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steam-engine

steam-engine

steam-engine Sentence Examples

  • It was here that, on his invitation, James Watt constructed a model of his steam-engine, which was tested in a now disused colliery.

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  • It should be noted, however, that with an icemaking plant of moderate size and a steam-engine of good construction the weight of steam used will not neatly equal the weight of ice produced, so that the difference must be made up either by distillation, which is a costly process, or by ordinary water.

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  • Even then, however, the amount of operative heat is very small in comparison with that which passes through the steam-engine, per cubic foot swept through by the piston, for the change of state which water undergoes in its transformation into steam involves the taking in of much more heat than can be communicated to air in changing its temperature within such a range as is practicable.

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  • When it is connected with a continuously turning piece (such as the crank of a steam-engine) the ends of the stroke of the reciprocating piece correspond to the d.ead-points of the path of the connected point of the turning piece, where the line of connection is continuous with or coincides with the crank-arm.

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  • The steam-engine first took the place of horses as a threshing power in 1803, but it was not until after 1850 that it was applied to the plough and cultivator.

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  • Let C~ be the axis, and Ti the connected point of the beam of a steam-engine; TiTi the connecting or crank-rod; T2 the other connected point, and the centre of the crank.pin; C!

    2
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  • Reciprocating PiecesStrokeDead-P o-jnts.T he distance between the extremities of the path of the connected point in a reciprocating piece (such as the piston of a steam-engine) is called the stroke or length of stroke of, that piece.

    2
    2
  • He argued that, if heat be energy, then, when it is employed in doing work, as in a steam-engine, some of the heat must itself be consumed in the operation.

    1
    1
  • He was about to write a treatise on the steam-engine, when the Polish War of Independence summoned him back to Warsaw in November 1830.

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  • The fundamental difference between the two methods is that while the mechanical energy developed by a steam engine is in the first case applied directly to the driving-axle of the locomotive, in the second case it is transformed into electrical energy, transmitted over relatively long distances, and retransformed into mechanical energy on the driving-axles of the train.

    0
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  • The horsepower available at the driving-axle, conveniently called the brake horse-power, is from 20 to 30% less than the indicated horse-power, and the ratio, B.H.P./I.H.P. =E, is called the mechanical efficiency of the steam engine.

    0
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  • 7 he torque exerted on the driving-axle by the steam engine just at starting may be that due to the full boiler pressure acting in the cylinders, but usually the weight on the coupled wheels is hardly sufficient to enable advantage to be taken of the full boiler pressure, and it has to be throttled down by the regulator to prevent slipping.

    0
    0
  • Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.

    0
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  • For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.

    0
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  • The fouling of the air that results from the steam-engine, owing to the production of carbonic acid gas and of sulphurous fumes and aqueous vapour, is well known, and its use is now practically abandoned for underground working.

    0
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  • On farms of moderate size it is usual to hire steam tackle as required, the outlay involved in the purchase of a set being justifiable only in the case of estates or of very big farms where, when not engaged in ploughing, or in cultivating, or in other work upon the land, the steam-engine may be employed in threshing, chaff-cutting, sawing and many similar operations which require power.

    0
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  • He was a voluminous writer on subjects directly connected with his chair, and, besides contributing almost weekly to the technical journals, such as the Engineer, brought out a series of standard textbooks on Civil Engineering, The Steam-Engine and other Prime Movers, Machinery and Millwork, and Applied Mechanics, which have passed through many editions, and have contributed greatly to the advancement of the subjects with which they deal.

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  • long, down which tramcars are drawn by a stationary steam-engine.

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  • Besides its copper works the town at present possesses extensive tinplate, steel and galvanized sheet works as well as iron and brass foundries, steam-engine factories, brick and tile works, engineering works, flannel factories and chemical works.

    0
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  • For ordinary metallurgical work the electric furnace, requiring as it does (excepting where waterfalls or other cheap sources of power are available) the intervention of the boiler and steam-engine, or of the gas or oil engine, with a consequent loss of energy, has not usually proved so economical as an ordinary direct fired furnace.

    0
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  • To find the total heat of a substance in any given state defined by the values of p and 0, starting from any convenient zero of temperature, it is sufficient to measure the total heat required to raise the substance to the final temperature under a constant pressure equal to p. For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam.

    0
    0
  • The total heat with which we are actually concerned in the working of a steam engine is the total heat as here defined, and not the total heat as defined by Regnault, which, however, differs from (E+pv) only by a quantity which is inappreciable in ordinary practice.

    0
    0
  • This method of representation is applicable to certain kinds of problems, and has been developed by Macfarlane Gray and other writers in its application to the steam engine.

    0
    0
  • Hence, when in 1850 a hydraulic installation was required for a new ferry station at New Holland, on the Humber estuary, the absence of water mains of any kind, coupled with the prohibitive cost of a special reservoir owing to the character of the soil, impelled him to invent a fresh piece of apparatus, the "accumulator," which consists of a large cylinder containing a piston that can be loaded to give any desired pressure, the water being pumped in below it by a steam-engine or other prime mover.

    0
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  • In addition, numerous other researches stand to Joule's credit - the work done in compressing gases and the thermal changes they undergo when forced under pressure through small apertures (with Lord Kelvin), the change of volume on solution, the change of temperature produced by the longitudinal extension and compression of solids, &c. It was during the experiments involved by the first of these inquiries that Joule was incidentally led to appreciate the value of surface condensation in increasing the efficiency of the steam engine.

    0
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  • 15.6 Tons 15.2 Tons steam-engine, representing graphically by a curve CPD the relation between the volume and pressure of the powder-gas; and in addition the curves AQE of energy e, AvV of velocity v, and AtT of time t can be plotted or derived, the velocity and energy at the muzzle B being denoted by V and E.

    0
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  • It owes its development to the steam-engine and the factory system, and in recent years has shared in the increase of trade owing to the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, which has added greatly to its prosperity.

    0
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  • But even more important than these were the advent of the steam engine between 1760 and 1770, and of the railroad in 1825, each of which gave the iron industry a great impetus.

    0
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  • Both created a great demand for iron, not only for themselves but for the industries which they in turn stimulated; and both directly aided the iron master: the steam engine by giving him powerful and convenient tools, and the railroad by assembling his materials and distributing his products.

    0
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  • Stalybridge is one of the oldest seats of the cotton manufacture in this locality, the first cotton mill having been erected in 1776, and the first steam engine in 1795.

    0
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  • Repeated annexations, the spread of education, the appearance of the steam engine and the telegraph wire, all alike revealed a consistent determination to substitute an English for an Indian civilization.

    0
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  • Just as the working substance which alternately takes in and gives out heat in the steam-engine is water (converted during a part of the action into steam), so in the air-engine it is air.

    0
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  • The air receives heat from an external furnace just as water does in the boiler of a steam-engine, by contact with a heated metallic surface, but it takes up heat from such a surface with much less readiness than does water.

    0
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  • In the Kaiser Friedrich mine close by, the first steam-engine in Germany was erected on the 23rd of August 1785.

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  • (See STEAM-ENGINE for a description of this and other types of mechanism of this class.)

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  • (See STEAM-ENGINE.)

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  • In balancing the mechanism of a steam engine it is often sufficiently accurate to consider the motion of the pistons as simple harmonic, and the effect on the framework of the acceleration of the connecting rod may be approximately allowed for by distributing the weight of the rod between the crank pin and the piston inversely as the centre of gravity of the rod divides the distance between the centre of the cross head pin and the centre of the crank pin.

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  • For example, in a machine-work, the steam-engine, which is the prime mover of the various tools, has a flywheel on the crank-shaft to store and restore the periodical excess of energy arising from the variations in the effort exerted by the connecting-rod upon the crank; and each of the slotting machines, punching machines, riveting machines, and other tools has a flywheel of its own to store and restore energy, so as to enable the very different resistances opposed to those tools at different times to be overcome without too great unsteadiness of motion.

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  • I28.* The Connecting Rod Problem.A particular problem of practical importance is tbe determination of the force producing the motion of the connecting rod of a steam-engine mechanism of the usual type.

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  • This involved almost a revolution in the nature of the tools used, and in the methods of working, and may ultimately even greatly affect the factory system and the concentration of population in large towns which was brought about in the early part of the 19th century by the invention of the steam engine.

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  • The steam engine weighed about 7 lb per horse-power, but the equilibrium of the apparatus 'was defective.

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  • I, Steam engine and stone E, Cooling pipes for Gloverbreaker for breaking up tower acid.

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  • En 1767 Hargreaves produced the spinning-jenny; Arkwrights;pinning machine was exhibited in 1768; Cromptons mule was ~inished in 1779; Cartwright hit upon the idea of the power,oom in 1784, though it was not brought into profitable use till The Staffordshire potteries had been flourishing under Wedgwood SinCe 1763, and the improved steam-engine was brought into shape by Watt in 1768.

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  • A horizontal compound steam-engine is usually employed to drive the exhauster.

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  • In Chinese he published books on arithmetic, geometry, algebra (De Morgan's), mechanics, astronomy (Herschel's), and The Marine Steam Engine (T.

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  • The pistons of the compression and expansion cylinders are connected to the same crankshaft, and the difference between the power expended in compression and that restored in expansion, plus the friction of the machine, is supplied by means of a steam engine coupled to the crankshaft, or by any other source of power.

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  • The compressor may be driven by a steam engine or in any other convenient manner.

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  • Each pound of steam can thus be made to give up some 950 units of heat; while in a good steam engine only about 200 units are utilized in the steam cylinder per pound of steam, and in addition allowance has to be made for mechanical inefficiency.

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  • The pages are: Santa is in the cab of the steam engine.

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  • The first steam locomotive to use the newly re-laid track ran in 1996, and was the North Downs Railroad sole operational steam engine.

    0
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  • A scene reminiscent of the famous days of the steam engine at London's Waterloo Station.

    0
    0
  • In figure 1 the shaft of the steam engine drives a vertical spindle.

    0
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  • The steam in this running tank would supply superheated steam to the steam engine.

    0
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  • Trevithick ran a steam engine through the streets of Camborne on Christmas Eve 1801.

    0
    0
  • He was about to write a treatise on the steam-engine, when the Polish War of Independence summoned him back to Warsaw in November 1830.

    0
    0
  • He argued that, if heat be energy, then, when it is employed in doing work, as in a steam-engine, some of the heat must itself be consumed in the operation.

    0
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  • His father, John, a Staffordshire man, was one of a party of four mechanics who were sent by Boulton and Watt to Philadelphia about 1790 to set up a steam engine for the city water-works and who in 1793-1794 built at Belleville, N.J., the first steam engine constructed wholly in America; he made a fortune in the manufacture of furniture, but lost it by the burning of his factories.

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  • The most usual way of providing this power is by the combustion of coal in the fire-box of a boiler and the utilization of the steam produced in a steam-engine, both boiler and engine being carried on a frame mounted on wheels in such a way that the crank-shaft of the steam-engine becomes the driving-axle of the train.

    0
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  • The fundamental difference between the two methods is that while the mechanical energy developed by a steam engine is in the first case applied directly to the driving-axle of the locomotive, in the second case it is transformed into electrical energy, transmitted over relatively long distances, and retransformed into mechanical energy on the driving-axles of the train.

    0
    0
  • The horsepower available at the driving-axle, conveniently called the brake horse-power, is from 20 to 30% less than the indicated horse-power, and the ratio, B.H.P./I.H.P. =E, is called the mechanical efficiency of the steam engine.

    0
    0
  • The steam engine of a locomotive has the general characteristics of a double-acting non-condensing engine (see Steam Engine).

    0
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  • 7 he torque exerted on the driving-axle by the steam engine just at starting may be that due to the full boiler pressure acting in the cylinders, but usually the weight on the coupled wheels is hardly sufficient to enable advantage to be taken of the full boiler pressure, and it has to be throttled down by the regulator to prevent slipping.

    0
    0
  • Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.

    0
    0
  • For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.

    0
    0
  • The thermal efficiency of a steam-engine is in general increased by carrying out the expansion of the steam in two, three or even more stages in separate cylinders, notwithstanding the inevitable drop of pressure which must occur when the steam is transferred from one cylinder to the other during the process of expansion.

    0
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  • The fouling of the air that results from the steam-engine, owing to the production of carbonic acid gas and of sulphurous fumes and aqueous vapour, is well known, and its use is now practically abandoned for underground working.

    0
    0
  • Livingston and the inventive genius of Robert Fulton in the application of the steam engine to traffic on the water, had given to them a monopoly of all transportation by steam within the waters of New York.

    0
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  • The steam-engine first took the place of horses as a threshing power in 1803, but it was not until after 1850 that it was applied to the plough and cultivator.

    0
    0
  • On farms of moderate size it is usual to hire steam tackle as required, the outlay involved in the purchase of a set being justifiable only in the case of estates or of very big farms where, when not engaged in ploughing, or in cultivating, or in other work upon the land, the steam-engine may be employed in threshing, chaff-cutting, sawing and many similar operations which require power.

    0
    0
  • He was a voluminous writer on subjects directly connected with his chair, and, besides contributing almost weekly to the technical journals, such as the Engineer, brought out a series of standard textbooks on Civil Engineering, The Steam-Engine and other Prime Movers, Machinery and Millwork, and Applied Mechanics, which have passed through many editions, and have contributed greatly to the advancement of the subjects with which they deal.

    0
    0
  • long, down which tramcars are drawn by a stationary steam-engine.

    0
    0
  • Besides its copper works the town at present possesses extensive tinplate, steel and galvanized sheet works as well as iron and brass foundries, steam-engine factories, brick and tile works, engineering works, flannel factories and chemical works.

    0
    0
  • For ordinary metallurgical work the electric furnace, requiring as it does (excepting where waterfalls or other cheap sources of power are available) the intervention of the boiler and steam-engine, or of the gas or oil engine, with a consequent loss of energy, has not usually proved so economical as an ordinary direct fired furnace.

    0
    0
  • To find the total heat of a substance in any given state defined by the values of p and 0, starting from any convenient zero of temperature, it is sufficient to measure the total heat required to raise the substance to the final temperature under a constant pressure equal to p. For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam.

    0
    0
  • The total heat with which we are actually concerned in the working of a steam engine is the total heat as here defined, and not the total heat as defined by Regnault, which, however, differs from (E+pv) only by a quantity which is inappreciable in ordinary practice.

    0
    0
  • This method of representation is applicable to certain kinds of problems, and has been developed by Macfarlane Gray and other writers in its application to the steam engine.

    0
    0
  • Hence, when in 1850 a hydraulic installation was required for a new ferry station at New Holland, on the Humber estuary, the absence of water mains of any kind, coupled with the prohibitive cost of a special reservoir owing to the character of the soil, impelled him to invent a fresh piece of apparatus, the "accumulator," which consists of a large cylinder containing a piston that can be loaded to give any desired pressure, the water being pumped in below it by a steam-engine or other prime mover.

    0
    0
  • It was here that, on his invitation, James Watt constructed a model of his steam-engine, which was tested in a now disused colliery.

    0
    0
  • In addition, numerous other researches stand to Joule's credit - the work done in compressing gases and the thermal changes they undergo when forced under pressure through small apertures (with Lord Kelvin), the change of volume on solution, the change of temperature produced by the longitudinal extension and compression of solids, &c. It was during the experiments involved by the first of these inquiries that Joule was incidentally led to appreciate the value of surface condensation in increasing the efficiency of the steam engine.

    0
    0
  • 15.6 Tons 15.2 Tons steam-engine, representing graphically by a curve CPD the relation between the volume and pressure of the powder-gas; and in addition the curves AQE of energy e, AvV of velocity v, and AtT of time t can be plotted or derived, the velocity and energy at the muzzle B being denoted by V and E.

    0
    0
  • It owes its development to the steam-engine and the factory system, and in recent years has shared in the increase of trade owing to the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, which has added greatly to its prosperity.

    0
    0
  • But even more important than these were the advent of the steam engine between 1760 and 1770, and of the railroad in 1825, each of which gave the iron industry a great impetus.

    0
    0
  • Both created a great demand for iron, not only for themselves but for the industries which they in turn stimulated; and both directly aided the iron master: the steam engine by giving him powerful and convenient tools, and the railroad by assembling his materials and distributing his products.

    0
    0
  • Stalybridge is one of the oldest seats of the cotton manufacture in this locality, the first cotton mill having been erected in 1776, and the first steam engine in 1795.

    0
    0
  • Repeated annexations, the spread of education, the appearance of the steam engine and the telegraph wire, all alike revealed a consistent determination to substitute an English for an Indian civilization.

    0
    0
  • Portions of the cottage of Thomas Newcomen, one of the inventors of the steam-engine, are preserved.

    0
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  • Trans.,1897, P. 381) Determined The Mechanical Equivalent Of The Mean Thermal Unit Between O° And Ioo° C., On A Very Large Scale, With A Froude Reynolds Hydraulic Brake And A Steam Engine Of Ioo H.P. This Brake Is Practically A Joule Calorimeter, Ingeniously Designed To Churn The Water In Such A Manner As To Develop The Greatest Possible Resistance.

    0
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  • Just as the working substance which alternately takes in and gives out heat in the steam-engine is water (converted during a part of the action into steam), so in the air-engine it is air.

    0
    0
  • Even then, however, the amount of operative heat is very small in comparison with that which passes through the steam-engine, per cubic foot swept through by the piston, for the change of state which water undergoes in its transformation into steam involves the taking in of much more heat than can be communicated to air in changing its temperature within such a range as is practicable.

    0
    0
  • The air receives heat from an external furnace just as water does in the boiler of a steam-engine, by contact with a heated metallic surface, but it takes up heat from such a surface with much less readiness than does water.

    0
    0
  • (See Thermodynamics and Steam-Engine.) In Carnot's cycle the substance takes in heat at its highest temperature, then passes by adiabatic expansion from the top to the bottom of its temperature range, then rejects heat at the bottom of the range, and is finally brought back by adiabatic compression to the highest temperature at which it again takes in heat, and so on.

    0
    0
  • In the Kaiser Friedrich mine close by, the first steam-engine in Germany was erected on the 23rd of August 1785.

    0
    0
  • Let C~ be the axis, and Ti the connected point of the beam of a steam-engine; TiTi the connecting or crank-rod; T2 the other connected point, and the centre of the crank.pin; C!

    0
    0
  • Reciprocating PiecesStrokeDead-P o-jnts.T he distance between the extremities of the path of the connected point in a reciprocating piece (such as the piston of a steam-engine) is called the stroke or length of stroke of, that piece.

    0
    0
  • When it is connected with a continuously turning piece (such as the crank of a steam-engine) the ends of the stroke of the reciprocating piece correspond to the d.ead-points of the path of the connected point of the turning piece, where the line of connection is continuous with or coincides with the crank-arm.

    0
    0
  • (See STEAM-ENGINE for a description of this and other types of mechanism of this class.)

    0
    0
  • (See STEAM-ENGINE.)

    0
    0
  • In balancing the mechanism of a steam engine it is often sufficiently accurate to consider the motion of the pistons as simple harmonic, and the effect on the framework of the acceleration of the connecting rod may be approximately allowed for by distributing the weight of the rod between the crank pin and the piston inversely as the centre of gravity of the rod divides the distance between the centre of the cross head pin and the centre of the crank pin.

    0
    0
  • For example, in a machine-work, the steam-engine, which is the prime mover of the various tools, has a flywheel on the crank-shaft to store and restore the periodical excess of energy arising from the variations in the effort exerted by the connecting-rod upon the crank; and each of the slotting machines, punching machines, riveting machines, and other tools has a flywheel of its own to store and restore energy, so as to enable the very different resistances opposed to those tools at different times to be overcome without too great unsteadiness of motion.

    0
    0
  • I28.* The Connecting Rod Problem.A particular problem of practical importance is tbe determination of the force producing the motion of the connecting rod of a steam-engine mechanism of the usual type.

    0
    0
  • This involved almost a revolution in the nature of the tools used, and in the methods of working, and may ultimately even greatly affect the factory system and the concentration of population in large towns which was brought about in the early part of the 19th century by the invention of the steam engine.

    0
    0
  • The steam engine weighed about 7 lb per horse-power, but the equilibrium of the apparatus 'was defective.

    0
    0
  • I, Steam engine and stone E, Cooling pipes for Gloverbreaker for breaking up tower acid.

    0
    0
  • En 1767 Hargreaves produced the spinning-jenny; Arkwrights;pinning machine was exhibited in 1768; Cromptons mule was ~inished in 1779; Cartwright hit upon the idea of the power,oom in 1784, though it was not brought into profitable use till The Staffordshire potteries had been flourishing under Wedgwood SinCe 1763, and the improved steam-engine was brought into shape by Watt in 1768.

    0
    0
  • A horizontal compound steam-engine is usually employed to drive the exhauster.

    0
    0
  • Thus two-thirds of the steam originally employed in the generator is reintroduced into it, leaving only onethird to be supplied by the exhaust steam of the steam-engine.

    0
    0
  • In Chinese he published books on arithmetic, geometry, algebra (De Morgan's), mechanics, astronomy (Herschel's), and The Marine Steam Engine (T.

    0
    0
  • The pistons of the compression and expansion cylinders are connected to the same crankshaft, and the difference between the power expended in compression and that restored in expansion, plus the friction of the machine, is supplied by means of a steam engine coupled to the crankshaft, or by any other source of power.

    0
    0
  • The compressor may be driven by a steam engine or in any other convenient manner.

    0
    0
  • Each pound of steam can thus be made to give up some 950 units of heat; while in a good steam engine only about 200 units are utilized in the steam cylinder per pound of steam, and in addition allowance has to be made for mechanical inefficiency.

    0
    0
  • It should be noted, however, that with an icemaking plant of moderate size and a steam-engine of good construction the weight of steam used will not neatly equal the weight of ice produced, so that the difference must be made up either by distillation, which is a costly process, or by ordinary water.

    0
    0
  • The hearth may either rotate on an inclined axis, so that the path of its surface is oblique to that of the flame, or the working part may be a hollow cylinder, between the fireplace and flue, with its axis horizontal or nearly so, whose inner surface represents the working bed, mounted upon friction rollers, and receiving motion from a special steam-engine by means of a central belt of spur gearing.

    0
    0
  • The first steam locomotive to use the newly re-laid track ran in 1996, and was the North Downs Railroad sole operational steam engine.

    0
    0
  • A scene reminiscent of the famous days of the steam engine at London 's Waterloo Station.

    0
    0
  • In figure 1 the shaft of the steam engine drives a vertical spindle.

    0
    0
  • The steam in this running tank would supply superheated steam to the steam engine.

    0
    0
  • The night left her broken up with only the steam engine block pointing out, which can still be seen today.

    0
    0
  • Trevithick ran a steam engine through the streets of Camborne on Christmas Eve 1801.

    0
    0
  • The steam engine made a sound like a person's breathe when they wheeze.

    0
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  • This steam engine takes visitors on a "Grand Circle Tour" of the park, riding through Main Street USA, New Orleans Square, Mickey's Toontown and Tomorrowland.

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  • "Dr. Toy's 10 Best Toys of 2010", for example, includes sports equipment, toy pianos, and even classics like steam engine trains.

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  • The earliest vehicle on record is a self-propelled road vehicle, powered by a steam engine and built for the French army by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot in 1769.

    0
    0
  • Portions of the cottage of Thomas Newcomen, one of the inventors of the steam-engine, are preserved.

    0
    1
  • The hearth may either rotate on an inclined axis, so that the path of its surface is oblique to that of the flame, or the working part may be a hollow cylinder, between the fireplace and flue, with its axis horizontal or nearly so, whose inner surface represents the working bed, mounted upon friction rollers, and receiving motion from a special steam-engine by means of a central belt of spur gearing.

    0
    1
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