The statutes of the club were also published in Paris.
On the 23rd of August 1480, the college being completed, the great west window being contracted to be made after the fashion of that at All Souls' College, a new president, Richard Mayhew, fellow of New College, was installed on the 23rd of August 1480, and statutes were promulgated.
The statutes 38 Edw.
"They keep close tabs on scores of open cases and use freedom of information statutes to monitor progress," she told me.
The statutes, not drawn up until the 2nd of April 1443, raised the number of the college to forty.
Ten days after he sealed the statutes, on the 12th of April 1443, Chicheley died and was buried in Canterbury cathedral on the north side of the choir, under a fine effigy of himself erected in his lifetime.
On the 21st of December 1443 he was sworn to the statutes by Bishop Bekynton and the earl of Suffolk, the king's commissioners, and himself administered the oath to the other members of the foundation, then only five fellows and eleven scholars over fifteen years of age.
It must have been at this time that an addition was made by Waynflete to the Eton college statutes, compelling the fellows to forswear the heresies of John Wycliffe and Pecock.
The statutes were for the most part a replica of those of New College, members of which were, equally with members of Magdalen, declared to be eligible for the presidency.
Thompson proved a worthy successor to Whewell; the twenty years of his mastership were years of progress, and he himself took an active part in the abolition of tests and the reform of university studies and of the college statutes.
All of the claims were finally confirmed, by a series of statutes passed in 1799, 1802 and 1807.
The last time he saw the queen was on the 1st of February 1650, when he handed to her the statutes he had drawn up for the proposed academy.
In 1705 Cartesianism was still subject to prohibitions from the authorities; but in a project of new statutes, drawn up for the faculty of arts at Paris in 1720, the Method and Meditations of Descartes were placed beside the Organon and the Metaphysics of Aristotle as text-books for philosophical study.
It exercises only, therefore, such jurisdiction as the high court of admiralty exercised, apart from restraining statutes of 1389 and 1391 and enabling statutes of 1840 and 1861.
university statutes, in which he indicated the necessity for reform; and in 1850 and 1855 he was a member of the commission of inquiry relative to the university of Cambridge.
Little is known with certainty of his university career beyond the facts that he became a fellow of Jesus College in 1510 or 1511, that he had soon after to vacate his fellowship, owing to his marriage to " Black Joan," a relative of the landlady of the Dolphin Inn, and that he was reinstated in it on the death of his wife, which occurred in childbirth before the lapse of the year of grace allowed by the statutes.
With regard to the land and the services due therefrom a beginning was made of the policy which culminated in the statutes of Mortmain and of Quia Emptores.
Both were written evidently in a less hurried fashion than those in the British Museum, and the one at Lincoln was regarded as the most perfect by the commissioners who were responsible for the appearance of the Statutes of the Realm in 1810.
The text of Magna Carta is also printed in the Statutes of the Realm (1810-1828), and in T.
Cases upon the execution of these statutes are collected in Stillingfleet, On Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, p. 189; Gibson, Codex, 83.
Whatever may have been the law, it is certain that, notwithstanding the statutes of Edw.
Stephens, Ecclesiastical Statutes, i.
In India the metropolitan of Calcutta and the bishops of Madras and Bombay have some very limited jurisdiction which is conferred by letters patent under the authority of the statutes 53 Geo.
Stephens, Ecclesiastical Statutes (1845); H.
During the religious confusion of the Reformation, the practice of fasting was generally relaxed and it was found necessary to reassert the obligation of keeping Lent and the other periods and days of abstinence by a series of proclamations and statutes.
But in spite of statutes and proclamations, of occasional severities and of the patriotic example of Queen Elizabeth, the practice of fasting fell more and more into disuse.
Instead of reviving Moravian orders at once, the settlers attended the Berthelsdorf parish church, regarded themselves as Lutherans, agreed to a code of "statutes" drawn up by the count, accepted the Augsburg Confession as their standard of faith, and, joining with some Lutheran settlers in a special Communion service in Berthelsdorf (Aug.
These ordinances must, however, be of a temporary nature, must not infringe the fundamental laws or statutes passed by the two chambers, or change the electoral system, and must be laid upon the table of the Duma at the first opportunity.
The common law has been somewhat unfavourable to the enforcement of such agreements, and statutes in the United States, both local and national, have attempted to prohibit them; but the public advantage from their existence has been so great as to render their legal disabilities inoperative.
These special acts gradually gave way to general statutes under which railway corporations could be created without application to the legislature.
In cases where statutes did touch the question of regulation, they had to do with the operation of trains and with the provision of facilities for shippers and passengers, rather than with questions of rates.
These measures proving unsatisfactory, they were soon superseded by statutes creating railway commissions with varied powers of regulation.
Horner, The Statutes of the Apostles, translated from Ethiopic and Arabic MSS.
An attack on Christianity laid a writer open to prosecution and penalties under the statutes of the realm (9 and io William III.
In the United States the common law of England was largely followed, and in most of the states, also, statutes were enacted against the offence, but, as in England, the law is practically never put in force.
In the middle of the 14th century the famous Goslar statutes, a code of laws, which was adopted by many other towns, was published.
The statutes of the Order were altered to suit the new conditions, and a whole system of administration arose.
to the end of Elizabeth's, a number of statutes were made for the encouragement of tillage, though probably to little purpose.
The Copyhold Consolidation Act 1894 supersedes six previous copyhold statutes, but does not effect any alteration in the law concerning enfranchisement.
We can show, for example: (1) that the Statute of Apprenticeship did not stand alone; it was one of a long series of similar measures, beginning more than two centuries before, which in their turn join on to the municipal and gild regulations of the middle ages; one of an important group of statutes, more or less closely interwoven throughout their history, administered by local authorities whose functions had grown largely in connexion with this legislation and the gradual differentiation of the trades and callings to which it related.
Its officers were required to obey "the statutes of the teaching body, which have for their object uniformity of instruction, and which tend to form for the state citizens attached to their religion, their prince, their country and their family."
Several banks and trading houses with banking privileges were incorporated by special statutes between 1803 and 1817.
The Civil Code, issued 1852, the Criminal Code in 1869 and the Revised Statutes in 1879, have several times been amended and published in new editions.
- Reference may be made, in conclusion, to a few modern statutes which have affected the law of landlord and tenant.
1897, c. 170) consolidating statutes have been passed.
Yocum's Civil Government of Florida (De Land, Florida, 1904); and the Revised Statutes of Florida (1892).
The material enactments of the restraining statutes were as follows: - An act of 1389 (13 Ric. II.
In the reign of Queen Victoria, two enabling statutes, 1840 and 1861, were passed and greatly enlarged the jurisdiction of the court.
The manner in which these statutes were administered by Dr Stephen Lushington and Sir R.
The act of 1670 gave to informers a pecuniary interest (they were to have one-third of the fine imposed) in hunting down Nonconformists who broke the law, and this and other statutes were unduly strained to secure convictions.
The general result of the law previous to the Benefices Act 1898, as gathered from the statutes and decisions, may be exhibited as follows: (1) it was not simony for a layman or spiritual person not purchasing for himself to purchase, while the church was full, as advowson or next presentation, however immediate the prospect of a vacancy; (2) it was not simony for a spiritual person to purchase for himself a life or any greater estate in an advowson, and to present himself thereto; (3) it was not simony to exchange benefices under an agreement that no payment was to be made for dilapidations on either side; (4) it was not simony to make certain assignments of patronage under the Church Building and New Parishes Acts (9 & 10 Vict.
In 1215 this prohibition is renewed in the statutes of the university of Paris, as sanctioned by the papal legate.
During the thirty-two years of his reign he held at least fifteen diets,' at which no fewer than 450 statutes were passed.
His writings seem to have been chiefly liturgical: he gave the first set of statutes to the school of Nisibis, which was founded during his bishopric.
In April 1687 he published a Declaration of Indulgence - exempting Catholics and Dissenters from penal statutes.
As chancellor, the statutes directed him to study theology, to train others in that study and to oversee the educational work of the diocese.
When the statutes relating to public health were consolidated and amended in 1875 London was excluded; and the law applicable to it was specially consolidated and amended in 1891.
Statutes Of Limitation >>
In statutes dealing with offences connected with the highway, such as gaming, negligence of carriers, &c., "highway" includes navigable rivers.
Each of the seven arti maggiori or greater gilds was organized like a small state with its councils, statutes, assemblies, magistrates, &c., and in times of trouble constituted a citizen militia.
To the first half of that century belong the statutes of the fraternities of Cambridge, Abbotsbury and Exeter.
Prayers for the dead, attendance at funerals of gildsmen, periodical banquets, the solemn entrance oath, fines for neglect of duty and for improper conduct, contributions to a common purse, mutual assistance in distress, periodical meetings in the gildhall, - in short, all the characteristic features of the later gilds already appear in the statutes of these Anglo-Saxon fraternities.
There are other statutes dealing with special offences, e.g.
In Scotland this civil right is specially preserved by various statutes.
The importance and independence of the German trading settlements abroad was exemplified in the statutes of the "Company of German merchants at Bruges," drawn up in 1347, where for the first time appears the grouping of towns in three sections (the "Drittel"), the Wendish-Saxon, the Prussian-Westphalian, and those of Gothland and Livland.
This action was confirmed in 1366 by an assembly of the Hansa which at the same time, on the occasion of a regulation made by the Bruges counter and of statutes drawn up by the young Bergen counter, ordered that in future the approval of the towns must be obtained for all new regulations.
Thus it is not surprising that Pisa should already have had its own code of laws (Consuetudini di mare), which in 1075 were approved by Gregory VII., and in 1081 confirmed by a patent from the emperor Henry IV., a document which mentions for the first time the existence of a magistrate analogous to the consuls of the republic, although the latter, according to some writers, already existed in Pisa as early as the year 1080; the point, however, is doubtful, and other writers place the first authentic mention of the consuls in the year 1094.1 The oldest of Pisan statutes still extant is the Breve dei consoli di mare of 1162.
have reference to the ars politica: they contain rules for the education of a prince and a summary of the forms, terms and statutes of canonical, civil and criminal law.
Under these governors the great and small councils continued to discharge municipal business and to administer the Paduan law, contained in the statutes of 1276 and 1362.
These were gradually retired, however, through the efforts of the mercantile classes, aided by the parliamentary statutes of 1751 and 1763, and by about 1763 the finances were again placed on a sound money basis.
He was professor of law in the university of Wisconsin in 1868-85, and again in 1889-92, and in 1875-78 was a member of the commission which revised the statutes of Wisconsin.
Not till 1736 were the statutes against witchcraft repealed; an act which the Associate Presbytery at Edinburgh in 1743 declared to be" contrary to the express law of God, for which a holy God may be provoked in a way of righteous judgment."The recognition and condemnation of errors in religious belief is by no means confined to the Christian Church.
A large number of penal statutes were enacted in the following reigns, and the statute I Eliz.
The court will construe the Articles of Religion and formularies according to the legal rules for the interpretation of statutes and written instruments.
4 It is the Deuteronomic law that is most familiar to him, as appears from his use of the name Horeb for the mountain of the law, and the Deuteronomic phrase " statutes and judgments " (iv.
Under this statute the archbishop continues to grant special licences to marry, which are valid in both provinces; he appoints notaries public, who may practise in both provinces; and he grants dispensations to clerks to hold more than one benefice, subject to certain restrictions which have been imposed by later statutes.
He has also an appellate jurisdiction of an analogous character, which he exercises through his provincial court, whilst his diocesan jurisdiction is exercised through his consistorial court, the judges of both courts being nominated by the archbishop. His ancient testamentary and matrimonial jurisdiction was transferred to the crown by the same statutes which divested the see of Canterbury of its jurisdiction in similar matters.
Another feature of these years was the anti-papal, or rather anti-clerical, legislation embodied in the statutes of Provisors and Praemunire.
An old law still on the statute-books when the edition of the revised statutes was issued in 1893, prescribes that " the punishment of whipping shall be inflicted publicly by strokes on the bare back, well laid on."
On the administration: see the Constitution of the State of Texas, with Amendments (Austin, 1891); John and Henry Sayles, Annotated Civil Statutes of Texas (2 vols., St Louis, 1897); The Session Laws, Twenty-fifth to Twenty-ninth Legislature (Austin, 1897-1905); W.
Or again the following prayer for baptism over the water from the Ethiopic Statutes of the Apostles as translated by the Rev. G.
From 1343 onward, statutes were passed by parliament forbidding any one to accept a papal provision, and cutting off all appeals to the papal curia or ecclesias tical courts in cases involving benefices.
The ancient statutes of the praemunire and provisors are recalled and the penalties attached to.
The provisions of the Truce of God were often incorporated bodily in municipal and district statutes such as the laws of Barcelona (1067).
Remington, Codes and Statutes of Washington (ibid., 1910).
All controversies of a civil nature, and any question of personal injury on which a suit for damages will lie, although it may also he indictable, may be referred to arbitration; but crimes, and perhaps actions on penal statutes by ntary common informers may not.
In addition to voluntary submissions and references by rules of court there are in America, as in the United Kingdom, various statutes which provide for arbitration in particular o cases.
Most of these statutes are founded on the 9 and arb'tr3 ry 10 Will.
Grantham, (ed.) Statutes of South Dakota (2nd revised ed., 2 vols., 1901); Doane Robinson, A Brief History of South Dakota (New York, 1905); J.
Mosheim was much consulted by the authorities when the new university of Gottingen was being formed; especially in the framing of the statutes of the theological faculty, and the provisions for making the theologians independent of the ecclesiastical courts.
John Albert's second diet (1496), after granting subsidies the burden of which fell entirely on the towns and peasantry, passed a series of statutes benefiting the nobility at the expense of the other classes.
(1333-1370) must be associated the statutes of Wislica.
A few fragments printed in Polish had appeared before this, as the Lord's Prayer in the statutes of the bishops of Breslau in 1475, the story of Pope Urban in Latin, German and Polish in 1505, &c.; but the first complete work in the Polish language appeared from the press of this printer at Cracow in 1521, under the title, Speeches of the Wise King Solomon.
In the patronage of learning and in the exercise of authority over the morals and education of youth Laud was in his proper sphere, many valuable reforms at Oxford being due to his activity, including the codification of the statutes, the statute by which public examinations were rendered obligatory for university degrees, and the ordinance for the election of proctors, the revival of the college system, of moral and religious discipline and order, and of academic dress.
general acts or statutes," except that "in time of War, all bills for granting aid to the crown, prepared by the grand council and approved by the president-general, shall be valid and passed into a law, without the assent of the British parliament."
The first great dispute between proprietor and people after the restoration of 1715 was with regard to the extension of the English statutes to Maryland, the popular branch of the legislature vigorously contending that all such statutes except those expressly excluded extended to the province, and the lord proprietor contending that only those in which the dominions were expressly mentioned were in force there.
Statutes provide that all children between the ages of 7 and 14 years living in such districts must attend school annually for at least eight consecutive weeks.
Bullitt and John Feland, The General Statutes of Kentucky (Frankfort and Louisville, 1877, revised editions, 1881, 1887); and the Annual Reports of state officers and boards.
foot, and repressed by statutes both against its yard and mile, we should need but a small change to place our measures in accord with the metre.
(Markets and Fairs (Cattle) Acts 1887, 1891; Coal Mines Regulation Act 1887; Factory and Workshop Act 1878.) Useful statutes have also been passed to protect the working class, as in checking the weighing instruments used in mines in Great Britain, over which instruments wages are paid, and in the inspection of similar instruments used in factories and workshops.
He bestowed on them the church of St Andrea and conferred at the same time the valuable privilege of making and altering their own statutes; besides the other points, in 1546, which Ignatius had still more at heart, as touching the very essence of his institute, namely, exemption from ecclesiastical offices and dignities and from the task of acting as directors and confessors to convents of women.
Now in this second month of spring, in reverent observance of the old statutes, with victims, silks, spirits, and fruits, I offer sacrifice to thee.
In each there was a governor, with minor executive officers, a legislature, and a judiciary; and although the Crown retained the power of altering the charter, and the British parliament could (in strict legal view) legislate over the head of the colonial legislature so as to abrogate statutes passed by the latter, still in practice each colony was allowed to manage its own affairs and to enact the laws it desired.
They have now become very long and elaborate documents, seven, eight or ten times as long as the Federal Constitution, and containing a vast number of provisions on all sorts of subjects, many of them partaking of the nature of ordinary statutes passed by a legislature rather than safeguards suitable to a fundamental instrument.
A peculiarly notable form of this special or private bill legislation is that of dealing by special statutes with the governmental forms and details of management of municipalities; and the control exercised by the state legislatures over city governments is not only a most important branch of legislative business, but at the same time a means of power to scheming politicians and of enrichment to greedy ones.
In many states the legislatures have taken action in the development of law by adopting statutory codes of procedure, and in some instances have even enacted codes embodying the substance of the common law fused with the statutes.
It is, of course, to the state courts that the duty belongs of construing the constitution as well as the statutes of the state, and if they find any state law to be inconsistent with the state constitution it is their duty to declare it invalid.
In some cities the mayor has received an absolute power of appointment; the departments, especially the boards of health, have large ordinance-making powers; statutes passed by the state legislature determine (excepting the states where cities can make their own charters) the principal lines of municipal policy, and the real control over appropriations and taxes is occasionally found vested in a board of estimate, consisting of the mayor, comptroller (the chief financial officer), and a few other administrative officials.
The domestic executive authority of the president in time of peace is small, because by far the larger part of law and administration belongs to the state and local governments, while the Federal administration is regulated by statutes which leave little discretion to the executive.
It also has charge of the great seal of the United States, keeps the archives, publishes the statutes of Congress and controls the consular service.
The chief source for each state is the Revised Statutes, General Laws or Code, including the Constitution.
The United States Statutes at Large are published in 35 vols.
(Boston and Washington, 1845I9o9), and there is an annotated edition of the Federal Statutes compiled under the supervision of W.
In 1845, however, a statute based on the recommendations of a select committee, appointed in the preceding year, was passed; the object being to diminish the bulk of the special acts, and to introduce uniformity into private bill legislation by classifying the common form clauses, embodying them in general statutes, and facilitating their incorporation into the special statutes by reference.
The statute by which this change was initiated was the Lands Clauses Consolidation Act 1845; and the policy has been continued by a series of later statutes which, together with the act of 1845, are now grouped under the generic title of the Lands Clauses Acts.
Lastly, the promoters of public undertakings of a commercial character, such as railways and harbours, carry on their operations under statutes in which the provisions of the Lands Clauses Acts are incorporated.
and England (1451), and undertook, ex officio, the revision of the trial of Joan of Arc; he afterwards reformed the statutes of the university of Paris.
The constitution of 1901 (like that of 1867) and special statutes require separate schools for white and negro children.
7) was doubtless associated with traditions of the giving of statutes and ordinances.
The earlier ones in some cases prohibited the lending of money on usury at all, as in a statute of Jewry of the reign of Edward I.; but the later statutes were chiefly confined to limiting the rate of interest.
For American law relating to Usury, see Stimson's American Statute Law, and the statutes of the various states.
1 of Statutes revised Sept.
Legislative interference with agricultural operations or with the distribution of food-supplies, currency restrictions and failure of transport, which have all caused famines in the past, are unlikely thus to operate again; nor is it probable that the modern speculators who attempt to make "corners" in wheat could produce the evil effects contemplated in the old statutes against forestallers and regrators.
The secretary of state for the colonies is the official medium of communication with colonial governments; he has certain administrative duties respecting crown colonies, and has a right of advising the veto of an act of a colonial legislature - this veto, however, is never exercised in the case of purely local statutes.
As regards parliamentary elections (which may be either the " general election," after a dissolution of parliament, or " byelections," when casual vacancies occur during its continuance), the most important of the amending statutes is the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act 1883.
The law in Scotland is on the same lines, and extends to all nonparliamentary elections, and, as has been stated, the English statutes have been applied with adaptations to all municipal and local government elections in Ireland.
The labour unions took advantage of this trouble to force Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota, Colorado and several other states to pass anti-Pinkerton statutes making it illegal to import irresponsible armed men from a distance to quell local disturbances.
This congregation was very much occupied, being empowered to deal with all disciplinary matters concerning both the secular and regular clergy, whether in the form of consultations or of contentious suits; it had further the exclusive right to regulate the discipline of the religious orders and congregations bound by the simple vows, the statutes of which it examined, corrected and approved; finally it judged disputes and controversies between the secular and regular clergy.
It emanated from the king in a general council of the kingdom of Leon and Castile, and consisted of two separate parts; in the first 19 chapters were contained a series of statutes which were to be valid for the kingdom at large, while the rest of the document was simply a municipal charter.'
The full text is published in the Statutes and Ordinances of Ireland.
But the members of these orders were not less monks than knights, their statutes embodied the rules of the cloister, and they were bound by the ecclesiastical vows of celibacy, poverty and obedience.
And such bodies placed under the command of a sovereign or grand master, regulated by statutes, and enriched by ecclesiastical endowments would have been precisely what in after times such orders as the Garter in England, the Golden Fleece in Burgundy, the Annunziata in Savoy and the St Michael and Holy Ghost in France actually were.4 During the 14th and 15th centuries, as well as somewhat earlier and later, the general arrangements of a European army were always and everywhere pretty much the same.5 Under the sovereign the constable and the marshal g or marshals held the chief commands, their authority being partly joint and partly several.
1 But that the order, although from this manifestly already fully constituted in the autumn of 1348, was not in existence before the summer of 1346 Sir Harris Nicolas proves pretty conclusively by pointing out that nobody who was not a knight could under its statutes have been admitted to it, and that neither the prince of Wales nor several others of the original companions were knighted until the middle of that year.
All the medieval orders of knighthood, however, insisted in their statutes on the noble birth of the candidate.
at the birth of his son Frederick, the statutes being published in 1693.
Statutes were granted in 1476, but the order fell into abeyance at the extinction of the dynasty in 1609.
Various new statutes have been granted from 1827 to 1875.
The order consists of one class only and the original statutes limited the number, exclusive of the princes of the royal house and foreign members, to 30.
The statutes were published in 1816, by which date the order had lost its military character; it was reformed first by Charles Albert (1831), and later by Victor Emmanuel II., king of Italy (1868).
The Civil Order of Savoy, founded in 1831 by Charles Albert of Sardinia, is of one class, and in statutes of 1868 is limited to 60 members.
It is the chief order of the empire, and admission carries with it according to the statutes of 1720 the orders of St Anne, Alexander Nevsky, and the White Eagle; there is only one class.
in 1882, statutes 1883, in five classes; the ribbon is blue and red; the Order of St Sava, founded 1883, also in five classes, is an order of merit for science and art; the Order of the Star of Karageorgevitch, four classes, was founded by Peter I.
In its modern form the order dates from its reconstitution in 1748 by Frederick I., modified by statutes of 1798 and 1814.
In 1542 he re-endowed and re-established Buckingham College, Cambridge, under the new name of St Mary Magdalene, and ordained in the statutes that his heirs, "the possessors of the late monastery of Walden," should be visitors of the college in perpetuum.
STATUTES OF WESTMINSTER, two English statutes passed during the reign of Edward I, Parliament having met at Westminster on the 22nd of April 1275, its main work was the consideration of the statute of Westminster I.
Stubbs says of it: "The law of dower, of advowson, of appeal for felonies, is largely amended; the institution of justices of assize is remodelled, and the abuses of manorial jurisdiction repressed; the statute De religiosis, the statutes of Merton and Gloucester, are amended and re-enacted.
These gentlemen were of great service in remodelling the original statutes first drawn up by Sir H.
He had a principal share in compiling the statutes of the university, which passed the great seal on the 25th of September 1570, and in November following he was chosen vice-chancellor.
Tithes were generally recovered by a writ against the owner of the tithable property usually brought in the ecclesiastical courts (questions of title to tithes being reserved to the temporal courts), the jurisdiction of which in this respect was confirmed by the statutes Circumspecte agatis (13 Edw.
Tithes of small amount or due from Quakers could be recovered by summary proceedings before justices under statutes ranging from William III.
and statutes of Henry VIII., confirming a decree of the privy council, under which the rate of tithes was fixed at 162d.
The allusions to the statutes and works of Omri and Ahab in Mic. vi.
Everywhere the original source of law was the old German common law, but in each district it had been wholly or partly superseded by codes, text-books and statutes to a great extent founded on the principles of the Roman civil law.
the foundation of the civil code was still the statutes of 1433; in Munich, those of 1347.
The first of these comprised: (i.) all such of the statutes (leges) passed under the republic and early empire as had not become obsolete; (ii.) the decrees of the senate (senatus consulta) passed at the end of the republic and during the first two centuries of the empire; (iii.) the writings of the jurists of the later republic and of the empire, and more particularly of those jurists to whom the right of declaring the law with authority (jus respondendi) had been committed by the emperors.
4 In enacting the Digest as a law book, Justinian repealed all the other law contained in the treatises of the jurists (that jus vetus which has been already mentioned), and directed that those treatises should never be cited in future even by way of illustration; and he of course at the same time abrogated all the older statutes, from the Twelve Tables downwards, which had formed a part of the jus vetus.
Although the emperor had stated in publishing the Codex that all further statutes (if any) would be officially collected, this promise does not seem to have been redeemed.
By a series of statutes signed in 1626, a few days before his death, Alleyn ordained that his school should be for the instruction of 80 boys consisting of three distinct classes: - (I) the twelve poor scholars; (2) children of inhabitants of Dulwich, who were to be taught freely; and (3) " towee or foreign schollers," who were " to pay such allowance as the master and wardens shall appoint."
That it was the founder's intention to establish a great public school upon the model of Westminster and St Paul's, with provision for university training, is shown by the statutes; but for more than two centuries the educational benefits of God's Gift College were restricted to the twelve poor scholars.
Atwood's published works, exclusive of papers contributed to the Philosophical Transactions, for one of which he obtained the Copley medal, are as follows: - Analysis of a Course of Lectures on the Principles of Natural Philosophy (Cambridge, 1784); Treatise on the Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of Bodies (Cambridge, 1784), which gives some interesting experiments, by means of which mechanical truths can be ocularly exhibited and demonstrated, and describes the machine, since called by Atwood's name, for verifying experimentally the laws of simple acceleration of motion; Review of the Statutes and Ordinances of Assize which have been established in England from the 4th year of King John, 1202, to the 37th of his present Majesty (London, 1801), a work of some historical research; Dissertation on the Construction and Properties of Arches (London, 1801), with supplement, pt.
Wales and its marches were brought into legal union with the rest of England by the statutes of Wales (1534-1536); and after the Pilgrimage of Grace the Council of the North was set up to bring into subjection the extensive jurisdictions of the northern earls.
Amending statutes of succeeding years added to the commissioners' powers of fixing fair rents and cancelling arrears, the power of enlarging crofts and common grazings.
In 1845 parochial boards were created for relief of the poor, their powers being afterwards extended to deal with the statutes concerning burial-grounds, the registration of births, deaths and marriages, vaccination, public health, public libraries and other matters.
They established the rule that no official should put in execution any royal warrant " against the statutes and common form of law."
On the 24th of August three statutes abolished papal and prelatical authority and jurisdiction; repealed the old laws in favour of the church, and punished celebrants and attendants of the Mass - for the first offence by confiscation, for the second by exile, for the third by death.
Fraser's family histories, and Patrick's Statutes of the Scottish Church, may on various points prove serviceable.
Hurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (Chicago, 1903), and Starr and Curtis, Annotated Statutes of the State of Illinois (Chicago, 1896), are also of value.
At Cambridge in 1774 Fellow Commoners were examined with such precipitation to fulfil the formal requirements of the statutes that the ceremony was termed " huddling for a degree " (Jebb, Remarks upon the Present Mode of Education in the University of Cambridge, 4th ed., 1 774, p. 32).
By the statutes of 1849 and 1858 an intermediate " Moderations " examination was instituted between the preliminary examination called " Responsions " and the final examination.
Under an appointment by President Hayes, he prepared the second edition of the United States Revised Statutes (1878).
Under some statutes (e.g.
In England the period of the civil day may also vary under different statutes.
When an act of parliament is expressed to come into operation on a certain day, it is to be construed as coming into operation on the expiration of the previous day (Interpretation Act 1889, § 3 6; Statutes [Definition of Time] Act 1880).
To his legal scholarship and collecting zeal Virginia owed the preservation of a large part of her early statutes.
Though not eligible for the council, they shared to a certain extent in the self-government through the aldermen of each corporation or gild, of which some appear as early as the statutes of 1240.
Adopting the statutes of Soest in Westphalia as their code, Saxon merchants exclusively ruled the city.
Before the close of the century the statutes of Lubeck were adopted by most Baltic towns having a German population, and Visby protested in vain against the city on the Trave having become the court of appeal for nearly all these cities, and even for the German settlement in Russian Novgorod.
Matters could only be mended by the exercise of legislative authority, and this came in the Prison Act of 1865, an act which consolidated all previous statutes on the subject of prison discipline, many of its provisions being still in force.
The constitutional documents may best be consulted in the latest compiled Statutes of the state.
This miniature code would thenceforth be developed by means of statutes passed by the town council.
In the improvement and expansion of these statutes a remarkable activity was displayed by means of an annual correctio statutorum carried out by specially appointed statutores.
Chatterton, secretary of state, The State of Wyoming (1904); and reports of the various state officers mentioned in the text; Revised Statutes of Wyoming (Laramie, 1899); Wyoming Irrigation Laws (1908); G.
Hening, The Statutes at Large (13 vols.
They were canons regular and followed the so-called Rule of St Augustine (see Aigustinians), but with supplementary statutes that made the life one of great austerity.
Further, a number of statutes were passed with the object of putting every possible obstacle in the way of Catholics educating their children in their own creed, or of inheriting or buying land.
Nor did the act affect in any way the long series of old statutes directed against the assumption of authority by the Roman see in England.
Mills' Annotated Statutes of the State of Colorado .
For Owen's brilliant but brief career and ruthless treatment of English settlers and Anglophil Welshmen, his countrymen had not unnaturally to pay a heavy penalty in the severe statutes which the affrighted parliaments of Henry IV.
For many years the New York courts held that this doctrine was not in force there, but in 1893 the legislature repealed the provisions of the revised statutes on which these decisions rested and restored the ancient law.
Statutes passed in Pennsylvania have established the doctrine there, and dissolved any doubt as to its being in force in that state.
which were really admitted were not openly and avowedly made by a direct change in the statutes, but for the most part they were effected (as so many early reforms) under the cover of ingenious legal fictions.
About this time, indeed, there was in Scotland a remarkable approximation to that solution of the toleration difficulty which later ages have approved; for the regent was understood to favour the demand of the "congregation" that at least the penal statutes against heretics "be suspended and abrogated," and "that it be lawful to us to use ourselves in matters of religion and conscience as we must answer to God."
rescinding old statutes which had established and enforced that.
The same Riksdag decided that the king was not bound by any particular constitution, but only by law and the statutes.
With proclamations, placaats and statutes abundantly filling huge tomes, the caprice of the governor was in truth the law.
The effect of the statutes is to keep the courts always open for the issue of the writ.
In Australasia and Canada and in most if not all the British possessions whose law is based on the common law, the power to issue and enforce the writ is possessed and is freely exercised by colonial courts, under the charters or statutes creating and regulating the courts.
No details of the earlier history of Thebes have been preserved, except that it was governed by a land-holding aristocracy who safeguarded their integrity by rigid statutes about the ownership of property and its transmission.
He founded a college of art in Mafra; he became visitor of Coimbra University, recast its statutes and introduced the teaching of natural science.
The original statutes have not come down to us.
8, 1867), subsequently incorporated in the statutes of the Empire, which laid down the principle that the German consulates were to be under the immediate jurisdiction of the president of the Confederation (later the emperor).
Her organic law thereafter until 1910 consisted of various sections of the Revised Statutes of the United States.
- Government Arizona Revised Statutes (Phoenix, 1887); Report of the Governor of Arizona Territory to the Secretary of the Interior, annual.
In 1288, four years after the defeat of Meloria, Pisa ceded Sassari to Genoa; but Sassari enjoyed internal autonomy, and in 1316 published its statutes (still extant), which are perhaps in part the reproduction of earlier ones.
For centuries before, from the reign of Edward III., under a number of statutes and commissions, the administrative work in the counties had been in the hands of the country gentlemen and the clergy, acting as justices of the peace, and sitting in petty sessions and quarter sessions.
These duties are imposed under various statutes.
Of the statutes affecting county councils passed subsequent to 1888 mention need only be made of the chief.
Among other statutes conferring powers or imposing duties upon county councils, mention may be made of such acts as those relating to sea fisheries regulation, open spaces, police MisceI superannuation, railway and canal traffic, shop hours, laneous.
In dealing with the powers and duties of district councils it will be convenient to treat of these first as they arise under the Public Health Acts, and afterwards as they arise under other Public statutes.
A great number of other statutes confer powers or impose duties upon district councils, such as the acts relating to town gardens, agricultural gangs, fairs, petroleum, infant life protection, commons, open spaces, canal boats, factories and workshops, margarine, sale of horse-flesh and shop hours.
This arrangement was confirmed by subsequent statutes passed in the reigns of Edward I.
For the interpretation of the older texts it is of great value where they are concerned with the fixed, formal statutes of the church.
The general rule was established by the Statutes of Distribution.
Statutes Of Westminster >>
The existing laws and statutes of both principalities were to be revised by a European Commission, sitting at Bucharest, and their work was to be assisted by a Divan or national council which the Porte was to convoke for the purpose in each of the two provinces, and in which all classes of Walachian and Moldavian society were to be represented.
The first step which he took towards that end was to annul, by an unconstitutional exercise of his prerogative, all the penal statutes against the Roman Catholics; and in order to disguise his real design, he annulled at the same time the penal statutes against Protestant nonconformists.
Cotton, The Codes and Statutes of Oregon (2 vols., San Francisco, 1902); and Frank Foxcroft, "Constitution Mending and the Initiative," in the Atlantic Monthly for June 1906.
It is part of the Egyptian Heptateuch and contains neither communion nor ordination forms. (e) The Ethiopic Church Order, perhaps twenty years later than (d), and forming part of the Ethiopic Statutes.
It is then to the episcopate, assembled in ecumenical council, and to its chief, that the function of legislating for the whole Church belongs; the inferior authorities, local councils or isolated bishops and prelates, can only make special laws or statutes, valid only for that part of the Church under their jurisdiction.
At one time Newton's friends had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College, Cambridge, but the college offered a successful resistance on the ground that the appointment would be illegal, as the statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders.
In 1796 he went to Berlin, where he founded a humanitarian society, and was commissioned by the freemasons of that city to assist Fichte in reforming the statutes and ritual of their lodge.
The changes made by Edward in constitutional law by his great series of statutes commenced very soon after his return to his kingdom in 1274.
The great enactments start with the First Statute Statutes of Westminster (1275), a measure directed to the ~,ilns~r improvement of administrative details, which was andGlouaccompanied by a grant to the king of a permanent cester.
The great group of statutes that date from Edwards earlier years ends with the legislative enactments of 1285, the Second Statute of Westminster and the Statute of Winchester.
Gascony being, as usual, out of hand, he crossed to Bordeaux in 1286, and abode in Guienne for no less than three years, reducing the duchy to such order as it had never known before, settling all disputed border questions with the new king of France, Philip IV., founding many new towns, and issuing many useful statutes and ordinances.
The Statutes of Praemunire and Provisors had been passed afew years before (1351-1365) to check papal pretensions.
A royal edict declared the statutes of the Good Parliament null and void.
Lancasters ad parlia- herents were turned out of the council; the persons meat of condemned in 1376 were declared incapable of serving in it; Alice Perrers was sentenced to banishment and forfeiture, and the little king was made to re pudiate the declaration whereby his uncle had quashed the statutes of 1376 by declaring that no act of parliament can be repealed save with parliaments consent.
But his best-remembered achievement was that he had induced the Irish parliament to pass the ordinances known as Poyriings Law, by which it acknowledged that it could pass no legislation which had not been approved by the king and his council, and agreed that all statutes passed by the English parliament should be in force in Ireland.
This was the purely political feeling against the tyranny of the papacy, and the abuses of the national church, which in early ages had given supporters to William the Conqueror and Henry II., which had dictated the statutes of Mortmain and of Praemunire.
The Lollard statutes were revived, and between February 1555 and November 1558 some three hundred Protestants were burnt at the stake.
But the act had been supplemented by a series of statutes passed between 1808 and 1812, which had provided a local militia, raised, like the regular militia, by ballot, but, unlike the latter, only liable for service for the suppression of riots, or in the event of imminent invasion.
Paigrave), in the Rotuli parliamentorum, in the Official Return of Members of Parliament, and in the Statutes of the Realm; that of Convocation in David Wilkinss Concilia.
His lay fellowship at St John's College came to an end in 1852, and the existing statutes did not permit of his re-election.
He began in 1469 a revision of the Roman statutes of 1363 - a work which was not completed until 1490.
The common law courts controlled the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts, claiming to have "the exposition of such statutes or acts of parliament as concern either the extent of the jurisdiction of these courts or the matters depending before them.
It is alluded to in various statutes of the reign of Henry VIII., who obtained power to appoint a commission to examine the old ecclesiastical laws, with a view of deciding which ought to be kept and which ought to be abolished; and in the meantime it was enacted that "such canons, institutions, ordinances, synodal or provincial or other ecclesiastical laws or jurisdictions spiritual as be yet accustomed and used here in the Church of England, which necessarily and conveniently are requisite to be put in ure and execution for the time, not being repugnant, contrarient, or derogatory to the laws or statutes of the realm, nor to the prerogatives of the royal crown of the same, or any of them, shall be occupied, exercised, and put in ure for the time with this realm" (35 Henry Viii.
The list of statutes cited in Sir R.
The court party and the clergy proposed statutes for the suppression of heresy, and twice at least secured the concurrence of the Commons.
It is a crime to conspire to prevent the free exercise and enjoyment of any privilege, or to conspire to deprive any person of equal privileges and immunities, or under colour of law to subject any inhabitant of a state or territory to the deprivation of any privileges or immunities (Revised Statutes of United States, §§ 55 0 7, 5510, 5519).
A body of commissioners was appointed for each of the new foundations to draw up statutes for its government; and for the purpose of dealing with any matter calling for joint action, a joint commission, half from each of the above commissions, was established.
The most severe English statutes against the Roman Catholic laity had never been re-enacted in Ireland, and, in the absence of law, illegal means were taken to enforce uniformity.
Whitney, Government of the Colony of South Carolina (Baltimore, 1895), based too exclusively on the statutes; D.
In his latter years he became unpopular from the extortions practised by his two instruments, Empson and Dudley, under the authority of antiquated statutes.
On the other hand, in a letter of Lupus, abbot of The False Capitularies are for civil legislation what the False Decretals are for ecclesiastical legislation: three books of Capitularies of the Frankish kings, more of which are spurious than authen Ferrieres, written in 858, and in the synodical letter of the council of Quierzy in 857 are to be found quotations which are certainly from these false decretals; and further, an undoubted allusion in the statutes given by Hincmar to his diocese on the 1st of November 852.
Long previous to this, however, the word Shire, in connexion with horses, was used in the statutes of Henry VIII.
His works include Ad Sabinum, a commentary on the jus civile, in over 50 books; Ad edictum, a commentary on the Edict, in 83 books; collections of opinions, responses and disputations; books of rules and institutions; treatises on the functions of the different magistrates - one of them, the De officio proconsulis libri x., being a comprehensive exposition of the criminal law; monographs on various statutes, on testamentary trusts, and a variety of other works.
Qualifications for suffrage are: the age of twenty-one years, citizenship in the United States, residence in the state for one year and in the township for six months preceding the election, a good moral character, and ability " to read in the English language any article of the Constitution or any section of the Statutes of this State."
The relations between capital and labour are the subject of a series of statutes, which prohibit the employment of children under fourteen years of age in any mechanical, mercantile or manufacturing establishment, punish with fine or imprisonment any attempt by an employer to influence his employee's vote or to prevent him from joining a labour union, and in cases of insolvency give preference over general liabilities to debts of $100 or less for labour.
"They keep close tabs on scores of open cases and use freedom of information statutes to monitor progress," she told me.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.