How to use States in a sentence
Everywhere you go in the United States are water fountains.
It clearly states that we have the right to decide when and where.
Aside from two laboratory samples, one in the United States and one in Russia, it does not exist on the planet.
The tips are states away from what's being tipped.
In 2009, in the United States of America, the poverty threshold for a single person under sixty-five was about $11,000 a year; the threshold for a family group of four, including two children, was about $22,000 a year.Advertisement
It's the only working one like it in the United States.
Hayes, the new president, having chosen John Sherman to be his secretary of the treasury, an effort was made to send Garfield to the United States Senate in Sherman's place.
Evnitzki states that the saltest water of the whole basin occurs in the Aegean Sea.
The United States is a republic, as even the Pledge of Allegiance says.
His long term of service in the House, his leadership of his party on its floor, his candidacy for the speakership, and his recent election to the United States Senate, marked him out as the available man.Advertisement
Of the inhabitants born in the United States 61,508 were natives of Virginia, 40,301 of Ohio, 28,927 of Pennsylvania and 10,867 of Kentucky; and of the foreign-born there were 6J37 Germans, 334 2 Irish, 2921 Italians and 2622 English.
Macaulay states that the members of council were put in ill-humour because their salute of guns was not proportionate to their dignity.
In the United States, you could do it via the tax code, with government only acting as an income redistribution agent but not as a food distributor.
Mr. Anagnos states that he cast his vote with those who were favourable to me.
It not only divides states and churches, it divides families; ay, it divides the individual, separating the diabolical in him from the divine.Advertisement
Mildred O'Malley, his wife was not listed as living in Massachusetts and the name was too common for Betsy to look in all the states.
She was brutally murdered by the same man who killed young girls in Delaware, Alabama and several other states.
I have a baby and I'm not about to drag Claire all over the United States!
There are video pictures of the motor home entry from Canada back into the United States.
The beautiful granite structure of South Station was opened in 1899 and within ten years, was the busiest train station in the United States.Advertisement
You know, like buffalo, pronghorn, and Doll sheep - wildlife native to the United States.
The glove compartment contained a registration in the name of World Wide Insurance Company and maps of the east coast states.
The peccary is the only native wild pig in the United States.
Messina fell on the 10th of July, but Garibaldi, instead of crossing to Calabria, secretly departed for Aranci Bay in Sardinia, where Bertani was fitting out an expedition against the papal states.
It thus serves as an entrepot for much of the commerce between Atlantic and Pacific ports, and between the interior towns of Central and South America and the cities of Europe and the United States.Advertisement
The United States government has also opened a port at Cristobal, within the Canal Zone.
The city has a fine court-house, a United States government building, a Carnegie library and a large auditorium.
The bituminous coal of West Virginia is a particularly good coking coal, and in 1905, 1906, 1907 and 1908 West Virginia ranked second (to Pennsylvania) among the states of the Union in the amount of coke manufactured; the Flat Top district is the principal cokemaking region.
Paupers, insane, and those convicted of treason, felony or bribery in an election are barred, " while the disability continues," and no person in the military, naval or marine service of the United States is deemed.
No person holding a lucrative office under the state or the United States, no salaried officer of a railroad company, and no officer of any court of record is eligible for membership in either house.Advertisement
The population was not homogeneous, as a considerable part of the immigration came by way of Pennsylvania and included Germans, the Protestant Scotch-Irish and settlers from the states farther.
Some delegates favoured the immediate formation of a new state, but the more far-sighted members argued that as the ordinance had not yet been voted upon by the people, and Virginia was still in the Union, such action would be revolutionary, since the United States Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent.
The legislature, composed of the members from the western counties who had been elected on the 23rd of May and some of the holdover senators who had been elected in 1859, met at Wheeling on the 1st of July, filled the remainder of the state offices, organized a state government and elected two United States senators who were recognized at Washington.
The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner.
He went with the first rush to Klondike in 1897 and tramped across the States and Canada, being in gaol more than once as a vagabond.Advertisement
Lundy is said to have been the first to deliver anti-slavery lectures in the United States.
In 1820 he retired with a pension his estate at Hornau, near Hochst, in Hesse-Darmstadt; but as a member of the first chamber of the states of the grand-duchy he continued to take an active share in the promotion of measures for the welfare of his country.
Selim determined on war with Persia, where the heresy was the prevalent religion, and in order that the Shiites in Turkey should give no trouble during the war, "measures were taken," as the Turkish historian states, which may be explained as the reader desires, and which proved fully efficacious.
Vanderbilt, its 125,000 acres constituting what is probably the finest country place in the United States.
The death without direct heirs of Duke John William in 1609 led to serious complications in which almost all the states of Europe were concerned; however, by the treaty of Xanten in 1614, Cleves passed to the elector of Brandenburg, being afterwards incorporated with the electorate by the great elector, Frederick William.Advertisement
The Panlaung and Zawgyi rivers from the Shan States flow through the district and are utilized for the numerous irrigation canals.
But Maximilian was regarded with suspicion by the states of Netherlands, and after suppressing a rising in Gelderland his position was further weakened by the death of his wife on the 27th of March 1482.
He claimed to be recognized as guardian of his young son Philip and as regent of the Netherlands, but some of the states refused to agree to his demands and disorder was general.
Maximilian was compelled to assent to the treaty of Arras in 1482 between the states of the Netherlands and Louis XI.
On his return to Germany he made peace with France at Frankfort in July 1489, and in October several of the states of the Netherlands recognized him as their ruler and as guardian of his son.Advertisement
Having defeated the invading Turks at Villach in 1492, the king was eager to take revenge upon the king of France; but the states of the Netherlands would afford him no assistance.
The land was acquired either by confiscation from disaffected states or in exchange for a lowering of tribute.
There are regular lines of steamers running between Vancouver and Alaska and the points of connexion with the Yukon territory, as well as lines to Puget Sound and San Francisco in the United States.
Great Britain and all the larger European states have consulates there.
It was chiefly in the way of matrimonial alliances that it was brought into contact with other states.Advertisement
Macedon to the headship of the Greek states, and the air was charged with great ideas.
The coming and going of envoys from many states, Greek and Oriental, taught him something of the actual conditions of the world.
Philip's removal had made all the hill-peoples of the north and west raise their heads and set the Greek states free from their fears.
In the spring of 334, Alexander crossed with an army of between 30,000 and 40,000 men, Macedonians, Illyrians, Thracians and the contingents of the Greek states, into Asia.
This influence was due not only to his publications, but also to the "school" or classes for the training of clergymen which he conducted for many years at his home and from which went forth scores of preachers to every part of New England and the middle colonies (states).
Birmingham, situated in an immensely rich iron, coal and limestone region, is the principal manufacturing centre in the state, and the most important centre for the production and manufacture of iron in the southern states.
In 1900 the Birmingham district produced six-sevenths of the total pig iron exported from the United States, and in 1902 nine-tenths of Alabama's coal, coke and pig iron; in 1905 Jefferson county produced 67.5% of the total iron and steel product of the state, and 62.5% of the pig iron produced by the state.
The first steel plant in the southern states was established at Birmingham in 1897; in 1902, at Ensley, one of the suburbs, there were 10 furnaces controlled by one company.
The city is a product of the industrial transformation in the southern states since the Civil War.
These events shook the whole Persian empire; Babylon and other subject states rose in revolt, and to the Jews it seemed that Persia was tottering and that the Messianic era was nigh.
About 4000 French Canadians, who had emigrated from Quebec to the United States, have also made the province their home, as well as Icelanders now numbering 20,000.
The remainder of the population is chiefly made up of English-speaking people horn the other provinces of the Dominion, from the United States, from England and Scotland and the north of Ireland.
Large quantities of fresh fish caught in lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba are exported to all parts of the United States.
While these early traders used the canoe and the York boat,' yet the steam-boat played an important part in the early history of the region from 1868 till 1885, when access from the United States was gained by steamers down the Red River.
The first connexion with the United States was by two railways coming down the Red River valley.
The second edition in English appeared at Edinburgh in 1611, and in the preface to it Napier states he intended to have published an edition in Latin soon after the original publication in 1593, but that, as the work had now been made public by the French and Dutch translations, besides the English editions, and as he was "advertised that our papistical adversaries wer to write larglie against the said editions that are alreadie set out," he defers the Latin edition "till having first seene the adversaries objections, I may insert in the Latin edition an apologie of that which is rightly done, and an amends of whatsoever is amisse."
Briggs was greatly excited by Napier's invention and visited him at Merchiston in 1615, staying with him a whole month; he repeated his visit in 1616 and, as he states, "would have been glad to make him a third visit if it had pleased God to spare him so long."
This account he kept back, as he himself states, in order to see from tie reception met with by the Descriptio, whether it would be acceptable.
The office, Mark Napier states, is repeatedly mentioned in the family charters as appertaining to the "pultre landis" near the village of Dene in the shire of Linlithgow.
With regard to the spelling of the name, Mark Napier states that among the family papers there exist a great many documents signed by John Napier.
Denver is the central live-stock market of the Rocky Mountain states.
At the annual provincial synod, held by consent of the states, two ministers and one 3 Ibid.
In 1795, of course, everything was upset, and it was not until after the restoration of the Netherland States that a new organization was formed in 1816.
Presbyterianism in the United States is a reproduction and further development of Presbyterianism in Europe.
In 1833 the Reformed Presbyterian Church divided into New Lights and Old Lights in a dispute as to the propriety of Covenanters exercising the rights of citizenship under the constitution of the United States.
At the close of the Civil War this Southern Church adopted the name of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States.
Presbyterians of different churches in the United States in 1906 numbered 1,830,555; of this total 322,542 were in Pennsylvania, where there were 248,335 members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (the Northern Church), being more than one-fifth of its total membership; 56,587 members of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, being more than two-fifths of its total membership; 2709 members of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, three-tenths of its total membership; the entire membership of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada (440), 3150 members of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, nearly one-fourth of its total membership; and 2065 members of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, general synod, about five-ninths of its total membership. The strength of the Church in Pennsylvania is largely due to the Scotch-Irish settlements in that state.
The Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada had a membership in the United States of 440.
The Emma Willard School, founded as the Troy Female Seminary in 1821 by Mrs Emma Willard (1787-1870), 1 is one of the oldest schools for women in the United States.
The first puddling works were opened in 1839, and Troy was long the centre of the New York iron and steel industry; in 1865 the second Bessemer steel works in the United States were opened here.
Ferdinand, Philip's son, who succeeded under Dutillot's regency in 1765, saw his states occupied by the revolutionary forces of France in 1796, and had to purchase his lifeinterest with 6,000,000 lire and 25 of the best paintings in Parma.
Hayes by a majority of less than 3000 votes; but the Democrats gained a majority in both branches of the state legislature, and Thurman was elected to the United States Senate, where he served from 1869 until 1881 - during the 46th Congress (1879-1881) as president pro tempore.
The White Camelia was formed in 1867 in Louisiana and rapidly spread over the states of the late Confederacy.
The United States Congress in1871-1872enacted a series of "Force Laws" intended to break up the secret societies and to control the Southern elections.
The United States standard pint = 47 of a litre, 28'i cub.
Communication with the United States is effected by land lines to Valparaiso, and thence by a cable along the west coast.
The system closely resembles that followed in the United States.
The normal schools, maintained by the state on a secular basis, were founded by President Sarmiento, who engaged experienced teachers in the United States to direct them; their work is excellent; notably, their model primary schools.
It had already been recognized by the United States of America two years previously.
The carrying out of Federalist principles led, however, to the formation in the republic of a number of quasiindependent military states, and Dorrego only ruled in Buenos Aires.
The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.
The decision of the representative of the United States was given in April 1899.
In December 1901 warlike preparations were being carried on in both states, and the outbreak of active hostilities appeared to be imminent.
An administrative tribunal called the cour des corn ptes subjects the accounts of the states financial agents (trsorierspayeurs, receveurs of registration fees, of customs, of indirect taxes, &c.) and of the communesi to a close investigation, and a vote of definitive settlement is finally passed by parliament.
The foreign countries trading most largely with the French colonies are, in the order named, British colonies and Great Britain, China and Japan, the United States and Germany.
The Morelianos are noted for their love of music, and musical competitions are held each year, the best band being sent to the city of Mexico to compete with similar organizations from other states.
The conquest of Cyprus by the Turks, and their aggressions on the Christian powers, frightened the states of the Mediterranean into forming a holy league for their common defence.
He traces back the hostility of the two states to a dispute about the images of the goddesses Damia and Auxesia, which the Aeginetans had carried off from Epidaurus, their parent state.
The account which Herodotus gives of the hostilities between the two states in the early years of the 5th century B.C. is to the following effect.
In 491 B.C. Aegina was one of the states which gave the symbols of submission ("earth and water") to Persia.
Seymour did not re-enter political life, refusing to be considered for the United States senatorship from New York in 1876.
There are, however, numerous spacious harbours, especially on the eastern coast, which are referred to in the detailed articles dealing with the different states.
References to the chief sources of information regarding the states is given under each of them.
The census of Western Australia included only those aborigines in the employment of the colonists; and as a large part of this, the greatest of the Australian states, is as yet unexplored, it may be presumed that the aborigines enumerated were very far short of the whole number of persons of that race in the state.
Under the agreement a royal naval reserve was maintained, three of the Imperial vessels provided being utilized as drill ships for crews recruited from the Australian states.
Churches of all denominations are liberally supported throughout the states, and the residents of every settlement, however small, have their places of worship erected and maintained by their own contributions.
The statutory ages differ in the various states; in New South Wales and Western Australia it is from 6 to 13 years inclusive, in Victoria 6 to 12 years, in Queensland 6 to II years, and in South Australia 7 to 12 years inclusive.
Religious instruction is not imparted by the state-paid teachers in any state, though in certain states persons duly authorized by the religious organizations are allowed to give religious instruction to children of their own denomination where the parents' consent has been obtained.
Instruction at state schools is either free or at merely nominal cost, and high schools, technical colleges and agricultural colleges are maintained by appropriations from the general revenues of the states.
The vine is cultivated in all the states, but chiefly in South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales.
In several of the states, fish have been introduced successfully from other countries.
Gold is found throughout Australia, and the present prosperity of the states is largely due to the discoveries of this metal, the development of other industries being, in a country of varied resources, a natural sequence to the acquisition of mineral treasure.
A considerable number of men are engaged in the various states on alluvial fields, in hydraulic sluicing, and dredging is now adopted for the winning of gold in river deposits.
Silver has been discovered in all the states, either alone or in the form of sulphides, antimonial and arsenical ores, chloride, bromide,.
The leading silver mines are in New South Wales, the returns from the other states being comparatively insignificant.
Although indications of silver abound in all the other states, no fields of great importance have yet been discovered.
Copper is known to exist in all the states, and has been mined extensively in South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and.
Bismuth is known to exist in all the Australian states, but up to the present time it has been mined for only in three states, viz.
Manganese probably exists in all the states, deposits having been found in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia, the richest specimens being found in New South Wales.
Lead is found in all the Australian states, but is worked only when associated with silver.
Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland.
Zinc ores, in the several varieties of carbonates, silicates, oxide, sulphide and sulphate of zinc, have been found in several of the Australian states, but have attracted little attention except in New South Wales, where special efforts are being made successfully to produce a high-grade zinc concentrate from the sulphide ores.
Nickel, so abundant in the island of New Caledonia, has up to the present been found in none of the Australian states except Queensland and Tasmania.
The Australian states have been bountifully supplied with mineral fuel.
Black coal forms one of the principal resources of New South Wales; and in the other states the deposits of this valuable mineral are being rapidly developed.
Kaolin, fire-clays and brick-clays are common to all the states.
Many descriptions of gems and gem stones have been discovered in various parts of the Australian states, but systematic search has been made principally for the diamond and the noble opal.
Diamonds are found in all the states; but only in New South Wales have any attempts been made to work the diamond drifts.
Other precious stones, including the sapphire, emerald, oriental emerald, ruby, opal, amethyst, garnet, chrysolite, topaz, cairngorm, onyx, zircon, etc., have been found in the gold and tin bearing drifts and river gravels in numerous localities throughout the states.
The sapphire is found in all the states, principally in the neighbourhood of Beechworth, Victoria.
Chrysoberyls have been found in New South Wales; spinel rubies in New South Wales and Victoria; and white topaz in all the states.
Chalcedony, carnelian, onyx and cat's eyes are found in New South Wales; and it is probable that they are also to be met with in the other states, particularly in Queensland.
In several of the states, New South Wales and South Australia proper, the railways yield more than the interest paid by the government on the money borrowed for their construction.
The divergence of policy of that state from that pursued by the other states was caused by the inability of the government to construct lines, when the extension of the railway system was urgently needed in the interests of settlement.
The postal and telegraphic facilities offered by the various states are very considerable.
The Common wealth is empowered to retain one-fourth of the net revenue from customs and excise, the balance must be handed back to the states.
The states have a total revenue, from sources apart from the Commonwealth, of £23,820,439, and if to this be added the return of customs duties made by the federal government, the total revenue is £31,206,170.
Although the financial operations of the Commonwealth and the states are quite distinct, a statement of the total revenue of the Australian Commonwealth and states is not without interest as showing the weight of taxation and the different sources from which revenue is obtained.
The federal government has no public debt, but each of the six states has contracted debts which aggregate £237,000,000, equal to about £58, 8s.
Hunter states that the Dravidian tribes were driven southwards in Hindustan, and that the grammatical relations of their dialects are " expressed by suffixes," which is true as to the Australian languages.
He states that Bishop Caldwell,' whom he calls " the great missionary scholar of the Dravidian tongue," showed that the south and western Australian tribes use almost the same words for " I, thou, he, we, you, as the Dravidian fishermen on the Madras coast."
Of the six Australian states, New South Wales is the oldest.
At the beginning of 1860, when the excitement of the gold discoveries was wearing off, five of the states had received from the home government the boon of responsible government, and were in a position to work out the problem of their position without external interference; it was not, however, until 1890 that Western Australia was placed in a similar position.
Taking the states as a whole, agrarian legislation has been the most important subject that has engrossed the attention of their parliaments, and every state has been more or less engaged in tinkering with its land laws.
The Chinese difficulty, so far as the mining population was concerned, was solved by the exhaustion of the extensive alluvial deposits; the miners' prejudice against the race, however, still exists, though they are no longer serious competitors, and the laws of some of the states forbid any Chinese to engage in mining without the express authority in writing of the minister of mines.
In 1888 the last important conference on the Chinese question was held in Sydney and attended by delegates from all the states.
The effects of the crisis were mainly felt in the three eastern states, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia being affected chiefly by reason of the fact of their intimate financial connexion with the eastern states.
As regards the last mentioned it may be said that it was accomplished from within, there being no real external necessity for the union of the states.
The allegations made con cerning the Chinese really amounted to a charge of undue 1 Australia, it may be noted, has woman's suffrage in all the states (Victoria, the last, adopting it in November 1908), and for the federal assembly.
The lack of employment in factories naturally affected the coal mining industry, and indeed every industry in the states, except those connected with the export trade, was severely affected.
No alteration to be made in states without the consent of the legislatures of such states, as well as of the federal parliament.
The constitution was accepted by Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania by popular acclamation, but in New South Wales very great opposition was shown, the main points of objection being the financial provisions, equal representation in the Senate, and the difficulty in the way of the larger states securing an amendment of the constitution in the event of a conflict with the smaller states.
In accordance with this general verdict of all the states, the colonial draft bill was submitted to the imperial government for legislation as an imperial act; and six delegates were sent to England to explain the measure and to pilot it through the cabinet and parliament.
The six colonies entering the Commonwealth were denominated original states, and new states might be admitted, or might be formed by separation from or union of two or more states or parts of states; and territories (as distinguished from Provisions states) might be taken over and governed under the legis- of the Act lative power of the Commonwealth.
The House of Representatives was to consist of members chosen in the different states in numbers proportioned to their population, but never fewer than five.
For elections to the Senate the governors of states, and for general elections of the House of Representatives the governor-general, would cause writs to be issued.
Exceptions were made permitting the states to grant bounties on mining and (with the consent of the parliament) on exports of produce or manufactures - Western Australia being for a time partially exempted from the prohibition to impose import duties.
Provision was made for necessary alteration of the constitution of the Commonwealth, but so that no alteration could be effected unless the question had been directly submitted to, and the change accepted by the electorate in the states.
Respecting the salaries of the governors of states, the constitution made no provision.
Different ideals dominate the party in the different states.
The model followed in these two states was not Victoria but New Zealand, where an Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act was passed in 1894.
This tribunal differs from similar courts in the states inasmuch as it consists of a single member, called the " president," an officer appointed by the governor-general from among the justices of the High Court of Australia.
The Commonwealth legislation thus made provision for the aged poor in the three states which up to 1908 had not accepted the principle of old age pensions, and also for those who, owing to their having resided in more than one state, were debarred from receiving pension in any.
The great task of adjusting the financial business of the Commonwealth on a permanent basis was one of very great difficulty, as the apparent interests of the states and of the Commonwealth were opposed.
Up till 1908 it had been generally assumed that the constitution required the treasurer of the Commonwealth to hand over to the states month by month whatever surplus funds remained in his hands.
Under this act the appropriation of these surplus funds to certain trust purposes in the Federal treasury is held to be equivalent to payment to the states.
The convex side rests upon the duchy of Coburg and is in part bounded by Bavaria, while the concave side, turned towards the north, contains portions of four other Thuringian states and Prussia between its horns, which are 46 m.
The island of Terschelling once formed a separate lordship, but was sold to the states of Holland.
The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.
It was a states.
Its remoteness from the control of the authority of the German and French kings, together with its inaccessibility, gave special facilities in Lower Lorraine to the growth of a number of practically independent feudal states forming a group or system apart.
Chief among these states were the duchy of Brabant, the counties of Flanders, Hainault, Holland, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxemburg, and the bishoprics of Utrecht and Liege.
It was precisely at this time that Flanders, and gradually the other feudal states of the Netherlands, by marriage, purchase, treachery or force, fell under the dominion of the house of Burgundy.
He was quite aware that the industrial wealth of the great Flemish communes was financially the mainstay of his power, but their very prosperity made them the chief obstacle to his schemes of unifying into a solid dominion the loose aggregate of states over which he was the ruler.
But Charles, rightly surnamed the Bold or Headstrong, did not possess the qualities of a builder of states.
This charter provided that no war could be declared nor marriage concluded by the sovereign, nor taxes raised without the assent of the states, that natives were alone eligible for high office, and that the national language should be used in public documents.
On these conditions Mary obtained the hearty support of the states Against France, but her humiliations were not yet at an end; two of her privy councillors, accused of traitorous intercourse with the enemy, were, despite her entreaties, seized, tried and beheaded (April 3).
In 1548 Charles laid before the states a scheme for making the Netherlands an integral part of the empire under the name of the Circle of Burgundy; but the refusal of the German Electors to make his only son Philip king of the Romans led him to abandon the project, which was never renewed.
Already at his summons the states of Holland had Orange takes up met at Dort (July 15) under the presidency of Philip his resi- de Marnix, lord of Sainte Aldegonde, and they had deuce at unanimously recognized William as their lawful stadt- Delft.
The stadtholder summoned a meeting of the states of Holland and Zeeland to Delft, and on the 25th of April an act of federation between the two provinces was executed.
A treaty establishing a firm alliance between the provinces, represented by the states-general, assembled at Brussels on the one part, and on the other by the prince of Orange, and the states of Holland and Zeeland, was agreed upon and ratified under the title of the " Pacification of Ghent."
He was invited to come to Brussels, and after some hesitation, and not without having first obtained the approval of the states of Holland and Zeeland, he assented.
The exact position of the native states of Bukhara and Khiva, which were later occupied by the Soviet Government, remained obscure.
Occasional outbreaks of cholera occur from time to time, and in the independent states these cause terrible loss of life, as the natives fly from the disease and spread the infection in every direction.
There is little leprosy in the peninsula, but there is a leper hospital near Penang on Pula Deraja and another on an island on the west coast for the reception of lepers from the Federated Malay States.
The population of the peninsula includes about 850,000 Chinese, mostly immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the southern provinces of China, of whom about 300,000 reside in the colony of the Straits Settlements, 365,000 in the Federated Malay States,.
The colony of the Straits Settlements, and to a lesser extent the towns of the Federated Malay States, carry a considerable heterogenous population, in which most of the races of Asia find their representatives.
In 1874 the Malay state of Perak was placed under British protection by a treaty entered into with its sultan; and this eventually led to the inclusion in a British protectorate of the neighbouring Malay States of Selangor, Sungei Ujong, the cluster of small states called the Negri Sembilan and Pahang, which now form the Federated Malay States.
By a treaty made between Great Britain and Siam in 1902 the northern Malay states of the peninsula were admitted to lie within the Siamese sphere of influence, but by a treaty of 1909 Siam ceded her suzerain rights over the states of Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis to Britain.
Singapore is the political, commercial and administrative headquarters of the colony of the Straits Settlements, and the governor for the time being is ex officio high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, British North Borneo, Sarawak, the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands, and governor of Labuan.
The most valuable fish taken was walleyed pike, and the catch of this fish and of pickerel from Lake Champlain in 1902 exceeded in value that from any other body of fresh water in the United States excepting Lake Huron and Lake Erie.
Vermont marble is the best and most plentiful in the United States.
The output of marble in 1908 was valued at $4,679,960 (out of a total of $7,733,920 for the entire production of marble in the United States).
Only less important and only less early to be established in Vermont was the quarrying of granite, which began in 1812, but which has been developed chiefly since 1880, largely by means of the building of "granite railroads" which connect each quarry with a main railway line - a means of transportation as important as the logging railways of the Western states and of Canada.
In 1908 the value of slate produced was $1,710,491 (out of a total production for the United States of $6,316,817).
The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.
Vermont was almost the last of the New England states to develop textile manufactures, though the manufacture of woollen goods was begun in 1824.
The tonnage of the commerce of this port amounted, according to the reports of the United States army engineers, to 107,421 tons in 1904 and to 249,174 tons in 1908, of which in the latter year nearly 80% was lumber.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States, 19,974 were natives of New York, 9675 were natives of New Hampshire and 9111 were natives of Massachusetts.
There is no special board of commissioners or supervisors as in most of the other states, the county authority being the assistant judges of the county court.
All citizens of the United States residing in Vermont are citizens of the state.
The revenues for educational purposes are derived mainly from a state tax of 8 on the general list, from local taxes, and from the interest on the permanent school fund, which (including the money paid to Vermont by the United States government when a portion of the treasury surplus was distributed among the states in 1837) amounted in 1908 to $1,120,218.
Owing to the high rate of taxation on deposits, a considerable part of the savings of the people is sent into other states.
When the Whigs secured a momentary control of the state legislature in 1849 they sent Seward to the United States Senate.
He believed that the Union could be saved without a war, and that a policy of delay would prevent the secession of the border states, which in turn would gradually coax their more southern neighbours back into their proper relations with the Federal government.
In informal conferences with commissioners from the seceded states he assured them that Fort Sumter should be speedily evacuated.
To prevent foreign states from giving official recognition to the Confederacy was the task of the hour, and in this he was successful.
While he did not succeed in preventing the French occupation of Mexico or the escape of the Confederate cruiser "Alabama" from England, his diplomacy prepared the way for a future adjustment satisfactory to the United States of the difficulties with these powers.
The growth of the oak is slow, though it varies greatly in different trees; Loudon states that an oak, raised from the acorn in a garden at Sheffield Place, Sussex, became in seventy years 12 ft.
The young trees require protection from storms and late frosts even more than in England; the red pine of the north-eastern states, Pinus resinosa, answers well as a nurse, but the pitch pine and other species may be employed.
Common throughout the northern and middle states and Canada, the red oak attains a large size only on good soils; the wood is of little value, being coarse and porous, but it is largely used for cask-staves; the bark is a valuable tanning material.
Phellos, a rather large tree found on swampy land in the southern states, is the most important of this group; its timber is of indifferent quality.
External facts are not the causes of mental states, nor are mental states the causes of physical facts.
In 1653 he had made the astonishing proposal to the Dutch that England and Holland should divide the habitable globe outside Europe between them, that all states maintaining the Inquisition should be treated as enemies by both the proposed allies, and that the latter "should send missionaries to all peoples willing to receive them, to inculcate the truth of Jesus Christ and the Holy Gospel."
War broke out between the Protestant states of Sweden, Denmark, Holland and Brandenburg, with whom religion was entirely subordinated to individual aims and interests, and who were far from rising to Cromwell's great conceptions; while the Vaudois were soon subjected to fresh persecutions.
In 1825 he bought and afterwards edited in Washington, D.C., The United States Telegraph, which soon became the principal organ of the Jackson men in opposition to the Adams administration.
From 1835 to 1838 he edited The Reformation, a radically partisan publication, devoted to free trade and the extreme states' rights theory.
After the close of the war with Mexico Green was sent to that country in 1849 by President Taylor to negotiate concerning the moneys which, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States had agreed to pay; and he saved his country a considerable sum by arranging for payment in exchange instead of in specie.
From the surface to 500 fathoms the general form of the isothermals remains the same, except that instead of an equatorial maximum belt there is a focus of maximum temperature off the eastern coast of the United States.
In the United States imprisonment for debt was universal under the common law, but it has been abolished in every state, except in certain cases, as where there is any suspicion of fraud or where the debtor has an intention of removing out of the state to avoid his debts.
In 1243 he was obliged to cede to Venice, Zara, a perpetual apple of discord between the two states; but he kept his hold upon Spalato and his other Dalmatian possessions, and his wise policy of religious tolerance in Bosnia enabled Hungary to rule that province peaceably for many years.
Bancroft's The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, of which the principal authorities are the Noticias del Estado de Chihuahua of Escudero, who visited the ruins in 1819; an article in the first volume of the Album Mexicano, the author of which was at Casas Grandes in 1842; and the Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora and Chihuahua (1854), by John Russell Bartlett, who explored the locality in 1851.
In the preface he states the position that "whenever, then, two gases are allowed to mix without the performance of work, there is dissipation of energy, and an opportunity of doing work at the expense of low temperature heat has been for ever lost."
All of these states are under Rajput rulers, except Tonk, which is Mahommedan, and Bharatpur and Dholpur, which are Jat.
Thence its northern and northeastern frontier marches with the Punjab and the United Provinces until it touches the river Chambal, where it turns south-eastward for about 200 m., dividing the states of Dholpur, Karauli, Jaipur and Kotah from Gwalior.
The southern boundary runs in a very irregular line across the central region of India, dividing the Rajputana states from a number of native states in Central India and Gujarat.
The tract lying to the north-west contains the states of Bikanir, Jaisalmer and Jodhpur.
The river Mahi, which passes through the states of Partabgarh and Banswara, receiving the Som, drains the south-west corner of Rajputana through Gujarat into the Gulf of Cambay.
Copper and lead are found in several parts of the Aravalli range and of the minor ridges in Alwar and Shaikhawati, and iron ores abound in several states.
The whole number of this race is 620,229, and nowhere do they form a majority of the whole population in a state; but they are strongest, numerically, in the northern states and in Udaipur.
The gross revenue of all the states is estimated at 24 millions sterling.
The principal manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, carvings in ivory and working in metals, &c., all of which handicrafts are chiefly carried on in the eastern states.
As an ordinary instance, it has been stated that the cost of repairing the Direct United States cable up to 1900 from its submergence in 1874 averaged £8000 per annum.
He also repeated the suggestion which Lindsay had already made that it might be possible to signal in this manner by conduction currents through the Atlantic Ocean from the United States to Europe.
The system was put into practical operation in 1887 on the Lehigh Valley railroad in the United States, and worked well, but was abandoned because it apparently fulfilled no real public want.
Henry in the United States in 1842 and 1850 investigated the effect.
Arrangements not very different in general principle were put into practice in the United States by Fessenden, de Forest and others.
Timber is largely imported from the United States, Sweden and Russia; coal from Great Britain; dried codfish from Norway and Newfoundland.
A Dominican, Leandro Alberti (Descrizione d'Italia, 1550), states that they were originally nine in number, and an independent authority, Antonio Concioli (Statuta civitatis Eugubii, 1673), states that two of the nine were taken to Venice in 1540 and never reappeared.
The next transmitter of note was that introduced by Francis Blake, which came into wide use in the United States of America a.nd other countries.
Another type of microphone which was used in Europe much more than in the United States was the multiple-contact instrument.
The development of telephony in the United States of America is much greater than anywhere else; on the 1st of January 1907, 5 per cent.
The side-saddle plant, Sarracenia, native of the eastern United States, is also known as a pitcher-plant.
By his condemnation of Gallicanism (1613) Paul angered France, and provoked the defiant declaration of the states general of 1614 that the king held his crown from God alone.
Until the union of Italy they were comprised in Tuscany and the southern Papal States.
The movement of emigration may be divided into two currents, temporary and permanentthe former going chiefly towards neighboring European countries and to North Africa, and consisting of manual laborers, the latter towards trans-oceanic countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States.
The large predominance of imports over exports after 1884 was a result of the falling off of the export trade in live stock, olive oil and wine, on account of the closing of the French market, while the importation of corn from Russia and the Balkan States increased considerably.
But now even that shadow of union disappeared, and the Italians were abandoned to the slowly working influences which tended to divide them into separate states.
Of the nominally independent states the chief were the kingdom of Sardinia, ruled over by the house of Savoy, and comprising Piedmont, the isle of Sardinia and nominally Savoy and Nice, though the two provinces last named had virtually been lost to the monarchy since the campaign of 1793.
Equally extensive, but less important in the political sphere, were the Papal States and Veneti, the former torpid under the obscurantist rule of pope and cardinals, the latter enervated by luxury and the policy of unmanly complaisance long pursued by doge and council.
The small states, Lucca and San Marino, completed the map of Italy.
The outcome of it all was the War of the Second Coalition, in which Russia, Austria, Great Britain, Naples and some secondary states of Germany took part.
Naples, easily worsted by the French, under Miollis, left the British alliance, and made peace by the treaty of Florence (March 1801), agreeing to withdraw her troops from the Papal States, to cede Piombino and the Presidii (in Tuscany) to France and to close her ports to British ships and commerce.
This aim prompted the annexation of Tuscany, and his intervention in the affairs of the Papal States.
There is no need to detail the fortunes of the Napoleonic states in Italy.
To the kingdom of Sardinia, now reconstituted under Victor Emmanuel I., France ceded its old provinces, Savoy and Nice; and the allies, especially Great Britain and Austria, insisted on the addition to that monarchy of the territories of the former republic of Genoa, in respect of which the king took the title of duke of Genoa, in order to strengthen it for the duty of acting as a buffer state between France and the smaller states of central Italy.
The reaction, which was dull and heavy in the dominions of the pope and of Victor Emmanuel, systematically harsh in the Austrian states of the north, and comparatively mild in Parma and Tuscany, excited the greatest loathing in southern Italy and Sicily, because there it was directed by a dynasty which had aroused feelings of hatred mingled with contempt.
But although welcomed with enthusiasm Reaction on his return to Turin, he introduced a system of in the reaction which, if less brutal, was no less uncom- Italian promising than that of Austrian archdukes or Bourbon States.
During the next few years order reigned in Italy, save for a few unimportant outbreaks in the Papal States; there was, however, perpetual discontent and agitation, especially The Papal in Romagna, where misgovernment was extreme.
His political ideal was a federation of all the Italian states under the presidency of the pope, on a basis of Catholicism, but without a constitution.
Like Gioberti he advocated a federation of Italian states, but he declared that before this could be achieved Austria must be expelled from Italy and compensation found for her in the Near East by making her a Danubian powera curious forecast that Italys liberation would begin with an eastern war.
There were now three main political tendencies, viz, the union of north Italy under Charles Albert and an alliance with the pope and Naples, a federation of the different states under their present rulers, and a united republic of all Italy.
It was all-important that whatever victories Garibaldi might win should be won for the Italian kingdom, and, above all, that no ill-timed attack on the Papal States should provoke an intervention of the powers.
Pressure from all sides of the House, however, induced the ministry to retain office until after the debate on the application to Rome and the Papal States of the Religious Orders Bill (originally passed in 1866)a measure which, with the help of Ricasoli, was carried at the end of May.
In the case of Italy, as in that of Germany, he frankly regretted the constitution of powerful homogeneous states upon the borders of France.
By the despatch of a squadron to South America he obtained satisfaction for injuries inflicted thirteen years previously upon an Italian subject by the United States of Colombia.
Among the public buildings are the capitol, the United States government building, a United States mint, and a state orphans' home; in the vicinity are the state prison and a United States government school for Indians.
The preamble states that the king has granted the charter on the advice of various prelates and barons, some of whom, including the archbishop of Canterbury, the papal legate Pandulf, and William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, are mentioned by name.
Throughout the United States, whatever may have been the position in some of them before their independence, the Church has now no position recognized by the State, but is just a body of believers whose relations are governed by contract and with whom ecclesiastical jurisdiction is consensual.
With the Reformation in the 16th century, Church courts properly speaking disappeared from the non-episcopal religious communities which were established in g Holland, in the Protestant states of Switzerland and of Germany, and in the then non-episcopal countries of Denmark and Norway.
Hence, even in countries where the Roman Church is established, such as Belgium, Italy, the Catholic states of Germany and cantons of Switzerland, most of the Latin republics of America, and the province of Quebec, and a fortiori where this Church is not established, there is now no discipline over the laity, except penitential, and no jurisdiction exercised in civil suits, except possibly the matrimonial questions of princes (of which there was an example in the case of the reigning prince of Monaco).
In 1831 the pope enacted that in all the dioceses of the then Pontifical States, the court of first instance for the criminal causes of ecclesiastics should consist of the ordinary and four other judges.
In the Roman communion in England and the United States, there are commissions of investigation appointed to hear in first instance the criminal causes of clerks.
In the United States, since 1884, the bishop presides on these commissions.
It states the original and exclusive causes of deposition.
Here too was signed (December 24, 1814) the treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States of America.
I Capitolinus states that he was originally called Catilius Severus after his mother's grandfather; if so the name was early discarded.
Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the greensand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value.
The native country of this form has been much disputed; but, though still known in many British nurseries as the "black Italian poplar," it is now well ascertained to be an indigenous tree in many parts of Canada and the States, and is a mere variety of P. canadensis; it seems to have been first brought to England from Canada in 1772.
The true balsam poplar, or tacamahac, P. balsamifera, abundant in most parts of Canada and the northern States, is a tree of rather large growth, often of somewhat fastigiate habit, with round shoots and oblong-ovate sharp-pointed leaves, the base never cordate, the petioles round, and the disk deep glossy green above but somewhat downy below.
When war with England broke out, in 1812, he was ordered to cruise in the lakes between Canada and the United States, with his headquarters on lake Champlain.
Here is situated the Randolph-Macon College (Methodist Episcopal, South), one of the oldest Methodist Episcopal colleges in the United States.
He travelled in Finland and Lapland in 1873-4, and in 1875 made a special study of archaeology and ethnology in the Balkan States.
In 1882 the United States was calculated to have lost 40,000,000 to 60,000,000 from insect and other pests.
Warming, however, states that flex aquifolium is undubitably a mesophyte (1909 135).
Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.
This is a flora which, thinned out by losses, practically exists to this day in the southern United States.
This is the case, for instance, in the Caspian sea, the Aral and Balkhash lakes, the Tarim basin, the Sahara, inner Australia, the great basin of the United States and the Titicaca basin.
The city has several parks, including the Franklin of 90 acres, the Goodale of 44 acres, and the Schiller of 24 acres, besides the Olentangy, a well-equipped amusement resort on the banks of the river from which it is named, the Indianola, another amusement resort, and the United States military post and recruiting station, which occupies 80 acres laid out like a park.
The institution owed its origin to federal land grants; it is maintained by the state, the United States, and by small fees paid by the students; tuition is free in all colleges except the college of law.
Besides the university library, there is the Ohio state library occupying a room in the capitol and containing in 1908 126,000 volumes, including a "travelling library" of about 36,000 volumes, from which various organizations in different parts of the state may borrow books; the law library of the supreme court of Ohio, containing complete sets of English, Scottish, Irish, Canadian, United States and state reports, statutes and digests; the public school library of about 68,000 volumes, and the public library (of about 55,000), which is housed in a marble and granite building completed in 1906.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
The harbour has an artificial breakwater and extensive modern fortifications (Fort Preble, on the Cape Shore; Fort Levett, on Cushing's Island; Fort Williams, at Portland Head; and Fort McKinley, on Great Diamond Island) among the best equipped in the United States.
In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.
The Ethiopian Subregion comprises the whole of Africa and Madagascar, except the Barbary States, but including Arabia; in the north-east the subregion melts into the Palaearctic between Palestine and the Persian Gulf.
He served in the American War of Independence under Rochambeau, and in 1789 was sent as deputy to the States General by the nobles of the bailliage of Peronne.
Of his two brothers, Theodore Lameth (1756-1854) served in the American war, sat in the Legislative Assembly as deputy from the department of Jura, and became marechal-de-camp; and Charles Malo Francois Lameth (1757-1832), who also served in America, was deputy to the States General of 1789, but emigrated early in the Revolution, returned to France under the Consulate, and was appointed governor of Wiirzburg under the Empire.
During these critical years he adopted the "states' rights" attitude.
He was elected a member of the New York Assembly in the spring of 1789, and at a special session of the legislature held in July of that year was chosen one of the first representatives of New York in the United States Senate.
He was adjutant-general of New York state in 1839-1843, and became a brigadier-general of volunteers in the Union army in 1861, commanded a division in Virginia in 1862-1863, and, being compelled by ill health to resign from the army, was U.S. minister to the Papal States in 1863-1867.
Anderledy, a Swiss, who had seen service in the United States.
The prints are frequently to be found in two states, or editions.
Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states - the Serras dos Irmaos and Vermelha with Piauhy, the Serra do Araripe with Ceara., and the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Parahyba.
In 1817 Pernambuco was the scene of a revolutionary outbreak, which resulted in the separation of the present states of Alagoas and Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Parahyba having been detached in 1799.
From 1876 to 1881 he was superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point, and from 1888 until his retirement in 1895 he was commanding general of the United States army.
Some psychologists prefer to restrict the term to the narrower use which excludes all mental states in which particulars are cognized, even though the universal be present also.
Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States, but rarely fine enough for use in jewellery.
He was able to restore Roman authority in the major part of the papal states, and in 1398 put an end to the republican liberties of the city itself.
In accordance with the consistent policy of inclusion and toleration by which the whole of his official life was characterized, he induced the council to call the assembly of notables, which met at Fontainebleau in August 1560 and agreed that the States General should be summoned, all proceedings against heretics being meanwhile suppressed, pending the reformation of the church by a general or national council.
The States General met in December; the edict of Orleans (January 1561) followed, and finally, after the colloquy of Poissy, the edict of January 1562, the most liberal, except that of Nantes, ever obtained by the Protestants of France.
During his term of office he appeared in a case before the United States Supreme Court, where his knowledge of civil law so strongly impressed Edward Livingston, the secretary of state, who was himself an admirer of Roman Law, that he urged Legare to devote himself to the study of this subject with the hope that he might influence American law toward the spirit and philosophy and even the forms and processes of Roman jurisprudence.
He supported Harrison in the presidential campaign of 5840, and when the cabinet was reconstructed by Tyler in 1841, Legate was appointed attorneygeneral of the United States.
As attorney-general he argued the famous cases, the United States v.
The flag of the United States was raised over Santa Cruz in July 1846.
The first paper mill in the township was built in South Lee in 1806, and for a time more paper was made in Lee than in any other place in the United States; the Housatonic Mill in Lee was probably the first (1867) in the United States to manufacture paper from wood pulp.
The coming of the Norman ruled that these lands should be neither Saracen nor Greek, nor yet Italian in the same sense as northern Italy, but that they should politically belong to the same group of states as the kingdoms and principalities of feudal Europe.
Of the imports about 27% in value are from Great Britain, 14%% from Germany, and smaller proportions from France, Argentina, Italy, Spain, the United States and Belgium.
Indianapolis is near the centre of population of the United States.
The city is lighted by gas and electricity, - it was one of the first cities in the United States to adopt electric lighting, - and has a good watersupply system, owned by a private corporation, with a 41 acre filter plant of 18,000,000 gallons per diem capacity and an additional supply of water pumped from deep wells outside the city.
Near the city is the important United States army post, Fort Benjamin Harrison, named in honour of President Benjamin Harrison, whose home was in Indianapolis.
The cultivation of the soil is limited to local needs, except in the production of tobacco, which is exported to neighbouring states.
From this purest type of nobility, as seen in the aristocratic commonwealths, we may pass to nobility as seen in states of greater extent - that is, for the most part in monarchies.
In the modern states of western Europe the existing nobility seems to have for the most part had its origin in personal service to the prince.
In 1847 the American colonists declared their country to be an independent republic, and its status in this capacity was recognized in1848-1849by most of the great powers with the exception of the United States.
The type of the constitution is very like that of the United States.
The harbour is good and is enclosed at the south by several rugged islands, the largest being Perico and Flamenco (belonging to the United States) and Taboga (935 ft.), which is a place of country residence for wealthy citizens.
The water supply and drainage systems were introduced by the United States government, which controls the sanitation of the city, but has no other jurisdiction over it.
Small vessels may coal at Naos, an island in the Gulf of Panama, which is owned by the United States.
Bede states that Radwald was the son of Tytili, the son of Wuffa, from whom the East Anglian royal family derived their name Wuffingas.
Fabre states that the mother-insect carefully arranges the food-supply so that the most nutritious and easily digested portion is nearest the egg, to form the first meal of the young larva.
The Greeks were persuaded, thanks to St Bonaventura, to consent to a union with Rome for the time being, and Rudolph of Habsburg renounced at the council all imperial rights in the States of the Church.
It is certainly derived, through Rossiya, from Slavonic Rus or Ros (Byzantine `Pws or `Pc o-oc), a name first given to the Scandinavians who founded a principality on the Dnieper in the 9th century; and afterwards extended to the collection of Russian states of which this principality formed the nucleus.
As thus traced, the boundary in Central Asia includes the two khanates of Bokhara and Khiva, which, though nominally protected states, are to all intents and purposes integral parts of the Russian empire.<