3 in., from July to October inclusive; and ocean steamers, lightened so as to draw 11-13 ft., during August and September.
Stavanger is the first port of call for northward-bound passenger steamers from Hull and Newcastle, and has regular services from all the Norwegian coast towns, from Hamburg, &c. A railway runs south along the wild and desolate coast of Jaederen, one of the few low and unprotected shores in Norway, the scene of many wrecks.
It is noted for the fine boxwood grown in the vicinity, is a port of call for Black Sea coasting steamers and carries on a considerable trade with Constantinople which might be increased were it not for the obstruction of the harbour by a bar.
is the well-protected Gulf of Terranova, a part of which, Golfo degli Aranci, is the port of arrival for the mail steamers from Civitavecchia, and a port of call of the British Mediterranean squadron.
There are regular lines of steamers running between Vancouver and Alaska and the points of connexion with the Yukon territory, as well as lines to Puget Sound and San Francisco in the United States.
of 1889), and the steamers of the British India Navigation Company call there once a week going and coming between Rangoon and Calcutta.
Steamers run from Grand Rapids, through Lake Winnipeg, up Red river to the city of Winnipeg, important locks having been constructed on the river at St Andrews.
==Shipping== Although Argentina has an extensive coast-line, and one of the great fluvial systems of the world, the tonnage of steamers and sailing vessels flying her flag is comparatively small.
Were it not for these dams steamers might reach Mosul itself, at an elevation of 353 ft.
Two lines of steamers, an English and a Turkish, furnish an inadequate service between Basra and Bagdad, but there is no steam navigation on the river above the latter city.
The maritime traffic is largely conducted by the steamers of the subsidized Austrian-Lloyd company, Trieste being the principal commercial centre; the coasting trade is carried on by small Greek and Turkish sailing vessels.
Above these steamers ply to Fort Edmonton, a point upwards of 800 m.
While these early traders used the canoe and the York boat,' yet the steam-boat played an important part in the early history of the region from 1868 till 1885, when access from the United States was gained by steamers down the Red River.
mail steamers call.
rivers by means of subsidized steamers.
Bay City is served by the Michigan Central, the Pere Marquette, the Grand Trunk and the Detroit & Mackinac railways, and by lake steamers.
There is daily steam communication (often interrupted in bad weather) with Civitavecchia from Golfo degli Aranci (the mail route), and weekly steamers run from Cagliari to Naples, Genoa (via the east coast of the island), Palermo and Tunis, and from Porto Torres to Genoa (calling at Bastia in Corsica and Leghorn) and Leghorn direct.
1050 steamers, with a tonnage of 2,629,000, and 1062 sailers, tonnage 1,090,000; the total of both classes was 3,719,000 tons.
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
The first-named is far finer than its fellows, and is navigable for steamers for about 40 m.
Algiers maintains communication with Marseilles by a quick service of steamers, which run the 497 miles across the Mediterranean in twenty-eight to thirty hours.
of the VernexMontreux railway station, while it is well served by steamers plying over the Lake of Geneva.
Ocean-going steamers anchor outside the reef.
There is direct steamship communication between Togoland and Hamburg, and the steamers of three French and two English lines call at Togoland ports.
Fokia has acquired local importance however as a port of call for coasting steamers, and it is used to some degree as a summer residence by Smyrniotes.
Nearly all the cable companies possess their own steamers, of sufficient dimensions and specially equipped for making ordinary repairs; but for exceptional cases, where a considerable quantity of new cable may have to be inserted, it may be necessary to charter the services of one of the larger vessels owned by a cable-manufacturing company, at a certain sum per day, which may well reach £200 to £300.
Among the steamers the increase has chiefly taken plac in vessels of more than 1000 tons displacement, but the number of large sailing vessels has also increased.
Senators and deputies receive no salary but have free passes on railways throughout Italy and on certain lines of steamers.
himself at the head of the movement; at first he had refused, but reports of the progress of the insurrection soon determined him to risk all on a bold stroke, and on the 5th of May he embarked at Quarto, near Genoa, with Bixio, the Hungarian Trr and some 1000 picked followers, on two steamers.
An effort to encourage the development of the mercantile marine was made in the same year, and a convention was concluded with the chief lines of passenger steamers to retain their fastest vessels as auxiliaries to the fleet in case of war.
There is communication both south and north by rail, and regular steamers serve the ports of the colony, the principal Pacific Islands, Australia, &c. From 1853 to 1876 Auckland was the seat of the provincial government, and until 1865 that of the central government, which was then transferred to Wellington.
The river is navigable to Quibdo (250 m.), and for the greater part of its course for large vessels, but the bars at its mouth prevent the entrance of sea-going steamers.
The Murray is navigable for small steamers from this town to its mouth, a distance of 1800 miles.
in width and from 3 to 5 fathoms deep, navigable for steamers of good size.
Chesney was sent out at the head of an expedition with instructions to transport two steamers from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and, after putting them together at Birejik, to attempt the descent of the river to the sea.
Midhat caused many of the dams to be destroyed and for some years occasional steamers were run between Meskene and Hillah in flood time, from April to August.
This afterwards declined, but it is now one of the principal points of communication between England and France, the railway company maintaining a daily service of fast steamers to Dieppe in connexion with the Chemin de fer de 1'Ouest.
wide; and it is now the place of departure and arrival of the mail steamers of the Hamburg-American Steamship Company, who in 1901 transferred here a part of their permanent staff.
The Uruguay is navigable all the year by steamers from the island From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
Others are navigable only for short distances by steamers of light draught.
Steamers make the tour of the loch, starting from Balloch and calling at Balmaha, Luss, Rowardennan, Tarbet, Inversnaid and Ardlui.
above the treaty port of Yo-chow, and between which mart and Han-kow steamers of 500 tons burden run; and (3) Chang-te Fu, on the Yuen-kiang.
A service of the British India Steam Navigation Company's steamers has been established between Negapatam and Colombo through Palk Strait and this narrow passage.
Panama is served by regular steamers to San Francisco, Yokohama and other Pacific ports.
It is the place of transhipment from the large Glasgow passenger steamers to the small craft built for the navigation of the canal.
Russia from a remote antiquity, but now navigable only in its lower portion, and the Embach, navigated by steamers to Dorpat (Yuryev).
source, and steamers ply as far as Kovno; it is connected by the Oginsky canal with the Dnieper.
Light boats and rafts are floated at all points, and steamers ply on its lower portion; its estuary has important fisheries.
Dvina, and the Pripet, both very important for navigation - as well as several smaller tributaries on which rafts are floated; on the left the Sozh, the Desna, one of the most important rivers of Russia, navigated by steamers as far as Bryansk, the Sula, the Psiol and the Vorskla.
During the summer time it has water of sufficient depth for steamers of light draft as far as Nan-ch'ang, and it is navigable by native craft for a considerable distance beyond that city.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, by inter-urban electric lines and in summer by steamers to Boston.
It is connected by the Zederik and Merwede canals with Amsterdam, and steamers ply hence in every direction.
Harwich is one of the principal English ports for continental passenger traffic, steamers regularly serving the Hook of Holland, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Esbjerg, Copenhagen and Hamburg.
from Harwich up the Stour, where the passenger steamers start.
Regular passenger steamers serve Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight.
At Meshed i Sar, the port, or roadstead of Barfurush, the steamers of the Caucasus and Mercury Company call weekly, and a brisk shipping trade is carried on between it and other Caspian ports.
Part of these rivers are navigable for small steamers, and the Sao Francisco must some day be of great importance in the development of Central Brazil.
Regular passenger steamers run from Grimsby to Dutch and south Swedish ports, and to Esbjerg (Denmark), chiefly those of the Wilson line and the Great Central railway.
It is served by the Tampa Northern, the Atlantic Coast Line and the Seaboard Air Line railways, and by lines of steamers to the West Indies and to the Gulf and Atlantic ports of the United States.
In order to reach water sufficiently deep for the steamers, the railway tracks have been carried by earth filling about seven-eighths of a mile into the bay.
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western, and the Wisconsin Central railways; by ferry across the lake to Frankfort, Mich., and Ludington, Mich.; by the Ann Arbor and the Pere Marquette railways; and by the Goodrich line of lake steamers.
Since 1880 services of omnibus steamers (now municipal) have also been introduced.
In 1840 Boston was selected as the American terminus of the Cunard Line, the first regular line of trans-Atlantic steamers.
from the terminus of the river steamers at Narayanganj.
An electric tramway connects Margate with Broadstairs and Ramsgate, and during the season it is served by numerous pleasure steamers from London.
Steamers ply from it weekly to Misovaya (Posolskoe) on the opposite shore, a few times a year to VerkhneAngarsk, at the northern extremity of the lake, and frequently to the mouth of the Selenga.
Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.
The primitive methods originally in use in the Russian oil-fields have already been described; but these were long ago superseded by pipe-lines, while a great deal of oil is carried by tank steamers on the Caspian to the mouth of the Volga where it is transferred to barges and thence at Tzaritzin to railway tank-cars.
Regular lines 'of steamers specially equipped to meet winter conditions, most of them being car ferries, cross the lake and the strait of Mackinac all winter between the various ports.
It has little trade, but is the principal tourist centre on this part of the coast, and the steamers from Hull and Newcastle, the Norwegian ports, Hamburg, Antwerp, &c., call here.
It is served by the Arkansas, Louisiana & Gulf, the Little Rock & Monroe, the% Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific (Queen & Crescent), and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways, and by river steamers plying between New Orleans and Camden, Arkansas.
and 6th Ave., New York City, and it also has docks of several lines of Transatlantic and coast steamers.
It is on the main line of the Pere Marquette railway, and during the summer season is served by lake steamers.
Over this line passes an enormous trade from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean - the railway with its "Empress" steamers on the Pacific and also on the Atlantic Ocean claiming to have as its termini Liverpool and Yokohama.
Communication with the islands is maintained by steamers from Leith and Aberdeen to Lerwick, the capital (twice a week), and to Scalloway, the former capital, and other points (once a week).
The steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company call here regularly, and it is the starting-point for the vessels plying on the Chindwin.
There is direct connexion with New York by steamers, which make the journey in about four days; and there is also connexion with Miami in Florida.
In January and February 1865 no less than 20 steamers arrived at Nassau, importing 14,182 bales of cotton,, valued at £554,675.
and in a few months the steamers and their crews departed,, and New Providence subsided into its usual state of quietude.
Small steamers ply on the Drina, Save and Una, but the Bosna, though broad from its very source, is, like the Vrbas, too full of shallows to be utilized; while the Narenta only begins to be navigable when it enters Dalmatia.
It is regularly visited by steamers from Trieste, Fiume, Brindisi, and other Austro-Hungarian and Italian ports, as well as by many small Greek and Turkish coasters.
In1890-1891the number of steamers that entered and cleared Turkish ports was 38,601, and of sailing vessels 140,726, the total tonnage of both classes of vessels being 30,509,861.
In1897-1898the number of steamers was 39,680 of 32,446,320 tons, the number of sailing vessels being 134,059 of 2,207,137 tons, thus giving a total tonnage of 34,653,457.
In1904-1905the number of steamers was 49, 2 35 of 44,180,000 tons.
from the Persian Gulf, by means of two lines of steamers, one English and one Turkish.
British steamers were first placed upon the Tigris as a result of the expedition of Colonel F.
Since that time, a British gunboat has been stationed before the residency, and British steamers have been allowed to navigate the river.
The more numerous vessels of the Turkish service are so small, so inadequately equipped and so poorly handled, that they are used for either passenger or freight transport only by those who cannot secure the services of the British steamers.
Above Bagdad there are no steamers on the Tigris, but sailing vessels of 30 tons and more navigate the river to Samarra and beyond.
Pnom-Penh communicates regularly by the steamers of the "Messageries Fluviales" by way of the Mekong with Saigon.
The arrivals from and clearances for foreign ports in 1907 were as follows: Steamers.
A fleet of shallow-draught screw steamers provides a favourite means of communication between the business centre of the city and the outlying colonies of villas.
In 1907 there were (exclusive of fishing vessels) 470 sailing ships with a tonnage of 2 71,661, and 610 steamers with a tonnage of 1,256,449.
Of these, however, only three are of any great extent, and one, where the largest class of ocean-going steamers and of war vessels for the German navy are built, employs about 5000 persons.
Art industries, particularly those which appeal to the luxurious taste of the inhabitants in fitting their houses, such as wall-papers and furniture, and those which are included in the equipment of ocean-going steamers, have of late years made rapid strides and are among the best productions of this character of any German city.
alongside), which is used by French, Swedish and transatlantic steamers.
It still retains the proud distinction of being unbridged, and still the River Flotilla Company appoints its steamers at regular intervals to visit all the chief ports on its banks as far as Dibrugarh.
The railway from Budapest to Constantinople crosses the Save by a fine bridge on the south-west, above the landing-place for steamers.
He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and afterwards joined his father in his shipping business, being from 1896 to 1905 managing director of the Moor line of cargo steamers.
At the present day steamers ply from Tyumen, at the foot of the Urals, to Semipalatinsk on the border of the Kirghiz steppe and to Tomsk in the very heart of West Siberia.
Navigation on the Siberian rivers has developed both as regards the number of steamers plying and the number of branch rivers traversed.
In 1900, one hundred and thirty private and several crown steamers plied on the Ob-Irtysh river system as far as Semipalatinsk on the Irtysh, Biysk on the Ob, and Achinsk on the Chulym.
On the Yenisei steamers ply from Minusinsk to Yeniseisk, and to Ghilghila at its mouth; on its tributary, the Angara, of which some rapids have been cleared, though the Padun rapids have still to be rounded by land; and on the Selenga.
On the Lena and the Vitim there are steamers, and a small railway connects the Bodoibo river port with the Olekma gold-washings.
It starts from Perm on the Kama, and, crossing the Urals, reaches Ekaterinburg - the centre of mining industry - and Tyumen on the Tura, whence steamers ply via Tobolsk to Tomsk.
From Lake Baikal the road proceeds to Verkhne-udinsk, Chita and Stryetensk on the Shilka, whence steamers ply to the mouth of the Amur and up the Usuri and Sungacha to Lake Khangka.
The Great Western railway company maintains a regular service of passenger steamers to Guernsey and Jersey.
1896), has been established on a slight elevation overlooking the river at the point below the rapids where steamers come to anchor, about one mile below Ahvaz.
Steamers ply regularly from Saigon through Mytho to Pnompenh, and launches proceed from this place, the capital of Cambodia, to the Preapatano rapids, and beyond this a considerable portion of the distance to Luang Prabang, the journey being finished in native boats.
of which are navigable for small steamers.
The Paraguay is in great part a lowland river, with a sluggish current, and is navigable by large river steamers up to Corumba, and by smaller steamers to Cuyaba and the mouth of the Jauru.
The port of Pernambuco, or Recife, is formed by a stone reef lying across the entrance to a shallow bay at the mouth of two small rivers, Beberibe and Capibaribe, and is accessible to steamers of medium draught.
The coastwise service centres at Rio de Janeiro, from which port the Lloyd Brazileiro sends steamers regularly south to Montevideo, and north to Para and Manaos, calling at the more important intermediate ports.
From Montevideo river steamers are sent up the Parana and Paraguay rivers to Corumba and Cuyaba, in the state of Matto Grosso.
There were also six lines of river steamers receiving subsidies from the national government in 1904, and the aggregate paid to these and the coastwise lines was 2,830,061 milreis.
In 1901 the merchant navy included 228 steamers of 91,465 tons net, and 343 sailing vessels of 76,992 tons net.
In summer, steamers ply between Leith and Aberdour and other pleasure resorts; and there is also a service to Alloa and Stirling.
The unsuitability of the harbour for modern steamers, the bad anchorage outside and the extension of railways from Smyrna have greatly lessened its former importance as an emporium for west central Anatolia.
The port is served by coasting steamers of the local companies only.
As a result of harbour works, however, a channel has been cleared and steamers can ascend the river for 6 m.
Durban (Port Natal) is in regular communication with Europe via Cape Town and via Suez by several lines of steamers, the chief being the boats of the Union-Castle line, which sail from Southampton and follow the west coast route, those of the German East Africa line, which sail from Hamburg and go via the east coast route and those of the Austrian Lloyd from Trieste, also by the east coast route.
There are also two direct lines of steamers between London and Durban (a distance of 6993 nautical miles), average passage about twenty-six days; the mail route taking twenty to twenty-two days.
Durban is also in regular and frequent communication by passenger steamers with the other South African ports, as well as Mauritius, Zanzibar, &c., and with India, Australia, the United States and South America.
To deepen the channel over the bar at Durban so that steamers might enter the harbour was the cause of labour and expenditure for many years.
The total length of the river system of Hungary is about 8800 m., of which only about one-third is navigable, while of the navigable part only one-half is available for steamers.
The Danube is navigable for steamers throughout the whole of its course in Hungary.
Of these 95 vessels with a tonnage of 89,161 tons were steamers.
The tonnage of British steamers amounted to somewhat more than t i% of the total tonnage of steamers entered and cleared.
were navigable by steamers.
Fort William is a popular tourist resort and place of call for the steamers passing through the Caledonian canal.
It has a considerable trade in timber, and a local trade by steamers on Storsjb.
distant), and by the coasting steamers (from Boston) of the Eastern Steamship Co.
This is one of the principal ports in cross-Channel communications, the steamers serving Boulogne, 30 m.
Folkestone inner harbour is dry at low water, but there is a deep water pier for use at low tide by the Channel steamers, by which not only the passenger traffic, but also a large general trade are carried on.
The river is navigable for large steamers up to the city, and above it by vessels of lighter draught.
Natal is the starting-point of the Natal and Nova Cruz railway, and is a port of call for coastwise steamers, which usually anchor outside the bar.
The prosperity of the town has been revived in modern times by the establishment by the railway company of a branch line from Sittingbourne in connexion with a service of mail and passenger steamers to Flushing (Holland), which run twice daily.
The Orinoco trade is carried on almost wholly through Port of Spain, Trinidad, where merchandise and produce is transferred between light draught river boats and foreign ocean-going steamers.
and the traffic is carried by foreign-owned steamers.
Above Ciudad Bolivar transportation is effected by two or three small river steamers and a great number of small craft (lauchas, bungos, balandras, &c.), using sails, oars and punting poles.
The fleet of steamers and barges navigating the Elbe is in point of fact greater than on any other German river.
The passenger traffic, which is in the hands of the Sachsisch-Bohmische Dampfschifffahrtsgesellschaft is limited to Bohemia and Saxony, steamers plying up and down the stream from Dresden to Melnik, occasionally continuing the journey up the Moldau to Prague, and down the river as far as Riesa, near the northern frontier of Saxony, and on the average 12 million passengers are conveyed.
Guaymas is the only port of importance on the coast, but it has a large trade and is visited by the steamers of several lines.
The introduction of steam has greatly increased the shipping on the Rhine; and small steamers ply also on the Main, the Neckar, the Maas and the Mosel.
A large pleasure traffic is maintained by the steamers of the New Palace Company and others in summer between London Bridge and Southend, Clacton and Harwich, Ramsgate, Margate and other resorts of the Kent coast, and Calais and Boulogne.
Passenger steamers sail from the port of London to the principal ports of she British Isles and northern Europe, and to all parts of the world, but the most favoured passenger services to and from Europe and North America pass through other ports, to which the railways provide special services of trains from London.
Tilbury Docks are used by the largest steamers trading with the port.
from the sea, it is navigable throughout the year, and its chief tributary in Burma, the Chindwin, is also navigable for steamers for 300 in.
before it joins the Irrawaddy, and is navigable for steamers as far as Kamaing for about four months in the year.
Steamers plied on the Irrawaddy as far as Thayetmyo.
In 1911-3 a pipe-line was laid from Matadi, on the Congo estuary, to Stanley Pool to supply the river steamers with petroleum for fuel and reservoirs capable of holding 8,000 tons of oil were built.
It is served by the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic (which has shops here), and the New York, Philadelphia && Norfolk railways, and by steamers on the Wicomico river, which has a channel 9 ft.
It is visited by the ocean steamers of several lines, and is the centre of a very extensive beche-de-mer and pearl fishery.
of Kirkwall; and steamers sail at regular intervals from the harbour to Wick, Aberdeen and Leith.
Hangchow lies at the head of the large estuary of that name, which is, however, too shallow for navigation by steamers.
The sea frontage extends about three miles; there is, however, no harbour, and steamers have to lie about a mile out, goods and passengers being landed in surf boats.
for steamers of 20 to 2 ft.
The rivers forming this system are the Maranon from Puerto Limon to Tabatinga on the Brazilian frontier (484 m.), the Japura, Putumayo, Javary, Napo, Tigre, Huallaga, Ucayali, Pachitea, Jurua, Purus, Acre, Curaray and Aguarico all navigable over parts of their courses for steamers of 4 to 8 f t.
As for the Maranon, it is claimed that steamers of 20 ft.
It is visited by ocean-going steamers, and is the centre of the Peruvian river transportation system.
There are small ports, or trading posts, on all the large rivers, and occasional steamers are sent to them with supplies and to bring away rubber and other forest products.
Of a widely different character is the navigation of Lake Titicaca, where steamers ply regularly between Puno and Guaqui, the latter on the south-east shore in railway connexion with La Paz, the capital of Bolivia.
Paita, Eten, Pacasmayo, Salaverry, Callao, Pisco, Mollendo and Ilo, five of which are ports of call for foreign coasting steamers.
extremity of Nantucket Island is Siasconset (locally 'Sconset), a summer resort of some vogue; it has a Marconi wireless telegraph station, connecting with incoming steamers, the Nantucket shoals lightship and the mainland.
end of the harbour), which is served by steamers from New Bedford, Martha's Vineyard and Wood's Hole, and is connected with Siasconset by a primitive narrowgauge railway.
Frequent steamers connect Hakodate and Yokohama and other ports, and there is daily communication with Aomori, 56 m.
Its harbour affords ample accommodation for the largest fleets, it is a coaling station for the British navy, the headquarters of the British military forces in West Africa, the sea terminus of the railway to the rich oil-palm regions of Mendiland, and a port of call for all steamers serving West Africa.
and E., and Matanzas is served by steamships to New York and by the coast steamers of the Herrera Line.
It also works coal-fields at Yentai and Fushun; has a line of steamers plying between Tairen and Shanghai; and engages in enterprises of electricity, warehousing and the management of houses and lands within zones 50 Ii (17 m.) wide on either side of the line.
long, emptying into the Oklawaha river and navigable by small river steamers.
Below Calcutta important boat routes through the delta connect the Hugli with the eastern branches of the river, for both native craft and steamers.
It is a railway centre of some importance on the Simplon line, and is also the southern terminus of the steamers which ply on Lake Maggiore.
Passenger steamers serve Belfast and Londonderry regularly, and the Isle of Man and other ports during the season.
Steamers of several lines call regularly, and there is a daily mail to Syracuse.
The Maltese have to pay for food imports by imperial wages, earned' in connexion with naval and military services, by commercial services to passing steamers and visitors, by earnings which emigrants send home from northern Africa and elsewhere, and by interest on investments of Maltese capital abroad.
Steamers lie about 1 m.
The principal town (pop. about 3000) is on the north-west, upon the only harbour (only fit for small steamers), which is fortified.
A fleet of small steamers, schooners and junks, carries on trade with the towns and districts on the east and west coasts of the Gulf of Siam.
In 1875 1568 sailing ships and 698 steamers (with a total of 740,731 tons) entered and 1588 sailing ships and 700 steamers (with a total of 756,807 tons) cleared this port; in 1883 3379 sailing and 1126 steam vessels (with a total of 1,056,201 tons) entered and 3276 sailing and 1120 steam vessels (with a total of 960,229 tons) cleared.
Most of the sailing vessels were Greek and Turkish, and most of the steamers were Austrian, French and Turkish.
Cherbourg is a port of call for the American, North German Lloyd and other important lines of transatlantic steamers.
Passing Santarem, the highest point to which the tide ascends, and the limit of navigation for large sailing vessels and steamers, the river divides below Salvaterra into two arms, called the Tejo Novo (the only one practicable for ships) and the Mar de Pedro.
British steamers on Victoria Nyanza maintain communication between the German stations and the lake terminus of the Uganda railway.
The German East Africa Line of Hamburg runs a fleet of first-class steamers to East Africa, which touch at Tanga, Dar-es-Salaam and Zanzibar.
Several lines of steamers - chiefly British and German - maintain regular communication with Europe, the British mail boats taking sixteen days on the journey.
Necessaries had been delayed in the attempt to import steamers from the coast before the railway was made.
The most important and best-known rivers are the Amberno, in the north, discharging by a wide delta at Point d'Urville; the Kaiserin Augusta, which, rising in the Charles Louis range, and entering the Pacific near Cape della Torre, is navigable by ocean steamers for 180 m.; the Ottilien, a river of great length, which discharges into the sea a short distance south of the last named; and the Mambare, navigable by steam-launch for 50 m.
A line of steamers plies between New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and Singapore.
At regular intervals the steamers of the Dutch Royal Steam Packet Company call at Dorey and other points, while administrative posts have been established elsewhere in lieu of others previously attempted but abandoned.
The principal passenger steamers sailing from the port are those of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company for the West Indies and the Pacific (via Panama) and for Brazil and the River Plate, &c., and the Union-Castle line for the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, East Africa, &c., both of which companies have their headquarters here.
New York is served by the American line, the North German Lloyd line, &c. Regular steamers serve the Channel Islands, Cherbourg and Havre, the principal English ports, Dublin, Belfast and Glasgow; and local steamers serve Cowes (Isle of Wight) and other neighbouring ports.
He also began to purchase sea-going vessels as well as river steamers and barges, the latter, especially on the Rhine, on a constantly increasing scale.
He next organized an extensive international business in coal, and had 13 steamers trading to and from North Sea, Baltic, Mediterranean and Black Sea ports.
At the head of Windermere is Waterhead, the landing-stage of Ambleside, which is served by the lake steamers of the Furness Railway Company.
Buffalo lies at the lower end of natural lake navigation, though by the building of a ship canal in Canada, lake steamers can proceed into Lake Ontario and thence to the St Lawrence.
Excluding Coal for Fuel by Ocean Steamers.
All these streams are interrupted by rapids as they descend from the highlands to the plain and are unnavigable by steamers save for a few miles from their mouths.
In 1908 three lines of ocean-going steamers were making regular voyages up the Amazon to Iquitos (about 2500 m.).
These improvements caused Galle to be abandoned as a port of call for steamers in favour of Colombo, while Trincomalee has been abandoned as a naval station.
The port has assumed first-class importance, mail steamers calling vL23 d regularly as well as men-of-war and the mercantile marine of all nations; and it is now one of the finest artificial harbours in the world.
The Marine Department was created a separate branch of the board of trade in 1850, about which time many new and important marine questions came under the board of trade, such, for example, as the survey of passenger steamers, the compulsory examination of masters and mates, the establishment of shipping offices for the engagement and discharge of seamen.
by 7 z These islands lie almost in the direct route of steamers plying between Nagasaki and Shanghai, and are distant some 50 m.
It is a modern commercial town, having a school of arts and crafts, several churches, and large government yards for the building of river steamers, lighters and tug-boats.
During summer steamers ply between the Trossachs and Stronachlachar and there is a daily service of coaches from the Trossachs to Callander (about io m.) and to Aberfoyle (9 m.), and between Stronachlachar, to Inversnaid on Loch Lomond (about 42 m.).
The Bang Pakong is navigable for steamers of small draught for about 30 m.
The completed work provides for a waterway for steamers drawing 24 ft.
There are steamers plying direct from Brussels to London, and 372 vessels of a total tonnage of 76,000 entered and left the port in 1905.
Steamers ply in summer to Kremenchug, Ekaterinoslav, Mogilev, Pinsk and Chernigov.
The port is the largest on the south coast, and all the coast steamers, and those serving Christiania from London, Hull, Grangemouth, Hamburg, &c., touch here.
During the season steamers connect it with London and the intermediate watering-places on the north coast, and with Calais and Boulogne.
Nevertheless along the whole line some kind of surveillance was established long before the close of 1861, and, in proportion as the number of vessels available increased, the blockade became more and more stringent, until at last it was practically unbreakable at any point save by the fastest steamers working under unusually favourable conditions of wind and weather.
Three hundred and thirteen steamers were brought into the service.
Special reversible paddle steamers (called doubleenders) were designed for service in the inlets and estuaries, and sixty-six ironclads were built and employed during the four years.
Mississippi river steamers were armed with heavy guns and protected by armour, boiler-plates, cotton bales, &c., and some fast cruisers were constructed for ocean work, one of them actually reaching the high speed of 17.75 m.
This total increased very rapidly, and in 1902 a monthly service of steamers was established from Limon to Bristol and Manchester.
In 1904, exclusive of banana steamers, there were regular steamship services weekly from Limon to the United States and Germany, fortnightly to Great Britain, and monthly to France, Italy and Spain; while at Puntarenas four American liners called monthly on the voyage between San Francisco and Panama.
A railway (23 m.) runs southward a little beyond Cienaga (on a large lagoon of the same name), connects with steamers running to Barranquilla (50 m.
In 1905 the mercantile marine of Mexico comprised only 32 steamers, of 13,199 tons, and 29 sailing vessels, of 8451 tons.
The coastwise trade is principally under the Mexican flag, but the steamers are owned abroad.
An official publication entitled " Mexico: Yesterday and To-day, 1876-1904," states that while the number of steamers engaged in the foreign trade increased from 841 to 969 in the 17 years from 1886 to 1903, the number of Mexican steamers decreased from 55 to 4.
The following table illustrates the growth and progress of British home shipping: Number and Tonnage of Steamers and Sailing Vessels registered in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands on 31st of December of various Years.
distant; and by steamers of the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic railway company.
At its mouth, on the north side, is the North Wall quay, where :the principal steamers lie, and in this vicinity are the docks.
The direct route to Dublin from London and other parts of England is by the Holyhead route, controlled by the London & North Western railway with steamers to the port of Dublin itself, while the company also works in conjunction with the mail steamers of the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company to the outlying port of Kingstown, 7 m.
Passenger steamers, however, also serve Liverpool, Heysham, Bristol, the south coast ports of England and London; Edinburgh and Glasgow, and other ports of Great Britain.
It is the seaward terminus of the Yukon & White Pass railway, by which goods and passengers reach the Klondike; and is connected with Dawson by telegraph and with Seattle by cable, and with Seattle, San Francisco and other Pacific ports by steamers.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad, and by daily steamers to and from New York City.
It is served by the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern (of which it is a terminus) and the Chicago & North Western railways, by an interurban electric line, and by lake steamers.
The more populous islands are in regular communication with certain points of the mainland by means of steamers fromGlasgow, Oban and Mallaig.
On the southern side the ports of San Jose, Champerico and Ocos are visited by the Pacific mail steamers, by the vessels of a Hamburg company and by those of the South American (Chilean) and the Pacific Steam Navigation Companies.
The Civil War caused enormous losses to the merchant marine, and the worldwide substitution about this time of iron steamers for wooden steamers and sailing vessels contributed to prevent a recovery; because, although ship-building was one of the earliest arts developed in the colonies, and one that was prosecuted with the highest success so long as wooden ships were the dominant type, the United States has never achieved marked success with the iron steamer, and the law has precluded the registry as American of vessels built abroad.
The city is served by two divisions of the Boston & Maine railroad, and by coast and river freight steamers.
All of these are rapid and shallow, affording navigation only for canoes; but the largest of them, Nelson river, drains the great Manitoban lakes, Winnipeg, Winnipegosis and Manitoba, which are frequented by steamers, and receive the waters of Lake-of-the-Woods, Lake Seul and many others emptying into Winnipeg river from Ontario; of Red river coming in from the United States to the south; and of the southern parts of the Rocky Mountains and the western prairie provinces drained by the great Saskatchewan river.
of navigation for stern-wheel steamers.
are continuously navigable for suitable steamers, so that most of the traffic connected with the rich Klondike gold-fields passes over its waters.
The Pacific border of the coast range of British Columbia is ragged with fjords and channels, where large steamers may go 50 or Too m.
Numerous steamship lines ply between Canada and Great Britain; direct communication exists with France, and the steamers of the Canadian Pacific railway run regularly to Japan and to Australia.
Steamers ply on lakes and rivers in every province, and even in the far northern districts of Yukon and Mackenzie.
of channel open to steamers part of the year, and in time of high flood considerably more.
Augusta is served by the Southern, the Augusta Southern (controlled by the Southern), the Atlantic Coast Line, the Charleston & Western Carolina (controlled by the Atlantic Coast Line), the Georgia and the Central of Georgia railways, by an electric line to Aiken, South Carolina, and by a line of steamers to Savannah.
On the north side, closely adjacent, are the Lilla Bommenshamn, where the Gota canal steamers lie, and the two principal railway stations, Statens and Bergslafs Bangard.
There is daily communication by regular lines of steamers with Shanghai, and smaller steamers ply on the upper section of the river between Hankow and Ich`ang.
The bulk of the leaf tea, however, now goes to Russia by direct steamers to Odessa instead of to London as formerly, and a large quantity goes overland via Tientsin and Siberia in the form of brick tea.
Cienfuegos is served by the United railways and by steamers connecting with Santiago, Batabano, Trinidad and the Isle of Pines.
It has an excellent harbour, Port Kennedy, and is a port of call for mail steamers and the centre of the beche-de-mer and pearl fisheries of the Torres Strait.
A weekly service between Constantza and Constantinople is conducted by state-owned steamers, including the fast mail and passenger boats in connexion with the Ostend and Orient expresses.
It lies on the right bank of the Elbe, which becomes here navigable for steamers and is spanned by an iron bridge 1700 ft.
The imports for 1905 aggregated 103,874,724 milreis gold, or about two-fifths the importation of the whole republic. The shipping arrivals in 1908 were as follows: from foreign ports, 1195 steamers of 3,479,357 tons and 75 sailing vessels of 84,474 tons; from national ports, 243 foreign steamers of 582,633 tons, 773 national steamers of 475,587 tons and 294 national sailing vessels of 20,250 tons - in all 2580 vessels of 4,642,301 tons.
from the city, with which it is connected by river steamers.
Its foreign trade is limited to light-draught steamers able to cross the bar at the entrance to the lake.
Oceangoing steamers find ample accommodation.
Although the carrying trade of Hanover is to a great extent absorbed by Hamburg and Bremen, the shipping of the province counted, in 1903, 750 sailing vessels and 86 steamers of, together, 55,498 registered tons.
Again, in April 1883, it was suddenly renewed, and within twenty days five steamers arrived from Hong Kong bringing 2253 Chinese passengers, followed the next month by 1100 more, with the news that several thousand more were ready to embark.
There is anchorage for steamers in 5 to 6 fathoms. Vessels were loaded and discharged by lighters from the beach.
The river is navigable for large steamers up to the raudal or rapid of Cariben, 700 m.
Cattle are carried by vessels from the valley to the neighbouring foreign colonies, and a few local steamers do a coasting trade between the river and the Caribbean ports of Venezuela.
A transit trade with Colombia, via the Meta river, has been carried on by two small steamers, but subject to interruptions from political causes.
A steam ferry connects with the Rangoon-Mandalay line, and the steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla.
The harbour is small, and closed to large vessels by a bar of sand; but it is a port of call for the Austrian Lloyd steamers, and annually accommodates about 1500 small vessels, the majority of which are engaged in the coasting trade.
The products of the surrounding district, however, cause the town to increase steadily, and it is a regular port of call for the main Levantine lines of steamers.
A dangerous bar at the mouth of the river permits the entrance only of the smaller coasting steamers, but the port is an important commercial centre, and exports considerable quantities of cotton, hides, manicoba, rubber, fruit, and palm wax.
Another line of steamers runs from Hamburg to Sylt via Heligoland.
Steamers ply regularly along the Amur for 62 months, from Khabarovsk to Stryetensk, on the Shilka terminus of the Trans-Siberian railway; but only light steamers with 2 to 3 ft.
Over 20 steamers, maintained by the state, ply between Braila and Rotterdam.
Newton in 1857-1858; but of recent years it has become a frequent calling station of touring steamers, which can still lie safely in the southern harbour.
The steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company call at Henzada and Myan-aung.
Steam tramways connect it with Schiedam, and with Numansdorp on the south of the island of Beierland, and there is a regular service of steamers by river and canal to Antwerp by way of the South Holland and Zeeland Islands and in every direction.
The larger passenger steamers of the Rotterdamsche Lloyd to Netherlands India and of the Holland-American Steamship Company (the two principal passenger and cargo steamship companies at Rotterdam) have their berths on the south side of the river.
Norwich is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford and the Central Vermont railways, by steamers from New York and New London, and by interurban electric lines connecting with Willimantic, New London and other neighbouring places.
Besides the Reit Diep, there are the Ems Canal and the Damster Diep, connecting it with Delfzyl and the Dollart, the Kolonel's Diep with Leeuwarden, the Nord Willem's Canal with Assen and the south and the Stads-Canal south-east with the Ems. Hence steamers ply in all directions, and there is a regular service to Emden and the island of Borkum via Delfzyl, and via the Lauwers Zee to the island of Schiermonnikoog.
There is a railway in the lower valley of the Achin River, connecting the capital, Kotaraja, and neighbourhood with Olehleh, a good, free port, with an active trade, carried on by numerous steamers, both Dutch and foreign.
The port is connected with Buenos Aires and Montevideo by regular lines of river steamers, which are its only means of trade communication with the outer world, and with the inland town of Villa Rica (95 m.) by a railway worked by an English company.
The only very large establishment is one for the construction of iron steamers, engines, &c., but some factories have been erected within the area of the free port for the purpose of working up imported raw materials duty free.
It is navigable for steamers for 73 m., as far as the confluence of its tributary, the Laba (200 m.
Aalesund is a port of call for steamers between Bergen, Hull, Newcastle and Hamburg, and Trondhjem.
Bremen is the centre for some of the more important of the German shipping companies, especially of the North German Lloyd (founded in 1856), which, on the 1st of January 1905, possessed a fleet of 382 steamers of 693,892 tons, besides lighters and similar craft.
Belgium has no state navy, although various proposals have been made from time to time to establish an armed flotilla in connexion with the defence of Antwerp. The state, however, possesses a certain number of steamers.
These steamers are chiefly employed on the passenger route between Ostend and Dover.
Whereas the lines of steamers from Ostend are chiefly with Dover and London, those from Antwerp proceed to all parts of the world.
Steamers ply as far as Sandomir.
Regular steamers serve the port from Hull and Newcastle (about 40 hours), from Hamburg, and from all the Norwegian coast towns.
Many local steamers penetrate the fjords, touching at every village and gaard.
In 1908 the standing army, including cavalry, infantry and artillery, numbered about 1150 men; and there were five government steamers used for transport and revenue purposes.
By careful dredging, the broad river is navigable as far as Brisbane for ocean-going vessels, and the port is the terminal port for the Queensland mail steamers to Europe, and is visited by steamers to China, Japan and America, and for various inter-colonial lines.
In summer, passenger steamers run to and from Ilfracombe pier; but the shipping trade generally has declined, though herring fisheries are carried on with success.
The days of sailing ships from China had not entirely passed, and the steamers of the period were built for rapidity of transit to London.
Romance was no more, although there was extreme competition in building steamers with great power and speed to land their cargoes rapidly by the new route.
America gets its tea largely through its western seaboard from China, Japan, Ceylon and India, while not a little is reaching it of recent years by steamers running direct from those countries via the Suez Canal to New York.
The Australian demand is fed by steamers from Calcutta and Colombo, with some additions direct from China and Java.
The Fulda, navigable for 63 m., and the Werra, 38 m., above the point where they unite, form by their junction the Weser, which has a course of 271 m., and receives as navigable tributaries the Aller, the Leine from Hanover, and some smaller streams. Oceangoing steamers, however, cannot get as far as Bremen, and unload at Bremerhaven.
Trawlers are extensively employed, and steamers bring the catches directly to the large fish markets at Geestemnde and Altona, whence facilities are afforded by the railways for the rapid transport of fish to Berlin and other centres.
Steamers - 486 236,509 1171 1,537,563 I
Steamers - - 521 274,952 1401 1,981,831 1
In 1868 it consisted of ~5 steamers (including 2 ironclads) and 44 sailing vessels, but during the various wars of the period 1848-1871, only a few minor actions were fought at sea, and for many years after the French War the development of the navy did not keep pace with that of the empires commercial interests beyond the seas, or compete seriously with the naval power of possible rivals.
As early as 1881 the government had published a proposal for a subvention to German shipping; ~ it was criticized with peculiar energy by Bamberger ~ and the Free Traders; a Bill introduced in 1884 was abandoned, but in 1885 Bismarck succeeded in carrying a vote by which, for fifteen years, four million marks could annually be devoted to helping a line of mail steamers to the Pacific and Australia and a branch line in the Mediterranean.
An agreement was made with the Norddeutsche Lloyd, one clause of which was that all the new steamers were to be built in Germany; in 1890 a further vote was passed for a line to Delagoa Bay and Zanzibar.
Steamers not of too great draught can run the rapids going down, but vessels must come up through the canals.
The Odero yards, for the construction of merchant and passenger steamers, have been similarly extended, and the Foce yard is also important.
Palermo, Messina and Catania are the most important harbours, the former being one of the two headquarters (the other, and the main one, is Genoa) of the Navigazione Generale Italiana, and a port of call for the steamers from Italy to New York.
Communication is maintained with Lake Ontario and St Lawrence ports by several lines of steamers.
Trenton is served by the Pennsylvania (main line and Belvidere division) and the Philadelphia & Reading railway systems, by inter-urban electric railways, and by small freight and passenger steamers on the Delaware river; the Delaware && Raritan Canal connects with r 0 U Argent Diagram of Half of Trente et Quarante Table.
It is served by the Apalachicola Northern railway (to Chattahoochee, Florida), and by river steamers which afford connexion with railways at Carrabelle about 25 m.
The main rivers are navigable for ocean-going steamers for a distance of from 15 to 40 m.
The rivers are the great highways of communication, but, in consequence of the lowness of the water between October and May, navigation is then only possible for shallow draught stern-wheel steamers and launches.
From the Forcados mouth of the Niger steamers can ascend the main stream as far as Jebba, a distance of 530 m.
Steamers can also ascend the Benue to Yola, 480 m., above the confluence of that river with the Niger at Lokoja.
In the delta region every place of importance is easily reached by river steamers, and there is a regular service between Forcados and Lagos by the lagoons.
Regular communication is maintained with Europe by steamers running between Liverpool and Forcados, Bonny and Calabar, the steamers calling at other West African ports en route.
Other steamers ply between the ports named (and others in the protectorate) and London and Hamburg.
Discipline on board of steamers is prescribed by the Marine Discipline Act.
Besides the many steamship lines which use the Suez Canal, other steamers run direct from European ports to Alexandria.
In number of steamships entering the harbour Great Britain is first, with some 800 yearly, or about 50% of all steamers entering.
Stewart, to resign his commission, and to proceed with the stores and the steamers to the equatorial provinces, which he would consider as placed under the king of the Belgians.
Steamers were to be employed in such reaches as proved practicable, but the force was to be conveyed in special whale-boats, by which the difficulty of transport is reduced to very narrow limits.
A letter from Gordon, dated the 4th of November and received on the 17th of November, stated that his steamers would await the expedition at Metemma, and added, We can hold out forty days with ease; after that it will be difficult.
On this day General Gordons four steamers arrived; and on the morning of the 24th Sir C. Wilson, with 20 British soldiers in red coats and about 280 Sudanese, started in the Bordein and Telahawiyeh for Khartum.
After reconnoitring farther, the steamers turned and proceeded down stream under a heavy fire, the Sudanese crews showing signs of disaffection.
batteries, together with a large extension of the Wadi Haifa railway, eleven steamers, and three hundred more whale-boats, would be required.
In the meantime the arrival of Stanley at Lake Albert had caused rumours, which quickly spread to Omdurman, of a great invading white pasha, with the result that in July the khalifa sent up the river three steamers and six barges, containing 4000 troops, to oppose this new-comer.
The flotilla, under Commander Keppel, R.N., consisted of 10 gunboats and 5 transport steamers.
The bay has long been recognized as one of the best on the Argentine coast, and when the channel is properly dredged, will admit steamers of 30 ft.
Steamers ply to Rustchuk, 2 z m.
The extensive water-front is lined with wharves, some of which can accommodate the largest ocean steamers.
Bluff Harbour is the port of call and departure for steamers for Melbourne and Hobart.
Large steamers navigate up to Galatz and Braila.
In 1901, 1411 steamers and sailing craft aggregating 1,830,000 tons register cleared from Sulina for European ports carrying, besides other merchandise, nearly 13,000,000 quarters of grain.
from London by the London, Tilbury & Southend railway; and is served also by the Great Eastern railway, and during the summer by steamers from London.
in length, permits the approach of steamers at all tides.
The weight of salmon carried by Scottish railways and steamers in 1894 was 2437 tons, and in 1903 it was 2047 tons.
On the other hand, during fifty- five years the tonnage of steamers had grown to be a hundred times as large as it was in: 1850.
Many of the most important improvements in the construction of ships, especially steam vessels, are due to the enterprise and skill of the Clyde shipbuilders, who, from the time of Robert Napier of Shandon (1791-1876), who built and engined the first steamers for the Cunard Company, formed in 1840, have enjoyed an unrivalled reputation for the construction of leviathan liners, both as regards mechanical appliances and the beauty and convenience of the internal arrangements.
The steamers are flatbottomed paddle boats drawing 3 ft.
According to Alexander Garland (Peru in 1906), the rivers of eastern Ecuador are navigable at low water for steamers of 2 to 4 ft.
draft for an aggregate distance of 1503 m., as follows: - These same rivers are navigable at high water for steamers of 191 ft.
of the Aguarico, and for steamers of 2 to 4 ft.
It is divided midway by the large island of Puna, at the eastern end of which is the anchorage for steamers too large to ascend the Guayas.
Commerce.-Ecuador has no merchant marine beyond a few small vessels engaged in the coastwise traffic, some eighteen or twenty river steamers on the Guayas and its tributaries, and a number of steam launches, towboats and various descriptions of barges engaged in the transportation of produce and goods on the rivers.
The Guayas river is navigable up to Guayaquil for steamers drawing 22 ft.
agreed to run a subsidized line of mail steamers from Basra to Bagdad.
The slow mail steamers stop at every port in the Gulf, either on the upward or the downward voyage.
The port is an outlet for a wide area of pastoral country and for several goldfields, and has regular communication with all ports north and south by lines of steamers.
Steamers call at Eigg at regular intervals and less often at Rum and Canna.
Up to 1915 the southern terminus of the railway was on the Shire river at Port Herald, which place steamers were unable to reach in the dry season owing to insufficient water.
Ocean steamers are able to enter it at all states of wind and tide.
In it is held a large market, chiefly for the disposal of live stock, camels, cattle, &c. The port is a regular calling-place and also a coaling station for the steamers of the Messageries Maritimes, and there is a local service to Aden.
The harbour is a fine one, and the above-named company possesses three wharves capable of berthing the largest Easterngoing ocean steamers.
The station for steamers, Dubravitsa, with its custom-house, standing on the banks of the Danube, forms practically the harbour of Pozharevats.
It is one of the principal ports for passenger communications across the Channel, steamers connecting it with Calais and Ostend.
In 1888 the gates of Wellington dock were widened to admit a larger type of Channel steamers; new coal stores were erected on the Northampton quay; the slipway was lengthened 40 ft., and widened for the reception of vessels up to 800 tons.
The authorities at Palermo, learning of a projected rising, attacked the convent of La Gangia, the headquarters of the rebels, and killed most of the inmates; but in the meanwhile Garibaldi, whose hesitation had been overcome, embarked on the 5th of May 1860, at Quarto, near Genoa, with l000 picked followers on board two steamers, and sailed for Sicily.
It is connected by lines of steamers with Miami and Port Tampa, with Galveston, Texas, with Mobile, Alabama, with Philadelphia and New York City, and with West Indian ports, and by regular schooner lines with New York City, the Bahamas, British Honduras, &c. There is now an extension of the Florida East Coast railway from Miami to Key West (1 55 m.).
from shore to shore, and an outer roadstead exposed to the violent winds of this latitude, where the larger ocean-going steamers were compelled to anchor before the construction of the new port works.
In 1908 the breakwaters and the greater part of the dredging had been completed, and the entrance channel, with a minimum depth of 242 ft., permitted the admission of large steamers.
In 1908 20 lines of ocean-going steamers made regular calls at the port and several lines of river steamers ran to Buenos Aires and the ports of the Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers.
At the outset, steamers and barges were used to convey the war material across, until the French ports became congested; then special barges were introduced to take goods direct into the French canals and thence as close to the firing line as possible.
The port, which also includes a portion of the river-bed, communicates with Havre and Newhaven by a regular line of steamers; it has a considerable fishing population.
Japanese steamers ply on the Han between Chemulpo and Seoul.
There is a railway station (Portsmouth Harbour) on the Hard, from which passenger steamers serve Ryde in the Isle of Wight.
There is daily winter communication with Brodick and Lamlash by steamer from Ardrossan, and in summer by many steamers which call not only at these piers, but at Corrie,Whiting Bay and Loch Ranza.
This river, of volume varying with the tide and the amount of rainfall, is normally navigable by small steamers and native prahus, of a draught of 4 to 5 ft., for 300 to 400 m., that is to say, from Pontianak up to Sintang, and thence as far as Benut.
These rivers are navigable for two-thirds of their course by steamers of a fair size, but in many cases the bars at their mouths present considerable difficulties to ships drawing anything over 8 or 9 ft.
The Sabah Steamship Company, subsidized by the Chartered Company, runs steamers along the coast, calling at all the company's stations at which native produce is accumulated.
Steamers ply on both lakes, but the channel is rendered impassable by a rapid near the town of Tipitapa, at its northern extremity.
The steamers which ply on the great lakes and the San Juan, besides other vessels which visit the principal Caribbean and Pacific ports, are national property; but from the 1st of January 1905 all the state railways were leased to a syndicate for fifteen years and the steamers for twenty-five years.
At the beginning of the 10th century most of the ocean-going steamers were owned in Germany or the United States; British enterprise being chiefly represented by schooners trading from Jamaica to Bluefields and Greytown.
The revenue of the republic is derived mainly from customs duties, liquor, tobacco and slaughter taxes, railways and steamers, the postal and telegraph services, and the gunpowder monopoly.
The steamers of the Shannon Development Company ply on the river, and some trade by water is carried on with Limerick, and with Dublin by the river and the Grand and Royal canals.
The lines serving these places all start from the eastern railway station (that from Thun reaches the western or main railway station), whence steamers depart for the Giessbach Falls, Brienz and Meiringen, on the way to Lucerne or to the Grimsel Pass.
It rises in the government of Orel, among hills which also send tributaries to the Dnieper and the Don, and receives on the left the Upa, the Zhizdra, the Ugra (300 m.), the Moskva, on which steamers ply up to Moscow, the Klyazma (J95 m.), on whose banks arose the middle-Russian principality of Suzdal, and on the right the navigable Tsna (255 m.) and Moksha.
Dredging machines are kept constantly at work, while steamers are stationed near the most dangerous sandbanks to assist vessels that run aground.
Horse-power is still extensively resorted to along the three canal systems. The first large steamers of the American type were built in 1872.
Thousands of steamers are now employed in the traffic, to say nothing of smaller boats and rafts.
Many of the steamers use as fuel mazut or petroleum refuse.
Three steamers run weekly to Rangoon.
But trade is now passing over to Haifa, at the south side of the bay, as its harbour offers a safer roadstead, and is a regular calling .place for steamers.
Local communications are maintained by river steamers.
Daily communication is maintained with Cunningham at the lakes' entrance, and ocean-going steamers ply frequently between Sale and Melbourne.
At the broad shipping quay (Skeppsbro) which flanks the palace on the north and east, most of the sea-going steamers lie; and the exchange, custom-house, numerous banks and merchants' offices are in the immediate vicinity.
On Riddarholm also are various government offices, and most of the steamers for Molar and the inland navigation lie alongside its quays.
In the Brahmaputra valley steamers carry as much as 86% of the exports, and 94% of the imports.
The steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company also call here.
The number and gross tonnage of the registered sailing and steam vessels belonging to the United Kingdom were as follows at the end of each of the years named: These figures show not only that steamers have been rapidly taking the place of sailing vessels, but also that large steamers are preferred to small, their average tonnage having increased from 1092 tons in 1895 to 1440 in 1909.
Shallowdraught steamers navigate the lake and river, and Lesser Slave lake and river, with one interruption - at Grand Rapids near the mouth of the Clearwater river.
The steamers for the White and the Blue Nile start from the quay along the esplanade.
- The total number of vessels in the Swedish commercial fleet is about 3000 of 650,000 tons register; of which steamers represent about 380,000 tons.
Messier, Pitt, Sarmiento and Smyth's Channels, which form a comparatively safe and remarkably'picturesque inside route for small steamers, about 338 m.
In 1905 their ocean-going merchant marine consisted of only 148 vessels, of which 54 were steamers of 42,873 tons net, and 94 were sailing vessels of 39,34 6 tons.
Nineteen of the 54 steamers belonged to a subsidized national line whose West Coast service once extended to San Francisco, California, and a large part of the others belongs to a Lota coal-mining and copper-smelting company which employs them in carrying coal to the northern ports and bringing back, metallic ores for smelting.
The navigable rivers and inland lakes employ a number of small steamers.
The Straits of Magellan were occupied; under an American engineer, William Wheelwright, a line of steamers was started on the coast, and, by a wise measure allowing merchandise to be landed free of duty for re-exportation, Valparaiso became a busy port and trading centre; while the demand for food-stuffs in California and Australia, following upon the rush for gold, gave a strong impetus to agriculture.
It is a port of call for several lines of steamers, including those of the Pacific Mail running between Liverpool and Valparaiso.
NavyThe Persian government possesses nine steamers.
In 1865 the shah had mooted the idea of a Persian naval flotilla in the Persian Gulf, to consist of two or three steamers manned by Arabs and commanded by English naval The Control officers; but the idea was discountenanced by the of the British government, to whom it was known that the Persian project really concealed aggressive designs upon the independence of the islands and pearl fisheries of Bahrein (Curzon, Persia, ii.
Fifteen or sixteen years later it was repeatedly pointed out to the authorities that the revenues from the customs of the Persian Gulf would be much increased if control were exercised at all the ports, particularly the small ones where smuggling was being carried on on a large scale, and in 1883 the shah decided upon the acquisition of four or five steamers, one to be purchased yearly, and instructed the late Au Kuli Khan, Mukhber ad-daulah, minister of telegraphs, to obtain designs and estimates from British and German firms. The tender of a well-known German firm at Bremerhaven was finally accepted, and one of the ministers sons then residing in Berlin made the necessary contracts for the first steamer.
Two steamers, the Susa and the Persepolis, were completed in January 1885 at a cost of 32,000, and despatched with German officers and crew to the Persian Gulf.
When the steamers were ready to do the work they had been intended for, the farmer, or farmers, of the Gulf customs raised difficulties and objected to pay the cost of maintaining the Persepolis; the governor of Muhamrah would not allow any interference with what he considered his hereditary rights of the shipping monopoly on the Karun, and the objects for which the steamers had been brought were not attained.
yds.); both being set apart for the use of steamers.
The entrances to the Birkenhead Docks are capable of docking the largest class of steamers afloat.
The Araguaya has a course of 1080 m., considerable stretches of which are navigable for small river steamers, but as the river below Santa Anna Island is interrupted by reefs and rapids in two places - one having a fall of 85 ft.
Steamers run at regular intervals between Freetown and Liverpool, Hamburg, Havre and Marseilles.
The port is available for small boats only; steamers anchor in the roadstead about a quarter of a mile from the shore.
The lake belongs to both Bolivia and Peru, and is navigated by steamers running between Bolivian ports and the Peruvian railway port of Puno.
An exception formerly existed at Puerto Acre, on the Acre river, to which ocean-going steamers could ascend from Para, but Brazil first closed the Purus and Acre rivers to foreign vessels seeking this port, and then under a treaty of 1903 acquired possession of the port and adjacent territory.
It has a British post office, and the steamers of the British India Company call there weekly.
for large steamers.
along the coast lagoons, a service of small steamers.
There are quays, docks and a harbour at the mouth of the Leven, and a pier for river steamers runs out from the Castle rock.
Boats can ply from Kyodan S., and light draught steamers ascend as far as Shwegon, 63 m.
The Confederates established agencies in England for the purchase of arms, which they despatched in ordinary merchant vessels to the Bahamas, whence they were transhipped into fast steamers especially constructed for the purpose.
The harbour is used mainly by Clyde passenger steamers and yachtsmen.
In unfavourable conditions and for larger steamers tugs and lighters are employed.
It was cleared by 508 sailing-vessels and 461 steamers, the latter with a total tonnage of 364,904 in 1904; the exports were of the value of £180,699 (principally wine, sulphur, oil, tartar and tartaric acid), and the imports £92,486 (coal, timber and sundries).
long was constructed, and serves as a calling-place for pleasure steamers.
This is on the route followed by the Gdta Canal steamers between Stockholm and Gothenburg: it was opened in 1819, though a canal was begun here in the first half of the 15th century at the instigation of the patriot Engelbrecht.
The passenger steamers to Great Britain, mainly under the control of the City of Cork Steam Packet Company, serve Fishguard, Glasgow, Liverpool, Plymouth and Southampton, London and other ports, starting from Penrose Quay on the North Channel.
Country boats hold their own against inland steamers, especially in imports.
It is a port of call for the Austrian Lloyd steamers, and communicates by rail with Sebenico, Knin and Sinj.
The upper Uruguay is navigable from the Quarahim to the town of Sao Tome, and small river steamers ply regularly between Ceibo, on the Argentine side, and the latter.
The lower Hudson is navigable for the largest ocean-going steamers.
Secondary harbours, available for coasting steamers, south of Sydney are at Port Hacking, Wollongong, Kiama, Shoalhaven, Bateman's Bay, Ulladulla, Merimbula, and Twofold Bay.
This difficulty has, for the most part, been removed by the establishment of numerous important lines of steamers trading between Australia and Europe, and recent years have therefore seen considerable expansion in all forms of agriculture.
It is the outlet of a rich and extensive agricultural district, and throughout the season of navigation lines of steamers ply between Toronto and the other lake ports on both the Canadian and American sides, the route of some of them extending from Montreal to Port Arthur on Lake Superior.
Maintains a service of passenger steamers between Newhaven and Dieppe.
Dover to Calais (South-Eastern & Chatham railway); to Ostend (Belgian Royal mail steamers).
The chief ports for trans-Atlantic traffic are Liverpool and Southampton, and special trains are worked in connexion with the steamers to and from London.
But it was not until 1904 that the fairway was deepened sufficiently to allow mail steamers of the largest class to enter the harbour.
by river steamers, and for more than Soo m.
A low water-parting divides the Yukon valley from the Kuskokwim, the second river of Alaska in size, navigable by steamers for 600 m.
Steamers ply regularly in two directions from St Petersburg - to the monasteries of Konnevitz and Valamo, and to the mouth of the Svir, whence they go up that river to Lake Onega and Petrozavodsk; and small vessels transport timber, firewood, planks, iron, kaolin, granite, marble, fish, hay and various small wares from the northern shore to Schlusselburg, and thence to St Petersburg.
The harbour is much frequented by steamers from Constance and other places on the lake.
from its mouth, is one of the principal ports of call for steamers, and the centre of a considerable trade.
The railway company has constructed jetties at which steamers can discharge their cargo.