In his foreign policy Pericles differs from those statesmen of previous generations who sought above all the welfare of Greece as a whole.
He was in communication all his life with the leading contemporary statesmen, so that his correspondence is one of the most interesting and important of historical documents.
But, still clinging to the groundless belief, for which British statesmen had, of late at least, afforded Turkey no justification, that Great Britain at all events would support him, he obstinately refused to give ear to the pressing requests of the Powers that the necessary reforms should be instituted.
He published Lives of Foreign Statesmen (1830), The Greek and the Turk (1853), and Reigns of Louis X VIII.
Lothrop, in the "American Statesmen Series."
While therefore Cromwell's administration became in practice little different from that of Strafford, the aims and ideals of the two statesmen had nothing in common.
Da Bormida, the minister for foreign affairs, resigned nab rather than agree to the proposal, and other statesmen ana the were equally opposed to it.
Doubts, however, soon sprang up as to its effect upon the minds of Austrian statesmen, since on the 8th of November the language employed by Kllay and Count Andrssy to the Hungarian delegations on the subject of Irredentism was scarcely calculated to soothe Italian susceptibilities.
The fall of Signor Sonnino, the disappointment caused by the non-fulfilment of the expectations to which his advent to power had given rise throughout Italy and the dearth of influential statesmen, made the return to power of Signor Giolitti inevitable.
Statesmen and commentators alike professed to find in Magna Carta a number of political ideas which belonged to a later age, and which had no place in the minds of its framers.
Oman, Seven Roman Statesmen (1902); F.
From Switzerland he passed in six months to England, where he formed acquaintances with other French exiles and with prominent British statesmen, and imbibed a lasting admiration for the English Constitution.
The tension thus produced between the two statesmen was increased by the political complications of 18 751878 in south-eastern Europe, which began with the Herzegovinian insurrection and culminated at the Berlin congress.
French Judaism was thus in a sense more human if less humane than the Spanish variety; the latter produced thinkers, statesmen, poets and scientists; the former, men with whom the Talmud was a passion, men of robuster because of more naïve and concentrated piety.
Sir Matthew Nathan has been governor of Hong-Kong and Natal, and among Jewish statesmen in the colonies Sir Julius Vogel and V.
Brewer, in his elaborate prefaces to the Letters and Papers (reissued as his History of the Reign of Henry VIII.), originated modern admiration for Wolsey; and his views are reflected in Creighton's Wolsey in the "Twelve English Statesmen" series, and in Dr Gairdner's careful articles in the Dict.
His writings have been and remain a storehouse of instruction for statesmen, an armoury for legal reformers.
When the aim of the man of affairs and the hypothesis of the economist was unrestricted competition, and measures were being adopted to realize it, general theory such as the classical economists provided was perhaps a sufficiently trustworthy guide for practical statesmen and men of business.
The scientific study of practical problems and difficulties is (generally speaking, and with honourable exceptions) far more advanced in almost every civilized country than it is in England, where the limited scale upon which such work is carried on, the indifference of statesmen, officials and business men, and the incapacity of the public to understand the close relation between scientific study and practical success, contrast very unfavourably with the state of affairs in Germany or the United States.
The threat naturally did not tend to reassure statesmen at Vienna; and the tsar now resolved to prevent the total wreck of the European system by screening the House of Habsburg from the wrath of his ally.
Sir John Moore and the statesmen of Austria - the heroic Stadion at their head - failed in their enterprise; but at least they frustrated the determined effort of Napoleon to stamp out the national movement in the Iberian Peninsula.
Morse, John Adams (Boston, 1885; later edition, 1899), in the " American Statesmen Series"; and Mellen Chamberlain, John Adams, the Statesman of the Revolution; with other Essays and Addresses (Boston, 1898).
In consolidating his empire and subduing contending factions he was ably assisted by Nizam ul-Mulk, his vizier, one of the most eminent statesmen in early Mahommedan history.
The great majority of names in the long list of worthies of the commonwealth-writers, statesmen, orators, artists, philanthropists, reformers and scholars, are intimately connected with Boston.
But of all the Hildebrandine statesmen who applied their teacher's ideas within the sphere of a particular national church he was the most successful.
With these volumes was published an excellent biography, The Life of Albert Gallatin, also by Henry Adams; another good biography is John Austin Stevens's Albert Gallatin (Boston, 1884) in the "American Statesmen" series.
and the early Reformers were alike captivated by the charms of the Kabbalah as propounded by Reuchlin, and not only divines, but statesmen and warriors, began to study the Oriental languages in order to be able to fathom the mysteries of Jewish theosophy.
It was no doubt natural that Austrian statesmen should wish to end the anomalous situation created by the treaty of Berlin, by incorporating Bosnia and Herzegovina into the Dual Monarchy.
These officers were usually chosen from among the more promising of the youths selected by the devshurme, or system of forced levy for manning the ranks of the Janissaries: hence so many of the statesmen of Turkey were of non-Mussulman origin.
Public opinion throughout Europe was violently excited in favour of the Greeks; and this Philhellenic sentiment was shared even by some of the statesmen who most strenuously deprecated any interference in their favour.
A conspiracy to bring about a change was hereupon formed by certain prominent statesmen, whose leaders were Midhat Pasha, Mehemed Rushdi Pasha and Mahmud Damad Pasha, the husband of a princess of the blood, sister to Prince Murad.
The statesmen of Europe still continued their efforts to avert a conflict, but to no purpose.
The success of the Young Turks created a serious situation for the statesmen of Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
Her daughter married Duke Victor de Broglie on the 20th of February 1816, at Pisa, and became the wife and mother of French statesmen of distinction.
Henry's English government was severe and grasping; but he "kept good peace" and honourably distinguished himself among contemporary statesmen in an age when administrative reform was in the air.
But he showed admirable judgment in his choice of subordinates; Robert of Meulan, who died in 1118, and Roger of Salisbury, who survived his master, were statesmen of no common order; and Henry was free from the mania of attending in person to every detail, which was the besetting sin of medieval sovereigns.
A popular and successful democratic leader, he cannot, however, be ranked among the great statesmen of the republic. As a general he was headstrong and selfsufficient and seems to have owed his victories chiefly to personal boldness favoured by good fortune.
Following in the path struck out by Miss Strickland in her Lives of the Queens of England, and by Lord Brougham's Lives of Eminent Statesmen, he at last produced, in 1849, The Lives of the Lord Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal of England, from the earliest times till the reign of King George IV., 7 vols.
Then, referring to messages he had received from influential persons in France, Prussia, Austria, Russia and Spain to the effect mentioned above, he adds: - "Well, I will, with God's assistance during the next twelve months, visit all the large states of Europe, see their potentates or statesmen, and endeavour to enforce those truths which have been irresistible at home.
But beside these public demonstrations he sought and found access in private to many of the leading statesmen, in the various countries he visited, with a view to indoctrinate them with the same principles.
These statesmen expressed in general terms their approval of his purpose, but he went entirely on his own account, clothed at first with no official authority.
It was after the election of Westminster in 1788 that Tooke depicted the rival statesmen (Lord Chatham and Lord Holland, William Pitt and C. J.
That successor, Stephen I., was one of the great constructive statesmen of history.
The bishops prided themselves on being great statesmen, great scholars, great financiers, great diplomatists - anything, in fact, but good Christians.
Like all statesmen of his time, Richelieu made money out of politics.
In English there are short biographies by Richard Lodge (in the Foreign Statesmen series, 1896) and by J.
At last on April 25 Trumbic, having obtained the special sanction of the Belgrade Cabinet, informed Nitti of his readiness to negotiate, and a meeting between the two statesmen did actually take place at.Pallanza on May in: the commercial experts had already reached agreement.
During the autumn of 1877 he went to London, Paris and Berlin on a confidential mission, establishing cordial personal relationships with Gladstone, Granville and other English statesmen, and with Bismarck.
In 1850 Prussia, realizing from the breakdown of her mobilization for the war then impending with Austria that success was impossible, submitted to the Austrian demands, but her statesmen saw from the first that the "surrender of Olmiitz," as it was termed, rendered eventual war with Austria "a military necessity."
Personal affection and political devotion had in these two years made him appear indispensable to the party, although nobody ever regarded him as in the front line of English statesmen so far as originality of ideas or brilliance of debating power were concerned.
It is not the fortune of many more brilliant statesmen to earn this testimonial to character.
In 1797, at the instance of English statesmen, he published a translation of a history of French finance by Francois d'Ivernois (1757-1842), an eminent Genevese exile naturalized and knighted in England, extracts from which he had previously given in his journal.
Worse still was the death in 14 9 6 of one of its ablest and most disinterested statesmen, Pier Capponi.
During the 17th century the indulgence in tobacco spread with marvellous rapidity throughout all nations, and that in the face of the most resolute opposition of statesmen and priests, the " counterblaste " of a great monarch, penal enactments of the most severe description, the knout, excommunication and capital punishment.
MOROSINI, a noble Venetian family, probably of Hungarian extraction, which gave many doges, statesmen, generals and admirals to the Venetian Republic, and cardinals to the Church.
Statesmen and legislators, standing so completely within the institution, never distinctly and nakedly behold it.
And the conversation again turned on the war, on Bonaparte, and the generals and statesmen of the day.
The third son of Count Franz, Leopold or LEO (1811-1888), was one of the leading Austrian statesmen.
He did not like to depend on statesmen's promises, which are proverbially uncertain of fulfilment; he as little liked to retrench; and he was wearied of parliament, where he had never given any but silent votes.
The character of the Company's government was almost entirely dependent upon their abilities as statesmen.
Shepard, in the "American Statesmen Series" (revised ed., Boston, 1899).
Jefferson, Madison, John Quincy Adams, Calhoun, and Benton all speak loudly in Monroe's praise; but he suffers by comparison with the greater statesmen of his time.
and other experienced statesmen.
the rival statesmen moved from London to Paris, all hope of Yugoslav recognition before the opening of the Peace Conference had vanished, owing to the stiffening in the attitude of Italy.
Fortunately the new Giolitti and Vesnie Cabinets showed equal moderation and skill in restraining the hotheads on both sides, and the new Foreign Minister, Count Sforza, was assisted by a personal knowledge of Serbian and Balkan problems all too rare among western statesmen.
Though by birth belonging to the middle class in a country of hide-bound aristocracy, he lived to move on equal terms in the society of princes and statesmen; which would never have been the case had he been notoriously "bought and sold."
Adams also published: Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), John Randolph (1882) in the "American Statesmen Series," and Historical Essays (1891); besides editing Documents Relating to New England Federalism (1877), and the Writings of Albert Gallatin (3 volumes, 1879).
Statesmen he could trust as he would not trust ecclesiastics.
The influence of politics may be strongly traced in the literature of that time, for the first romances produced by the new school were all of a political character: Keikoku Bidan (Model for Statesmen, with Epaminondas for hero) by Yano Fumin; Seichubai(Plum-blossomsin snow) andKwakwan-o(Nightingale Among Flowers) by Suyehiro.
Prince Iwakura, one of the leaders of the Meiji statesmen, persuaded the feudatories to employ a part of the bonds as capital for railway construction, and thus the first private railway company was formed in Japan under the name Nippon tetsudo kaisha (Japan railway company), the treasury guaranteeing 8% on the paid-up capital for a period of 15 years.
In 1848 Olmiitz was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication, and in 1850 an important conference took place here between Austrian and German statesmen.
At last, however, the fate usual to statesmen in oriental countries overtook him, and he incurred the mortal displeasure of Fateh Ali Shah.
The principal archives of Poland and Hungary were ransacked for the purpose, and in his account of his own times Dlugosz's intimate acquaintance with the leading scholars and statesmen of his day stood him in good stead.
It is unique among the careers of British statesmen of the first rank, for it was passed almost wholly in opposition.
KUPRILI, spelt also Kuprili, Koeprulu, Keeprulu, &C., the name of a family of Turkish statesmen.
Had he so desired, Kuprili might have taken advantage of the revolts of the Janissaries to place himself on the throne; instead, he recommended the sultan to appoint his son as his successor, and so founded a dynasty of able statesmen who occupied the grand vizierate almost without interruption for half a century.
But while abstaining from irrelevant historical discussions, Hallam dealt with statesmen and policies with the calm and fearless impartiality of a judge.
It was his cool treatment of such sanctified names as Charles, Cranmer and Laud that provoked the indignation of Southey and the Quarterly, who forgot that the same impartial measure was extended to statesmen on the other side.
When the storm had discharged itself in the Japanese war, reasonable statesmen on both sides, King Edward, Lord Lansdowne, and the Russian Foreign Minister Isvolsky, changed the course both for Great Britain and for Russia, and thus frustrated the plans of the tertius gaudens.
Hosmer's Samuel Adams (Boston, 1885), an excellent short biography in the "American Statesmen Series"; M.
Giuliano de' Ricci tells us it was marked by stringent satire upon great ecclesiastics and statesmen, no less than by a tendency to "ascribe all human things to natural causes or to fortune."
After 1867 the greatest of modern Hungarian statesmen, Francis Peak, attached Csengery to his personal service, and many of the momentous state documents inspired or suggested by Peak were drawn up by Csengery.
His ideal of public virtue and private worth had been formed by intimate association with the greatest and best of the soldiers and statesmen of an older generation.
Morse, Jr., Benjamin Franklin (Boston, 1889, in the American Statesmen series); J.
The next effort of Talleyrand was to screen France under the principle of legitimacy and to prevent the scheme of partition on which several of the German statesmen were bent.
(London, 1867) and that of Lord Brougham in Historical Sketches of Statesmen, 3 vols.
Great care was shown not to alienate the Whig leaders in a body, which would have raised up under Pitt's leadership a formidable .party of resistance, but advantage was taken of disagreements between the ministers concerning the war, of personal jealousies, and of the strong reluctance of the old statesmen who had served the crown for generations to identify themselves with active opposition to the king's wishes.
See The Diary and Letters of Gouverneur Morris (2 vols., New York, '888), edited by Anne Cary Morris; Jared Sparks, Life of Gouverneur Morris (3 vols., Boston, 1832), the first volume being a biography and the second and third containing Morris's miscellaneous writings and addresses; and Theodore Roosevelt, Gouverneur Morris (Boston, 1888), in the "American Statesmen" series.
Similarly its ecclesiastical statesmen have been developing the full possibilities of its polity, to suit the demands of the time for coordinated effort.
He made capital of the Socialist agitation and of the repression to which other statesmen resorted, and gave the agitators to understand that were he premier they would be allowed a free hand.
In 1901 he was received by the sultan; the pope and many European statesmen gave him audiences.
Aristotle, however, discerned Theramenes' real policy, and, like Cicero and Caesar, in later years ranked him among the greatest Athenian statesmen.
Yet Canada has seen statesmen of more contracted view insist on such small points, fall, and drag down their party with them.
Mr Fischer, the leader of the party, was one of the ablest statesmen on the Boer side in the pre-war period.
A.) The following is a list of his principal works: - The Naval Operations of the War between Great Britain and the United States-1812-1815 (1882), written to correct the history of James; Thomas Hart Benton (1887) and Gouverneur Morris (1888), both in the American Statesmen Series; New York City (1891; revised 1895) in the Historic Towns Series; Hero Tales, from American History (1895) with H.
Under it all the principal officers of state, including the first lords of the treasury and admiralty, the secretaries of state, and certain members of the privy council, among whom was the archbishop of Canterbury, obtained seats at the board ex officio; and ten unofficial members, including several eminent statesmen, were also placed on the committee.
The duchess of Kent had communicated her projects to Lord Melbourne, and they were known to many other statesmen, and to persons in society; but the gossip of drawing-rooms during the years 1837-38 continually represented that the young queen had fallen in love with Prince This or Lord That, and the more imaginative babblers hinted at post-chaises waiting outside Kensington Gardens in the night, private marriages and so forth.
The duke had acquired a position above parties, and was the trusted adviser of all statesmen and of the court in emergencies.
Eventually, on 31st January 1854, Lord John Russell took occasion to deny most emphatically that Prince Albert interfered unduly with foreign affairs, and in both houses the statesmen of the two parties delivered feeling panegyrics of the prince, asserting at the same time his entire constitutional right to give private advice to the sovereign on matters of state.
It was only to please the queen that he consented to take the title of Prince Consort (by letters patent of June 25, 1857), and he only did this when it was manifest that statesmen of all parties approved the change.
MOCENIGO, the name of a noble and ancient Venetian family which gave many doges, statesmen and soldiers to the republic.
European Liberalism, too, gagged and fettered under Metternich's "system," recognized in the Greeks the champions of its own cause; while even conservative statesmen, schooled in the memories of ancient Hellas, saw in the struggle a fight of civilization against barbarism.
under the influence of the Liberal statesmen then still powerful in the Prussian government.
He wrote: Life and Letters of George Cabot (1877); Alexander Hamilton (1882), Daniel Webster (1883) and George Washington (2 vols., 1889), in the "American Statesmen" series; A Short History of the English Colonies in America (1881); Studies in History (1884); Boston (1891), in the "Historic Towns" series; Historical and Political Essays (1892); with Theodore Roosevelt, Hero Tales from American History (1895); Certain Accepted Heroes (1897); The Story of the American Revolution (2 vols., 1898); The War with Spain (1899); A Fighting Frigate (1902); A Frontier Town (1906); and, with J.
Not only were five of the seven great statesmen, but they were statesmen of the same stamp. We are disturbed by no such sharp contrasts as are to be found among the Plantagenets, the Vasas and the Bourbons.
When the most enlightened statesmen of the Republic could seriously believe in the benevolent intentions of Russia the end was not far off.
From the first the social side of the congress impressed observers with its wealth and variety, nor did the statesmen disdain to use the dining-table or the ballroom as the instruments of their diplomacy.
Some there were who hoped that so great an opportunity would not be lost, but that the statesmen would initiate such measures of international disarmament as would perpetuate the blessings of that peace which Europe was again enjoying after twenty years of warfare.
With the Prussian statesmen he had some success, but he could make no impression on Frederick William.
Some disputes between Baden and Bavaria remained unsettled, and many questions arising out of the new federal constitution of Germany, which had been hurriedly patched together under the influence of the news of Napoleon's return, had to be postponed for further discussion, and were not settled until the Final Act agreed upon by the conference of German statesmen at Vienna in 1821.
It is true that the map of Europe shows to-day but little trace of its influence; but much of its work was determined by conditions over which statesmen had little control.
Its exterior is adorned with statues and busts of Connecticut statesmen and carvings of scenes in the history of the state.
He was one of the clearest thinkers and ablest political writers among the American Loyalists, and, according to Prof. Tyler, "shared with Thomas Hutchinson the supreme place among American statesmen opposed to the Revolution."
This last conception lay beyond the horizon of Caesar, as of all ancient statesmen, but his first act on gaining control of Italy was to enfranchise the Transpadanes, whose claims he had consistently advocated, and in 45 B.C. he passed the Lex Julia Municipalis, an act of which considerable fragments are inscribed on two bronze tables found at Heraclea near Tarentum.3 This law deals inter alia with the police and the sanitary arrangements of the city of Rome, and hence it has been argued by Mommsen that it was Caesar's intention to reduce Rome to the level of a municipal town.
His personal appearance was remarkable, and not imposing, for he was very short, with plain features, ungainly gestures and manners, very near-sighted, and of disagreeable voice; yet he became (after wisely giving up an attempt at the ornate style of oratory) a very effective speaker in a kind of conversational manner, and in the epigram of debate he had no superior among the statesmen of his time except Lord Beaconsfield.
Thiers was by far the most gifted and interesting of the group of literary statesmen which formed a unique feature in the French political history of the 19th century.
But with all these drawbacks he conquered and will retain a place in what is perhaps the highest, as it is certainly the smallest, class of statesmen - the class of those to whom their country has had recourse in a great disaster, who have shown in bringing her through that disaster the utmost constancy, courage, devotion and skill, and who have been rewarded by as much success as the occasion permitted.
The second cause is the Civil War of 186f65, which practically negatived the far-reaching claims of state sovereignty and the right of secession made by statesmen of the type of Calhoun, and showed that the nation was really much stronger than any group of states.
During the tenancy of Henry Fox, third Lord Holland (1773-1840), the house gained a European reputation as a meeting-place of statesmen and men of letters.
Nevertheless it is the deficient quantity of the wheat raised in the British Islands, and not the quality of the grain, which has been the cause of so much anxiety to economists and statesmen.
He learned to read from a book -which contained selected orations of great British and American statesmen.
Wellington's intimate association for several years with the sovereigns and statesmen of the Grand Alliance, and his experience of the evils which the Alliance existed to hold in check, naturally led him to dislike Canning's aggressive attitude towards the autocratic powers, and to view with some apprehension his determination to break with the European concert.
But in our own age conscious statecraft is also at work, as in Canada, where the genius of statesmen is gradually endowing that dominion with all the attributes of independence and power.
German statesmen, under the powerful stimulus of the emperor William II., have, in the eyes of some critics, carried this secondary object of conscript training to such excess as to be detrimental to military efficiency.
The doctrine, however, is not new, having already been enunciated a century before by Alexander Hamilton and reiterated since then by several American statesmen, such as Albert Gallatin, William L.
To obviate them statesmen have been led to adopt the principle of the " most-favoured-nation-clause " - that is to say, a clause providing that if any reductions of tariff or other advantages are granted by either contracting state to any third state, the others.
See Brougham's Statesmen of the Reign of George III.; Foss's Judges; Campbell's Lives of Lord Chancellors.
But the Whig party under the lead of John Dickinson, Thomas Mifflin and Joseph Reed was successful in the state, and Pennsylvania contributed greatly to the success of the War of Independence, by the important services rendered by her statesmen, by providing troops and by the financial aid given by Robert Morris.
His fame, however, rests upon the influence which he exercised over the statesmen of his day.
He took a narrow and monastic view of current politics; he was seldom in touch with the leading statesmen of his day.
But his whole Scandinavian policy was so irritating and vexatious that Swedish statesmen made up their minds that a war with Denmark was only a question of time; and in the spring of 1643 it seemed to them that the time had come.
But the statesmen in power were not less favourable to constitutional institutions than the members of the Aikoku K5-tõ (public party of patriots), as Itagaki and his followers called themselves.
Smyth's record of this great family shows that, from the middle of the r3th century onwards, the lords were not only statesmen and warriors, but still more distinguished as gentlemen-farmers on a great scale, even selling fruit from the castle gardens, while their ladies would go round on tours of inspection from dairy to dairy.
Teulet, 5 vols., Paris, 1862), containing important original letters and documents; Thomas Wright's Queen Elizabeth and her Times (2 vols., London, 1838), consists of private letters - of Elizabethan statesmen many of which refer to Mary Stuart, and others are to be found in Sir Henry Ellis's Original Letters illustrative of English History (London, 1825-1846); much of Mary's own correspondence will be found in Prince A.
McCall's Thaddeus Stevens (Boston and New York, 1899), in the American Statesmen Series, a sympathetic, but judicious biography; also J.
Much valuable detail will be found in the lives of Bavarian princes and statesmen in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographic (Leipzig, 1875-1906 in progr.) (W.
Korsakov, From the Lives of Russian Statesmen of the X VIIIth Century (Rus.) (Kazan, 1891).
Two devoted adherents of William of Orange, Paul Buys, advocate of Holland, and Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, pensionary of Rotterdam, were the statesmen who at this difficult juncture took the foremost part in directing the policy of the confederacy.
Thus perished, by the savage act of an infuriated mob, one of the greatest statesmen of his age.
August he was offered, and accepted, the presidency of WashingHe was himself a voluminous contributor to the work, writing ton College, Lexington (now Washington and Lee University), a some Boo articles, mainly on Elizabethan authors or statesmen.
At Washington he was the confidential advisor of statesmen to the end of his life and the unofficial dean of the best society.
Ever since the conclusion of the Great Northern War, Danish statesmen had been occupied in harvesting its fruits, namely, the Gottorp portions of Schleswig definitely annexed to Denmark in 1721 by the treaty of Nystad, and endeavouring to bring about a definitive general understanding with the house of Gottorp as to their remaining possessions in Holstein.
Ever since Russia had become the dominant Baltic power, as well as the state to which the Gottorpers looked primarily for help, the necessity for a better understanding between the two Scandinavian kingdoms had clearly been recognized by the best statesmen of both, especially in Denmark from Christian VI.'s time; but unfortunately this sound and sensible policy was seriously impeded by the survival of the old national hatred on both sides of the Sound, still further complicated by Gottorp's hatred of Denmark.
Moreover, it was a diplomatic axiom in Denmark, founded on experience, that an absolute monarchy in Sweden was incomparablymore dangerous to her neighbour than a limited monarchy, and after the collapse of Swedish absolutism with Charles XII., the upholding of the comparatively feeble, and ultimately anarchical, parliamentary government of Sweden became a question of principle with Danish statesmen throughout the 18th century.
Bernstorff was not only one of the ablest but one of the noblest and most conscientious statesmen of his day.
Morse, Jr., Abraham Lincoln (2 vols., Boston, 1896), in the "American Statesmen" series, an excellent brief biography, dealing chiefly with Lincoln's political career; Ida M.
To bring the Peninsula under French influence, had The been for centuries the ambition of French statesmen; Ifoheait was intolerable that it should fall to a Prussian zollern prince and that France should be threatened by ~~
Chase was one of the ablest political leaders of the Civil War period, and deserves to be placed in the front rank of American statesmen.
Hart's Salmon Portland Chase in the "American Statesmen Series" (1899).
The question of the annexation of Bavaria by conquest or exchange had occupied the minds of Austrian statesmen throughout the century: it would not only have removed a perpetual menace to the peace of Austria, but would have given to the Habsburg monarchy an overwhelming strength in South Germany.
But the shadow of the Holy Empire, immemorially associated with the house of Habsburg, still darkened the counsels of German statesmen.
In the minds of Austrian statesmen the question of the free navigation of the Danube, which would have been imperilled by a Russian occupation of the Principalities, outweighed their sense of obligation to Russia, on which the emperor Nicholas had rashly relied.
Many further authorities, whether works, memoirs or collections of documents, are referred to in the lists appended to the articles in this book on the various Austrian sovereigns and statesmen.
He visited privately many of the leading citizens of the city, statesmen, divines and merchants, and besought them to take the lead in a national movement against slavery; but they all with one consent made excuse, some of them listening to his plea with manifest impatience.
Lord Moira's sound judgment on public affairs, combined with his military reputation and the uprightness of his character, won for him a high position among the statesmen of the day, and he gained an additional prestige from his intimate relations with the prince of Wales.
During 1903 a great change came over public opinion on both sides of the Channel, with the result that the statesmen of both countries were enabled to complete negotiations settling many points in dispute between the two nations.
As far as responsible statesmen were concerned the change of government in Great Britain made no difference in the conduct of Egyptian affairs.
It enabled him to create and remunerate adequately a capable official class, which proved its efficiency under the strictest supervision, and ultimately produced a whole series of great statesmen and admirals like Johan Friis, Peder Oxe, Herluf Trolle and Peder Skram.
Yet more even than to felicitous circumstances, Denmark owed her short-lived greatness to the great statesmen and administrators whom Frederick II.
See also the special bibliographies appended to the biographies of the Danish kings and statesmen.
One of the greatest and most brilliant statesmen of his time, thoroughly acquainted with European politics, and well versed in affairs, he was a convinced if somewhat too ardent partisan of reform and the principal author of the legislative remodelling of Turkish administrative methods known as the Tanzimat.
In his own country, all orders of men, from the emperor Maximilian down, delighted to honour him; and he was the familiar companion of chosen spirits among the statesmen, humanists and reformers of the new age.
A writer of the next generation was the first to allege that Henry was encouraged by ecclesiastical statesmen to enter on the French war as a means of diverting attention from home troubles.
In 1891 he made some brief continental visits, one to Madrid, and in October he saw through the press his little monograph upon William Pitt, in the Twelve English Statesmen Series, of which it may be said that it competes in interest with Viscount Morley's Walpole.
Mar, Queensberry, Stair (of Glencoe) and Argyll (Red John of the Battles) were the leading statesmen of the Unionist party; being opposed by Hamilton, Atholl and Lockhart of Carnwath as Jacobites; by Fletcher of Saltoun as an independent patriot; by popular sentiment, by mob violence, and by many of the preachers, though not by the General Assembly.
His works also include a series of lectures on Roman history, entitled Catiline, Clodius, Tiberius (1878), in which he rehabilitates in some degree the character of each of his subjects, and Queen Elizabeth (1892), in the "Twelve English Statesmen" series.
It is from Suleiman's time that historians date the rise of that occult influence of the harem which has so often thwarted the best efforts of Turkey's most enlightened statesmen.
He was the chief of the ecclesiastical statesmen who belonged to the school of Morton, believed in frequent parliaments, and opposed the spirited foreign policy which laymen like Surrey are supposed to have advocated.
Of Dutch statesmen during the Napoleonic period, Thorbecke admired Falck and Van Hogendorp most, whose principles he strove to emulate.
To frustrate the possibility of a French invasion of India, led by Napoleon in person, was the governing idea of Wellesley's foreign policy; for France at this time, and for many years later, filled the place afterwards occupied by Russia in the imagination of British statesmen.
P. Johnston; William Jay, Life of John Jay with Selections from his Correspondence and Miscellaneous Papers (2 vols., New York, 1833); William Whitelocke, Life and Times of John Jay (New York, 1887); and George Pellew, John Jay (Boston, 1890), in the "American Statesmen Series."
Benton, Edward Livingston, Amos Kendall, and the southern statesmen, found material for strong attacks on the Whigs.
Sumner's Andrew Jackson in the "American Statesmen Series" (Boston, 1882; revised, 1899) combines the leading facts of Jackson's life with a history of his times.
Gay's (Boston, 1884) in the "American Statesmen Series"; and Gaillard Hunt's (New York, 1902).
In 1884 at an official banquet the leaders of the progressive party assassinated six leading Korean statesmen, and the intrigues in Korea of the banished or escaped conspirators created difficulties which were very slow to subside.
Hutton, Philip Augustus (in the Foreign Statesmen series, London, 1896).
In the 17th century such immunities were all the more valuable since French statesmen found themselves in an awkward position.
Equilibrium was maintained by diplomacy, in which the humanists played a foremost part, casting a network of intrigue over the nation which helped in no small measure to stimulate intelligence and create a common medium of culture, but which accustomed statesmen to believe that everything could be achieved by wire-pulling.
To say that it displaced the centre of gravity in politics and commerce, substituting the ocean for the Mediterranean, dethroning Italy from her seat of central importance in traffic, depressing the eastern and elevating the western powers of Europe, opening a path for Anglo-Saxon expansiveness, forcing philosophers and statesmen to regard the Occidental nations as a single group in counterpoise to other groups of nations, the European community as one unit correlated to other units of humanity upon this planet, is truth enough to vindicate the vast significance of these discoveries.
The larger comprehensive histories of the United States by Bancroft, Hildreth, Winsor, McMaster, Von Holst, Schouler and Avery, the biographies in the "American Statesmen" series, and Hart's "American Natioh" series, are indispensable.
The biography of Calhoun by Dr Hermann von Holst in the "American Statesmen Series" (Boston, 1882) is a condensed study of the political questions of Calhoun's time.
There is no doubt that each of these men, and Bancroft in particular, influenced the policy of the administration, yet the historian James Schouler, who has made a careful study of the Polk papers, is doubtless correct in saying that the president himself was "the framer of the public policy which he carried into so successful execution, and that instead of being led (as many might have imagined) by the more famous statesmen of his administration and party who surrounded him, he in reality led and shaped his own executive course."
In spite of the opposition of Webster and other prominent statesmen, Clay succeeded in enacting a tariff which the people of the Southern states denounced as a "tariff of abominations."
See Calvin Colton, The Works of Henry Clay (6 vols., New York, 1857; new ed., 7 vols., New York, 1898), the first three volumes of which are an account of Clay's "Life and Times"; and Carl Schurz, Henry Clay (2 vols., Boston, 1887), in the "American Statesmen" series.
Without altogether accepting Merivale's judgment that " their principles of finance were to the last rude and unphilosophical," it may be granted that Roman statesmen never seriously faced the questions of just distribution and maximum productiveness in the tax system.
McLaughlin, Lewis Cass (revised edition, Boston, 1899), in the " American Statesmen " series.
The success of the Baptists of Virginia in securing step by step the abolition of everything that savoured of religious oppression, involving at last the disestablishment and the disendowment of the Episcopal Church, was due in part to the fact that Virginia Baptists were among the foremost advocates of American independence, while the Episcopal clergy were loyalists and had made themselves obnoxious to the people by using the authority of Great Britain in extorting their tithes from unwilling parishioners, and that they secured the co-operation of free-thinking statesmen like Thomas Jefferson and James Madison and, in most measures, that of the Presbyterians.
Blaine (Norwich, Conn., 1895) by Mary Abigail Dodge ("Gail Hamilton"), and, in the "American Statesmen Series," James G.
Mary had wearied of her guiding statesmen, Moray and the more pliant Maitland; the Italian secretary David Rizzio, through whom she had corresponded with the pope, now more and more usurped their place; and a weak fancy for her handsome cousin, Henry Darnley, brought about a sudden marriage in 1565 and swept the opposing Protestant lords into exile.
Korsakov, From the Lives of Russian Statesmen of the X VIIIth Century (Rus.) (Kazan, 1891); A.
The endeavours of Swedish statesmen to bind the hands of their future king were due to their fear of the rising flood of the Catholic reaction in Europe.
Hitherto Charles had aimed at supporting the weaker Slavonic power against the stronger; but now that Muscovy seemed about to disappear from among the nations of Europe, Swedish statesmen naturally sought some compensation for the expenses of the war before Poland had had time to absorb everything.
When Great Novgorod submitted provisionally to Peace of the suzerainty of Sweden, Swedish statesmen had Stolbova, believed, for a moment, in the creation of a Trans- 1617 baltic dominion extending from Lake Ilmen northwards to Archangel and eastwards to Vologda.
g Y g the next fifteen years was unequal to the difficulties of a situation which might have taxed the resources of the wisest statesmen.
had carefully provided against the contingency of his successor's minority; and the five regents appointed by him, if not great statesmen, were at least practical politicans who had not been trained in his austere Charles XIL, pl 1697-1718.
The infirmity of the old Influence' king, and the dissensions in the council of state, Policy 'of placed the government and especially the control of foreign affairs almost entirely in his hands; and he boldly adopted a policy which was antagonistic indeed to the wishes and hopes of the old school of Swedish statesmen, but, perhaps, the best adapted to the circumstances.
See also the bibliographies attached to the articles Denmark: History; Norway: History; Finland: History; as well as the special bibliographies attached to the various biographies of Swedish sovereigns and statesmen.
The political organization of the country has not been favourable to the development of artistic or scientific tastes, though Chile has produced political leaders, statesmen and polemical writers in abundance.
The wrongs of Hilderic, a Catholic, and with the blood of Theodosius in his veins, afforded to Justinian a long-coveted pretext for overthrowing the Vandal dominion, the latent weakness of which was probably known to the statesmen of Constantinople.
As Lord Morley in his Life of Gladstone says, " this pregnant and far-sighted warning seems to have been little considered by English statesmen of either party at this critical time or afterwards, though it proved a vital element in any far-sighted decision.
The leading South African statesmen realized that unless an effort to remedy this condition was made without delay affairs would go from bad to worse.
This decision was deplored by all parties in the British parliament, but it was recognized that to alter a decision deliberately come to by South African statesmen would wreck the union.
Gustavus was educated under the care of two governors who were amongst the most eminent Swedish statesmen of the day, Carl Gustaf Tessin and Carl Scheffer; but he owed most perhaps to the poet and historian Olof von Dalin.
Scaevola, following Panaetius, explained that the prudence of statesmen had established this public institution in the service of order midway between the errors of popular superstition and the barren truths of enlightened philosophy.
To secure the removal of the interdict the leading statesmen who were identified with the policy of his father - Goncalo Mendes the 23 chancellor, Pedro Annes the lord chamberlain 1223--121248.
The most urgent matter which confronted the king - or the group of statesmen, led by Joao das Regras and the " Holy Constable " who inspired his policy - was the menace of Castilian aggression.
In 1870 the duke of Saldanha, the last survivor of the turbulent statesmen of Queen Maria's reign, threatened an appeal to arms if the king would not dismiss his minister, the duke of Louie, an advanced Radical and freemason, whose influence, dating from the reign of Pedro V., was viewed with disfavour by Saldanha, as well as by more conservative politicians.
It may be mentioned here, though it does not come in chronological order, that Pitt was a second time the object of a form of acknowledgment of public virtue which few statesmen have had the fortune to receive even once.
Dr Johnson is reported to have said that "Walpole was a minister given by the king to the people, but Pitt was a minister given by the people to the king," and the remark correctly indicates Chatham's distinctive place among English statesmen.
Frederic Harrison's Chatham, in the "Twelve English Statesmen" series (1905), though skilfully executed, takes a rather academic and modern Liberal view.
More certain, and also more striking, is the fact that the leading statesmen in the American War of Independence were emphatically deists; Benjamin Franklin (who attributes his position to the study of Shaftesbury and Collins), Thomas Paine, Washington and Jefferson, although they all had the greatest admiration for the New Testament story, denied that it was based on any supernatural revelation.
It brought the Langobards face to face, not merely with the emperors at Constantinople, but with the first of the great statesmen popes, Gregory the Great (590-604).
The transfer of the seat of empire from Rome to Constantinople gave the bishops of Rome a possible rival in the patriarch of Constantinople, but the absence of an overawing court and of meddling statesmen did more than recoup the loss to the head of the Roman Church.
She showed most favour to her reactionary generals and statesmen, to the Church and religious orders, and was constantly the tool of corrupt and profligate courtiers and favourites who gave her court a deservedly bad name.
The bombardment of Beira, the fall of Acre, and the total collapse of the boasted power of Mehemet Ali followed in rapid succession, and before the close of the year Lord Palmerston's policy, which had convulsed and terrified Europe, was triumphant, and the author of it was regarded as one of the most powerful statesmen of the age.
We term kings and statesmen the "makers of history," and sometimes say that the historian only records the history which they make.
He was without doubt one of the greatest statesmen of his age, concealing beneath a simple exterior and homely habits a profound political sagacity and an unerring common-sense, and possessing in a high degree those useful qualities of patience, moderation, and tenacity, which characterized nearly all the princes of the house of Jagiello.
Several of them were men of mark among the statesmen of the time, and it is the highest testimony to the character of Confucius that he inspired them with feelings of admiration and reverence.
On constitutional matters he writes with an insight to be attained only by the study of political philosophy, discussing in a masterly fashion the dreams of idealists and the schemes of government proposed by statesmen.
What the blow exactly was is disputed, but it is certain that Jeremiah saw the gathering storm and anticipated its result, while the statesmen were still wrapped in a false security.
Physically handsome and strong, model knights of the days of chivalry, hard fighters, wise statesmen, they were born leaders of men; always ready to advance the commerce of the country, they were the supporters of the growing towns, and likewise the pioneers in the task of converting a land of marshes and swamps into a fertile agricultural territory rich in flocks and herds.
He was treasurer and a leading member of the Brothers, a society of wits and statesmen which recalls the days of Horace and Maecenas.
The keenness of the satire on courts, parties and statesmen certainly suggests that it was planned while Swift's disappointments as a public man were still rankling and recent.
Especially interesting is Moltke's attitude towards the two distinguished statesmen who played the leading parts during the reign of Frederick V., Johan Sigismund Schulin and the elder Bernstorff.
Like a genial Dr. Johnson in conversation, he made easy captives of British statesmen on his visits to London.
The north transept contains many monuments to statesmen.
Statesmen such as I.
His own dissolute conduct increased his unpopularity, and at last the leading statesmen in both provinces, who had long believed that the national welfare demanded the election of a foreign prince, conspired to dethrone him.
The first Rumanian ministry formed under the new prince was composed of the leading statesmen of all political parties, care being taken that the two provinces should be equally represented.
On the all-absorbing question of slavery he took a middle ground between the pro-slavery or peace party, and abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, believing, with such statesmen as W.
In the year 1888, in spite of the failure of statesmen and high commissioners to bring about political confederation, the members of the Cape parliament set about the establishment of a South African Customs Union.
He formed the acquaintance of many of the leading statesmen and publicists, and secured a deep insight into continental systems of government and of jurisprudence.
After the withdrawal of the Southern senators, Sumner was made chairman of the committee on foreign relations (March 8, 1861), a position for which he was pre-eminently fitted by his years of intimate acquaintance with European politics and statesmen.
FARNESE, the name of one of the most illustrious and powerful Italian families, which besides including eminent prelates, statesmen and warriors among its members, ruled the duchy of Parma for two centuries.
He redeemed by organized strategy the vacillations and follies of statesmen who had sat at home and sent out inadequate expeditions or incompetent commanders.
Oman, Seven Roman Statesmen of the Later Republic (1902); notes in Tyrrell and Purser's Correspondence of Cicero (see index in vii.
After the statesmen had consulted, the laws were proclaimed, with any modifications agreed upon.
Warriors, statesmen, Brehons, 011amhs, physicians, poets, and even eminent workers in the more important arts, were, in different degrees, rewarded with free lands for their respective public services.
The successors of statesmen, for whom the largest provision was made, became a permanent nobility.
Instead of discharging their proper functions, bishops and abbots had become statesmen or wealthy barons, and took no interest in anything save politics.
He got rid of the ministers imposed upon him by the lords appellant, but replaced them by Bishop Wykeham and other old statesmen against whom no objection could be raised.
No worthy successor could be foundEngland had many hard-handed soldiers but no more statesmen of Bedfords calibre.
The best of them were capable statesmen, the worst were mean time-servers.
The ill-considered journey to Madrid, in which Prince Charles, accompanied by Buckingham, hoped to wring from the Spanish statesmen a promise to restore the Palatinate in compliment for his marriage with the infanta, ended also in total failure.
It is a remarkable fact that it was carried against the views of the leading statesmen on both sides of the House.
had little confidence in either of these statesmen; and it wac still uncertain whether the able group who had been the friends of Sir Robert Peel would finally gravitate to the Conservative or to the Liberal camp. The queen, on the advice of Lord Derby, endeavoured to solve the first of these difficulties by sending for Lord Granville, who led the Liberal party in the Lords, and authorizing him to form a government which should combine, as far as possible, all the more prominent Liberals.
His conduct lowered the prestige of Great Britain at least as much as his Italian policy had raised it., Continental statesmen thenceforward assumed that Great Britain., however much she might protest, would not resort to arms, and the influence of England suffered, as it was bound to suffer, in consequence.
Liberal statesmen, on the contrary.
The note was accepted by the three continental empires, but Great Britain refused in the first instance to assent to it, and only ultimately consented at the desire of the Porte, whose statesmen seem to have imagined that the nominal co-operation of England would have the effect of restraining the action ~.i1Zar,1ah3 of other powers.
Forty years before, the most prominent English statesmen had regarded with anxiety the huge responsibilities of a world-wide empire.
The extension of British influence, the protection of British interests, were almost universally advocated; and the few statesmen who repeated in the nineties the sentiments which would have been generally accepted in the sixties, were regarded as Little Englanders.
Szalay also wrote remarkable studies on Pitt, Fox, Mirabeau and other statesmen, and contributed very considerably to the codification of Magyar law.
There have been many more important statesmen, for he was never tried in a position of supreme responsibility.
Madhava Rao, formerly diwan of Travancore, one of the ablest and most enlightened of Indian statesmen.
Flamininus was one of the first and most successful of the rising school of Roman statesmen, the opponents of the narrow patriotism of which Cato was the type, the disciples of Greek culture, and the advocates of a wide imperial policy.
At one of the great Manchester meetings he said, "Da not suppose, because I counsel firmness and decision at the right moment, that I am of that school of statesmen who are favourable to a turbulent and aggressive diplomacy.
The statesmen by whom it was established and continued saw in Russia a power which, unless firmly kept within bounds, would dominate Europe; more particularly that it would undermine and supersede British authority in the East.
It only marked at various stages the thwarting and suppression of his policy by colleagues who were haunted night and day by memories of the Crimean War, and not least, probably, by the fate of the statesmen who suffered for its blunders and their own.
ORLOV, the name of a noble Russian family that produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers.
Gradually there came to be facing each other a great political Christendom, whose rulers were statesmen, with aims and policy of a worldly type, and a religious Christendom, full of the ideas of separation from the world by self-sacrifice and of participation in the benefits of Christ's work by an ascetic imitation.
Foreign statesmen who flattered themselves that France was sinking into anarchy and therefore into decay were content to follow their respective ambitions without the dread of French interference.
Foreign statesmen noticed with alarm the effect of the French Revolution upon opinion in their own countries, and they resented the endeavours of French revolutionists to make converts there.
Of these statesmen, the emperor Leopold was the most intelligent.
It was founded at Frankfort-on-theMain in 1863 by a number of distinguished clergymen and laymen of liberal tendencies, representing the freer parties of the Lutheran and Reformed Churches of the various German states, amongst whom were the statesmen Bluntschli and Von Bennigsen and the professors R.
He is regarded as the great patron and protector of education among the Serbs, as a saint, and as one of the greatest statesmen in the national history.
Other Greek statesmen, and notably Tricoupis, had worked for a Balkan League but failed, partly, no doubt, owing to adverse circumstances, but partly also because of Greek unpreparedness for war and of the inflexibility of the Greek claims. Venizelos was, it is true, favoured by circumstances - the Balkan races just then had been drawn together in self-defence against the newly fledged tyranny of the Young Turks in Macedonia and Thrace, while the military revolt of 1909 had swept the Greek political stage clear of nearly all the corrupt parties, that hitherto had blocked the wheels of the nation's progress.
Statesmen must be made to feel that they are responsible to the state.
Wherever the noblest expressions of her mind are honoured, wherever the large conceptions of Pericles command the admiration of statesmen, wherever the architect and the sculptor love to dwell on the masterpieces of Ictinus and Pheidias, wherever the spell of ideal beauty or of lofty contemplation is exercised by the creations of Sophocles or of Plato, there it will be remembered that the spirit which wrought in all these would have passed sooner from among men, if it had not been recalled from a trance, which others were content to mistake for the last sleep, by the passionate breath of Demosthenes.
The hieromnemones were formally superior, but because of the method of appointment they were necessarily men of mediocre ability, inexperienced in speaking and public business, and for that reason they readily became the tools of the pylagori, who were orators and statesmen.
Ormonde, who was in London, could alone restore peace; all his disputes with Desmond were at once settled in his favour, and he was even allowed to resume the exaction of coyne and livery, the abolition of which had been the darling wish of statesmen.
Of statesmen the Peninsula was less prolific. The emperor Trajan, indeed, and his relative and successor Hadrian, were born in Spain, but they were both of Roman stock and Roman training.
Sagasta was summoned to El Pardo, and the result of his interview with the queeai-regent, Canovas and the generals, was the understanding ever afterwards known as the pact of El Pardo, the corner-stone of the whole policy of the regency, and of the two great statesmen who so long led the great dynastic parties and the governments of Doa Christina.
The statesmen of both dynastic parties, from the beginning of the regency, agreed to observe strict neutrality in European affairs, in order to avoid complications fraught with evil consequences for the monarchy and the dynasty in.
Canovas gathered round him most oi the prominent Conservalive and Catholic statesmen.
Among domestic statesmen he was felt, however, to be the backbone of the party in power.
He far exceeded all other statesmen in the art of drawing together, without the seduction of self-interest, the concurrence and co-operation of various dispositions and abilities of men, whom he assimilated to his character and associated in his labours."
Gratz, Kdlman Tisza (Modern Magyar Statesmen, I.) (Hung.; Budapest, 1902); P. Busbach, The Last Five Years (Hung.; Budapest, 1895).
He may be enrolled among the band of English statesmen who have distinguished themselves in literature.
C. Lodge's (in the American Statesmen series, 1882); and G.
It was only this necessity which induced statesmen like Colbert to countenance them, and Montesquieu took the same view (Esprit des lois, t.
In 171 war had broken out between Rome and the Macedonian king Perseus, and the Achaean statesmen were divided as to the policy to be pursued; there were good reasons for fearing that the Roman senate would regard neutrality as indicating a secret leaning towards Macedon.
To this conference were summoned some of the most notable statesmen, lawyers and theologians of the day.
When Sigismondo was absent she governed Rimini wisely and well, and proved herself a match for the statesmen with whom she had to deal.
elder statesmen to pick up their pensions!
elder statesmanminister Pavlo Lazarenko allegedly commissioned the murder of Hetman considered a level-headed, elder statesmen of Ukrainian politics for $ 850,000.
elder statesmanhn Wheeler, one of the distinguished elder statesmen of American physics today: " .
elder statesmanm II became one of the most respected elder statesmen of Europe.
entertained at public banquets, attended large gatherings, and had long private interviews with leading statesmen.
statesmane, Holland House in London, became a meeting place of wits and statesmen of the day.
statesmanernment also suffered from the absence of most of the senior statesmen of the period.
statesmanprime minister Pavlo Lazarenko allegedly commissioned the murder of Hetman considered a level-headed, elder statesmen of Ukrainian politics for $ 850,000.
statesmanad we have so many statesmen who are true to God.
statesman is John Wheeler, one of the distinguished elder statesmen of American physics today: " .
statesmanWilhelm II became one of the most respected elder statesmen of Europe.
The same year he introduced a Test Oath by which all holding office or seats in either House of Parliament were to declare resistance to the royal power a crime, and promise to abstain from all attempts to alter the government of either church or state; but this extreme measure of retrograde toryism was successfully opposed by wiser statesmen.
P. Courtenay in Lardner's Encyclopaedia, " Eminent British Statesmen," vol.
This state of things was clearly recognized by German statesmen, and in 1208, when the Emperor Otto felt more secure upon his unstable throne, he became overtly hostile to Denmark and would have attempted the recovery of the lost German territory but for the interposition of Pope Innocent III., who threatened to excommunicate any German prince who should attack Valdemar, the equally pious and astute Danish king having undertaken, at the bidding of the holy see, to lead a crusade against the heathen Esthonians.
While Burke and Fox and so many great statesmen proclaimed the consequences of the collision with America, Gibbon saw nothing but colonies in rebellion, and a paternal government justly incensed.
French Judaism was thus in a sense more human if less humane than the Spanish variety; the latter produced thinkers, statesmen, poets and scientists; the former, men with whom the Talmud was a passion, men of robuster because of more naÃ¯ve and concentrated piety.
In the hundreds of despatches that he wrote in this capacity, much, no doubt, was done in accordance with established routine, but few statesmen of his generation had a wider experience of the responsible application of the principles of government.
In times past, biblical exegesis, religious ideals, and ecclesiastical organization, the purely political aims of statesmen, chance combinations of party politics and the intrigues of diplomatists, class prejudice, social conventions, apparently sudden changes of economic policy, capricious changes of fashion - all these causes and many others have exerted a direct and immediate influence on the economic life of the community.
In substance the county assemblies were worse than ineffective: mere turbulent gatherings of country squires and peasants, corrupt and prejudiced, representing nothing but their own pride of race and class; and to try and govern without them, or to administer in spite of them, may have been the only expedient possible to statesmen.
It was to this that Massinissa owed his fame and success; he was a barbarian at heart, but he had a varnish of culture, and to this he added the craft and cunning in which Carthaginian statesmen were supposed to excel.
The pursuit of salvation does not dominate by any means the whole life and ambition of even ardent believers; statesmen, philosophers, men of letters, scientific investigators and inventors have commonly gone their way regardless of the particular form of Christianity which prevailed in the land in which they lived.
It was a fortunate thing for Poland that, during the first century of her ascension to the rank of a great power, political exigencies compelled her to appropriate almost more territory than her primitive and centrifugal government could properly assimilate; it was fortunate that throughout this period of expansion her destinies should, with one brief interval, have been controlled by a couple of superior statesmen, each of whom ruled for nearly fifty years.
Beesly (Twelve English Statesmen, 1892); Lucy Aikin, Memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth (1818); and T.
The success of Roman imperialism was particularly remarkable in England, where Innocent was confronted by one of the principal potentates of the West, by the heir of the power that had been founded by two statesmen of the first rank, William the Conqueror and Henry II.
But the statesmen in power were not less favourable to constitutional institutions than the members of the Aikoku K5-tÃµ (public party of patriots), as Itagaki and his followers called themselves.
To the left is the Villetta Dinegro, a beautiful park belonging to the city, decorated with cascades and a number of statues and busts of prominent statesmen and citizens.
Morse ("American Statesmen Series," Boston, 1883), George Tucker (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1837); James Parton (Boston, 1874); and especially that by Henry S.
P. Trent, in his Southern Statesmen of the Old Regime (New York, 1897); that by John Fiske, Essays, Historical and Literary, vol.
Regarding Protagoras, Gorgias and Isocrates as types of one and the same sophistry (pp. 4 8 7, 493, 495, 499, 544, 2nd ed.), and neglecting as slander or exaggeration all the evidence in regard to the sophistry of eristic (p. 540), he conceives that the sophists undertook " to educate young men so as to make them better qualified for statesmen or ministers," and that " that which stood most prominent in the teaching of Gorgias and the other sophists was, that they cultivated and improved the powers of public speaking in their pupils."
Bauman, Russian Statesmen of the Olden Time (Rus.), vol.
Miguel united every reactionary element throughout the kingdom in a last unsuccessful stand against constitutional government; (b) From 1834 to 1853 the main problem for Portuguese statesmen was whether the constitution, now accepted as inevitable, should embody the radical ideas of 1822 or the moderate ideas of 1826; (c) From 1853 to 1889 there was a period of transition marked by the rise of three new parties - Progressive, Regenerator, Republican; (d) From 1889 to 1908 the Progressives and Regenerators monopolized the control of public affairs, but the strength of Republicanism was not to be gauged by its representation in the cortes.
In military ability the prince of Parma was inferior to none of his contemporaries, as a skilful diplomatist he was the match even of his great antagonist William the Silent, and, like most of the leading statesmen of his day, was unscrupulous as to the means he employed so long as he achieved his ends.
He took for colleagues some of the strongest and most popular statesmen of the Liberal party, virtually representing the three important groups of men of the Revolution united under his leadershipveteran Liberals like Camacho and Venancio Gonzalez; Moderates like Alonzo Martinez, Gamazo and Marshal Jovellar; and Democrats like Moret, Montero Rios and Admiral Beranger.
His home, Holland House in London, became a meeting place of wits and statesmen of the day.
His government also suffered from the absence of most of the senior statesmen of the period.
I am glad we have so many statesmen who are true to God.
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