Steam sentence example

steam
  • Father took us to see steam boat it is like house.
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  • We'll just have to let him blow off some steam, and then he'll come around.
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  • The horse's breath made puffs of steam as she trotted along the road to the cadence of tinkling bells.
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  • It was after one before they ran out of steam and called it a night.
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  • He should have just become a steam drill operator!
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  • To that I must entirely change my point of view and study the laws of the movement of steam, of the bells, and of the wind.
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  • Steam rose from them.
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  • Steam and dampness clung to her as she set foot in the bathing room.
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  • He didn't catch the sarcasm in her voice; his gaze was trained on a woman clad only in a towel and trailed by steam, emerging from a door along one wall.
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  • Dean knew the Parkside Sentinel would be going full steam later in the day, so he stopped by the red brick building on his way to work.
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  • As he barked a welcome, steam rolled out of his mouth in a cloud.
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  • We don't start serving until five o'clock called one of a half dozen women setting out food on a steam line.
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  • It was when Pierre (wearing the coachman's coat which Gerasim had procured for him and had disinfected by steam) was on his way with the old man to buy the pistol at the Sukharev market that he met the Rostovs.
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  • To regulate the heat it is necessary either to instal a number of small radiators or to divide the radiators into sections, each section controlled by distinct valves; steam may then be admitted to all the sections of the radiator or to any less number of sections as desired.
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  • It is connected by steam tramway with Antwerp (20 m.
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  • Lieutenant Cushing undertook the attack on her with a steam launch carrying a spar-torpedo and towing an armed cutter.
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  • Thus at no time can steam form in the system.
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  • Tile steam mills give the best results.
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  • If the weather is mild, a moderate heat may be obtained by using the apparatus as an ordinary hot water system, and shutting off the steam injectors.
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  • A quick glance back revealed Princess following, steam puffing from her mouth and nose with every labored step.
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  • When close to he was detected, but he had time to drive the steam launch over the baulks and to explode the torpedo against the "Albemarle" with such success that a hole was made in her and she sank.
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  • It decomposes steam at a red heat, and slowly dissolves in dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, but more readily in nitric acid.
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  • I guess I'm just blowing off steam.
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  • A drawback to the use of steam is the fact that the high temperature of the pipes and radiators attracts and spreads a great deal of dust.
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  • There is daily steam communication (often interrupted in bad weather) with Civitavecchia from Golfo degli Aranci (the mail route), and weekly steamers run from Cagliari to Naples, Genoa (via the east coast of the island), Palermo and Tunis, and from Porto Torres to Genoa (calling at Bastia in Corsica and Leghorn) and Leghorn direct.
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  • Electric power generated by steam is now commonly used in Buenos Aires and other large cities for driving light machinery.
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  • There is also a steam tramway from Cagliari to Quartu S.
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  • They are similar in appearance to a hot-water or steam radiator, and, indeed, some are designed to be filled with water and used as such.
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  • from the boiler house are supplied with superheated steam at a pressure of 35 /b to the in.
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  • The steam is employed for warming apartments by means of pipe radiators, for heating water by steam injections, and for all cooking purposes.
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  • of Amsterdam, with which it is connected by steam tramway.
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  • This steam condensing adds to the water in the pipe and naturally causes an overflow, which is led back to the boiler and re-used.
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  • For large public buildings, factories, &c., heating by steam is generally adopted on account of the rapidity with which heat is available, and the great distance from the boiler at which warming is effected.
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  • In the case of factories the exhaust steam from the engines used for driving the working machinery is made use of and forms the most economical method of heating possible.
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  • There are several different systems of heating by steam - low pressure, high pressure and minus pressure.
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  • The steam is passed through the valve and emerges at the pressure required generally from 3 lb upwards.
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  • The steam is introduced into the pipes at about the pressure of the atmosphere, and is sucked through the system by means of a vacuum pump, which at the same operation frees the pipes from air and from condensation water.
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  • The apparatus needs constant attention, since neglect in stoking would result in stopping the generation of steam, and the whole system would almost immediately cool.
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  • An alternative plan is to pass the water through pipes placed in a steam chest.
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  • The appended table shows the progress made since 1850 with regard to steam power.
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  • West Newton is not far from Boston and we went there in the steam cars very quickly.
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  • We came home in horse cars because it was Sunday and steam cars do not go often on Sunday.
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  • They beat the tattoo, called the roll, had supper, and settled down round the fires for the night--some repairing their footgear, some smoking pipes, and some stripping themselves naked to steam the lice out of their shirts.
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  • "It's the steam that spoils them," he added, stretching out his feet toward the fire.
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  • The " minus pressure " steam system, sometimes termed " atmospheric " or " vacuum," is of more recent introduction than those just described.
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  • whether run by steam, water-power or other motive forces, has played a great part in the promotion of industry; the increase in the amount of steam horse-power employed in industrial establishments is, to a certain degree, an index to the activity of the country as regards manufactures.
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  • It is connected by steam tramway with 'sHertogenbosch (21 m.
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  • Handlooms and small spinTextiles ning establishments have, in the silk industry, given place to large establishments with steam looms. The production of raw silk at least tripled itself between 1875 and 1900, and the value of the silks woven in Italy, estimated in 1890 to be 2,200,000, is now, on account of the development of the export trade calculated to be almost 4,000,000.
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  • pipe superheated steam at 330° F.
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  • Volcanic outbreaks of steam and sulphur-springs are found.
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  • Vulcanization is then effected by steam heat, and, the preparation on the cloth being softened by water, the sheet of rubber is readily removed.
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  • Steam launches did not exist on the river before 1866 or 1867, and houseboats only in the form of college barges at Oxford.
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  • Before the building of the Forth Bridge the customary approach to Fifeshire and the north-east of Scotland was by means of a steam ferry from Granton to Burntisland, which is still used to some extent.
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  • It is divided into three parts, separated by walls, and each containing a lake, of which the middle one emits steam and the two others are cold.
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  • Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.
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  • It is connected with Amsterdam by a steam tramway, passing by way of the small fortified towns of Naarden and Muiden on the Zuider Zee.
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  • The presence in an alloy of a eutectic which solidifies at a much lower temperature than the main mass, implies a great reduction in tenacity, especially if it is to be used above the ordinary temperature as in the case of pipes conveying super-heated steam.
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  • After well washing with water, the slimes are roughly dried in bag-filters or filter-presses, and then treated with dilute sulphuric acid, the solution being heated by steam.
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  • It is only slightly soluble in water, but is readily volatile in steam.
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  • The steam mains to the houses are laid by the supply company; the internal pipes and fittings are paid for or rented by the occupier, costing for an installation from £30 for an ordinary eight-roomed house to £Ioo or more for larger buildings.
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  • The principal publications on heating are: Hood, Practical Treatise on Warming Buildings by Hot Water; Baldwin, Hot Water Heating and Fittings; Baldwin, Steam Heating for Buildings; Billings, Ventilation and Heating; Carpenter, Heating and Ventilating Buildings; Jones, Heating by Hot Water, Ventilation and Hot Water Supply; Dye, Hot Water Supply.
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  • A steam railway ferry connects it with the island railway on Riigen, and so with Sassnitz, whence a regular steamboat mail service affords communication with Trelleborg in Sweden.
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  • Its fires are not volcanic, but result from the combustion of coal some distance underground, giving off much smoke and steam; geologists estimate that the burning has been going on for at least 800 years.
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  • It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
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  • Its two steam cylinders were 8 in.
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  • ft., or 114 gals., of water an hour, and the steam pressure was 50 lb per square inch.
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  • The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.
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  • He loves to climb the bed-posts and unscrew the steam valves much better than to spell, but that is because he does not understand that words would help him to make new and interesting discoveries.
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  • Two lines of steamers, an English and a Turkish, furnish an inadequate service between Basra and Bagdad, but there is no steam navigation on the river above the latter city.
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  • The rate of circulation in the ordinary low pressure hot-water system may be considerably accelerated by means of steam injections.
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  • In the diaphragm valve a thin piece of metal is fixed to an outlet from the boiler, and when a moderate pressure is exceeded this gives way, allowing the water and steam to escape.
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  • Shipping.The following table thhows the increase in tonnage of sailing and steam shipping engaged in foreign trade entered and cleared at the ports of France over quinquennial periods from 1890.
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  • His faith made him believe that his adversaries were in the wrong; but how great must have been this faith, which permitted him to undertake the work at a time when mechanical appliances for the execution of such an undertaking did not exist, and when for the utilization of the proposed canal there was as yet no steam mercantile marine !
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  • Steam.
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  • If the old man was going to sulk, Dean thought, might as well get it out in the open and allow him to vent a little steam.
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  • The snow crunched under their feet and the icy carried Katie's words back in a cloud of steam.
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  • Down the hill, across the creek and across the field to the buffalo shed? the crisp air traced their progress with a wisp of steam.
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  • Heating may be effected by one of the following systems, or installations may be so arranged as to combine the advantages of more than one method: open fires, closed stoves, hot-air apparatus, hot water circulating in pipes at low or at high pressure, or steam at high or low pressure.
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  • Nicoteine is a liquid which boils at 267° C. It is separated from the other alkaloids of the group by distilling off the nicotine and nicotimine in steam and then fractionating the residue.
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  • There is now regular steam communication; the affairs of the islands are duly administered, and the population has grown to about 4500.
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  • Hence he inferred that the amount of heat given up to the condenser of an engine when the engine is doing work must be less than when the same amount of steam is blown through the engine without doing any work.
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  • In 1839 Seguin endeavoured to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat from the loss of heat suffered by steam in expanding, assuming that the whole of the heat so lost was consumed in doing external work against the pressure to which the steam was exposed.
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  • This assumption, however, cannotbe justified, because it neglected to take account of work which might possibly have to be done within the steam itself during the expansion.
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  • The different kinds of motive power used to actuate cranes - manual, steam, hydraulic, electric - give a further classification.
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  • Steam is an extremely useful motive power for all cranes that are not worked off a central power station.
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  • The first method is in general use for steam cranes; it allows for a far greater range of power in the brake, but is not automatic, as is the second.
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  • In steam cranes it is usual to work all the motions from one double cylinder engine.
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  • In steam cranes much the same principle obtains in proportioning the boiler; e.g.
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  • The limit of speed of lift of hand cranes has already been mentioned; for steam jib cranes average practice is represented by the.
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  • With portable cranes means must be provided to ensure the requisite stability against overturning; this is done by weighting the tail of the revolving part with heavy weights, and in steam cranes the FIG.
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  • With this modified form somewhat greater speed was obtained, but it was found difficult to drive, requiring the use of steam or some such motive-power.
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  • 0~ steam and 270 rn.
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  • Barren Island was last in eruption in 1803, but there is still a thin column of steam from a sulphur bed at the top and a variable hot spring at the point where the last outburst of lava flowed into the sea.
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  • While steam has been said to make a ship independent of wind and tide, it is still true that a long voyage even by steam must be planned so as to encounter the least resistance possible from prevailing winds and permanent currents, and this involves the application of oceanographical and meteorological knowledge.
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  • By the action of dilute nitric acid; orthoand para-nitrophenols are obtained, the ortho-compound being separated from the para-compound by distillation in a current of steam.
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  • The experiment was so far successful that, with incredible difficulty, the two vessels did actually reach Meskene, but the result of the expedition was to show that practically the river could not be used as a high-road of commerce, the continuous rapids and falls during the low season, caused mainly by the artificial obstructions of the irrigating dams, being insurmountable by ordinary steam power, and the aid of hundreds of hands being thus required to drag the vessels up the stream at those points by main force.
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  • Under Midhat Pasha, governor-general of Bagdad from 1866 to 1871, an attempt was made by the Turkish authorities to establish regular steam navigation on the Euphrates.
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  • In a steam vessel running at high speed on an ocean route, with engines working smoothly and uniformly, a careful officer with correct line and glass can obtain very accurate results with the common log.
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  • In steam vessels a rough and fair engine room register are kept, FIG.
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  • For example, in the Gritti and Orlando processes the ore is charged into retorts and the fusion effected by superheated steam, the sulphur being run off as usual; or as was suggested by R.
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  • Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).
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  • A service of the British India Steam Navigation Company's steamers has been established between Negapatam and Colombo through Palk Strait and this narrow passage.
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  • Steam tramways connect it S.E.
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  • It must be remembered, however, that at this time the railways were nearly all worked by horse-traction, and that the use of steam had made but little progress.
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  • But, in the words of the same article, " This application of steam has not yet arrived at such perfection as to have brought it into general use."
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  • The steam locomotive, however, and with it the railways, soon began to make rapid progress.
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  • The example of the Stockton & Darlington line was followed by the Monklands railway in Scotland, opened in 1826, and several other small lines - including the Canterbury & Whitstable, worked partly by fixed engines and partly by locomotives - quickly adopted steam traction.
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  • The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.
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  • The latter, named the America, was the first to be delivered, reaching New York in January 1829, but one of the others, the Stourbridge Lion, was actually the first practical steam locomotive to run in America, which it did on the 9th of August 1829.
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  • After a few months of life it was blown up, its attendant, annoyed by the sound of the escaping steam, having fastened down the safety-valve.
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  • In both states, the Commissions have power over electric railways and local public utilities furnishing heat, light and power, as well as over steam railway transportation, and the Wisconsin Commission also has control over telephone companies.
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  • In soft material the excavation may be performed by mechanical excavators or " steam navvies," while in hard it may be necessary to resort to blasting.
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  • The weight required to cause the downward motion is obtained either by means of the material which has to be transported to the bottom of the hill or by water ballast, while to aid and regulate the motion generally steam or electric motors are arranged to act on the main drums, round which the cable is passed with a sufficient number of turns to prevent slipping.
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  • There are certain fundamental relations common to all tractive problems, and these are briefly considered in §§ i and 2, after which the article refers particularly to steam locomotives, although §§ 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 have a general application to all modes of traction.
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  • The fundamental difference between the two methods is that while the mechanical energy developed by a steam engine is in the first case applied directly to the driving-axle of the locomotive, in the second case it is transformed into electrical energy, transmitted over relatively long distances, and retransformed into mechanical energy on the driving-axles of the train.
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  • For suburban traffic with a service at a few minutes' interval and short distances between the stations electric traction has proved itself to be superior in many respects to the steam locomotive, but for main line traffic and long distance runs it has not yet been demonstrated that it is commercially feasible, though it is known to be practically possible.
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  • For the methods of electric traction see Traction; the remainder of the present article will be devoted to the steam locomotive.
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  • General Efficiency of Steam Locomotive.
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  • The steam produced in consequence of this heat transference from the furnace gas to the water carries heat to the cylinder, where 7 to II% is transformed into mechanical energy, the remainder passing away up the chimney with the exhaust steam.
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  • A " perfect engine " receiving and rejecting steam at the same temperatures as the actual engine of the locomotive, would develop about twice this power, say 1400 I.H.P. This figure represents the ideal but unattainable standard of performance.
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  • The horsepower available at the driving-axle, conveniently called the brake horse-power, is from 20 to 30% less than the indicated horse-power, and the ratio, B.H.P./I.H.P. =E, is called the mechanical efficiency of the steam engine.
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  • The relation between the b.h.p. and the torque on the driving-axle is 55 o B.H.P. =Tu., (9) It is usual with steam locomotives to regard the resistance R as including the frictional resistances between the cylinders and the driving-axle, so that the rate at which energy is expended in moving the train is expressed either by the product RV, or by the value of the indicated horse-power, the relation between them being 55 0 I.H.P. =RV (Io) or in terms of the torque 55 0 I.H.P.X€=RVe=TW (II) The individual factors of the product RV may have any value consistent with equation (to) and with certain practical conditions, so that for a given value of the I.H.P. R must decrease if V increases.
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  • The exhaust steam passing from the engine through the blastpipe and the chimney produces a diminution of pressure, or partial vacuum, in the smoke-box roughly proportional to the weight of steam discharged per unit of time.
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  • 18), the blast-pipe orifice B is placed at about the centre of the boiler barrel, and the exhaust steam is discharged straight into the trumpet-shaped end of the chimney, which is continued down inside the smoke-box.
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  • 19 the blast orifice B is set much lower, and the steam is discharged through a frustum of a cone set in the upper part of the smoke-box into the short chimney.
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  • 20 shows the standard proportions recommended - by the committee of the Railway Mas * ter Mechanics' Association on Exhaust _ Pipes and Steam Passages (Prot.
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  • At every blast a small quantity of steam is caught by the orifice 0 and led to the ejectors, one on each side, with the result that the ashes are blown out into the receptacles on each side of the engine, one of which is shown at E.
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  • As the indicated horse-power of the engine increases, the weight of steam discharged increases, and the smoke-Lox vacuum is increased, thereby causing more air to flow through the furnace and increasing the rate of combustion.
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  • 'I hus the demand for more steam is automatically responded to by the boiler.
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  • Distribution of steam is effected by a slide valve, sometimes fitted with a balancing device, and sometimes formed into a piston valve.
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  • 7 he torque exerted on the driving-axle by the steam engine just at starting may be that due to the full boiler pressure acting in the cylinders, but usually the weight on the coupled wheels is hardly sufficient to enable advantage to be taken of the full boiler pressure, and it has to be throttled down by the regulator to prevent slipping.
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  • Sand, driven between the wheel and the rail by a steam jet, used just at starting, increases the adhesion beyond the normal value and enables a larger pressure to be exerted on the piston than would otherwise be possible.
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  • The form of the torque curve, or crank effort curve, as it is sometimes called, is discussed in the article Steam Engine, and the torque curve corresponding to actual indicator diagrams taken from an express passenger engine travelling at a speed of 65 m.
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  • This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.
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  • 21 shows the pressure-volume diagram of the Rankine cycle for one pound of steam where the initial pressure is 175 lb per square inch by the 19t, gauge, equivalent to 190 lb per square inch absolute.
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  • In no case could an engine receiving steam at the tem perature corresponding to this pressure and rejecting heat at 212° F.
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  • which the area represents from the following formula, which is expressed in terms of the absolute temperature T, of the steam at the steam-pipe, and the temperature T2= 461°H-212° =673° absolute corresponding to the back pressure: - Maximu per pound oflsteaelwork =U=(T - T) (i -f -Lr--.1) - T2loge.Tr--2.
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  • With the initial pressure of 190 11; per square inch absolute it will be found from a steam table that T =838° absolute.
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  • per pound of steam.
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  • If h is the water heat at the lower temperature, h l the water heat at the higher temperature, and L the latent heat at the higher temperature, the heat supply per pound of steam is equal to h1 - h2+L1, which, from the steam tables, with the values of the temperatures given, is equal to 1013 B.Th.U.
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  • This would be an ideal performance for an engine receiving steam at 190 lb initial pressure absolute, and rejecting steam at the back pressure assumed above, and could never be attained in practice.
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  • The initial temperature of the standard engine of comparison must be the temperature of the steam taken in the steam-pipe.
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  • For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.
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  • Any modification of the design which will reduce the resistance to the flow of steam through the steam passages at high speeds will increase the piston speed for which the indicated horse-power is a maximum.
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  • In compound working the combined volumes of the low-pressure cylinders is a measure of the power of the engine, since this represents the final volume of the steam used per stroke.
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  • The volume of the high-pressure cylinder may be varied within wide limits for the same low-pressure volume; the proportions adopted should, however, be such that there is an absence of excessive drop between them as the steam is transferred from one to the other.
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  • The steam connexions were such that the two high-pressure cylinders were placed in parallel, both exhausting into the one low-pressure cylinder.
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  • Generally steam from the boiler is admitted direct to the low-pressure cylinder through a reducing valve, and valves and devices are used to prevent the steam so admitted acting as a back pressure on the high-pressure cylinder.
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  • In the Webb compound the driver opened communication from the high-pressure exhaust pipe to the blast-pipe, and at the same time opened a valve giving a supply of steam from the boiler direct to the lowpressure valve chest.
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  • A controlling valve enables the supply of steam to the low-pressure cylinders to be supplemented by boiler steam at a reduced pressure.
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  • The distribution of steam to both cylinders is effected by one piston-valve operated by a link motion, so that there is considerable mechanical simplicity in the arrangement.
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  • Cars built almost entirely of steel, in which the proportion of wood is reduced to a minimum, are used on some electric railways, in order to diminish danger from fire, and the same mode of construction is also being adopted for the rolling stock of steam railways.
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  • In the United States the danger of the stoves that used to be employed for heating the interiors of the cars has been realized, and now the most common method is by steam taken from the locomotive boiler and circulated through the train in a line of piping, rendered continuous between the cars by flexible coupling-hose.
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  • The superiority, so far as the convenience of passengers is concerned, of an elevated over an underground railway, when both are worked by steam locomotives, and the great economy and rapidity of construction, led to the quick development and extension of this general design.
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  • Its promoters recognized the unsuitability of ordinary steam locomotives for underground railways, and intended to work it by means of a moving cable; but before it was completed, electric traction had developed so far as to be available for use on such lines.
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  • In the operation of intra-urban railwa y s, steam locomotives, cables and electricity have severally been tried: the first having been used in the earlier examples of underground lines and in the various elevated systems in the United States.
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  • With a steam locomotive all the power is concentrated in one machine, and therefore the weight on the drivers available for adhesion is limited.
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  • Giorgio di Nogaro, and a steam tramway to S.
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  • The British warship "Calliope" (Captain Pearson) was in the harbour, but succeeded in getting up steam and, standing out to sea, escaped destruction.
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  • Car construction and general shop work of steam railways was the leading manufacturing industry in 1905; next in importance were the flour and grist milling industry and the printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals.
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  • Ravenna has railway communication with Bologna (via Castel Bolognese), Ferrara and Rimini, and by steam tram with Forli.
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  • LUDWIGSHAFEN, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian Palatinate, on the left bank of the Rhine, immediately opposite to Mannheim, with which it is connected by a steam ferry and a railway bridge.
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  • of mercury it boils at 170° C. In an atmosphere of steam it distils without decomposition under ordinary barometric pressure.
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  • The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.
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  • The impure glycerin obtained as above is purified by redistillation in steam and evaporation in vacuum pans.
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  • Two of the docks are for the accommodation of the fishing fleet, which, consisting principally of steam trawlers, numbers upwards of 500 vessels.
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  • Steam coal of good quality is reported to exist about 30 m.
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  • There is a considerable trade in cotton, in connexion with which there are large steam presses, and some manufacture of cotton cloth.
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  • The great future that seemed to await the application of steam power to the tillage of the soil proved illusory.
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  • In 1900, at York, the competitions were concerned with horse-power cultivators, self-moving steam diggers, milking machines and sheep-shearing machines (power and hand).
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  • The progress of steam cultivation has not justified the hopes that were once entertained in the United Kingdom concerning this method of working implements in the field.
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  • The wet seasons that set in at the end of the 'seventies led to so much hindrance in the work on the land that the aid of steam was further called for, and it seemed probable that there would be a lessened demand for horse power.
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  • It was found, however, that the steam work was done with less care than had been bestowed upon the horse tillage, and the result was that steam came to be regarded as an auxiliary to horse labour rather than as a substitute for it.
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  • Much advantage arises from the steam working of bastard fallows in summer, and after harvest a considerable amount of autumn cultivation can be done by steam power, thus materially lightening the work in the succeeding spring.
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  • On farms of moderate size it is usual to hire steam tackle as required, the outlay involved in the purchase of a set being justifiable only in the case of estates or of very big farms where, when not engaged in ploughing, or in cultivating, or in other work upon the land, the steam-engine may be employed in threshing, chaff-cutting, sawing and many similar operations which require power.
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  • " Full steam ahead " was his motto for his party in the turbulent session of 191 r.
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  • It is connected by steam tramways with Ravenna and Meldola, and by a road through the Apennines with Pontassieve.
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  • As the building of steam railways lessened, the building of suburban and interurban electric railways was begun, and systems of these railways have been rapidly extended until all the more populous districts are connected by them.
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  • Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
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  • The chief centre, however, of the fishery in the west of England is at Newlyn, near Penzance, where the small local sailing boats are outnumbered by hundreds of large boats, both sail and steam, which come chiefly from Lowestoft for the season.
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  • The modern practice is to employ horizontal cylindrical wrought-iron or steel stills, and to introduce steam into the oil.
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  • The steam is superheated and may thus be heated to any desired temperature without increase of pressure, which would be liable to damage the still.
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  • The steam operates by carrying the vapours away to the condenser as fast as they are generated, the injury to the products resulting from their remaining in contact with the highly-heated surface of the still being thus prevented.
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  • In order to separate the distillate into various fractions, and to remove as much of it as possible free from condensed steam, it is now usual to employ condensing appliances of special form with outlets for running off the different fractions.
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  • From Jaffa a short line runs to Jerusalem, and a steam tramway connects Beirut with Tripoli.
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  • First, he made a number of leathern tubes the ends of which he contrived to fix among the joists and flooring of a fine upper-room in which Zeno entertained his friends, and then subjected it to a miniature earthquake by sending steam through the tubes.
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  • The corresponding decomposition of a glyceride into an acid and glycerin takes place when the glyceride is distilled in superheated steam, or by boiling in water mixed with a suitable proportion of caustic potash or soda.
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  • The cheaper mottled and brown soaps have for their basis bone fat, obtained by treating bones with superheated steam or other methods.
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  • Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.
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  • Direct firing is used for the second boiling of the soap mixture; but for this superheated steam may with advantage be substituted, either applied by a steam-jacket round the pan or by a closed coil of pipe within it.
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  • In large pans a mechanical stirring apparatus is provided, which in some cases, as in Morfit's steam " twirl," is formed of the steam-heating tubes geared to rotate.
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  • The process of manufacturing soaps by boiling fatty acids with caustic alkalis or sodium carbonate came into practice with the development of the manufacture of candles by saponifying fats, for it provided a means whereby the oleic acid, which is valueless for candle making, could be worked up. The combination is effected in open vats heated by a steam coil and provided with a stirring appliance; if soda ash be used it is necessary to guard against boiling over.
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  • The soap pan is charged with the tallow or other fat, and open steam is turned on.
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  • So soon as the tallow is melted a quantity of weak lye is added, and the agitation of the injected steam causes the fat and lye to become intimately mixed and produces a milky emulsion.
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  • Suppose that a pure soap without resin is to be made - a product little seen in the market - the spent lye is run off, steam is again turned on, pure water or very weak lye run in, and the contents boiled up till the whole is thin, close and clear.
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  • Steam is turned on, and, the mass being brought to a clear condition with weak lye or water, strong lye is added and the boiling continued with close steam till the lye attains such a state of concentration that the soap is no longer soluble in it, and it will separate from the caustic lye as from a common salt solution.
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  • Holland is a grain and fruit shipping centre, and among its manufactures are furniture, leather, grist mill products, iron, beer, pickles, shoes, beet sugar, gelatine, biscuit (Holland rusk), electric and steam launches, and pianos.
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  • Industrial and commercial Industry activity is mainly centred at the Peiraeus, where and corn- 8 cloth and cotton mills, cognac distilleries, 14 steam coerce.
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  • Between 1858 and 1868 he was employed in home waters on a variety of special services, chiefly connected with gunnery, signalling and the tactical characteristics and capacities of steam warships.
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  • Next year he was appointed captain of the steam reserve at Portsmouth; and after serving three years in that capacity, he remained at Portsmouth as flag-captain to the commander-in-chief until 1886, when he was retired by superannuation before he had attained flag rank.
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  • He was one of the first to perceive the vast changes which must ensue from the introduction of steam into the navy, which would necessitate a new system of signals and a new method of tactics.
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  • Imports include coal,timber, tar and hemp. Steam sawing, metal-founding, fish-salting, shipbuilding and repairing, and the manufacture of ship's-biscuits and fishing-nets are among the industries.
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  • It is connected by steam tramway with Helmond (21 m.
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  • The principal industries are shipbuilding (iron), boiler and engineering works, iron and brass foundries, steam saw and planing mills, flour-mills, paper and paint factories, and soapworks.
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  • It crystallizes in needles which melt at 173-174° and boil at 349-350° C., and are volatile in steam.
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  • For example, one volume of oxygen combined with two of hydrogen to form two volumes of steam, three volumes of hydrogen combined with one of nitrogen to give two volumes of ammonia, one volume of hydrogen combined with one of chlorine to give two volumes of hydrochloric acid.
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  • It is connected by steam tramway with Antwerp (3 o m.
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  • Hofmann and Schotensack decompose a mixture of phenol (3 molecules) and sodium carbonate (4 mols.) with carbonyl chloride at 140-zoo° C. When 90% of the phenol has distilled over, the residue is dissolved and hydrochloric acid added, any phenol remaining is blown over in a current of steam, and the salicylic acid finally precipitated by hydrochloric acid.
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  • It is volatile in steam.
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  • Its once famous tanneries have lost their importance, but the manufacture of linen has increased; it has also steam flour-mills, distilleries, manufactories of soap and of iron implements.
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  • STEAM (0.
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  • steam, vapour, smoke, cf.
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  • Dry steam is steam free from mechanically mixed water particles; wet steam, on the other hand, contains water particles in suspension.
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  • Saturated steam is steam in contact with liquid water at a temperature which is the boiling point of the water and condensing point of the steam; superheated steam is steam out of contact with water heated above this temperature.
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  • For theoretical considerations see Vaporization, and for the most important application see Steam Engine; also Water.
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  • Steam Engine >>
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  • There are no steam railways, but an electric line connects South Hadley and South Hadley Falls with the New York, New Haven & Hartford and the Boston & Maine railways at Holyoke.
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  • Though introduced with success from Santo Domingo about the middle of the T 8th century, the sugar industry practically dates from 1796, when Etienne Bore first succeeded in crystallizing and clarifying the syrup. Steam motive power was first introduced on the plantations in 1822.
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  • 4 (report on steam navigation of the United States by T.
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  • Both forms are volatile in steam.
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  • In 1862 Fleck passed a mixture of steam, nitrogen and carbon monoxide over red-hot lime, whilst in 1904 Woltereck induced combination by passing steam and air over red-hot iron oxide (peat is used in practice).
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  • In de Lambilly's process air and steam is led over white-hot coke, and carbon dioxide or monoxide removed from the escaping gases according as ammonium formate or carbonate is wanted.
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  • The residual gas is then passed through a tube containing porous materials, such as woodor bone-charcoal, platinized pumice or spongy platinum, then mixed with steam and again forced through the tube.
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  • Agassiz, "A Reconnaissance of the Bahamas and of the Elevated Reefs of Cuba in the steam yacht ` Wild Duck,' January to April 1893," Bull.
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  • It is also a junction for Mondovi and Saluzzo, and has steam tramways to Borgo S.
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  • It maintains steam communication with Basra, its port, which is situated on the Shatt el-Arab, somewhat more than 50 m.
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  • Dagupan has a small shipyard in which sailing vessels and steam launches are constructed.
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  • Other manufactures of importance are butter, cheese and condensed milk, packed meats and other slaughter-house products, steam railway cars, foundry and machine-shop products, linseed oil, malt liquors, planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds, boots and shoes, and agricultural implements.
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  • The docks are provided with gas and electric lights, 18 steam cranes for loading and discharging vessels, a triple line of railway and a supply of fresh water.
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  • Callao was formerly the headquarters in South America of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co., Ltd.
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  • The foreign steamship companies making it a regular port of call are the Pacific Steam Navigation Co.
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  • Under the long peace which followed the close of the Napoleonic wars, its trade gradually revived, fostered by the declaration of independence of South and Central America, with both of which it energetically opened close commercial relations, and by the introduction of steam navigation.
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  • The first steamboat was seen on the Elbe on the 17th of June 1816; in 1826 a regular steam communication was opened with London; and in 1856 the first direct steamship line linked the port with the United States.
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  • Rhyolitic lavas frequently are more or less vitreous, and when the glassy matter greatly predominates and the; crystals are few and inconspicuous the rock becomes an obsidian; the chemical composition is essentially the same as that of granite; the difference in the physical condition of the two rocks is due to the fact that one consolidated at the surface, rapidly and under low pressures, while the other cooled slowly at great depths and under such pressures that the escape of the steam and other gases it contained was greatly impeded.
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  • Before commencing the mastication it is generally necessary to warm the apparatus by means of steam; but as the operation proceeds the heat produced requires to be moderated by streams of cold water flowing through channels provided for the purpose.
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  • When a manufactured article has been saturated with sulphur in the melted sulphur bath, the heat necessary for vulcanization may be obtained either by highpressure steam, by heated glycerin, or by immersion in a sulphur bath heated to about 140° C. In this last case absorption of the sulphur and its intimate combination with the rubber occur simultaneously.
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  • Another very excellent method of vulcanizing cut sheet goods consists in placing them in a solution of the polysulphides of calcium at a temperature of 140° C. Rubber employed for the manufacture of cut sheets is often coloured by such pigments as vermilion, oxide of chromium, ultramarine, orpiment, antimony, lamp black, or oxide of zinc, incorporation being effected either by means of the masticator or by a pair of rollers heated internally by steam, and so geared as to move in contrary directions at unequal FIG.
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  • Belting intended for driving machinery is built up of canvas which has been thoroughly frictioned with the soft mixed rubber, and is cured by placing it in a kind of press kept by means of steam at a dry heat of about 140° C. Packing for the stuffing boxes of steam engines is similarly prepared from strips of rubber and friotioned canvas, as also are the so-called insertion sheets, in which layers of rubber alternate with canvas or even wire gauze.
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  • Air goods, such as cushions, beds, gas bags, and so forth, are made of textile fabrics which have been coated with mixed rubber either by the spreading process above described, or by means of heated rollers, the curing being then effected by steam heat.
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  • The plant consists of two tilting oval metal pans (capacity 7 tons), one cylindrical crystallizing pot (capacity 22 tons), with two discharging spouts and one steam inlet opening, two lead moulds (capacity 31 tons), and a steam crane.
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  • Supposing the pot to be filled with melted lead to be treated, the fire is withdrawn beneath and steam introduced.
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  • As soon as two-thirds of the lead has separated in the form of crystals, the steam is shut off and the liquid lead drained off through the two spouts into the moulds.
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  • In the kettle covered with a hood the zinc is oxidized by means of dry steam, and incidentally some lead by the air which cannot be completely excluded.
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  • It is non-volatile in steam, and is odourless.
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  • The metal, having first been uniformly tempered glasshard, should be annealed in steam at loo° C. for twenty or thirty hours; it should then be magnetized to saturation, and finally " aged " by a second immersion in steam for about five hours.
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  • Steam tramways .run to Vignola, Pieve di Cento and Malalbergo.
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  • Amasia has extensive orchards and fruit gardens still, as in Ibn Batuta's time, irrigated by water wheels turned by the current of the river; and there are steam flourmills.
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  • There are coal-mines at and near Eregli (anc. Heracleia) which yield steam coal nearly as good in quality as the English, but they are badly worked.
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  • The largest of the river lines is the Amazon Steam Navigation Co.
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  • It is the point of departure and arrival of the steam ferry to Nyborg on Fiinen, lying on the Hamburg, Schleswig, Fredericia and Copenhagen route.
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  • These suburbs are connected with the city, some by railway, some by steam, cable and electric tramways, and others by ferry across Port Jackson.
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  • It is a rapidly growing town, immediately opposite and suburban to the city of Sydney, with which, however, the only connexion is by steam ferry.
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  • In that year the government sanctioned the building of a " steam tramway " - a railway in all but name - from the Boksburg collieries to the Rand gold mines.
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  • There are extensive beds of good coal, including thick seams of steam coal near the Rand and other goldfields.
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  • The gaseous mixture obtained by burning guncotton in a vacuum vessel contains steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitric oxide, and methane.
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  • When kept for some weeks at a temperature of 100° in steam, a considerable number of fatty acids, some bases, and glucose-like substances result.
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  • Under very great pressures carbon monoxide, steam and nitrogen are the main products, but nitric oxide never quite disappears.
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  • The plants using steam for motive power are at Caracas, Maracaibo, Valencia and Puerto Cabello.
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  • The introduction of steam has greatly increased the shipping on the Rhine; and small steamers ply also on the Main, the Neckar, the Maas and the Mosel.
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  • The difficulty of ascending the rapids near Bingen is usually surmounted by the help of steam hauling machinery placed on the bank, though powerful tugs have also come into use for this purpose.
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  • The Baltimore & Ohio railway was to cross his property, and, after various inventions aiming to do away with the locomotive crank and thus save two-fifths of the steam, in 1830 he designed and constructed (largely after plans made two years before) the first steam locomotive built in America; though only a small model it proved the practicability of using steam power for working that line.
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  • It is the terminus of some important narrow-gauge mining railways and steam tramways, which place it in communication with the mining districts of Guipuzcoa and Navarre, and with the valuable oak, pine and beech forests of both provinces.
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  • Where practicable steam shovels are employed, even when it is necessary to break up the material beforehand by blasting.
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  • Steam shovels are not well adapted to deep excavation unless provision is made for the rapid handling of the cars when filled.
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  • Steam locomotives have been largely superseded by compressed air or electric locomotives.
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  • Trolley haulage lacks the flexibility of steam or compressed air haulage, and is limited to main lines because the wires must be strung throughout the length of the line.
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  • Electric locomotives are in general more economical then either steam or compressed air.
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  • The maximum load on the engine is thus greater and more power is required than for fixed drums. Steam consumption is economized, whenever possible, by throwing in the clutches of both drums and hoisting in balance.
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  • Cornish pumps are economical in running expenses, provided the driving engine is of proper design and the disadvantages incurred in conveying steam underground are avoided.
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  • Typically they are steam pumps, the steam and water cylinders being set tandem on the same bed frame, generally without fly-wheel or other rotary parts; they may be single cylinder or duplex, simple, compound or triple expansion, and having a higher speed of stroke are smaller in all their parts than Cornish pumps.
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  • Hydraulic pumping engines, while not differing essentially from steam pumps, must have specially designed valves in the power cylinder on account of the incompressibility of water.
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  • In a mine with two shafts a ventilating current may result from other conditions creating a difference in the temperature of the air in either shaft - for example, the cooling effect of dropping water or the heating effect of steam pipes.
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  • It had always been assumed during previous discussions on the question that warships adventuring the passage would try a rush, that they would endeavour to steam by the, batteries and drive the `defending gunners from their guns by concentrated fire.
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  • In the former will be found such things as siphons," Hero's fountain," penny-in-theslot "machines, a fire-engine, a water-organ, and arrangements employing the force of steam.
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  • both with compressed air and with steam with considerable success.
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  • The spindles of cutting wheels are driven by steam or electric power.
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  • The mouth of the bottle is ground by a revolving iron cone, or mandrel, fed with sand and water and driven by steam.
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  • Compressed air or steam is also used for fashioning very large vessels, baths, dishes and reservoirs by the " Sievert " process.
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  • The plate with the glass attached to it is inverted, and compressed air or steam is introduced through openings in the plate.
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  • The mass of glass, yielding, to its own weight and the pressure of air or steam, sinks downwards and adapts itself to any mould or receptacle beneath it.
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  • In most modern works the greater part of these operations, as well as the actual rolling of the glass, is carried out by mechanical means, steam power and subsequently electrical power having been successfully applied to this purpose; the handling of the great weights of glass required for the largest sheets of plate-glass which are produced at the present time would, indeed, be impossible without the aid of machinery.
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  • These small furnaces are usually heated by an oil spray under the pressure of steam or compressed air.
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  • The metals grouped together above, under 1 and 2, act on steam pretty much as they do on liquid water.
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  • Of the rest, the following are readily oxidized by steam at a red heat, with formation of hydrogen gas - zinc, iron, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, tin.
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  • All chlorides, except those of silver and mercury (and, of course, those of gold and platinum), are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, with elimination of hydrochloric acid.
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  • Steam locomotion received much attention at his hands, and he sat on the railway commissions of 1836, 1839, 1842, 1845.
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  • By a change of temperature and pressure combined, a substance can in general be made to pass from one state into another; thus by gradually increasing the temperature a solid piece of ice can be melted into the liquid state of water, and the water again can be boiled off into the gaseous state as steam.
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  • Dampf, steam), and hence moisture.
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  • to a pier, whence it is shipped to Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane by a fleet of steam colliers.
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  • The megass coming from the first mill was saturated with steam and water, in weight equal to between 20% and 30% and up to 40% of the original weight of the uncrushed canes.
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  • for a few moments, on its way to a steam and juice separator, where the steam due to the superheated juice flashes off, and is either utilized for aiding the steam supplied to the multiple effect evaporators, or for heating cold juice on its way to the main heater, or it is allowed to escape into the atmosphere.
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  • an outer cast-iron casing, which forms a steam jacket, and is fitted with a cylindrical curb or breast above the bottom.
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  • If double-bottomed defecators are used in sufficient number to allow an hour and a half to two hours for making each defecation, and if they are of a size which permits any one of them to be filled up by the cane-mill with juice in ten to twelve minutes, they will make as perfect a defecation as is obtainable by any known system; but their employment involves the expenditure of much high-pressure steam (as exhaust steam will not heat the juice quickly enough through the small surface of the hemispherical inner bottom), and also the use of filter presses for treating the scums. A great deal of skilled superintendence is also required, and first cost is comparatively large.
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  • The admission of steam must be regulated with the greatest nicety, so as to maintain an equable temperature, 208° to 210° F., hot enough to act upon the albumen and yet not enough to cause ebullition or disturbance in the juice, and so prevent a proper separation of the cachazas.
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  • in diameter, which follows the curve of the hemispherical bottom, and is fitted from one side to the other of the defecator; one end is entirely closed, and the other is connected by a small pipe to a shallow circular vessel outside the defecator, covered with an india-rubber diaphragm, to the centre of which is attached a light rod actuating a steam throttle-valve, and capable of being adjusted as to length, &c. The copper pipe and circular vessel are filled with cold water, which on becoming heated by the surrounding juice expands, and so forces up the india-rubber diaphragm and shuts off the steam.
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  • By adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the amount of water in the vessel, the amount of steam admitted can be regulated to a nicety.
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  • In some factories they are collected in suitable tanks, and steam is blown into them, which further coagulates the albuminous par Scums. tides.
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  • The latter are circular or rectangular vessels, holding from 500 to 1500 gallons each, according to the capacity of the factory, and fitted with steam coils at the bottom and skimming troughs at the top. In them the syrup is quickly brought up to the boil and skimmed for about five minutes, when it is run off to the service tanks of the vacuum pans.
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  • It is unquestionably better and easier to evaporate in vacuo than in an open pan, and with a better system of firing, a more liberal provision of steam generators, and multiple-effect evaporators of improved construction, a far larger yield of sugar is obtained from the juice than was possible of attainment in those days, and the megass often suffices as fuel for the crop.
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  • In some instances the result has been an additional and unnecessary expenditure of high-pressure steam, and in all the weld-known fact - of the highest importance in this connexion - appears to have been disregarded, that the shorter the time the juice is exposed to heat the less inversion will take place in it, and therefore the less will be the loss of sugar.
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  • But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.
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  • a ton, and where steam is raised by coal, as in a beetroot factory, it might pay to adopt a quintuple-effect apparatus, but on a cane-sugar estate, where the steam necessary for the evaporator is raised by burning the megass as fuel, and is first used in the engines workifig the mills, the exhaust alone passing to the evaporator, there would be very little, if any, advantage in employing a quadruple effect instead of a triple effect, and practically none at all in having a quintuple-effect apparatus, for the interest and sinking fund on the extra cost would more than counterbalance the saving in fuel.
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  • scale as the heat most proper to be used and applied in order to secure and preserve the colour and crystallizability of the sugars, and most easily to be obtained with precision and uniformity by means of the water bath and steam bath, yet when circumstances or choice may render the same desirable I do make use of higher temperatures, although less beneficial."
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  • All their endeavours have obtained at best but a doubtful success, for they have overlooked the fact that to evaporate a given weight of water from the syrup in a vacuum pan at least an equal weight (or in practice about 15% more) of steam must be condensed, and the first cost of mechanical agitators, together with the expenditure they involve for motive power and maintenance, must be put against the slight saving in the heating surface effected by their employment.
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  • Watt, when he invented the steam engine, laid down the principles on which it is based, and they hold good to the present day.
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  • These pans are sometimes heated by boiling oil, with the idea that under such conditions the sugar which is kept stirred all the time as it thickens cannot be burnt or caramelized; but the same object can be attained more economically with steam of a given pressure by utilizing its latent heat.
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  • When Cuba was the chief sugar-producing country making clayed sugars it was the custom (followed in refineries and found advantageous in general practice) to discharge the strike of crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan into a receiver heated below by steam, and to stir the mass for a certain time, and then distribute it into the moulds in which it was afterwards clayed.
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  • Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.
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  • The use of multiple-effect evaporation made it possible to raise the steam for all the work required to be done in a well-equipped factory, making crystals, under skilful management, by means of the bagasse alone proceeding from the.
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  • The value of fresh bagasse, or as it is often called " green " bagasse, as fuel varies with the kind of canes from which it comes, with their treatment in the mill, and with the skill used in firing; but it may be stated broadly that I lb of fresh bagasse will produce from I a lb to 24 lb of steam, according to the conditions.
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  • The Hatton defecator, which is employed for working it, has been already described, but it may be mentioned that the regulation of the admission of steam is now simplified and secured.
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  • A cell when filled with fresh slices becomes the head of the battery, and where skilled scientific control can be relied upon to regulate the process, the best and most economical way of heating the slices, previous to admitting the hot liquor from the next cell, is by direct steam; but as the slightest inattention or carelessness in the admission of direct steam might have the effect of inverting sugar and thereby causing the loss of some portion of saccharine in the slices, water heaters are generally used, through which water is passed and heated up previous to admission to the freshly-filled cell.
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  • The pans are provided with steam worms to keep the mass hot as required, and with mechanical stirrers to keep it in movement and thoroughly mixed with the water and sweet water which are added to the sugar to obtain a solution of the specific gravity desired.
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  • Steam is then turned on to the outside of the bags and sheaths, and hot water is run through them to wash out all the sweets they contain.
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  • Granulated sugar, so called, is made by passing the crystals, after leaving the centrifugals, through a large and slightly inclined revolving cylinder with a smaller one inside heated by steam.
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    0
  • The cities of Shanghai, Hangchow and Suchow form the three points of a triangle, each being connected with the other by canal, and trade is now open by steam between all three under the inland navigation rules.
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  • By heating the nitrate it is obtained as hemimorphous pyramids belonging to the hexagonal system; and by heating the chloride in a current of steam as hexagonal prisms. It is insoluble in water; it dissolves readily in all aqueous acids, with formation of salts.
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  • Perhaps their most common use is in ploughing on a large scale in conjunction with steam power.
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  • Steam is employed as motive power when it is necessary to plough large areas in a short time.
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  • In the United Kingdom steam ploughing is generally carried on on the double-engine system (introduced by Messrs John Fowler about 1865), in which case two sets of ploughs are arranged on the one-way balance principle, so that while one set is at work the other is carried clear of the ground.
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  • by steam tramway.
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  • Bahrein, Kuwet and Muscat are in steam communication with India, and the Persian Gulf ports; all the great lines of steamships call at Aden on their way between Suez and the East, and regular services are maintained between Suez, Jidda, Hodeda and Aden, as well as to the ports on the African coast, while native coasting craft trade to the smaller ports on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
    0
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  • They have been obtained artificially by Hautefeuille by the interaction of titanium fluoride and steam.
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  • It crystallizes in white plates, which melt at 45° C. and boil at 302° C. It is almost insoluble in water, but readily volatilizes in steam.
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  • At the mouth of the Arno, joined to the city by a steam tramway, is the seaside resort of Marina di Pisa, also known as Bocca d'Arno, a well-known centre for landscape painters.
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  • In 1849 the regular payment of the interest of the public debt was commenced, steam communication was established along the Pacific coast, and a railroad was made from Lima to Callao.
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  • Experiments in steam navigation were carried out in 1802 with the "Charlotte Dundas" on the Forth and Clyde Canal at Grangemouth.
    0
    0
  • The vaporization of a substance below its normal boiling-point can also be effected by blowing in steam or some other vapour; this operation is termed "distillation with steam."
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  • The subject is here treated under the following subdivisions: (I) ordinary distillation, (2) distillation under reduced pressure, (3) fractional distillation, (4) distillation with steam, (5) theory of distillation, (6) dry distillation, (7) distillation in chemical technology and (8) commercial distillation of water.
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  • Distillation with Steam.
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  • - In this process a current of steam, which is generated in a separate boiler and superheated, if necessary, by circulation through a heated copper worm, is led into the distilling vessel, and the mixed vapours condensed as in the ordinary processes.
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  • This method is particularly successful in the case of substances which cannot be distilled at their ordinary boiling-points (it will be seen in the following section that distilling with steam implies a lowering of boiling-point), and which can be readily separated from water.
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  • Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
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  • These con-, ditions pertain in cases where distillation with steam is successfully practised, the relatively high volatility of water being counterbalanced by the relatively high molecular weight of the other component; for example, in the case of nitrobenzene and water the ratio is I to 5.
    0
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  • at loo° C., distillation with steam can be adopted, if the product can be subsequently separated from the water.
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  • Distillation in a vacuum is practised in two forms: - if the pump draws off steam as well as air it is termed a "wet" air-pump; if it only draws off air, it is a "dry" air-pump. In the glycerin industry the lyes obtained by saponifying the fats are first evaporated with "wet vacuum" and finally distilled with closed and live steam and a "dry vacuum."
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  • Two forms of steam distillation may be distinguished: - in one the still is simply heated by a steam coil wound inside or outside the still - this is termed heating by dry steam; in the other steam is injected into the mass within the still - this is the distillation with live steam of laboratory practice.
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  • In its more complete form a still has in addition the following fittings: - The dome is provided with openings to admit (I) the axis of the stirring gear (in some stills the stirring gear rotates on a horizontal axis which traverses the side and not the head of the still), (2) the inlet and outlet tubes of a closed steam coil, (3) a tube reaching to nearly the bottom of the still to carry live steam, (4) a tube to carry a thermometer, (5) one or more manholes for charging purposes, (6) sight-holes through which the operation can be watched, and (7) a safety valve.
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  • In cases where the condenser is likely to become plugged there is a pipe by means of which live steam can be injected into the condenser.
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  • The modern distilling plant consists of two main parts termed the evaporator and condenser; in addition there must be a boiler (sometimes steam is run off the main boilers, but this practice has several disadvantages), pumps for circulating cold water in the condenser and for supplying salt water to the evaporator, and a filter through which the aerated water passes.
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  • I I consists of a cylindrical vessel having in its lower half a horizontal copper coil connected to the steam supply.
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  • The cylindrical vessel is filled to a certain level with salt water and the steam turned on.
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    0
  • In the Pape-Henneberg condenser, which has been adopted in the German navy, they are oval in section and tend to become circular under the pressure of the steam; this alteration in shape makes the tubes self-scaling.
    0
    0
  • in the "Lusitania," the steam traverses vertical copper coils tinned inside and outside; the coils are crescent-shaped, a form which gives a greater condensing surface and makes the coils self-scaling.
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  • the steam frigates "Minnesota," and "Roanoke," the sailing frigate "St Lawrence," and several gun-boats, anchored off Fortress Monroe.
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  • The Federal steam frigates, "Roanoke," "St Lawrence" and "Minnesota" had all gone aground in their trip from Old Point Comfort toward the scene of battle, and only the "Minnesota" was near enough (about i m.) to take any part in the fight.
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  • Bennett's The Monitor and the Navy under Steam (Boston, 1900); and William Swinton, Twelve Decisive Battles of the War (New York, 1867).
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  • The monoxide or strontia, Sr(); is formed by strongly heating the nitrate, or commercially by heating the sulphide or carbonate in superheated steam (at about 500-600° C.).
    0
    0
  • It is a white solid, which combines with gaseous ammonia to form SrC1 2.8NH 3, and when heated in superheated steam it decomposes with evolution of hydrochloric acid.
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  • Petroleum refineries, iron-foundries, chemicals, soap-boiling, silk-spinning and the production of ships' fittings, as marine steam boilers, anchors, chains, cables, are the other principal branches of industry.
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  • Between it and other ports in the Caspian communication is maintained by the mail-steamers of the Caucasus and Mercury Steam Navigation Company and many vessels of commercial firms with head offices chiefly at Baku.
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  • In 1764, with the aid of his assistant, William Irvine (1743-1787), he further measured the latent heat of steam, though not very accurately.
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  • But the bundant steam given off by the volcano seems to have con- c ensed into copious rain, which, mixing with the light volcanic V
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  • The clouds of steam condensed to copious torrents, which, mingling with the fine ashes, proiced muddy streams that swept far and wide over the plains, aching even to the foot of the Apennines.
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  • Other important products were: men's clothing ($2,943,214); foundry and machineshop products ($1,607,258); steam fittings and heating apparatus ($1,010,755); malt liquors ($933,278); and lumber products ($869,000).
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  • It is now not only the headquarters of the English naval squadron in the Persian Gulf, and the land terminus of the Indo-European telegraph, but it also forms the chief station in the Gulf of the British India Steam Navigation Company, which runs its vessels weekly between Bombay and Basra.
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  • to Legnago, and steam tramways to Cologna Veneta, Coriano and S.
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  • There are neither sulphuric exhalations nor escapes of steam at present, and it would seem that this great volcano is permanently extinct.
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  • A little steam still issues from several smaller cones on the summit of the ridge, as well as from one, called Eniwa, on the northern side.
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  • Has both a summit and a lateral crater, which are apparently connected and perpetually emitting steam.
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  • Two of the five compartments into which it is divided by walls of deeply striated volcanic ash are constantly emitting steam, while a new vent displaying great activity has been opened at the base of the cone on the south side.
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  • An outbreak in 1894 produced numerous rifts in the inner walls from which steam and smoke have issued ever since.
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  • At the summit are two deep craters, the southern of which emits steam.
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  • It is of remarkably regular formation, and the floor is pierced by a number of huge fumaroles whence issue immense volumes of steam.
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  • by a steam jacket when caustic alkali was being made.
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  • Szombathely is an important railway and industrial centre, and has a state railway workshop, manufactories for agricultural machinery, foundries and steam mills.
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  • The first difficulty was to make it sufficiently light in relation to the power its machinery could develop; and several machines were built in which trials were made of steam, and of compressed air and carbonic acid gas as motive agents.
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  • of Crema by steam tramway, 282 ft.
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    0
  • Clausius (1850), applying the same assumption, deduced the same value of F'(t), and showed that it was consistent with the mechanical theory and Joule's experiments, but required that a vapour like steam should deviate more considerably from the gaseous laws than was at that time generally admitted.
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    0
  • Thomson (Lord Kelvin) from Regnault's tables of the properties of steam, assuming the gaseous laws, did not vary exactly as J/T.
    0
    0
  • To find the total heat of a substance in any given state defined by the values of p and 0, starting from any convenient zero of temperature, it is sufficient to measure the total heat required to raise the substance to the final temperature under a constant pressure equal to p. For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam.
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  • The total heat with which we are actually concerned in the working of a steam engine is the total heat as here defined, and not the total heat as defined by Regnault, which, however, differs from (E+pv) only by a quantity which is inappreciable in ordinary practice.
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  • Soc., 1900) on steam confirm this type of equation, but give much larger values of the cooling effect than for C02, and a more rapid rate of variation with temperature.
    0
    0
  • For steam between Ioo° and 150° C. it approaches the value 3.5.
    0
    0
  • Zeuner's formula for steam), but they cannot be made to represent with sufficient approximation the deviations from the ideal state at moderate pressures and generally lead to erroneous results.
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    0
  • This method of representation is applicable to certain kinds of problems, and has been developed by Macfarlane Gray and other writers in its application to the steam engine.
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    0
  • One or two chapters on the subject are also generally included in treatises on the steam engine, or other heat engines, such as those of Rankine, Perry or Ewing.
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  • The machine frequently resembles a brickmaker's wash-mill, and is worked by horse or steam power.
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  • On the advent of steam the shipping declined, and even the herring fishery, which fostered a large curing trade, has lost much of its prosperity.
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  • Steam communication is maintained on the Catatumbo and Zulia rivers to Villamizar, and on the Escalante to Santa Cruz.
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  • deep, is divided into two compartments, each capable of containing a full-sized battleship, and can be pumped dry in eight hours by two 600 h.p. steam pumps.
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  • It is connected with Neusatz on the opposite bank by a bridge of boats, a railway bridge and a steam ferry.
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  • Hot mineral springs and ebullitions of steam still testify to the presence of volcanic activity.
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  • Cradock to purposes of convoy, as she could steam only 12 knots, and was 300 m.
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  • In 1875 1568 sailing ships and 698 steamers (with a total of 740,731 tons) entered and 1588 sailing ships and 700 steamers (with a total of 756,807 tons) cleared this port; in 1883 3379 sailing and 1126 steam vessels (with a total of 1,056,201 tons) entered and 3276 sailing and 1120 steam vessels (with a total of 960,229 tons) cleared.
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  • The line is hauled in by a steam or electric winch, and the sounding-tube containing a sample of the bottom deposit is rapidly brought on board.
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  • Coal is never definitely crystalline, the nearest approach to such a structure being a compound fibrous grouping resembling that of gypsum or arragonite, which occurs in some of the steam coals of South Wales, and is locally known as " cone in cone," but no definite form or arrangement can be made out of the fibres.
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  • Thus the semi 'anthracitic coals of South Wales are known as " dry " or " steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and with a larger amount of flame, while giving out a great amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke.
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  • In some instances the coal seams may be changed as a whole, as for instance in South Wales, where the coking coals of the eastern side of the basin pass through the state of dry steam coal in the centre, and become anthracite in the western side.
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  • The freezing machines were kept at work for 200 days, and 2191 tons of coal were consumed in supplying steam for the compressors and circulating pumps.
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    0
  • The pumps, placed close to the point where the water accumulates, may be worked by an engine on the surface by means of heavy reciprocating rods which pass down the shaft, or by underground motors driven by steam, compressed air or electricity.
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  • In this portion of the pit are generally placed the furnaces for ventilation, and the boilers required for working steam engines underground, as well as the stables and lamp cabin.
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    0
  • In the Northumberland steam coal district, where it is carried out in the most perfect manner, the bords are 5 to 6 yds.
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  • 7, which represents an area of about 500 acres of the bottom hard steam coal at Shipley in Derbyshire.
    0
    0
  • Where the load has to be hauled up a rising gradient, underground engines, driven by steam or compressed air or electric motors, are used.
    0
    0
  • In some cases steam generated in boilers at the surface is carried in pipes to the engines below, but there is less loss of power when compressed air is sent down in the same way.
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    0
  • In mines that are worked from the outcrop by adits or day levels traction by locomotives driven by steam, compressed air or electricity is used to some extent.
    0
    0
  • The power is applied by steam acting directly on a crank at one end of the axle, and the diameter of the fan may be 40 ft.
    0
    0
  • Notable examples are found in the Rateau, Ser and Capell fans, and where an electric generating station is available electric motors can be advantageously used instead of steam.
    0
    0
  • The gases from the bituminous house coals of South Wales are comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with those from the steam coal and anthracite pits.
    0
    0
  • The latter class of coal contains the largest proportion of this dangerous gas, but holds it more tenaciously than do the steam coals, thus rendering the workings comparatively safer.
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  • per ton, was only to be driven out by a heat of 300° C. Steam coals being softer and more porous give off enormous volumes of gas from the working face in most of the deep pits, many of which have been the scene of disastrous explosions.
    0
    0
  • Steam at high pressure exhausting into the atmosphere is still commonly used, but the great power required for raising heavy loads from deep pits at high speeds has brought the question of fuel economy into prominence, and more economical types of the two-cylinder tandem compound class with high initial steam pressure, superheating and condensing, have come in to some extent where the amount of work to be done is sufficient to justify their high initial cost.
    0
    0
  • In a later example at the Bargold pit of the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Company a mixed arrangement is adopted with horizontal high-pressure and vertical low-pressure cylinders.
    0
    0
  • The work of the winding engine, being essentially of an intermittent character, can only be done with condensation when a central condenser keeping a constant vacuum is used, and even with this the rush of steam during winding may be a cause of disturbance.
    0
    0
  • A novelty in winding arrangements is the substitution of the electromotor for the steam engine, which has been effected in a few instances.
    0
    0
  • To guard against this it is now customary to use some speed-checking appliance, independent of the engine-man, which reduces or entirely cuts off the steam supply when the cage arrives at a particular point near the surface, and applies the brake if the load is travelling too quickly.
    0
    0
  • On decomposition by water, ammonia is produced by the action of steam or of nascent hydrogen on the nitride, the quantity formed depending very largely upon the temperature at which the carbide is decomposed.
    0
    0
  • The values of other products in 1905 were as follows: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $15,620,931; lumber and timber products (which employed the largest average number of wage-earners-13,332, or 27.2 per cent.), $16,278,240; cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $10,472,742; printing and publishing, $7,782,247; foundry and machine shop products, 1905, $4,952,827; malt liquors, $4,153,938; saddlery and harness, 1905, $3,251,525.
    0
    0
  • In 1860 the steam railway mileage was 307 m.; in 1870, 711 m.; in 1880, 3244 r11.; in 1890, 8709 m.
    0
    0
  • The means of transportation is afforded chiefly by the steam railways, of which the state had 9,907.44 m.
    0
    0
  • It is regularly visited by the vessels of the China Navigation Company and the Chinese Merchants' Steam Navigation Company.
    0
    0
  • At regular intervals the steamers of the Dutch Royal Steam Packet Company call at Dorey and other points, while administrative posts have been established elsewhere in lieu of others previously attempted but abandoned.
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    0
  • The principal passenger steamers sailing from the port are those of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company for the West Indies and the Pacific (via Panama) and for Brazil and the River Plate, &c., and the Union-Castle line for the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, East Africa, &c., both of which companies have their headquarters here.
    0
    0
  • The development of steam navigation for the carrying of large cargoes has driven this fleet from the sea.
    0
    0
  • When the Civil War and steam navigation put an end to the supremacy of Massachusetts wooden sailing ships, much of the capital which had been employed in navigation was turned into developing railway facilities and coasting steamship lines.
    0
    0
  • After this treatment, the mixture is run into lead-lined vats and treated with sulphuric acid, steam is blown through the mixture in order to bring it to the boil, and the anthracene is rapidly oxidized to anthraquinone.
    0
    0
  • published several papers on the electricity of effluent steam.
    0
    0
  • This subject he was led to study by the experience of a colliery engineman, who noticed that he received a sharp shock on exposing one hand to a jet of steam issuing from a boiler with which his other hand was in contact, and the inquiry was followed by the invention of the "hydro-electric" machine, a powerful generator of electricity, which was thought worthy of careful investigation by Faraday.
    0
    0
  • Railways run to Cuneo and Airasca (the latter on the TurinPinerolo line) and steam tramways in various directions.
    0
    0
  • There are several steam factories for pressing cotton, and indigo vats.
    0
    0
  • It is connected by electric and steam tramways with Zandvoort, Leiden, Amsterdam and Alkmaar.
    0
    0
  • The manufactures include machinery, chemicals, soap, leather, shoes, glass and other articles, and there are iron-foundries, breweries, and steam flour and saw-mills.
    0
    0
  • The piston was in communication with a vacuum vessel from which the air had been pumped by steam power.
    0
    0
  • In the United States the Philadelphia mint was opened in 1792, but only manual or horse power was used until 1836, when steam was introduced.
    0
    0
  • in diameter set parallel to one another with a small interval between, and revolved by electric or steam power.
    0
    0
  • Woollen, cloth, cotton and flax mills, steam flour and saw mills, distilleries and breweries, machinery works, paper mills, furniture, tobacco, soap, candle and hardware works are among the chief industrial establishments.
    0
    0
  • The regulation and control of such public service corporations as own or operate steam, electric or street railways, gas or electric plants, and express companies were, in 1907, vested in two public service commissions (the first for New York City and the second for all other parts of the state), each of five members appointed by the governor with the approval of the Senate; in 1910 the regulation of telephone and telegraph companies throughout the state was vested in the second commission.
    0
    0
  • Ruapehu (9100 ft.) is intermittently active, and Ngauruhoe (75 1 5 ft.) emits vapour and steam incessantly.
    0
    0
  • The second type of Cretaceous is a terrestrial formation, and is important as it contains the rich coal seams of Greymouth, Westport and Seddonville, which yield a high quality of steam coal.
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    0
  • The falls of the Hudson here furnish a fine water-power, which is utilized, in connexion with steam and electricity, in the manufacture of lumber, paper and wood pulp, women's clothing, shirts, collars and cuffs, &c. In 1905 the village's factory products were valued at $4,780,331.
    0
    0
  • Limestone is abundant, and the city has various manufactures, including lime, foundry and machine-shop products, agricultural implements, planing-mill products, engines, steam shovels, dredges, pianos and silks.
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  • by rail and steam tramway W.
    0
    0
  • We see the steam issuing from the whistle of a distant engine long before we hear the sound.
    0
    0
  • Livingstone and Robert Fulton, was prominent in the development of steam navigation.
    0
    0
  • This gives a load of 50 tons per eccentric. One motor is placed at each end of the span to operate the eccentrics and also to release the latches and raise the rails of the steam track.
    0
    0
  • His results, according to Kelvin, led directly and speedily to the present practical method of surface-condensation, one of the most important improvements of the steam engine, especially for marine use, since the days of James Watt.
    0
    0
  • There are steam flour mills, furniture factories and various other small manufactories; but the main economic interest of the city is in brickyards and coal-mines in its immediate vicinity.
    0
    0
  • The modern practice consists in heating the perfectly fresh, cleaned livers by steam to a temperature above that of boiling water, or, in more recent practice, to a lower temperature, the livers being kept as far as possible from contact with air.
    0
    0
  • There are tallow-melting houses, steam flourmills, candle and soap works, distilleries and tobacco factories.
    0
    0
  • There are upwards of 3000 miles of railways and steam tramways in Netherlands India, but these are almost entirely in Java; elsewhere only Sumatra has a few short lines.
    0
    0
  • above the bar at its mouth; during Cartagena's decline this was allowed to fill up; it was reopened in 1846 for a short time and then was obstructed again by river floods; but in 1881 it was reopened for steam navigation.
    0
    0
  • Commerce is chiefly agricultural and is stimulated by a good position in the railway system, and by a canal which opens a water-way by the Panaro and the Po to the Adriatic. Modena is the point at which the railway to Mantua and Verona diverges from that between Milan and Bologna, and has several steam tramways to neighbouring places.
    0
    0
  • The old and new towns are connected by steam tramways.
    0
    0
  • He had no taste for office work, and much of his time was occupied in commanding a battery of volunteers and in charge of a steam launch.
    0
    0
  • The galls are gathered before the frosts set in, and are exposed to steam to kill the insects."
    0
    0
  • distant, with which it is connected by a steam tramway, communication is maintained with Georgetown and Launceston.
    0
    0
  • The value of its factory products in 1905 was $ 1 7, 1 4 6, 33 8 (1 4.3% more than in 1900), the more important being those of steel works and rolling mills ($4,528,907), blast furnaces, steam railway repair shops, cigar and cigarette factories ($1,258,498), foundries and machine shops ($953,617), boot and shoe factories ($922,568), flouring and grist mills, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments and silk mills.
    0
    0
  • Charles Algernon Parsons, born on the 13th of June 1854, is famous for his commercial development of the steam turbine.
    0
    0
  • The Aetna (fire), Aetna Life, Connecticut Fire, Connecticut Mutual Life, Connecticut General Life, Hartford Fire, Hartford Life, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., 1"1"-*: ., l Fire, Orient Fire, Phoenix Mutual Life and Travelers Yies have their own homes, some of these being among _it buildings in Hartford.
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    0
  • (2) Efficient sterilization of all vessels by steam if possible, or by abundance of boiling water.
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  • A steam ferry connects it with Calafat, on the Rumanian bank of the Danube, and there is a branch railway to Mezdra, on the main line Sofia-Plevna.
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  • Most of the product has been of the semi-bituminous variety and of the best quality in the country for the generation of steam.
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  • The products of greatest value in 5905 were: custom-made men's clothing; fruits and vege