This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Learn more

steel

steel

steel Sentence Examples

  • She tossed the chopped lettuce into a large stainless steel bowl.

  • Adrienne grabbed a large stainless steel spoon from its hanger on the wall and primped at her distorted reflection.

  • Cautiously her fingers felt the ground around her and touched the cold steel barrel.

  • Dusty considered her before gazing back at the mutilated creature on top of the stainless steel lab counter.

  • She wrapped her hand around the doorknob and turned it from steel into a rag and pushed the door open.

  • The doctor's eyes were the color of cold steel, his face stoic, his large form tense.

  • One well-lit room gleamed with stainless steel.

  • Sofia lay on the cold steel table, her tears still wet but her eyes open and staring blankly.

  • Dusty shouted as a chunk of stone crushed a stainless steel cabinet.

  • The death-dealer gave her another long look before she pointed to the stainless steel box at the end of the kitchen.

  • Retrieving her robe from the bed, she was about to put it on when his hand captured her arm in a steel grip.

  • He swiped a badge to enter what she imagined was the Mecca of all science labs, with rows of stainless steel, machines, computers, and glass.

  • She followed, uninterested in the sterile glass and stainless steel landscape.

  • The spacious kitchen reminded her of Ully.s lab with its landscape of stainless steel.

  • The battles were silent, the swords clashing without the clang of steel she expected to hear.

  • I can't imagine trying to sleep with just a couple of little steel pegs hammered into the rock the only thing holding me from a couple of thousand foot drop!

  • Not 'little steel pegs.'

  • They came up to a steel trestle that held the ancient penstock above an open gorge.

  • He moved up the steel trestle by the ice climbing area designated The Schoolroom.

  • All the comforts of home, except behind the rich brocade fabric walls stood twenty-four inches of rebar reinforced concrete and the door consisted of eight-inch diameter solid steel bars.

  • Jackson had hoped to make plans with Elisabeth, but he couldn't very well ask her over and say, "Don't mind the steel shutters on all the windows."

  • Steel bars separated us initially, until it was clear she had no desire to harm me.

  • She strode across the room to the stainless steel sink.

  • The first gate consisted of a few dozen men better armed than his team atop a thick steel wall with an iron core.

  • Brady held up the chunk of steel.

  • He emerged from the thick steel walls into the sunlight.

  • Parkside's economy was less than spectacular, but at least it didn't require dependency on the fickle business of mines, steel or man­ufacturing for its fiscal survival.

  • He grabbed an order of French fries and a burger at the drive-in of a national chain, eating on the road, licking the salt from his fingers as he searched among the glass and steel structures for the address he had jotted down earlier.

  • Mayer's telephone rang and he excused himself to answer it, leaving Dean at Jeffrey Byrne's grey steel desk.

  • The attendant ushered them into a sterile room of white tile and stainless steel.

  • He was behind Dean and before Dean could realize what was happening, Winston grabbed his right arm and with a quick metallic click Dean was securely fastened to the brass bedpost by a steel handcuff.

  • After cleaning his water bowl out in the big stainless steel sink, she filled the bowl with water and set it on the floor near his food bowl.

  • At the sound of steel on leather, Taran lowered himself into a crouch.

  • Gerald didn't respond for a moment, but when he did, his tone and expression would have melted steel.

  • A stainless steel sink was set into home made cabinets, whose cutting board top was marred with years of use.

  • The elevator door opened and he stepped inside, swallowed by its stainless steel walls.

  • "From molten metal to the tempered steel of a blade," Eden replied.

  • Selecting the largest, she went to the pristine sink area, almost afraid to run water for fear of leaving water marks in the stainless steel.

  • Extensive coal mines are in the vicinity, and there are manufactures of iron and steel, mill machinery, door and sash factories, etc., as well as several shipbuilding yards.

  • A large number of cotton mills furnish the chief source of industry; printing, dyeing and bleaching of cotton and calico, spinning and weaving machine making, iron and steel works, and collieries in the neighbourhood, are also important.

  • A steel cylinder (about the thickness of a goose-quill), which forms the micrometer screw, has two threads cut upon it, one-half being cut with a thread double the pitch of the other.

  • All the essential parts of the micrometer, including the slides, micrometer box, tube, etc., are of steel or cast-iron, so that changes of temperature do not affect the adjustments.

  • The city has lumber and fishing interests (perch, whitefish, sturgeon, pickerel, bass, &c. being caught in Saginaw Bay), large machine shops and foundries (value of products in 1905, $ 1, 743, 1 55, or 31% of the total of the city's factory products), and various manufactures, including ships (wooden and steel), wooden ware, woodpipe, veneer, railroad machinery, cement, alkali and chicory.

  • Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 there were many large manufactories, including the repair shops of the Southern railroad; iron and steel, car wheels and cotton-oil were among the products of the suburban factories.

  • In 1900 the Birmingham district produced six-sevenths of the total pig iron exported from the United States, and in 1902 nine-tenths of Alabama's coal, coke and pig iron; in 1905 Jefferson county produced 67.5% of the total iron and steel product of the state, and 62.5% of the pig iron produced by the state.

  • The first steel plant in the southern states was established at Birmingham in 1897; in 1902, at Ensley, one of the suburbs, there were 10 furnaces controlled by one company.

  • The first puddling works were opened in 1839, and Troy was long the centre of the New York iron and steel industry; in 1865 the second Bessemer steel works in the United States were opened here.

  • Metallurgy.The average production and value of iron and steel manufactured in France in the last four decades of the I 9th century is shown below Cast Iron.

  • Wroughi Iron and SteeL

  • Taking the number of hands engaged in the industry as a basis of comparison, the most important departments as regards iron and steel working in 1901 were:

  • Production of Material and Pig-Iron and Steel.

  • Iron and steel, manufac tures of..

  • The company also owns iron mines, limestone and quartz quarries, large iron-works at Domnarfvet and elsewhere, a great extent of forests and saw-mills, and besides the output of the copper mines it produces manufactured iron and steel, timber, wood-pulp, bricks and charcoal.

  • in unlimited supply, important deposits of rich iron ores suitable for smelting purposes; and for the manufacture of steel of certain descriptions abundance of manganese, chrome and tungsten ores are available.

  • Much attention has been paid to the improvement of the mechanical details of the lifting and other motions of cranes, and in important installations the gearing is now usually made of cast steel.

  • The revolving part is made with two side frames of cast iron or steel plates, and to these the lifting gear is attached.

  • Derrick cranes are made of all powers, from the timber I-ton hand derrick to the steel 150-ton derrick used in shipbuilding yards.

  • 9) consists of a steel braced tower, on which revolves a large horizontal double cantilever; the forward part of this cantilever or jib carries the lifting crab, and the jib is extended backwards in order to form a support for the machinery and counter-balance.

  • The hydraulic lifting cylinders are placed inside the revolving steel mast or post, and the cabin for the driver FIG.

  • 3), mounted on a strong steel bolt having a broad base flange, is employed.

  • The speed of the ship can be roughly estimated from the speed of the engines; it is more accurately obtained by one or other of the various forms of log, or it may be measured by paying out continuously a steel wire over a measuring wheel.

  • Using these buoys to guide the direction of tow, a grapnel, a species of fivepronged anchor, attached to a strong compound rope formed of strands of steel and manila, is lowered to the bottom and dragged at a slow speed, as it were ploughing a furrow in the sea bottom, in a line at right angles to the cable route, until the behaviour of the dynamometer shows that the cable is hooked.

  • The needle (in the modern pattern) is of soft iron, and is kept magnetized in ductively by the action of two permanent steel magnets.

  • The magnet between the poles of which the rectangular signal coil moves is built up of a number of thin flat horseshoe-shaped permanent magnets of a special quality of steel, and is provided with adjustable pole pieces.

  • The motor is usually supported on a platform at the back of the instrument, its drivingwheel being connected to the shaft of the paper roller by means of a spirally wound steel band.

  • p. 203) noticed that a single electric spark about an inch long thrown on to a circuit of wire in an upper room could magnetize steel needles included in a parallel circuit of wire placed in a cellar 30 ft.

  • perfect electrical contact between the steel and mercury for low voltage currents, but when electric oscillations were passed through the junction it was pierced and good electrical contact established as long as the oscillations continued.

  • It had long been known that the discharges from a Leyden jar could magnetize or demagnetize steel needles.

  • Rutherford examined it very carefully, and produced a magnetic detector for electric waves depending upon the power of electric oscillations in a coil to demagnetize a saturated bundle of steel wires placed in it.

  • In the same way the arrangements finally elaborated by Lodge and Muirhead consisted of a direct coupled antenna and nearly closed condenser circuit, and a similar receiving circuit containing as a detector the steel wheel revolving on oily mercury which actuated a siphon recorder writing signals on paper tape.

  • The manufacture of steel rails, carried on first at Terni and afterwards at Savona, began in Italy in 1886.

  • Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.

  • Its industries embrace the manufacture of iron and steel goods, tanning and organ-building.

  • Case A contains the wheelwork, and case E the spindle and steel ball FIG.

  • io) is a taffrail one, with bearings of hardened steel, and is intended to be slung or secured to the taffrail by a line; the gimbal pattern has a fitting for the deck.

  • The main shaft bearings are in two sets and composed of steel balls running in steel cones and cups; the governor is an iron rod about 16 in.

  • The infantry and rifles are armed with small-bore magazine rifles, and the active artillery have steel breech-loaders with extreme ranges of 4150 to 4700 yds.

  • The amount of iron and steel produced in the Urals is not quite 20% of the total in all European Russia and Poland.

  • Out of an average of some 2,700,000 tons of pig-iron produced annually in the whole of the Russian empire, 61.5% is produced in the basin of the Donets, and out of an average of 2,160,500 tons of worked iron and steel 48.7% are prepared in the same region.

  • There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.

  • The inspections made by the officers of the Board of Trade under this act are very complete: the permanent way, bridges, viaducts, tunnels and other works are carefully examined; all iron or steel girders are tested; stations, including platforms, stairways, waiting-rooms, &c., are inspected; and the signalling and " interlocking " are thoroughly overhauled.

  • Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.

  • Wood is the material most widely used, but steel is employed in some countries where timber is scarce or liable to destruction by white ants, though it is still regarded as too expensive in comparison with wood for general adoption.

  • Steel sleepers were used experimentally on the London & 'Forth-Western, but were abandoned owing to the shortness of their life.

  • In the first method, which is practically universal in Great Britain and is also employed to 1 See a full account of steel sleepers in a paper read by A.

  • These are flat bars of iron or steel from 18 in.

  • Such metal plates, or " tie-plates," have come into considerable use also in the United States, where they are always made of rolled steel, punched with rectangular holes through which the spikes pass.

  • The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.

  • In the United States a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, appointed to consider the question of rail manufacture in consequence of an increase in the number of rail-failures, issued an interim report in 1907 in which it suggested a range of carbon from 0-55 to 0-65% for the heaviest sections of Bessemer steel flange rails, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.085%; while the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, current at the same period, put the carbon limits at o 45 to 0-55%, and the phosphorus limit at o io.

  • For rails of basic open-hearth steel, which is rapidly ousting Bessemer steel, the Civil Engineers' specifications allowed from o 65 to 0-75% of carbon with 0-05% of phosphorus, while the specifications of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association provided for a range of 0.75 to 0-85% of carbon, with a maximum of 0.03% of phosphorus.

  • The rail-failures mentioned above also drew renewed attention to the importance of the thermal treatment of the steel from the time of melting to the last passage through the rolling mill and to the necessity of the finishing temperature being sufficiently low if the product is to be fine grained, homogeneous and tough; and to permit of this requirement being met there was a tendency to increase the thickness of the metal in the web and flanges of the rails.

  • Cars built almost entirely of steel, in which the proportion of wood is reduced to a minimum, are used on some electric railways, in order to diminish danger from fire, and the same mode of construction is also being adopted for the rolling stock of steam railways.

  • The former is often a rich oil-gas, stored in steel reservoirs under the coaches at a pressure of six or seven atmospheres, and passed through a reducing valve to the burners; these used to be of the ordinary fish-tail type, but inverted incandescent mantles are coming into increasing use.

  • American cars, on the other hand, have long bodies mounted on two swivelling bogie-trucks of four wheels each, and are commonly constructed of steel.

  • In 1893 the construction was completed in Budapest of an underground railway with a thin, flat roof, consisting of steel beams set close together, with small longitudinal jack arches between them, the street pavement .

  • The line is of m metre gauge, with steel rails weighing 212 kilos (42 lb) per yard.

  • A portable line of this kind will have 20 lb steel rails and 2112 steel sleepers-4 ft.

  • Parkersburg is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Oil, coal, natural gas and fire-clay abound in the neighbouring region, and the city is engaged in the refining of oil and the manufacture of pottery, brick and tile, glass, lumber, furniture, flour, steel, and foundry and machine-shop products.

  • The steel combustion chamber is of about 250 c.c. capacity, and is wholly immersed in the calorimeter.

  • In the same year the city still retained its position as the greatest ore market in the world and also led in many steel products.

  • Niriz was formerly known for its manufacture of steel from iron ore brought from Parpa, 40 m.

  • Ashland has large saw-mills, iron and steel rolling mills, foundries and machine shops, railway repair shops (of the Chicago & NorthWestern railway), knitting works, and manufactories of dynamite, sulphite fibre, charcoal and wood-alcohol.

  • Among the city's manufactures are oxide of tin and other chemicals, iron and steel, leather goods, automobiles and bicycles, electrical and telephone supplies, butted tubing, gas engines, screws and bolts, silk, lace and hosiery.

  • There are ship-yards for the construction of both steel and wooden vessels, and several grain elevators.

  • It is a military town, with provision stores, an arsenal and an arms workshop. Its walls are armed with steel guns.

  • There are large iron and steel works here, notably the Tredegar Iron Works.

  • It was about this time that the first experiments were made (in Germany) with basic slag, a material which had hitherto been regarded as a worthless by-product of steel manufacture.

  • The three coalitions against France had not produced a single warrior worthy of his steel.

  • In 1866 the yard was enlarged by connecting Seavey's Island with Fernald's; late in the 19th century it was equipped for building and repairing steel vessels.

  • The worsted, woollen and cotton industries, and the iron, steel and machinery manufactures are very extensive.

  • The value of the factory product was $748,670,855 in 1900 and $960,811,857 in 1905.1 The most important manufacturing industry is that of iron and steel.

  • A large portion of the iron and steel is manufactured in Cleveland, Youngstown, Steubenville, Bellaire, Lorain and Ironton.

  • The metallurgic industries are well developed, and consist in the production of iron, steel, machinery, small-arms, lead articles, wire-cables and rails.

  • Fibres and vegetable grasses, wool, hides and skins, cotton, sugar, iron and steel and their manufactures, chemicals, coal, and leather and its manufactures are the leading imports; provisions, leather and its manufactures, cotton and its manufactures, breadstuffs, iron and steel and.

  • A steel bridge across the Missouri (built in 1872; rebuilt in 1906) connects the city with Elwood, Kansas (pop. 1905, 711), and is used by two railways.

  • wrought-iron drive-pipe, terminating in a steel shoe, which is driven to the bed-rock, and a 71-in.

  • Kerosene is transported in bulk by various means; specially constructed steel tank barges are used on the waterways of the United States, tank-cars on the railroads, and tank-wagons on the roads.

  • American stills of the former type are constructed of wrought-iron or steel, and are about 30 ft.

  • The modern practice is to employ horizontal cylindrical wrought-iron or steel stills, and to introduce steam into the oil.

  • Many ingenious devices for forming bars have been produced; but generally a strong frame is used, across which steel wires are stretched at distances equal to the size of the bars to be made, the blocks being first cut into slabs and then into bars.

  • At a cost of $7,200,000, the city completed in 1917 a municipal bridge of massive steel construction, double track and double deck, across the Mississippi.

  • There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.

  • It is the junction between the Oudh & Rohilkhand and East Indian railways, the Ganges being crossed by a steel girder bridge of seven spans, each 350 ft.

  • Coal, oil, natural gas, clay and iron are found in the vicinity, and among the city's manufactures are iron, steel, glass, furniture and pottery.

  • Among the larger private establishments there existed in the same year seven breweries, one brandy distillery, two jam, two soap and candle factories, two building and furniture works, a factory for spinning thread, one iron and steel works, one paper and one ammonia and soda factory, and one mineral-oil refinery.

  • According to these statistics the most important articles of export are coal and turf, fruit, minerals, soda, iron and steel, and cattle.

  • The most important manufactures are iron and steel, carriage hardware, electrical supplies, bridges, boilers, engines, car wheels, sewing machines, printing presses, agricultural implements, and various other commodities made wholly or chiefly from iron and steel.

  • More steel wire, wire nails, and bolts and nuts are made here than in any other city in the world (the total value for iron and steel products as classified by the census was, in 1905, $42,930,995, and the value of foundry and machine-shop products in the same year was $18,832,487), and more merchant vessels than in any other American city.

  • The total exports of the Cardiff docks in 1906 amounted to 8,767,502 tons, of which 8, 433, 629 tons were coal, coke and patent fuel, 151,912 were iron and steel and their manufactures, and 181,076 tons of general merchandise.

  • A steel bridge spans the river.

  • In hand specimens they:often show a well-marked banding which is sometimes flat and parallel, but may be sinuous and occasionally is very irregular, resembling the pattern of damascened steel.

  • It is a centre of the iron and steel industries, producing principally cast steel, cast iron, iron pipes, wire and wire ropes, and lamps, with tin and zinc works, coal-mining, factories for carpets, calcium carbide and paper-roofing, brickworks and breweries.

  • The Bochumer Verein fur Bergbau (mining) and Gusstahl Fabrication (steel manufacture) is one of the principal trusts in this industry, founded in 1854.

  • The manufactures include tobacco, and iron and steel goods.

  • Zinc is commonly deposited by electrolysis on iron or steel goods which would ordinarily be "galvanized," but which for any reason may not conveniently be treated by the method of immersion in fused zinc. The zinc cyanide bath may be used for small objects, but for heavy goods the sulphate bath is employed.

  • Part of this commerce (textiles, sugar, tobacco, steel goods) is conveyed by sea to the Pacific ports.

  • It is enclosed by water-jackets, which are usually cast iron, sometimes mild steel.

  • General Phenomena Pieces of a certain highly esteemed iron ore, which consists mainly of the oxide Fe 3 0 4, are sometimes found to possess the power of attracting small fragments of iron or steel.

  • Steel is much more retentive of magnetism than any ordinary iron, and some form of steel is now always used for making artificial magnets.

  • Magnetism may be imparted to a bar of hardened steel by stroking it several times from end to end, always in the same direction, with one of the poles of a magnet.

  • If the bar inserted into the coil is of hardened steel instead of iron, the magnetism will be less intense, but a larger proportion of it will be retained after the current has been cut off.

  • Steel articles, such as knitting or sewing needles and pieces of flat spring, may be readily magnetized by stroking them with the bar-magnet; after having produced magnetism in any number of other bodies, the magnet will have lost nothing of its own virtue.

  • The compass needle is a little steel magnet balanced upon a pivot; one end of the needle, which always bears a distinguishing mark, points approximately, but not in general exactly, to the north,' the vertical plane through the direction of the needle being termed the magnetic meridian.

  • The poles of a piece of magnetized steel may be at once distinguished if the two ends are successively presented to the compass; that end which attracts the south pole of the compass needle (and is therefore north) may be marked for easy identification.

  • In the internal field of a long coil of wire carrying an electric current, the lines of force are, except near the ends, parallel to the axis of the coil, and it is chiefly for this reason that the field due to a coil is particularly well adapted for inductively magnetizing iron and steel.

  • The older operation of magnetizing a steel bar by drawing a magnetic pole along it merely consists in exposing successive portions of the bar to the action of the strong field near the pole.

  • Let a magnetic pole be drawn several times around a uniform steel ring, so that every part of the ring may be successively subjected to the magnetic force.

  • Again, a steel wire through which an electric current has been passed will be magnetized, but so long as it is free from stress it will give no evidence of magnetization; if, however, the wire is twisted, poles will be developed at the two ends, for reasons which will be explained later.

  • Iron and its alloys, including the various kinds of steel, though exhibiting magnetic phenomena in a pre-eminent degree, are not the only substances capable of magnetization.

  • If a bar of hard steel is placed in a strong magnetic field, a certain intensity of magnetization is induced in the bar; but when the strength of the field is afterwards reduced to zero, the magnetization does not entirely disappear.

  • Steel, which is well suited for the construction of permanent magnets, is said to possess great " coercive force."

  • The ballistic method is largely employed for determining the relation of induction to magnetizing force in samples of the iron and steel used in the manufacture of electrical machinery, and especially for the observation of hysteresis effects.

  • The value of the constant / 7 ranges in different metals from about o ooI to 0.04; in soft iron and steel it is said to be generally not far from 0.002.

  • Shimizu 3 indicate that Steinmetz's formula holds for nickel and annealed cobalt up to B =3000, for cast cobalt and tungsten steel up to B =8000, and for Swedish iron up to B =18,000, the range being in all cases extended at the temperature of liquid air.

  • Fine steel wire 0.257 mm.

  • A very pure form of iron, which from the method of its manufacture is called " steel," is now extensively used for the construction of dynamo magnets; this metal sometimes contains not more than 0.3% of foreign substances, including carbon, and is magnetically superior to the best commercial wrought iron.

  • He applied his method with good effect, however, in testing a large number of commercial specimens of iron and steel, the magnetic constants of which are given in a table accompanying his paper.

  • Several instruments in which the traction method is applied have been devised for the rapid measurement of induction or of magnetization in commercial samples of iron and steel.

  • Ann., 18 95, 54,655), who found the limiting values of to be 7.5 to 9.5 for iron, and 11.2 to 13.5 for steel, remaining constant up to H = 06; by P. Culmann (Elekt.

  • The latter gives values of the constants a and b for different samples of iron and steel, some of which are shown in the following table :- K=a+bH For most samples of steel the straight-line law was found to hold approximately up to H=3; in the case of iron and of soft steel the approximation was less close.

  • While therefore the initial susceptibility of nickel is less than that of iron and steel, the range of magnetic force within which it is approximately constant is about one hundred times greater.

  • In hardened iron and steel the effect can scarcely be detected, and in weak fields these metals exhibit no magnetic hysteresis of any kind.

  • P. Joule, who in 1842 and 1847 described some experiments which he had made upon bars of iron and steel.

  • According to Joule's observations, the length of a bar of iron or soft steel was increased by magnetization, the elongation being proportional up to a certain point to the square of the intensity of magnetization; but when the " saturation point " was approached the elongation was less than this law would require, and a stage was finally reached at which further increase of the magnetizing force produced little or no effect upon the length.

  • ] Joule and others experimented with hardened steel, but failed to find a key to the results they obtained, which are rather complex, and have been thought to be inconsistent.

  • The truth appears to be that a hardened steel rod generally behaves like one of iron or soft steel in first undergoing extension under increasing magnetizing force, and recovering its original length when the force has reached a certain critical value, beyond which there is contraction.

  • But this " critical value " of the force is found to depend in an unexpected manner upon the hardness of the steel; the critical value diminishes as the hardness becomes greater up to a certain point, corresponding to a yellow temper, after which it increases and with the hardest steel becomes very high.

  • For steel which has been made redhot, suddenly cooled, and then let down to a yellow temper, the critical value of the magnetizing force is smaller than for steel which is either softer or harder; it is indeed so small that the metal contracts like nickel even under weak magnetizing forces, without undergoing any preliminary extension that can be detected.

  • For soft iron, tungsten-steel and nickel little difference appeared to result from lowering the temperature down to - 186° C. (the temperature of liquid air); at sufficiently high temperatures, 600 to 1000° or more, it was remarked that the changes of length in iron, steel and cobalt tended in every case to become proportional to the magnetic force, the curves being nearly straight lines entirely above the axis.

  • Honda subjected tubes of iron, steel and nickel to the simultaneous action of circular and longitudinal fields, and observed the changes of length when one of the fields was varied while the other remained constant at different successive values from zero upwards.

  • Nagaoka and Honda, who employed a fluid dilatometer, found that the volume of several specimens of iron, steel and nickel was always slightly increased, no diminution being indicated in low fields; cobalt, on the other hand, was diminished in volume, and the amount of the change, though still very small, was greater than that shown by the other metals.

  • .+] steel and nickel when heated up to high temperatures were those of J.

  • Steel behaves in a similar manner, but the maximum permeability is not so high as in iron, and the fall, when the critical point is approached, is less abrupt.

  • The critical temperature for various samples of iron and steel ranges from 690° C. to 870° C.; it is the temperature at which Barrett's " recalescence " occurs.

  • Morris's results for iron, and gives some additional observations for steel, nickel and cobalt.

  • For ordinary steel the critical temperature, at which magnetization practically disappeared, was found to be about 830°, and the curious fact was revealed that, on cooling, magnetization did not begin to reappear until the temperature had fallen 40° below the critical value.

  • Most of the permeability-temperature curves were more or less convex towards the axis of temperature, and in all the experiments except those with annealed iron and steel wire, the permeability was greatest at the lowest temperature.

  • They found that the permeability of Swedish iron, tungsten-steel and nickel, when the metals were cooled to - 186°, was diminished in weak fields but increased in strong ones, the field in which the effect of cooling changed its sign being 115 for iron and steel and 580 for nickel.

  • magnetizable it is a hard steel, having a specific electrical resistance of o 000052; when non-magnetizable it is an extremely soft, mild steel, and its specific resistance is 0 000072.

  • Trans., 1885, 176, 455) employed his yoke method to test the magnetic properties of thirty-five samples of iron and steel, among which were steels containing substantial proportions of manganese, silicon, chromium and tungsten.

  • Another point to which attention is directed is the exceptionally great effect which hardening has upon the magnetic properties of chrome steel; one specimen had a coercive force of 9 when annealed, and of no less than 38 when oilhardened.

  • The induction for considerable forces was found to be greater in a steel containing 73% of nickel than in one with only 33%, though the permeability of pure nickel is much less than that of iron.

  • Soc., 1903, 71, 30), experimenting with wires of iron, steel and nickel, showed that in weak fields the change of resistance was proportional to a function a12-+b14-{-cl', where a, b and c are constants for each specimen.

  • Thomson (Lord Kelvin), who in 1856 announced that magnetization rendered iron and steel positive to the unmagnetized metals.'

  • Bidwell," who, adopting special precautions against sources of error by which former work was probably affected, measured the changes of thermo-electric force for iron, steel, nickel and cobalt produced by magnetic fields up to I Soo units.

  • On the other hand, its susceptibility is about fifty times less than that of Hadfield's 12% manganese steel, which is commonly spoken of as non-magnetizable.

  • With small magnetizing forces the hysteresis was indeed somewhat larger than that obtained in an alternating field, probably on account of the molecular changes being forced to take place in one direction only; but at an induction of about 16,00o units in soft iron and 15,000 in hard steel the hysteresis reached a maximum and afterwards rapidly diminished.

  • Coulomb, 2 however, by using long and thin steel rods, symmetrically magnetized, and so arranged that disturbing influences became negligibly small, was enabled to deduce from his experiments with reasonable certainty the law that the force of attraction or repulsion between two poles varies inversely as the square of the distance between them.

  • The principal exports are sugar, coal, cereals, wool, forage, cement, chalk, phosphates, iron and steel, tools and metal-goods, thread and vegetables.

  • As obtained by the reduction of the chloride, it is a steel grey powder of specific gravity 7 06.

  • Among the city's manufactures are agricultural implements, iron bridges and other structural iron work, watches and watch-cases, steel, engines, safes, locks, cutlery, hardware, wagons, carriages, paving-bricks, furniture, dental and surgical chairs, paint and varnish, clay-working machinery and saw-mill machinery.

  • Uranium is a white malleable metal, which is pretty hard, though softer than steel.

  • Machinery, provisions, largely in the form of tinned and otherwise preserved food, and liquors, clothing, textiles and hardware, chemicals and dynamite, iron and steel work and timber, and jewelry are the chief items in the imports.

  • The river is here spanned by a long iron and steel bridge connecting with East Hannibal, Ill.

  • Between the customs house and the railway terminus is the mouth of a small river, the Chiveve, crossed by a steel bridge, the centre span revolving and giving two passages each of 40 ft.

  • Among the most dangerous of the last class (the pneumokonioses) is perhaps that in which the dust particles take the form of finely divided freestone, as in stone-dressing and the dry-polishing on the grindstone of steel.

  • Bath has a good harbour and its principal industry is the building of ships, both of wood and of iron and steel; several vessels of the United States navy have been built here.

  • Bath also manufactures lumber, iron and brass goods, and has a considerable trade in ice, coal, lumber and iron and steel.

  • For his work in advancing the iron trade he received the Bessemer gold medal from the Iron and Steel Institute of Great Britain in 1879.

  • Wooden rails, protected by iron straps, are sometimes used on underground roads for temporary traffic; but steel rails, similar to, though lighter than, those employed for railways are the rule.

  • Except in a few instances these were long ago superseded by ron-wire ropes, which in turn have p been replaced by steel because of its greater strength.

  • ordinary steel rope has a breaking strength of about 32 tons, which, with a' factor of safety of six gives a safe working load of 54 tons.

  • With proper care a steel rope should last from two to three years.

  • A frame of wood or steel, erected at the shaft mouth, and rarely employed except for deep shafts of small cross-section or when the mine cars (tubs) are small, as in many parts of Europe.

  • Steel frames are more durable than those of wood, and have become common in nearly all mining countries, especially where timber is scarce.

  • - Steel head-gear, modern German type, constructed by Aug.

  • - Light steel safety FIG.

  • Wooden or steel buckets, holding from 35 to 200 gallons, are employed only for temporary or auxiliary service or for small quantities of water in shallow shafts.

  • The engine works a massive counter-balanced walking-beam from which is suspended in the shaft a long wooden (or steel) rod, made in sections and spliced together.

  • Since the introduction of iron ships teak has supplanted oak, because it contains an essential oil which preserves iron and steel, instead of corroding them like the tannic acid contained in oak.

  • The tools used are extremely primitive - hollow iron blowing-rods, solid rods for holding vessels during manipulation, spring tools, resembling sugar-tongs in shape, with steel or wooden blades for fashioning the viscous glass, callipers, measure-sticks, and a variety of moulds of wood, carbon, cast iron, gun-metal and plaster of Paris (figs.

  • The temperature required in the fusion of sheet-glass and of other glasses produced in tank furnaces is much lower than that attained in steel furnaces, and it is consequently pos Since the discovery of the Rntgen rays, experiments have been made to ascertain the effects of the different constituents of glass on the transparency of glass to X-rays.

  • In many respects the glassmelting tank resembles the open-hearth steel furnace, but there are certain interesting differences.

  • Thus the dimensions of the largest glass tanks greatly exceed those of the largest steel furnaces; glass furnaces containing up to 250 tons of molten sible to work glass-tanks continuously for many months together; on the other hand, glass is not readily freed from foreign bodies that may become admixed with it, so that the absence of detachable particles is much more essential in glass than in steel melting.

  • Finally, fluid steel can be run or poured off, since it is perfectly fluid, while glass cannot be thus treated, but is withdrawn from the furnace by means of either a ladle or a gatherer's pipe, and the temperature required for this purpose is much lower than.

  • 1317, but even in the 16th century mirrors of steel were still in use.

  • The five K's are (I) the kes or uncut hair of the whole body, (2) the kachh or short drawers ending above the knee, (3) the kara or iron bangle, (4) the khanda or small steel dagger,(5) the khanga or comb.

  • Round disks made of these substances were placed in a closely fitting cylindrical cavity drilled in a block of steel, the cavity having a circular aperture of two or four centimetres below.

  • Thus, for instance, to% aluminium bronze is scratched by an ordinary steel knife-blade, yet the sets of needles used for perforating postage stamps last longer if made of aluminium bronze than if made of steel.

  • But in regard to their power of retaining their magnetism none of them comes at all up to the compound metal steel.

  • Besides its copper works the town at present possesses extensive tinplate, steel and galvanized sheet works as well as iron and brass foundries, steam-engine factories, brick and tile works, engineering works, flannel factories and chemical works.

  • The Krajewski crusher has two such E steel rolls, with V-shaped corrugations extending longi tudinally across them.

  • Nowadays the mould-board is of steel with a chilled and polished surface to give greater wearing qualities and to reduce friction.

  • In 1905 Anderson ranked first among the cities of the state in the manufacture of carriage and wagon material, and iron and steel.

  • The staple productions are machinery, railway engines and carriages, steel, tin and bronze wares, pottery, bent and carved wood furniture, textiles and chemicals.

  • 1, p. 25) obtained a purer product by heating the chloride with sodium in a steel cylinder; it then formed yellow scales.

  • The product has a brilliant white fracture, a specific gravity of 4.87, very friable, but harder than quartz or steel.

  • Among manufactures are plate glass and bottles, table ware, paper, bricks, iron and steel articles, and steel sheets and billets.

  • Other important manufactures are iron and steel, slaughtering and meat-packing products, boots and shoes, cigars, furniture, men's clothing, hosiery and knit goods, jute and jute goods, linen-thread, malt liquors, brick, cement, barbed wire, wire nails and planing-mill products.

  • Solingen is one of the chief seats of the German iron and steel industry, its speciality consisting in all kinds of cutlery, Solingen sword-blades have been celebrated for centuries, and are widely used outside Germany, while bayonets, knives, scissors, surgical instruments, files, steel frames and the like are also produced in enormous quantities.

  • These articles are largely made by the workmen at their own homes and supplied to the depots of the large dealers; there are about 20,000 workers in steel in Solingen and the vicinity.

  • 20 a rigid steel wire or gold frames, with fastening-pieces over the ears; single or double eye-glasses, and hand-glasses, or lorgnettes, being varieties of form, according to the circumstances and the wearer's taste.

  • In 1777 the state offered a large premium for every pound of steel, similar to German steel, made within its boundaries; and in 1789 a rolling and slitting mill was built near Providence.

  • The cutting artist lays the piece of unfinished velvet on his bench, and proceeds to carve into the pattern with his chisel, just as though he were shading the lines of the design with a steel pencil.

  • They also construct carriages, wagons and locomotives, and they may therefore be said to have become entirely independent in the matter of railways, for a government iron-foundry at Wakamatsu in Kishifl is able to manufacture steel rails.

  • The other volumes dealt with (a) iron and steel, (b) copper and brass, their smelting, conversion and assaying, and chemical experiments thereon.

  • Imports include cotton and silk goods, coal, iron and steel, petroleum, timber, raw wool, cotton yarn and cork.

  • Iron-foundries, machine-shops and manufactures of various kinds of iron and steel goods are very numerous.

  • In the Roman period Styria, which even thus early was famed for its iron and steel, was inhabited by the Celtic Taurisci, and divided geographically between Noricum and Pannonia.

  • Considerable progress has been made in manufacturing industries, and there are a large number of sugar-mills, cotton factories, woollen mills, smelting works and iron and steel works.

  • Among its manufactures are machine-shop products (the Wheeling & Lake Erie has shops here), iron and steel, pianos and automobile fittings.

  • Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.

  • - Gun steel, C.=0.30%a.

  • - Gun steel, C.=o�30%.

  • - Gun steel, C.=o.30%.

  • - Gun steel, C. o.30%.

  • Iron And Steel.

  • - (Osmond.) Pearlite, steel (carbon about r%) forged and annealed at 800° C. Magnified 1000 diameters.

  • - (Stoughton.) Meshes of pearlite in a netv.-ork of ferrite, from hypo-eutectoid steel.

  • FIC. r3.--(Stoughton.) Meshes of pearlite in a network of cementite from hyper-eutectoid steel.

Browse other sentences examples →