Sculpture From The Stele Engraved With Kiiammurabi'S Code Of Laws.
The stele is called monarch, diarch,.
Stele Of Victory Of Naram-Sin, King Of Agade.
or many protoxylems. When the protoxylem strands are situated at the periphery of the stele, abutting on the pericycle, as in all roots, and many of the more primitive Pteridophyte stems, the stele is said to be exarch.
Such a vascular cylinder is called a haplostele, and the axis containing it is said to be haplostelic. In the stele of the root the strands of tracheids along the lines where the xylem touches the pericycle are spiral or annular, and are the xylem elements first formed when the cylinder is developing.
Such a break is known as a leaf-gap. A little above the departure of the leaf-bundle the stele again closes up only to be again broken by the departure of the next leaf-bundle.
When there is a single protoxylem strand in the centre of the stele, or when, as is more commonly the case, there are several protoxylem strands situated at the internal limit of the xylem,, the centre of the stem being occupied by parenchyma, the stele is endarch.
Ftc. 3.Dlarch stele of root of a F stem of young Fern.
The stele of Equisetum is of a very peculiar type whose relations are not completely clear.
- Naram-Sin on the Stele of Victory.
The pericycle and mesocycle together form the conjunctive tissue of the stele in these simplest types.
When the diameter of the stele is greater, parenchymatous conjunctive tissue often occupies its centre and is frequently called the pith.
When the protoxylems have an intermediate position the stele is inesarch (many Pteridophytes and some of the more primitive Phanerogams).
As the primitive stele of a Pteridophyte is traced upwards from the primary rout into the stem, the phloem becomes continuous round the xylem.
The gaps in the outer tubular stele, however, are formed by the departure of aerial branch-traces, instead of leaf-traces as in the ferns.
Sometimes all the parenchyma within the stele undergoes this change.
In other cases, however, continuous primitive stele is developed, extending from the primar stem to the primary root, the leaf-traces arising later.
In cases where the development of the embryo is advanced at the resting period, traces run from the cotyledons and determine the symmetry of the stele of the primitive axis, the upperpart of which often shows stem-structure, in some respects at least, and is called the hypocoty- ledonary stem or hypocotyl, while the lower part is the primary root .~-,
In other cases the root structure of the stele continues up to the cotyledonary node, though the hypocotyl is still to be distinguished from the primary root by the character of its epidermis.
In these the stele becomes obvious in transverse section at about the same level as that at which the first leaf-traces are developed.
The connections of its stele witl that of the parent axis are made across the pericycle of the latter Its cortex is never in connection with the cortex of the parent, but with its pericycle.
The formation of additional cambial cylinders or bands occurs in the most various families of Dicotyledons and in some Gymnosperms. They may arise in the pericycle or endocycle of the stele, in the cortex of the stem, or in the parenchyma of the secondary xylem or phloem.
This was not only in itself an important contribution to plant anatomy, but served as the starting-point of a series of researches by Van Tieghem and his pupils, which has considerably advanced our knowledge of the details of histology, and also culminated in the foundation of the doctrine of the stele (Van Tieghem and Douliot, Sur la polystlie, Ann.
The great turgidity which is thus caused exerts a considerable hydrostatic pressure on the stele of the root, the vessels of the wood of which are sometimes filled with water, but at other times contain air, and this often under a pressure less than the ordinary atmospheric pressure.
This pressure of the turgid cortex on the central stele is known as root pressure, and is of very considerable amount.
It is a basalt stele inscribed in hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek with a decree of the priests assembled at Memphis in favour of Ptolemy V.
The so-called " Stele of the Vultures," now in the Louvre, was erected as a monument of the victory.
With the growth of scientific geography they came to be located somewhat less vaguely, and indeed their name was employed as the equivalent of the Assyrian and Hebrew Cush, the Kesh or Ekosh of the Hieroglyphics (first found in Stele of Senwosri I.), i.e.
Merawi) at the foot of Jebel Barkal, "the sacred mountain," which in time became formidable, and in the middle of the 8th century conquered Egypt; an Egyptian campaign is recorded in the famous stele of King Pankhi.
As the stele is traced farther upwards it becomes bulkier, as do the successive leaf-bundles which leave it.
In the majority of ferns, at a higher level, after the stele has increased greatly in diameter, a large-celled true pith or medulla, resembling the cortex in its characters, and quite distinct from conjunctive, from which it is separated by an internal endodernlis, appears in the centre.
The centre of the S~hooo- stele is however often occupied by a large-celled pith resembling the cortex in structure, the cortex and pith ~ together being classed as ground tissue.
In this use the term loses, of course, its morphoI logical value, and it is better to call such a segment of a broken-up I stele a meristele, the whole solenostele with overlapping leaf-gaps being called a dictyostele.
In such cases the vascular system is said to be polycyclic in contrast with the ordinary monocyclic condition, These internal strands or cylinders are to be regarded as peculiar types of elaboration of the stele, and probably act as reservoirs for water-storage which can be drawn upon when the water supply from the root is deficient.
In other species, however, a peculiar type of polystely is met with, in which the original diarch stele gives rise to se-called dorsal and ventral stelar cords which at first lie on the surface of the primary stele, but eventually at a higher level separate from it and form distinct secondary steles resembling the primary one.
The whole stele may be surrounded by a common external endodermis; sometimes there is an internal endodermis in addition, separating the bundles from the pith; while in other cases each bundle possesses a separate endodermis surrounding it.
It is probable that this type of stele is a modification of a primitive protostele, in which the main mass of stelar xylem has become much reduced and incidentally separated from the leaftraces.
the Stele In But, unlike the ferns, there is in the seed-plants no in- s d I ~ ternal phloem (except as a special development in ee pan $~$~ certain families) and no internal endodermis.
The leaf trace of any given leaf rarely consists of a single bundle only (unifascicular); the number of bundles of any given trace is always odd; they may either be situated all together before they leave the stele or they may be distributed at intervals round the stele.
The constitution of the stele of a flowering plant entirely from endarch collateral bundles, which are either themselves leaf-traces or will form leaf-traces after junction with other similar bundles, is the great characteristic of the stem-stele of flowering plants.
The bundles sometimes keep their arrangement s v in a ring corresponding with the stele, though the continuous cylin 0 der no longer exists (species of - Ranunculus).
Annuiar vessel, superficially obvious order through & I,~iterceiiuIar canal, the conjunctive tissue of the stele, 1.
The structure of the stele of the primary Fin.
developed at its base, usually becoming continuous with the cylinde of the root; the strand of the second leaf is formed in a similar wa~ and runs down to join that of the first, so that the stem stele is forme.
It is possible to suppose that this condition is derived from the astelic condition already referred to, but the evidence on the whole leads to the conclusion that it has ansen byan increase in the number of the bundles within the stele, the individuality of the bundle asserting itself after its escape from the original bundle-ring of the primitive cylinder.
itself from the stele.
Where internal phloem is present this is separated from the internal endodermis by an endocycle or internal pericycle, as it is sometimes called, and from the xylem by an internal mesocyclethese two layers, together with the outer mesocycle and pericycle, constituting the conjunctive tissue of the now hollow cylindrical stele.
For this reason a stem in which as pot ystelic, the term stele being transferr~d from the primary I central cylinder of the i~xis and applied to the vascular strands just described.
The vascular supply of the leaf (leaf-trace) consists of a single strand only in the haplostelic and some of the more primitive siphonostelic forms. In the microphyllous groups Leaf.trace of Pteridophytes (Lycopodiales and Equisetales) in and Petlolar which the leaves are small relatively to the stem, the Strands, single bundle destined for each leaf is a small strand whose departure causes no disturbance in the cauline stele.
Leaf-gaps are formed in essentially the same way as in the ferns, but when in the case of a plurifascicular trace the bundles are distributed at intervals round the cylinder it is obvious that several gaps must be formed as the different bundles leave the stele.
In both stem and root early walli separate the cortex from the stele.
In this case also the differentiation of leaf-bundles, which typically begins at the base of the leaf and extends upwards into the leaf and downwards into the stem, is the first phenomenon in the development of vascular tissue, and is seen at a higher level than the formation of a stele.
In this tissue fresh bundles may become differentiated, and what remains of it becomes the rays of the fully-formed stele.
Thus the structure of an old thickened root approximates to that of an old thickened stem, and so far as the vascular tissue is concerned can often only be distinguished from the latter by the position and orientation of the primary xylems. The cambium of the primary root, together with the tissues which it forms, is always directly continuous with that of the primary stem, just in the same way as the tissues of the primary stele.
The stele of Harsiotf contains the record of nine expeditions, in the course of which the king subdued various tribes south of Meroo and built a number of temples.
The stele of the last of these sovereigns, now in the Berlin Museum, and edited by H.
The stele of Jehawmelek, king of Gebal, found here, is one of the most important of Phoenician monuments.
the Moloch who appears from the stele of Jehawmelek to have been with Baalit the chief deity of the city.
Some of the earlier works of Ur-Nina, En-anna-turn, Entemena and others, before the Semitic conquest, are also extremely interesting, especially the famous stele of the vultures and a great silver vase ornamented with what may be called the coat of arms of Lagash, a lion-headed eagle with wings outspread, grasping a lion in each talon.
- Stone Stele, with richly decorated human figure, the hands meeting across the breast.
I o.--stone Stele, with human figure.
STELE, the Greek name (aT'lX1J) for a pillar or vertical slab of stone or marble, sometimes decorated with bas-reliefs and bearing inscriptions, and generally terminated with a cresting (EfriOnpa) enriched with the anthemion plant.
In later times the stele was crowned with a small pediment.
The mention of Israel on the stele of Merenptah, discovered by Petrie in 1896 (" Israel [Ysirael] is desolated; its seed [or] is not "), is too vague and indefinite in its terms to throw any light on the question of the Exodus.
The origin of the name is suggested by the Euphrates being called "the water of Naharin," - on the Karnak stele more fully "the.
' The threefold n after Nahar in a stele of Persian or Greek.
7 The stele referred to below (§ 7, end) as being probably8 Nabonidus's was found in 1906 some 15-20' W.
Before long, however, the overthrow of Astyages by Cyrus cleared Mesopotamia, and Nabonidus (Nabu-naid) was able, drawing on the resources of the whole of Syria for the purpose, to restore the famous temple of Sin at Harran, where a few years later he erected in memory of his mother, who seems to have been a priestess there, the stele published in 1907 by Pognon.
In the reign of Sargon Phoenicia itself seems to have been left alone; but the inhabitants of Citium revolted, showing that the authority of Tyre in Cyprus had grown weak; and Sargon received the submission of seven Cyprian princes, and set up in Larnaca (probably in 709) the triumphal stele now in the Berlin Museum (Schrader, Cuneif.
A characteristic specimen of the former is the stele of Yebaw-milk, king of Gebal (CIS.
pp. 62, 69, 148, 154) thus the Astarte represented on the stele of Yebaw-milk, mentioned above, has all the appearance of Isis, who, according to the legend preserved by Plutarch (de Is.
In its earliest form it was no doubt most closely allied to the Canaanite or Phoenician stock, to the language of Moab, as revealed by the stele of Mesha (c. 850 B.C.), and to Edomite.
The alphabet (see Writing) subsequently adopted is seen in its earliest form on the stele of Mesha, and has been retained, with modifications, by the Samaritans.
stel or stele (the true form; only found, however, with spelling style, cf.
The tomb is a vault, surmounted by an oblong stone monument, with a stele at the head and feet; and a cupola, supported by four walls, covers the whole in the case of sheikhs tombs and those of the wealthy.
As early as the I 7th century travellers began to bring home specimens of ancient Egyptian handiwork: a valuable stele from Sakkara of the beginning of the Old Kingdom was presented to the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford in 1683.
A curious story about the sending of his statue to Mesopotamia to heal a daughter of the king of Bakhtan is related upon a stele that purports to date from the Ramesside period: it has been proved to be a pious fraud invented by the priests not earlier than the Greek period.
The well known stele of the sphinx was cut by the latter king, to commemorate his dream there and his clearing of the sphinx from sand.
The celebrated Israel stele from this temple in his principal inscription..
29, 37, confirmed by a stele of Nabonidus found in Babylon: Scheil in Recueil de travaux, xviii.; Messerschmidt, "Die Inschrift der Stele Nabonaids," in Mitteilungen der vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft, i., 1896).
Wells Williams, The Middle Kingdom (London, 1883); Pere Havret, La Stele de Si-ngan Fou (Shanghai, 1895-1902); F.
Still later it is found on the stele of Byblos, and on the sarcophagus of Eshmunazar (about 300 B.C.).
Probably the earliest example of the Aramaic script in Arabia is the stele of Tema, in north-western Arabia, whereon is commemorated the establishment of a worship of an Aramaic divinity.
Golenischeff, "Stele de Darius" in Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie et l'archeologie egyptiennes et assyriennes, xiii.
The stele found there and published by Humann and Puchstein (Reisen in Kleinasien u.
This is a long 6 The evidence is contained in a new fragment of the Mendes Stele.
9, c) some of which pursue a more or less vertical course, and by frequent anastomoses with one another form a loose reticulum of vascular strands; others are leaftraces on their way from the stele of the stem to the leaves.
The bundles from the cotyledons pursue a direct course to the stele of the main axis, and do not assume the girdle-form char acteristic of the adult plant.
Each double leaf-trace passes through four internodes before becoming a part of the stele; the double nature of the trace is a characteristic feature.
Araucaria imbricata, &co) the leaf-trace leaves the stele of the stem as a single bundle which splits up into several strands in its course through the cortex.
The single stele in the stem consisted of the phloem surrounding a solid central strand of xylem, the groups of protoxylem being situated at the projecting angles.
The stem is monostelic, the protoxylem groups being towards the periphery of the xylem, the development of which is thus centripetal; the centre of the stele is occupied by sclerenchymatous tissue.
The anatomy of Lycopodium presents considerable variety in detail, but the stem is always monostelic and the development of the xylem centripetal, the protoxylems being situated at the periphery of the stele; pericycle and endodermis surround the stele, and the wide cortex may be more or less sclerenchymatous.
The stem contains one, two or several steles; in one species the stele is tubular.
spinosa) the radial stele has a number of protoxylem groups arranged round the periphery, much as in Lepidodendron.
The cells of the endodermis are developed as trabeculae, which traverse the continuous air-space surrounding each stele.
The roots, the stele of which is monarch, may arise directly from the stem, or are borne on rhizophores, which spring from the shoot at the point of branching, and root on reaching the soil.
The stem had a single stele, the primary xylem of which was polyarch and centripetally developed.
The stem is monostelic, the centre of the stele being occupied by a mass of short tracheides; but little can be said as to the primary structure of the central cylinder, which appears to be reduced.
The endodermis and pericycle surround the whole stele in Botrychium and Helminthostachys; in Ophioglossum each bundle has a separate sheath.
In the roots of Ophioglossum and Botrychium and in the first formed roots of Helminthostachys an endophytic fungus is present, forming a mycorhiza - the stele in the larger roots has the usual radial arrangement of xylem and phloem; monarch roots occur in Ophioglossum.
The anatomy of the stele in the stem exhibits on the whole a progression from a solid protostele through a tubular solenostele to one or more circles of separate steles derived by the breaking up of the solenostele.
The leaftraces usually interrupt the continuity of the stele of the axis on their departure.
The anatomy of the stem differs in the four recent genera of this order, and presents a series possibly illustrating the origin of a number of concentric steles from a solid stele, the intermediate step being represented by those forms in which the central cylinder is tubular.
The structure of the rhizome is complicated, a transverse section showing that the centre may be occupied by a solid stele, outside of which are two tubular steles.
The single genus Loxsoma has a tubular stele in its rhizome, which bears leaves resembling those of some Davallias.
The stem in the more primitive forms has a tubular stele (solenostele); for the most part two to many steles, arranged in a ring (dictyostele).
The development of the pfothalli is in general similar to that of the Salviniaceae, though the resemblance may be homoplastic. The stem in the less reduced forms is solenostelic with sclerenchymatous ground tissue occupying the centre of the stele.
Opposite that town on the east bank are the remains of Bohon, where was found the stele, now at Florence, commemorating the conquest of the region by Senwosri (Usertesen) I.
It may be mentioned here that on the first of these sites a cuneiform tablet belonging to the Amarna series was discovered; at Gezer, a deed of sale; at Tell-el-Hasy the remains of a Babylonian stele, three seals, and three cylinders with Babylonian mythological representations; at Tell-el-Mutasellim, a seal bearing a Babylonian legend, and at Taannek, twelve tablets and fragments of tablets were found near the fragments of the terracotta box in which they were stored.
The stem is traversed by a single stele, with solid wood, without pith; the primary xylem is triangular in section, the spiral elements forming one or two groups at each angle, while the phloem occupied the bays, so that the structure resembles that of a triarch root.
Two leaf-trace bundles started from each angle of the stele, and forked, in passing through the cortex, to supply the veins of the leaf, or its subdivisions.
cy, Stele of axis (Ax).
The axis of the cone in Cheirostrobus contains a polyarch stele, with solid wood, from the angles of which vascular bundles pass out, dividing in the cortex, to supply the various segments of the sporophylls.
br, Stele of a branch.
The primary cortex between stele and periderm has perished.
The genus Asterochlaena of Corda with a deeplylobed stele, goes back to the Devonian.
The stem has a single stele, resembling in general primary structure that of one of the simpler species of Gleichenia; there is no pith, the wood extending to the centre of the stele.
The leaf-traces can be distinguished as distinct strands at the periphery of the stele, as shown in fig.
Part of the stele of the stem in transverse section, showing a primary xylem-strand and adjacent tissues.
The great anatomical characteristic of the stem of the Medulloseae is its polystelic structure with secondary development of wood and bast around each stele.
In the new genus Sutcliffia, also from the Coal Measures of Lancashire, the stem had a single, large central stele, from which smaller strands were given off, forming a kind of network, which gave rise to the numerous concentric leaf-traces which entered the (After Kidston.
In a Floridan species of Zamia the leaf-traces are described as characterized by a more direct course from the stele of the stem to the leaves than in most modern genera, thus agreeing more closely with the extinct Bennettites.
A view of another section of the museum showing a carved stele (upright slab) and various pieces of Egyptian sculpture.
An inscribed stele at Jaffa commemorated the building of a temple to Eshmun, the Sidonian god.
stele nassau departing if we didn't the weather was half-completed stelae and.
Its design resembles that of an ancient stele that has been prepared for inscription.
This is adequate for measuring relative areas occupied by the cortex and central stele.
Kemp has examined a variety of sources, and produced a map showing 27 potential sites within Akhenaton's boundary stele.
stele erection of these approximately five-foot limestone stelae was dated by archeologist Ripley P. Bullen to 440 AD.
This is confirmed by the fragment of a victory stele found at Megiddo.
In the primary axis of the plant among Pteridophytes and many Phanerogams, at any rate in its first formed part, the xylem and phloem are associated in the form of a cylinder (stele), with xylem occupying the centre, and the phloem (in the upward-growing part or primary stem) forming a mantle at the periphery (fig.
stele becomes more bulky, all its elements increas- ~ ~ 0 ing in number (fig.
These successive new tissues, appearing in the centre of the stele, as the stem of a higher fern is traced upwards from its first formed parts, are all in.
The solenostele of the ferns is broken by the departure of each leaf-bundle, the outer and inner endodermis joining so that the stele becomes horseshoe-shaped and the cortex continuous with the pith (fig.
The stele of most Lycopods is amore or less modified protostele, but in the genus Lyco podium a peculiar arrangement of the xylem Ab and phloem is found, in which the latter, instead of being erran confined to a peripheral mantle of tissue, forms bands Stelar running across the stele and alternating with similal Systems of bands of xylem (fig.
The main events in this transition appear to have been (I) disappearance of the central xylem of the protostele and replacement by pith, leading to the survival of a number of (mesarch) collateral bundles (see below) at the periphery of the stele; (2) passage from mesarchy to endarchy of these bundles correlated with a great increase in secondary thickening of the stele.
The gaps, are, however, often filled as they are formed by the development of external conjunctive tissue immediately above the points at which the bundles begin to bend out of the stele, so that sharply defined open gaps such as occur in fern-steles are but rarely met with in flowering plants.
While the stele of the primary root in both Gymnosperms and Angiosperms is usually diarch or tetrarch, the large primary root-steles of many adventitious roots are frequently polyarch, sometimes with a very large number of protoxylems. Such a stale seldom has the centre filled up with xylem, this being replaced by a large-celled pith, so that a siphonostelic structure is acquired (fig.
This clear separation between periblem and pleromi is mostly found in plants whose stem-apex forms a naked cone the leaves being produced relatively late, so that the stele of th young stem is obvious above the youngest leaf-traces (fig.
From the evidence of the stele of the second (the Coronation Stele) and that of the fifth it has been inferred that the sovereignty early in this period became elective, a deputation of the various orders in the realm being (as Diodorus states), when a vacancy occurred, sent to Napata, where the chief god Amen selected out of the members of the royal family the person who was to succeed, and who became officially the god's son; and it seems certain that the priestly caste was more influential in Ethiopia than in Egypt both before and after this period.
Another stele (called the Stele of Excommunication) records the expulsion of a priestly family guilty of murder (H.
For example, much as archaeology has increased our knowledge of the conditions obtaining in Palestine before the Hebrew invasion, it has so far contributed nothing to our knowledge of the Hebrew nation before that time beyond the statement in the now famous stele of Merenptah (Mineptah) (c.1270 s.c.), discovered in 1896, "Ysirael is desolated, its seed is not," and a few possible but vague and uncertain allusions to particular tribes.
The rootlets, which branched by dichotomy, contain a slender monarch stele exactly like that in the roots of Isoetes and some Selaginellae at the present day; they possessed, however, a complex absorptive apparatus, consisting of lateral strands of xylem, connecting the stele with tracheal plates in the outer cortex.
Moab was evidently as poor as Judah and poorer than Israel, for few relics have been found there, beside the famous stele.
Kemp has examined a variety of sources, and produced a map showing 27 potential sites within Akhenaton 's boundary stele.
In the stems of many water-plants various stages of reduction of the vascular system, especially of the xylem, are met with, and very often this reduction leads to the formation of a compact stele in which the individuality of the separate Reduced bundles may be suppressed, so that a closed cylinder lmpbost~h1c of xylem surrounds a pith.
i 7.Transverse section of the stele of the stem of a water-plant (Naias);
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