of the embryo of the Narcomedusae and produces buds, a view which is certainly supported by the embryological evidence to be adduced shortly.

  • m, Stem.

  • It must be pointed out that, however probable Haeckel's theory may be in other respects, there is not the slightest evidence for any such cleft in the umbrella having been present at any time, and that the embryological evidence, as already pointed out, is all against any homology between the stem and a manubrium, since the primary siphon does not become the stem, which arises from the ex-umbral side of the protocodon and is strictly comparable to a stolon.

  • Thus, for instance, the archecentric condition of any Avian structure is a metacentre of the Sauropsidan stem.

  • They are characterized by the absence of that differentiation of the body into root, stem and leaf which is so marked a feature in the higher plants, and by the simplicity of their internal structure.

  • The Mosses and Liverworts include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.

  • The sporophyte is the plant which is differentiated into stem, leaf and root, which show a wonderful variety 01 form; the internal structure also shows increased complexity and variety as compared with the other group of vascular plants, the Pteridophyta.

  • The plant has a well-developed main root (tap-root) and a single or branched leafy stem which is provided with a means of secondary increase in thickness.

  • The embryo consists of an axis bearing one (Monocotyledons) or two (Dicotyledons) cotyledons, which protect the stem bud (plumule) of the future plant, and ending below in a radicle.

  • This differentiation is parallel with that between stem and leaf of the higher plants.

  • In Caulerpa the imitation of a higher plant by the differentiation of fixing, supporting and assimilating organs (root, stem and leaf) from different branches of the single cell is strikingly complete.

  • Opposed to the thalloid forms are the group of leafy Liverworts (Acrogynae), whose plant-body consists of a thin supporting stem bearing leaves.

  • The latter are plates of green tissue one cell thick, while the stem consists of uniform more or less elongated cylindrical cells.

  • The base of the stem bears numerous cell-filaments (rhizoids) which fix the plant to the substratum upon which it is growing.

  • In the Mosses the plant-body (gametophyte) is always separable into a radially organized, supporting and conducting axis (stem)

  • To the base of the stem are attached a number of branched cell-threads (rhizoids) which ramify in the soil, fixing the plant and absorbing water from soil.

  • In a few cases there is a special surface or epidermal layer, but usually all the outer layers of the stem are composed of brown, thick-walled, lignified, prosenchymatous, fibre-like cells forming a peripheral stereom (mechanical or supporting tissue) which forms the outer cortex.

  • The hydrom strand has in most cases no connection with the leaves, but runs straight up the stem and spreads out below the sexual organs or the foot of the sporogonium.

  • These are elongated in the direction of the length of the leaf, are always poor in chlorophyll and form a channel for conducting the products of assimilation away from the leaf into the stem.

  • In a few cases the hydrom strand is continued into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace bundle (the anatomically demonstrable trace of the leaf in the stem).

  • In other cases the trace passes inwards and joins the central hydrom strand, so that a connected water-conducting system between stem and leaf is established.

  • The stem in this family falls into two divisions, an underground portion bearing rhizoids and scales, the rhizome, and a leafy aerial stem forming its direct upward continuation.

  • This bundle is continued down into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace, and passing very slowly through the sclernchymatous external cortex and the parenchymatous, starchy internal cortex to join the central cylinder.

  • As the aerial stem is traced down into the underground rhizome portion, these three mantles die out almost entirelythe central hydrom strand forming the bulk of the cylinder and its elements becoming mixed with thick-walled stereids; at the same time this central hydromstereom strand becomes three-lobed, with deep furrows between the lobes in which the few remaining leptoids run, separated from the central mass by a few starchy cells, the remains of the amylom sheath.

  • At the periphery of the lobes are some comparatively thin-walled living cells mixed with a few thin-walled hydroids, the remains of the thin-walled hydrom mantle of the aerial stem.

  • In Cat harinea undulata the central h drom cylinder of the aerial stem is a loose tissue, its interstices being filled up with thin-walled, starchy parenchyma.

  • In Dawsonia superba, a large New Zealand moss, the hydroids of the central cylinder of the aerial stem are mixed with thick-walled stereids forming a hydrom-stereom strand somewhat like that of the rhizome in other Polytrichaceae.

  • Besides this there is usually a living conducting tissue, sometimes differentiated as leptom, forming a mantle round the hydrom, and bounded externally by a more or less well-differentiated endodermis, abutting on an irregularly cylindrical lacuna; the latter separates the central conducting cylinder from the cortex of the seta, which, like the cortex of the gametophyte stem, is usually differentiated into an outer thick-walled stereom and an inner starchy parenchyma.

  • In higher forms the conducting strands of the leaves are continued downwards into the stem, and eventually come into connection with the central hydrom cylinder, forming a complete cylindrical investment apparently distinct from the latter, and exhibiting a differentiation into hydrom, leptom and amylom which almost completely parallels that found among the true vascular plants.

  • The stereom of the moss is found mainly in the outer cortex of the stem and in the midrib of the leaf.

  • Alike in root, stem and leaf, we can.

  • The surface layer of the root, sometimes included under tht term epidermis, is fundamentally different from the epidermis of the stem.

  • The cortex of a young stem is usually green, and plays a more or less important part in the assimilative function.

  • The cortex of the older stem of the root frequently acts as a reserve store-house for food which generally takes the form of starch, and it also assists largel) in providing the stereom of the plant.

  • In the larger veins of the leaf especially in the midrib, in the petiole, and in the young stem, a1 extremely frequent type of mechanical tissue is collenchyma.

  • This tissue remains living and is usually formed quiti early, just below the epidermis, where it provides the first periphera support for a still growing stem or petiole.

  • Scattered single stereids or bundles of fibres are no imnrornmnn in the rnrtev of the root The innermost layer of the cortex, abutting on the central cylinder of the stem or on the bundles of the leaves, is called the jthloeoterma, and is often differentiated.

  • The xylem and phloem are nearly always found in close association in strands of various shapes in all the three main organs of the sporophyteroot, stem and leafand form a connected tissue-system running through the whole body.

  • The cylinder is surrounded by a mantle of one or more layers of parenchymatous cells, the pericycle, and the xylem is generally separated from the phloem in the stem by a similar layer, the mesocycle (corresponding with the amylom sheath in mosses).

  • When there is a single protoxylem strand in the centre of the stele, or when, as is more commonly the case, there are several protoxylem strands situated at the internal limit of the xylem,, the centre of the stem being occupied by parenchyma, the stele is endarch.

  • As the primitive stele of a Pteridophyte is traced upwards from the primary rout into the stem, the phloem becomes continuous round the xylem.

  • Sometimes this condition, that of the amphiphloic 110 plostele, is maintained throughout the adult stem (Lindsaya).

  • Ftc. 3.Dlarch stele of root of a F stem of young Fern.

  • To this type of steIn having a ground-tissue pith, whether with or without internal phloem, is given the name siphonostele to distinguish it from the solid haplostele characteristic of the root, the first-formed portion of the stem, and in the more primitive Pteridophytes, of the whole of the axis.

  • 4.Haplostele of stem of young Fern.

  • For this reason a stem in which as pot ystelic, the term stele being transferr~d from the primary I central cylinder of the i~xis and applied to the vascular strands just described.

  • The vascular supply of the leaf (leaf-trace) consists of a single strand only in the haplostelic and some of the more primitive siphonostelic forms. In the microphyllous groups Leaf.trace of Pteridophytes (Lycopodiales and Equisetales) in and Petlolar which the leaves are small relatively to the stem, the Strands, single bundle destined for each leaf is a small strand whose departure causes no disturbance in the cauline stele.

  • In the megaphyllous forms, on the other hand, (Ferns) whose leaves are large relatively to the stem, the departure of the correspondingly large trace causes a gap (leaf-gap) in the vascular cylinder, as already described.

  • In the petiole these strands may increase in number by branching, and thotigh usually reducible to the outline of the primitive horseshoe, more or less elaborated, they may in some of the complex polycylic dictyostelic types (Marattiaceae) be arranged in several concentric circles, thus imitating the arrangement of strands formed in the stem.

  • The evolution of the vascular structure of the petiole in the higher ferns is strikingly parallel with that of the stem, except in some few special cases.

  • stem.

  • ln the creeping stem of one species (S.

  • The typical structure of the vascular cylinder of the adult primary stem in the Gyrnnosperms and Dicotyledons is, like that of the higher ferns, a hollow cylinder of vas- Structure of cular tissue enclosing a central parenchymatous pith.

  • The relatively peripheral position ii the stem of the pericycle is important in this connexmon.

  • they can be traced upwards from any given point till they are found to pass out of the cylinder, travel through the cortex of the stem and enter a leaf.

  • The remaining bundles (compensation bundles) which go to make up the cylinder are such as have branched off from the leaf-traces, and will, after joining with others similarly given off, themselves form the traces of leaves situated at a higher level on the stem.

  • confined to the stem) such as are found in the dictyosteles of ferns are rare in the flowering plants.

  • The median bundles of the trace are typically the largest, and at any given level of the stem the bundles destined for the next leaf above are as a whole larger than the others which are destined to supply higher leaves.

  • - given level of the stem being enor c1c~Gd i~ ~e5~Y~.

  • Sieve-tubes with accompanying corn- diameter of the stem, the cortex sd.p~cierizedperid~sm.

  • i 7.Transverse section of the stele of the stem of a water-plant (Naias);

  • The bundle-system is of course continuous with that of the petiole and stem.

  • The latter is often sclerized, especially opposite the phloem, and to a less extent opposite the xylem, as in the stem.

  • developed at its base, usually becoming continuous with the cylinde of the root; the strand of the second leaf is formed in a similar wa~ and runs down to join that of the first, so that the stem stele is forme.

  • In other cases, however, continuous primitive stele is developed, extending from the primar stem to the primary root, the leaf-traces arising later.

  • In cases where the development of the embryo is advanced at the resting period, traces run from the cotyledons and determine the symmetry of the stele of the primitive axis, the upperpart of which often shows stem-structure, in some respects at least, and is called the hypocoty- ledonary stem or hypocotyl, while the lower part is the primary root .~-,

  • Further growth in length of the stem is thenceforward confined to the apical growing point situated between the cotyledons.

  • In most Pteridophytes there is a single large apical cell at the end of each stem and root axis.

  • In the stem, segments are successively cut off from the sides of the tetrahedron, and b~ their subsequent division the body of the stem is produced.

  • In both stem and root early walli separate the cortex from the stele.

  • - are cut off from the end of the prism turned towards the body o the stem.

  • Fin, 22.Median Longitudinal Section of the Growing, Point of the Stem of HiPPurii vulgaris, showing a many-layered meristem.

  • When the leaves are developed early, they often quite overshadow thi actual apex of the stem, and the rapid formation of leaf-tissui disturbs the obviousness of, and perhaps actually destroys, th~ stratified arrangement of the shoot initials.

  • In this case also the differentiation of leaf-bundles, which typically begins at the base of the leaf and extends upwards into the leaf and downwards into the stem, is the first phenomenon in the development of vascular tissue, and is seen at a higher level than the formation of a stele.

  • The young tissue of the stelar cylinder, in the case of the modified siphonostele characteristic of the dicotyledonous stem, differs from the adjoining pith and cortex in its narrow elongated cells, a difference produced by the stopping of transverse and the increased frequency of longitudinal divisions.

  • The separation of layers in the apical meristem of the root is usually very much more obvious than in that of the stem.

  • the tissueo are completely formed much nearer to the apex, than is the case in the stem.

  • xylem and protophloem alone are differentiated) being very much shorter than in the stem.

  • The branches of the stem arise by multiplication of the cells 01 the epidermis and cortex at a given spot, giving rise to a protuber ance, at the end of which an apical meristem is established.

  • 23.SectLo of part of hypocotyledonary stem of Ricinus communis.

  • In a good many cases, sometimes in isolated genera or species, sometimes characteristic of whole families, so-called anomalous cambial layers are formed in the stem, either as an extension of, or in addition to, the original cambial cylinder.

  • In others the secondary phloem is produced more abundantly in those places where the secondary xylem is deficient, so that the stem remains cylindrical in section, the phloem occupying the bays left in the xylem mass.

  • The formation of additional cambial cylinders or bands occurs in the most various families of Dicotyledons and in some Gymnosperms. They may arise in the pericycle or endocycle of the stele, in the cortex of the stem, or in the parenchyma of the secondary xylem or phloem.

  • Sometimes in lianes the whole stem breaks up into separate woody strands, often twisted like the strands of a rope, and running into one another at intervals.

  • The cambium in the root, which is found generally in those plants which possess a cambium in the stem, always begins in the conjunctive tissue internal to the primary phloems, and Camblum forms new (secondary) phloem in contact with the In Roots primary, and secondary xylem internally.

  • In either case, narrow, secondary rays are formed at intervals, just as in the stem.

  • Thus the structure of an old thickened root approximates to that of an old thickened stem, and so far as the vascular tissue is concerned can often only be distinguished from the latter by the position and orientation of the primary xylems. The cambium of the primary root, together with the tissues which it forms, is always directly continuous with that of the primary stem, just in the same way as the tissues of the primary stele.

  • The so-called anomalous cambiums in roots follow the same lines as those of the stem.

  • This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.

  • Cork is also formed similarly in the root after the latter has passed through its primary stage as an absorptive organ, and its structure is becoming assimilated to that of the stem.

  • Its most usual seat of origin in the stem is the external layer of the cortex immediately below the epidermis; in the root, the pericycle.

  • The lenticels of the stem are usually formed beneath stomata, whose function they take up after the stomata have been ruptured and cast off with the rest of the epidermis.

  • In the stem of a tree the original 14 F

  • A layer of cork is regularly formed in most Phanerogams across the base of the petiole before leaf fall, so as to cover the wound caused by the separation of the leaf from the stem.

  • This pressure leads to the filling of the vessels of the wood of both root and stem in the early part of the year, before the leaves have expanded, and gives rise to the exudation of fluid known as bleeding when young stems are cut in early spring.

  • Though this at first met with some acceptance, Strasburger showed that the action goes on in great lengths of stem the cells of which have been killed by poison or by the action of heat.

  • The other type is called endctropic. The fungal filaments either penetrate the epidermis of the root, or enter it from the stem and ramify in the interior.

  • The same order of events may be ascertained to take place in the stem; but in this region it is complicated by the occurrence of nodes and internodes, growth in length being confined to the latter, many of which may be growing simultaneously.

  • The region of growth in the stem is, as a rule, much longer than that of the root.

  • One side of a stem may be more turgid than the opposite one, and the maximum turgidity, with its consequent growth, may alternate between two opposite sides.

  • The growing apex of such a stem will alternately incline, first to one side and then to the other, exhibiting a kind of nodding movement in the two directions.

  • The passage of the maximum turgidity round the stem may vary in rapidity in different places, causing the circle to be replaced by an ellipse.

  • If a growing stem receives stronger illumination on one side than another, its apex slowly turns from the vertical in the direction of the light source, continuing its change of position until it is in a direct line with the incident rays.

  • The stem, by pointing directly to the light source, secures the best illumination possible for all of its leaves, the latter being distributed symmetrically around it.

  • Excrescences may be divided into those occurring on herbaceous tissues, of which Galls are well-known examples, and those found on the woody stem, branches, &c., and themselves eventually woody, of which Burrs of various kinds afford common illustrations.

  • The plant association is sometimes referred to in technical nguage;3 the termination -etum is added to the stem of the meric name, and the specific name is put in the genitive.

  • The plant formation may be designated in technical language ph the termination -ion added to a stem denoting the habitat.

  • Switch plants, such as Retama Retam and broom (Cytisus scoparius), have reduced leaves and some assimilating tissue in their stems; and stomata occur in grooves on the stem.

  • These tubes penetrate to all parts of the plant and occur in all parts of the root, stem and leaves.

  • Joachim Jung, in his Isagoge phytoscopica (1678), recognized that the plant-body consists of certain definite members, root, stem and leaf, and defined them by their different form and by their mutual relations.

  • This point of view was further developed in the following century by Caspar Friedrich Wolff (Theorici generationis, 1759), who first followed the development of the members at the growing-point of the stem.

  • Consequently all parts of the plant, except the stem, are modified leaves.

  • The tisallus (thallome) is a plant-body which is not differentiated into the members root, stem and leaf; it is the morphologically simplest body, such as is of common occurrence in the lower plants (e~.

  • In a differentiated body the stem (caulome) is an axis capable of bearing leaves and (directly or indirectly) the proper reproductive organs.

  • The leaf (phyllome) is an appendicular member only borne by a stem, but differing from it more or less obviously in form and development, though co-ordinate with it in complexity of structure.

  • Further, it has been found convenient to designate the leaf-bearing stem as a whole by the term shoot, so that the body may, as Sachs suggested, be primarily analysed into shoot and root.

  • Moreover, the abstract terms stem, leaf, root, &c., are absolutely indispensable; and are continually used in this sense by the most ardent organographers.

  • The tendrils of a vetch and of a cucumber are analogous, and also homologous because they both belong to the category leaf; but they are only analogous to the tendrils of the vine and of the passion-flower, which belong to the category stem.

  • Metamorphosis.It has already been pointed out that each kind of member of the body may present a variety of forms. For example, a stem may be a tree-trunk, or a twining stem, or a tendril, or a thorn, or a creeping rhizome, or a tuber; a leaf may be a green foliage-leaf, or a scale protecting a bud, or a tendril, or a pitcher, or a floral leaf, either sepal, petal, stamen or carpel (sporophyll); a root may be a fibrous root, or a swollen tap-root like that of the beet or the turnip. All these various forms are organs discharging some special function, and are examples of what Wolff called modification, and Goethe metamorphosis.

  • In this, as in all morphological inquiries, two lines of investigation have to be followed, the phylogenetic and the ontogenetic. Beginning with its phylogeny, it appears, so far as present knowledge goes, that the differentiation of the shoot of the sporophyte into stem and leaf first occurred in the Pteridophyta; and, in accordance with the views of Bower (Origin of a Land..

  • there is morphological differentiation, which can be traced in the distinction of the members of the body, root, stem, leaf, &c.; there is physiological differentiation, which can be traced in the adaptation of these members to various functions.

  • The leaves are three or four in number, flat, lanceolate, erect and sheathing; and there is no stem.

  • Amaryllidaceae) of bulbous plants with rather broad leaves and a solid leafless stem, bearing a cluster of handsome white or red funnel-shaped regular flowers.

  • In germination of the seed the root of the embryo (radicle) grows out to get a holdfast for the plant; this is generally followed by the growth of the short stem immediately above the root, the so-called "hypocotyl," which carries up the cotyledons above the ground, where they spread to the light and become the first green leaves of the plant.

  • The arrangement of the conducting tissue in the stem is characteristic; a transverse section of the very young stem shows a nunber of distinct conducting strands - vascular bundles - arranged in a ring round the pith; these soon become united to form a closed ring of bast and wood, separated by a layer of formative tissue (cambium).

  • In perennials the stem shows a regular increase in thickness each year by the addition of a new ring of wood outside the old one - for details of structure see Plants: Anatomy.

  • This increase in the diameter of stem and root is correlated with the increase in leaf-area each season, due to the continued production of new leaf-bearing branches.

  • with its long cord-like underground stem which branches widely.

  • 3, the true bulrush, occurs in lakes, ditches and marshes; it has a spongy, green, cylindrical stem, reaching nearly an inch in thickness and 1 to 8 ft.

  • The central stem of the candlestick was about 38 ft.

  • nearest to the supporting stem, becomes in course of growth turned to the anterior or lower part of the flower nearest to the bract, from whose axil it arises.

  • They are frequently provided with "pseudo-bulbs," large solid swellings of the stem, in the tissues of which water and nutritive materials are stored.

  • They derive this moisture from the air by means of aerial roots, developed from the stem and bearing an outer spongy structure, or velamen, consisting of empty cells kept open by spiral thickenings in the wall; this sponge-like tissue absorbs dew and rain and condenses the moisture of the air and passes it on to the internal tissues.

  • The Monandreae have been subdivided into twenty-eight tribes, the characters of which are based on the structure of the anther and pollinia, the nature of the inflorescence, whether terminal or lateral, the vernation of the leaf and the presence or absence of a joint between blade and sheath, and the nature of the stem.

  • Pleurothallidinae, characterized by a thin stem bearing one leaf which separates at a distinct joint; the sepals are usually much larger than the petals and lip. Includes To genera, natives of tropical America, one of which, Pleurothallis, contains about 400 species.

  • It was Ablabius, apparently, who had first used the Gothic sagas (prisca carmina); it was he who had constructed the stem of the Amals.

  • It was in vain that the heroic grand master, Henry of Plauen (1410-1413) sought to stem the tide of disaster; he was deposed by the chapter of the Order for his pains.

  • of the vertical stem and branch, and trained in afresh, or they may be grafted with other sorts, if a variety of kinds is wanted.

  • Parker was therefore left to stem the rising tide of Puritan feeling with little support from parliament, convocation or the Crown.

  • The slender, sharp, slightly curved leaves are scattered thickly around the shoots; the upper one pressed towards the stem, and the lower directed sideways, so as to give a somewhat flattened appearance to the individual sprays.

  • But when it grows in dense woods, where the lower branches decay and drop off early, only a small head of foliage remaining at the tapering summit, its stem, though frequently of great height, is rarely more than 11 or 2 ft.

  • The leaves, which grow very thickly all round the stem, are short, nearly quadrangular, and of a dark greyishgreen.

  • The short leaves are flat, those above pressed close to the stem, and the others forming two rows; they are of a rather light green tint above, whitish beneath.

  • The flowers, which are borne in the leaf-axils at the ends of the stem, are very handsome, the six, generally narrow, petals are bent back and stand erect, and are a rich orange yellow or red in colour; the six stamens project more or less horizontally from the place of insertion of the petals.

  • The attack was impolitic: Damascus was the one ally which could help the Franks to stem the advance of Nureddin.

  • The stem of the T was originally a mole leading to an island (Pharos) which formed the cross-piece.

  • From this root, which lay horizontally, smaller roots pushed down into the mud, and the stem of the plant sprang up to the height of 4 cubits, being triangular and tapering in form.

  • Of the stem of the plant were made boats, sails, mats, cloth, cords, and, above all, writing materials.

  • The stem was in fact !'cut into longitudinal strips for the purpose of being converted into the writing material, those from the centre of the plant being the broadest and most valuable.

  • bharb, to eat), in botany, the name given to those plants whose stem or stalk dies entirely or down to the root each year, and does not become, as in shrubs or trees, woody or permanent, such plants are also called "herbaceous."

  • Where, as in private herbaria, the specimens are not liable to be handled with great frequency, a stitch here and there round the stem, tied at the back of the sheet, or slips of paper passed over the stem through two slits in the sheet and attached with gum to its back, or simply strips of gummed paper laid across the stem, may be resorted to.

  • When, as with some plants like Verbascum, the thick hard stems are liable to cause the leaves to wrinkle in drying by removing the pressure from them, small pieces of bibulous paper or cotton wool may be placed upon the leaves near their point of attachment to the stem.

  • The larger species of fungi, such as the Agaricini and Polyporei, &c., are prepared for the herbarium by cutting a slice out of the centre of the plant so as to show the outline of the cap or pileus, the attachment of the gills, and the character of the interior of the stem.

  • The date palm is a beautiful tree, growing to a height of from 60 to 80 ft., and its stem, which is strongly marked with old leaf-scars, terminates in a crown of graceful shining pinnate leaves.

  • Date palm meal is obtained from the stem of a small species, Phoenix farinifera, growing in the hill country of southern India.

  • The latex is usually obtained from the bark or stem by making an incision reaching almost to the wood when the milky fluid flows more or less readily from the laticiferous vessels.

  • Under the influence of his brother Sigismund, king of the Romans, King Wenceslaus endeavoured to stem the Hussite movement.

  • Others are biennials producing a number of leaves on a very short stem in the first year, and in the second sending up a flowering shoot at the expense of the nourishment stored in the thick tap-root during the previous season.

  • The leaves when borne on an elongated stem are arranged alternately and have no stipules.

  • They are handsome plants, the tall stem being crowned by racemes of showy flowers.

  • The aconite has a short underground stem, from which dark-coloured tapering roots descend.

  • The Holosomata and Rhynchostomi are probably offshoots from the stem of the Araneae, and it is not unlikely (in view of the structure of the prosomatic somites of the Tartarides) that the Solifugae are connected in origin with the Pedipalpi.

  • The plants generally have a rhizome bearing radical leaves, as in asphodel, rarely a stem with a tuft of leaves as in Aloe, very rarely a tuber (Eriospermum) or bulb (Bowiea).

  • A small group of Australian genera closely approach the order Juncaceae in having small crowded flowers with a scarious or membranous perianth; they include Xanthorrhoea (grass-tree or blackboy) and Kingia, arborescent plants with an erect woody stem crowned with a tuft of long stiff narrow leaves, from the centre of which rises a tall dense flower spike or a number of stalked flower-heads; this group has been included in Juncaceae, from which it is doubtfully distinguished only by the absence of the long twisted stigmas which characterize the true rushes.

  • The plants generally have an erect stem with a crown of leaves which are often leathery; the anthers open introrsely and the fruit is a berry or capsule.

  • 5), Dracaena and Cordyline include arborescent species in which the stem increases in thickness continually by a centrifugal formation of new tissue; an extreme case is afforded by Dracaena Draco, the dragon-tree of Teneriffe.

  • st, Its withered flowering stem.

  • of the Old World; it has a short creeping rhizome, from which springs a slender, herbaceous or woody, often very much branched, erect or climbing stem, the ultimate branches of which are flattened or needle-like leaf-like structures (cladodes), the true leaves being reduced to scales or, in the climbers, forming short, hard more or less recurved spines.

  • and the Jews - he to establish the tribunal and they to prevent him - was compiled, as the preface showed, to stem the Ultramontane reaction, but none the less carried weight because it was a recital of events with little or no comment or evidence of passion in its author.

  • One of these, Cyathea dregei, found in moist places and open land, has a stem 20 ft.

  • high; the stem of the other, Hemitelia capensis, sometimes reaches 30 ft.

  • The creeping or trailing type is a common one, as in the English bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which has also a tendency to climb, and Calystegia Soldanella, the sea-bindweed, the long creeping stem of which forms a sandbinder on English seashores; a widespread and efficient tropical sand-binder is Ipomaea Pes-Caprae.

  • Several members of the order are used medicinally for the strong purging properties of the milky juice (latex) which they contain; scammony is the dried latex from the underground stem of Convolvulus Scarnmonia, a native of the Levant, while jalap is the product of the tubercles of Exogonium Purga, a native of Mexico.

  • Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed) is a pest in fields and gardens on account of its wide-spreading underground stem, and many of the dodders (Cuscuta) cause damage to crops.

  • It is to be noted that, whilst the zoological system took the form of a genealogical tree, with main stem and numerous diverging branches, the actual form of that tree, its limitation to a certain number of branches corresponding to a limited number of divergences in structure, came to be regarded as the necessary consequence of the operation of the physico-chemical laws of the universe, and it was recognized that the ultimate explanation of that limitation is to be found only in the constitution of matter itself.

  • Haeckel's second pedigree is as follows: - In representing pictorially the groups of the animal kingdom as the branches of a tree, it becomes obvious that a distinction may be drawn, not merely between the individual main branches, but further as to the level at which they are given off from the main stem, so that one branch or set of branches may be marked off as belonging to an earlier or lower level than another set of branches; and the same plan may be adopted with regard to the clades, classes and smaller branches.

  • a later or earlier, level of a main stem.'

  • The term " grade " is also made use of for the purpose of indicating the conclusion that certain branches on a larger or smaller stem of the genealogical tree have been given off at an earlier period in the history of the evolution of the stem in question than have others marked off as forming a higher grade.

  • The Metazoa form two main branches; one, Parazoa, is but a small unproductive stock comprising only the Phylum Porifera or Sponges; the other, the great stem of the animal series Enterozoa, gives rise to a large number of diverging Phyla which it is necessary to assign to two levels or grades - a lower, Enterocoela (often called Coelentera), and a higher, Coelomocoela (often called Coelomata).

  • during the latter they remain dormant beneath the ground in the form of a short thickened stem protected by the scaly remains of the bases of last season's leaves (known botanically as a.

  • The plants are hardy herbaceous perennials with narrow tufted radical leaves and an elongated stem bearing a handsome spike of white or yellow flowers.

  • Bog-asphodel (Narthecium ossifragum), a member of the same family, is a small herb common in boggy places in Britain, with rigid narrow radical leaves and a stem bearing a raceme of small golden yellow flowers.

  • a crystal or glass circular disk, more suited to the shape of the sacred wafer; this is mounted in a frame of golden rays, and the whole is supported by a stem and bases.

  • Two half-hearted attempts were made on the 7th and 10th of March, at Poplar Grove and Driefontein, to stem Lord Roberts's advance upon Roberts's Advance.

  • They are generally perennial herbs with a creeping underground stem and erect, unbranched, aerial stems, bearing slender Juncus effusus, common rush.

  • remains of an inner veil, that stretched from the stem to the edge of the cap and broke away from the cap as the latter expanded.

  • They, at any rate, seem to have been the first to grasp the idea that a wine-glass is not merely a bowl, a stem and a foot, but that, whilst retaining simplicity of form, it may nevertheless possess decorative effect.

  • During excavations in Broad Street in 1874 many fragments of glass were found.; amongst them were part of a wine-glass, a square scent-bottle and a wine-glass stem containing a spiral thread of white enamel.

  • - In the Old Testament the name of the race is written Heth (with initial aspirate), members of it being Hatti, Hittim, which the Septuagint renders XET, xETTaGOS,)(Err or or xETTEty, keeping, it will be noted, in the stem throughout.

  • The conformation of the vine stem has elicited a vast amount of explanatory comment.

  • Each podium consists of a portion of the stem bearing one or more leaves, each with an axillary bud or buds, and terminating in a tendril or an inflorescence.

  • Other authorities explain the formation of the tendril and its anomalous position opposite to a leaf by supposing that the end of the stem bifurcates during growth, one division forming the shoot, the other the tendril or inflorescence.

  • For outdoor culture the long-rod s y stem is generally preferred.

  • apart, the roots being placed an inch deeper in the soil than before, carefully disentangled and spread outwards from the stem, and covered carefully and firmly with friable loam, without manure.

  • The shoots are cut back to buds close to the stem, which should be encouraged to form alternately at equal distances right and left, by removing those buds from the original shoot which are not conveniently placed.

  • The plant is readily propagated by cuttings, a piece of the stem bearing buds at its nodes will root rapidly when placed in sufficiently moist ground.

  • The sap is collected in spring, just before the foliage develops, and is procured by making a notch or boring a hole in the stem of the tree about 3 ft.

  • The sap is drawn off from the upper growing portion of the stem, and altogether an average tree will run in a season 350 lb of toddy, from which about 35 lb of raw sugar - jaggery - is made by simple and rude processes.

  • The stem of the Guinea corn or sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) has long been known in China as a source of sugar.

  • During the life of a plant there is a continuous stream of water passing through it which enters by the root-hairs in the soil and after passing along the stem is given off from the 'stomata of the leaves into the open air above ground.

  • It is a coarse rank-growing annual, with a simple, unbranched, cylindrical stem which attains a height of 6 ft.

  • The plant has alternate, simple, oblong-lanceolate leaves, those at the lower part of the stem being slightly stalked, and of large size, reaching to 2 ft.

  • rustica, a smaller plant with a much-branched stem and greenish-yellow flowers with a short, broad tube.

  • Stem rot, due to a mould (Botrytis sp.), occurs in wet weather.

  • All round and about this line of descent there was a crowd of varying forms branching off more or less widely from the main stem, different kinds of commendation, different forms of precarium, some of which varied greatly from that through which the fief descends, and some of which survived in much the old character and under the old name for a long time after later feudalism was definitely established.'

  • The plants are bulbous herbs, with flat or rounded radical leaves, and a central naked or leafy stem, bearing a head or umbel of small flowers, with a spreading or bell-shaped white, pink, red, yellow or blue perianth.

  • A serious objection to this theory in every form is that the verb hayah, " to be," has no causative stem in Hebrew; to express the ideas which these scholars find in the name Yahweh the language employs altogether different verbs.

  • This grows to a height of about 3 ft., the lower part of the stoutish stem being furnished with leaves, while near the top is developed a crown of large pendant flowers surmounted by a tuft of bright green leaves like those of the lower part of the stem, only smaller.

  • The stem is about 18 in.

  • The polyanthus or bunch narcissi form another well-marked group, whose peculiarity of producing many flowers on the stem is indicated by the name.

  • He dwarfs trees so that they remain measurable only by inches after their age has reached scores, even hundreds, of years, and the proportions of leaf, branch and stem are preserved with fidelity.

  • The stem of Yggdrasil upholds the earth, while its branches overshadow the world and reach up beyond the heavens.

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