Oh, what a terrible state he is in!
She came tearing upstairs a few minutes ago in a state of great excitement.
The state picked her up this morning.
She cowered into her hiding place, trying to breathe softly in spite of her state of panic.
For three weeks the old prince lay stricken by paralysis in the new house Prince Andrew had built at Bogucharovo, ever in the same state, getting neither better nor worse.
Prices too that day indicated the state of affairs.
Quinn's electronic equipment was updated to state of the art.
As for adopting the ways which the State has provided for remedying the evil, I know not of such ways.
At last they were allowed to go before him and state their business.
It costs me less in every sense to incur the penalty of disobedience to the State than it would to obey.
In the past, when the power of the state was absolute in many parts of the world, it was harder to argue that every person on the planet had rights no monarch or state could violate.
If a thousand men were not to pay their tax-bills this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State to commit violence and shed innocent blood.
To such the State renders comparatively small service, and a slight tax is wont to appear exorbitant, particularly if they are obliged to earn it by special labor with their hands.
Just at the time Prince Andrew was living unoccupied at Drissa, Shishkov, the Secretary of State and one of the chief representatives of this party, wrote a letter to the Emperor which Arakcheev and Balashev agreed to sign.
However, once we got going, I'm proud to state my future wife responded robustly, both physically and vocally.
My medication contributed to my comfort if not my state of mind.
This is the state of much of humanity.
Why do they not dissolve it themselves--the union between themselves and the State--and refuse to pay their quota into its treasury?
No, but Vermont is a small state so everything is relatively close.
It's difficult attaining this state but it is unbelievably clear once accomplished.
I saw that the State was half-witted, that it was timid as a lone woman with her silver spoons, and that it did not know its friends from its foes, and I lost all my remaining respect for it, and pitied it.
Looking at their boots he several times shook his head sadly, pointing them out to the Austrian general with an expression which seemed to say that he was not blaming anyone, but could not help noticing what a bad state of things it was.
Do you know what a dissociative fugue state is?
My relative definition of poverty is "the state of being unable to reliably purchase a bundle of goods that allow one to participate in the economic norms of one's society."
He expected these days to be his last, but he'd give the order to decimate the entire state if it meant humanity as a whole survived.
Timing was with her and she was able to take all the state exams shortly after graduating.
State game officials are involved as well.
It's an out of state plate!
The description of that vehicle is plastered at every toll booth, state police barracks and wire service from here to California and back.
Loreto Plaza Shopping Center up on State Street isn't a large ...
Pierre wished to say that he was ready to sacrifice his money, his serfs, or himself, only one ought to know the state of affairs in order to be able to improve it, but he was unable to speak.
He knew the state, the town, and what the problems were.
I passed out again but gradually, the pain in my left side and my throat brought me to a state of half-wakefulness.
Then out of the blue came the call from a sticky-sweet state worker informing the Deans that Martha would be picked up on Saturday morning—this was Thursday—for the introductory reunion.
In her confused state of mind, she had convinced herself that he loved her.
Though it isn't so much a time as a state of mind, historians plot the Renaissance as moving around Europe for a couple of centuries.
We alerted the state police down there and now that the FBI is excited, there are a lot more eyes looking for him.
If there were one who lived wholly without the use of money, the State itself would hesitate to demand it of him.
I know people think I'm crazy, but I'd like to keep the ranch as near its natural state as possible.
The Keene State College sounds cool too.
Confucius said, "If a state is governed by the principles of reason, poverty and misery are subjects of shame; if a state is not governed by the principles of reason, riches and honors are the subjects of shame."
Rostov dismounted, gave his horse to the orderly, and followed Alpatych to the house, questioning him as to the state of affairs.
Is no part of this god forsaken state level or the roads straight?
"Those state agency people never get excited," Dean said.
Most people would not term that welfare, which has become a loaded phrase associated with the state making a payment to individuals.
Seeing an out of state plate isn't unusual, especially on a vehicle designed for travel.
How long this state of things continued Dorothy could not even guess, she was so greatly bewildered.
The whole house was in a state of alarm and commotion.
These guys have state of the art equipment.
His ex-wife dragged the boy to another state and he never saw the lad again.
There sat the thorny Sorcerer in his chair of state, and when the Wizard saw him he began to laugh, uttering comical little chuckles.
Princess Ozma, dressed in her most splendid robes of state, sat in the magnificent emerald throne, with her jewelled sceptre in her hand and her sparkling coronet upon her fair brow.
The point is that it is now illegal in every state, with Louisiana being the last to outlaw it in 2008.
A member of the Hofkriegsrath from Vienna had come to Kutuzov the day before with proposals and demands for him to join up with the army of the Archduke Ferdinand and Mack, and Kutuzov, not considering this junction advisable, meant, among other arguments in support of his view, to show the Austrian general the wretched state in which the troops arrived from Russia.
"To tell you the truth, between ourselves, God only knows what state our left flank is in," said Boris confidentially lowering his voice.
But I am not talking about a state of affairs where overnight someone with a "machine job" gets unlimited wealth.
I did not see why the lyceum should not present its tax-bill, and have the State to back its demand, as well as the Church.
By the end of the second day, she had adapted to the guests and felt completely at ease - a state that Claudette apparently wanted to shatter.
In Howie's exhausted state, inducing him to sleep was not difficult.
The smallest state has lots of small people; delightful children everywhere, but alas, now there is one less.
Only Betsy was raised outside of New England and she easily bowed to our collective desires to remain within its six state bounds.
It met all our criteria; a stable employment, reasonably priced homes, a state college and a regional hospital.
A curse on the lot of them, especially the state of Texas where the roads never end.
Everything has its wonders, even darkness and silence, and I learn, whatever state I may be in, therein to be content.
Miss Sullivan never needlessly belittled her ideas or expressions to suit the supposed state of the child's intelligence.
I'm too nervous to stop in this horrid state where it never ceases raining.
His success convinced him that language can be conveyed through type to the mind of the blind-deaf child, who, before education, is in the state of the baby who has not learned to prattle; indeed, is in a much worse state, for the brain has grown in years without natural nourishment.
At the present time it is difficult to know the real state of French public opinion.
In a state of deep depression, she stopped by the social services office on the way home and picked up some literature and a form.
No longer can a person own another person and have the power of the state backing him up.
In the modern era, what we have seen around the world is a general increase in social services and the welfare state over time.
Some years ago, the State met me in behalf of the Church, and commanded me to pay a certain sum toward the support of a clergyman whose preaching my father attended, but never I myself.
In fact, I quietly declare war with the State, after my fashion, though I will still make what use and get what advantage of her I can, as is usual in such cases.
This brilliant company separated into several groups who all discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the position, the state of the army, the plans suggested, the situation of Moscow, and military questions generally.
All that was done around her and to her at this time, all the attention devoted to her by so many clever men and expressed in such pleasant, refined ways, and the state of dove-like purity she was now in (she wore only white dresses and white ribbons all that time) gave her pleasure, but her pleasure did not cause her for a moment to forget her aim.
We have an out of state rental car and no one could possibly recognize either of us.
Howie enrolled at Keene State College.
At least he could move around, in his dream state, while we were obligated to remain silent and unmoving.
You can expand on it if you want to; say get a driver's license in another state, or establish an address.
Now, a state park, the mountain remains a popular destination for one day hikers.
When those occasions arose, Betsy stepped in and tried to talk Howie into the state of relaxation he required.
Lake Erie sits north of Ohio for a long stretch so to get into Canada going east; he'd enter in New York State, around Niagara Falls.
I'm baffled and I don't travel well in the state of confusion.
There was no way I was going to brief Howie on all that had happened, how his living room is covered in blood and his house has been ransacked; not in his present state of mind.
I tried to recall the terms Quinn had quoted; dissociative fugue, fugue state, entirely different personality.
An important point to make here is this: Historically, the welfare state only emerges to solve problems that private charities either cannot or will not solve.
It makes me very happy to know that I have kind and loving friends in the far-away State of Maine.
Now there is one more fact, which I wish to state very plainly, in regard to what Mr. Gilman wrote to you.
When it was time for the church service to begin, she was in such a state of excitement that I thought it best to take her away; but Captain Keller said, "No, she will be all right."
She is able not only to distinguish with great accuracy the different undulations of the air and the vibrations of the floor made by various sounds and motions, and to recognize her friends and acquaintances the instant she touches their hands or clothing, but she also perceives the state of mind of those around her.
They were beans cheerfully returning to their wild and primitive state that I cultivated, and my hoe played the Ranz des Vaches for them.
The troops retired from Vilna for various complicated reasons of state, political and strategic.
The same evening that the prince gave his instructions to Alpatych, Dessalles, having asked to see Princess Mary, told her that, as the prince was not very well and was taking no steps to secure his safety, though from Prince Andrew's letter it was evident that to remain at Bald Hills might be dangerous, he respectfully advised her to send a letter by Alpatych to the Provincial Governor at Smolensk, asking him to let her know the state of affairs and the extent of the danger to which Bald Hills was exposed.
She wished to pray but did not dare to, dared not in her present state of mind address herself to God.
Owing to the present state of things Sophia Danilovna has gone to the Torzhok estate with the children, your excellency.
Makar Alexeevich, the brother of my late master--may the kingdom of heaven be his--has remained here, but he is in a weak state as you know, said the old servant.
Probably the word "gallant" turned the captain's thoughts to the state of Moscow.
I prefer not to cross state lines with my prizes, but Delaware is such a small state I'd left its boundary before I realized.
You should have seen the state of the mothers, wives, and children of the men who were going and should have heard the sobs.
"You think I'm an old man and don't understand the present state of affairs?" concluded his father.
Natasha was in a state of rapturous excitement such as she had not known for a long time.
They've got fifty agents going all over the state of Idaho looking for an old lady.
Dean felt equally acrimonious toward the overbearing state official whom he hadn't seen since the winter and who, in Dean's mind, had no business being back in Ouray.
The State of Colorado sent me over, seeing as there's no experienced under-sheriff or deputy.
"Maybe I'll call the state and see if I can get a number where we can reach Martha," Dean said as they put away the tools of their trade.
We talked to half the state of Colorado and got nowhere.
"Fitzgerald was a state guy over in Denver," Fred grumbled, as if reluctant to let go of his pet theory.
While Dean planned to again call the state agencies in an attempt to run down Martha, he didn't have to wait.
"Your message came up to the surface," the woman said after identifying herself as a state worker and named a department he didn't catch.
They were also concerned over yesterday's strange call, apparently from a state worker, asking if they'd heard from the girl.
While the Deans discussed contacting the state once more, both agreed another phone call would be as fruitless as earlier ones.
You could have the libertarian state, the green state, the clothing-optional state, the state with free public housing for all, the state where puns are outlawed, the state with a two-drink minimum, the fiercely pro-business state—even a state that guarantees free speech but requires that you sing your speech like a show tune.
It is a completely viable state, with a ski museum and a McDonald's.
Before describing the process of teaching Helen to speak, it may be well to state briefly to what extent she had used the vocal organs before she began to receive regular instruction in articulation.
Here again, I am unable to state where she acquired these expressions.
Let him who has work to do recollect that the object of clothing is, first, to retain the vital heat, and secondly, in this state of society, to cover nakedness, and he may judge how much of any necessary or important work may be accomplished without adding to his wardrobe.
In the savage state every family owns a shelter as good as the best, and sufficient for its coarser and simpler wants; but I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, though the birds of the air have their nests, and the foxes their holes, and the savages their wigwams, in modern civilized society not more than one half the families own a shelter.
The best works of art are the expression of man's struggle to free himself from this condition, but the effect of our art is merely to make this low state comfortable and that higher state to be forgotten.
To meet the objections of some inveterate cavillers, I may as well state, that if I dined out occasionally, as I always had done, and I trust shall have opportunities to do again, it was frequently to the detriment of my domestic arrangements.
Kieou-he-yu (great dignitary of the state of Wei) sent a man to Khoung-tseu to know his news.
In accumulating property for ourselves or our posterity, in founding a family or a state, or acquiring fame even, we are mortal; but in dealing with truth we are immortal, and need fear no change nor accident.
We have a comparatively decent system of common schools, schools for infants only; but excepting the half-starved Lyceum in the winter, and latterly the puny beginning of a library suggested by the State, no school for ourselves.
I confess, that practically speaking, when I have learned a man's real disposition, I have no hopes of changing it for the better or worse in this state of existence.
The village appeared to me a great news room; and on one side, to support it, as once at Redding & Company's on State Street, they kept nuts and raisins, or salt and meal and other groceries.
Though seen but once, it helps to wash out State Street and the engine's soot.
Under a high state of cultivation, being manured with the hearts and brains of men!
But the only true America is that country where you are at liberty to pursue such a mode of life as may enable you to do without these, and where the state does not endeavor to compel you to sustain the slavery and war and other superfluous expenses which directly or indirectly result from the use of such things.
I should be glad if all the meadows on the earth were left in a wild state, if that were the consequence of men's beginning to redeem themselves.
They gently did away with the street, and the village, and the state in which he lived.
I will just try these three sentences of Confut-see; they may fetch that state about again.
His words and attitude always suppose a better state of things than other men are acquainted with, and he will be the last man to be disappointed as the ages revolve.
I have noticed that a portion of Walden which in the state of water was green will often, when frozen, appear from the same point of view blue.
In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat-Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
Others, as most legislators, politicians, lawyers, ministers, and office-holders, serve the state chiefly with their heads; and, as they rarely make any moral distinctions, they are as likely to serve the devil, without intending it, as God.
A very few, as heroes, patriots, martyrs, reformers in the great sense, and men, serve the state with their consciences also, and so necessarily resist it for the most part; and they are commonly treated as enemies by it.
Some are petitioning the State to dissolve the Union, to disregard the requisitions of the President.
Do not they stand in the same relation to the State, that the State does to the Union?
And have not the same reasons prevented the State from resisting the Union, which have prevented them from resisting the State?
I simply wish to refuse allegiance to the State, to withdraw and stand aloof from it effectually.
"Oh, he is in a dreadful state," said the mother to her son when they were in the carriage.
"Permit me, Princess, to know what is necessary and what is not necessary," said the younger of the two speakers, evidently in the same state of excitement as when she had slammed the door of her room.
It was the state of the soldiers' boots.
Prince Andrew saw that the officer was in that state of senseless, tipsy rage when a man does not know what he is saying.
Though he thought of everything, considered everything, and did everything the best of officers could do in his position, he was in a state akin to feverish delirium or drunkenness.
"It was the officer, your honor, stained it," answered the artilleryman, wiping away the blood with his coat sleeve, as if apologizing for the state of his gun.
He had Pierre at hand in Moscow and procured for him an appointment as Gentleman of the Bedchamber, which at that time conferred the status of Councilor of State, and insisted on the young man accompanying him to Petersburg and staying at his house.
He was in a state of suppressed excitement and irritation, though controlledly calm as a man is at the approach of a long-awaited moment.
Most of the anecdotes, if not relating to the state service, related to people in the service.
And such a state of obligatory and irreproachable idleness is the lot of a whole class--the military.
What was new in them was a certain uneasiness and occasional discord, which there used not to be, and which, as Nicholas soon found out, was due to the bad state of their affairs.
And he went on to inquiries about the Grand Duke and the state of his health, and to reminiscences of the gay and amusing times he had spent with him in Naples.
Napoleon was in that state of irritability in which a man has to talk, talk, and talk, merely to convince himself that he is in the right.
To clear up this last point for himself, Prince Andrew, utilizing his position and acquaintances, tried to fathom the character of the control of the army and of the men and parties engaged in it, and he deduced for himself the following of the state of affairs.
This view was very general in the upper army circles and found support also in Petersburg and from the chancellor, Rumyantsev, who, for other reasons of state, was in favor of peace.
Her presentiment at the time had not deceived her--that that state of freedom and readiness for any enjoyment would not return again.
After the last two days spent in solitude and unusual circumstances, Pierre was in a state bordering on insanity.
The unaccustomed coarse food, the vodka he drank during those days, the absence of wine and cigars, his dirty unchanged linen, two almost sleepless nights passed on a short sofa without bedding--all this kept him in a state of excitement bordering on insanity.
Perhaps it's the state of affairs?
His feverish state and the inflammation of his bowels, which were injured, were in the doctor's opinion sure to carry him off.
But Prince Andrew's mind was not in a normal state in that respect.
The Empress Elisabeth, however, when asked what instructions she would be pleased to give--with her characteristic Russian patriotism had replied that she could give no directions about state institutions for that was the affair of the sovereign, but as far as she personally was concerned she would be the last to quit Petersburg.
In this letter the countess also mentioned that Prince Andrew was among the wounded traveling with them; his state was very critical, but the doctor said there was now more hope.
He was in a state of physical suffering as if from corporal punishment, and could not avoid expressing it by cries of anger and distress.
He was awaiting Petya's return in a state of agitation, anxiety, and self-reproach for having let him go.
In such a state of affairs, whatever your ultimate plans may be, the interest of Your Majesty's service demands that the army should be rallied at Smolensk and should first of all be freed from ineffectives, such as dismounted cavalry, unnecessary baggage, and artillery material that is no longer in proportion to the present forces.
But in January Savelich came from Moscow and gave him an account of the state of things there, and spoke of the estimate an architect had made of the cost of rebuilding the town and country houses, speaking of this as of a settled matter.
The countess is in a dreadful state; but it was necessary for Natasha herself to see a doctor.
I had no idea and could not imagine what state he was in, all I wanted was to see him and be with him, she said, trembling, and breathing quickly.
The state of the count's affairs became quite obvious a month after his death, surprising everyone by the immense total of small debts the existence of which no one had suspected.
Denisov, now a general on the retired list and much dissatisfied with the present state of affairs, had arrived during that fortnight.
The science of jurisprudence regards the state and power as the ancients regarded fire--namely, as something existing absolutely.
Pierre's mind was in such a confused state that the word "stroke" suggested to him a blow from something.
We all liked New England but Quinn in particular, despised the high taxes of his home state.
The city of twenty-five thousand was located in the south western part of the state.
No sound disturbed Howie and with Martha able to use her special hypnotic-like tone, little time was wasted inducing Howie's sleep state.
When the dust settles, he can probably get on staff at Keene State.
If this Vermont attempted abduction is his work, he re-entered the United States in that state.
Problem is, it's a big state.
At the expense of sounding immodest, I must say I am one of those who can attain this state.
More tears came as she realized she couldn't do anything for herself let alone Jonny if they kept her in such a state.
Most everyone has been evac'd by the state.
Jule was beginning to think death was better than his weakened state.
According to the brief phone call, the ten-year-old girl's natural mother, another loser like faux foster mother Janet, had been recently discharged to a halfway house after doing hard time in the state's Cañon City facility.
Legally, in the state's eyes, we're not even a party to the proceedings.
Was Mrs. What's-her-name from the state?
I can't tote supposition to the state authorities—I'd be laughed out of Denver.
They released Patsy and the state took her daughter to try reuniting them.
So will you, trying to mush through the state's bureaucratic swamp.
"Someone from the state picked Martha up last Saturday," Dean said tersely.
And how could the state be so stupid to let it happen?
No. I heard the state guys talking.
That's across state lines—upsets the Feds.
I'm giving our friends from the state a tour.
I'm a witness in his car and the state guys were in Lydia's vehicle.
There was another phone call from the state authorities as Jennifer was leaving.
He claimed to have been picked up by Patsy Boyd while hitchhiking down state.
That was a stupid thing the state did, putting her back with her mother so quickly.
Each time the phone rang, Cynthia flinched, fearing some state minion was calling to drag Martha back to his lair in the dungeons of officialdom.
He couldn't help but remember her agitated state of mind after learning of Fitzgerald's death.
Without one, she had existed in a state of sentience without feeling, a world of permanent grey.
As soon as Lori was able, she signed the adoption papers and left the state with her sister.
If this had been a pre-Katie battle, he.d have wiped out the state.
They appeared more reasonable in his current state.
He licked and nipped her lips, explored her mouth, and pulled her deeper and deeper into a state of compliance.
The dust emitted from mining the ore was poisonous in its raw state.
A number of cars carried out of state license plates.
Or the state boys?
My baby stirred within me today and were I not so bundled in winter garb the few times when I venture out, surely all the wagging tongues in town would know of my maternal state.
That's the Colorado Bureau of Investigation, the State cops.
The state boys are real interested in this.
The state boys figure I'm too close to you to be what somebody calls 'objective'.
Two unmarked State cars were parked in front of Bird Song, along with, to Dean's surprise, Edith's rental car and Donald Ryland's Explorer.
You're sure number one with them State guys.
Besides, you don't report to Corday or those guys—he's State, you're County.
Your wife's the only other suspect in the eyes of the State boys.
Don't let these state guys get you down.
Though he harbored no regrets in declining her invitation to sex, he knew he could and should have handled so obviously unstable a person in such a mental state far better than he did.
While he fancied himself at least an experimental, if not good cook, in his present state of mind he found himself reverting to bachelor days of quick-is-best.
She did want to use the bags first, and if Jackson hadn't been in this state, he would be getting a shrill earful for feeding from the bottles.
The rest of the chickens were flogging all over the tiny coop, bouncing off the walls in a state of panic.
Apparently he mistook her breathless state as an indication of passion.
Your little Texas stud had better stay out of my life or I'll make him wish he'd never set foot in this state.
He was with Carmen almost every minute he was in the state.
There was no electricity in this part of the state, and looters would've likely taken everything.
Then again, in his battered state, the last thing he wanted was to see how angry she still was for his betrayal.
Hated the hot and stickies of Norfolk weather and was always after me to transfer him back to Scranton—fat chance of that—or to some bread-basket state out west.
"It depends on the state law and on the circumstances," she replied.
He thought he was still in Pennsylvania—he hadn't seen a sign welcoming him to another state.
Like I told you, when the twins found out half the state was after their ass, they laid low—for a long time, couple of months.
I-84. We got off at an exit for a state park.
There's a State Police Barracks somewhere along that Interstate.
Earlier he'd signed up to take his July vacation in Iowa, biking the 400 miles across that state on a seven-day bike tour known as "RAGBRAI," named for the sponsoring Des Moines Register newspaper.
The FBI had put out a statement they were handling the Wasserman case and pursuing strong leads out of state.
We leave for State College in the morning.
According to the Sentinel, Parkside had won the divisional baseball title, thanks heavily to Randy, so she should be home from State College.
Everyone in New Jersey was traveling to Pennsylvania while all the folks in the Keystone state were spending their weekend on the Jersey shore.
Aside from a wasted 20 minutes searching for gas in New Brunswick and a missed exit on the Garden State Parkway, the trip was uneventful.
Colorado is a big state.
His interest seemed to increase when she clutched the sheets to conceal her state of undress.
By the time he came in for supper, she had worked herself into a nervous state.
Less than fifteen minutes later, a state trooper car pulled into the yard.
Carmen left the room in a state of shock.
She left the hospital and the state the same day.
Jenn turned woodenly, the world around her making no sense in her state.
She'd watched him go from a near-comatose state, through his teenager stage that nearly drove them all mad, to the gym-obsessed warrior trying to understand his place in the world.
If her answer had been no, he would have again put her in a position where she would be to blame for Jonathan's state of unhappiness.
He's already an important figure in the state of California.
Solitude in the Natural State.
They call it the Natural State, you know.
It was pretty bad when the only way to prevent her father from interfering in her life was leaving the state.
Could she get a job in a state where the name O'Hara blended in with all the others?
Denton wasn't nearly as unhappy as he was going to be when he found out she was skipping the state.
But he had no idea she was planning to leave the state - and she had no intention of telling him.
No, Denton didn't know she was leaving the state.
After thirty minutes she spotted the sign indicating the state highway where she was supposed to turn.
The narrow state highway stretched like a black ribbon through the forested hills.
Why didn't he simply state his purpose?
When Justin announced that he would be out of the state for a few days on business, she wondered if he was actually going back to talk to her father.
His hair was mussed, and his state of dress – T-shirt and pajama pants – indicated he'd just woken up.
His hands moved over her body possessively, his hot kisses on her lips and skin working her into a frenzied state of desire unlike anything she'd felt before.
She didn't know where she was, not even what state.
The city also contains numerous excellent educational establishments, although the state university is not here but at Tubingen, and its conservatorium of music has long been renowned.
In 1734 he was appointed under-secretary of state, and he soon gained a position of great personal influence with George II.
The duke of Dorset's reappointment to the lord-lieutenancy in 1751, with his son Lord George Sackville as secretary of state for Ireland, strengthened the primate's position and enabled him to triumph over the popular party on the constitutional question as to the right of the Irish House of Commons to dispose of surplus Irish revenue, which the government maintained was the property of the Crown.
In February 1532 he protested against all acts concerning the church passed by the parliament which met in 1529, but this did not prevent the important proceedings which secured the complete submission of the church to the state later in the same year.
By his exposition of the political history of the kingdom, based on a study of its laws and institutions and of the legal conflicts between the state and the court of Rome, Pietro Giannone was the initiator of what has been since known as civil history.
It is the chief health resort of the state, and its climate is one of the finest in Australia; it has a mean annual temperature of 58.6° F., and the summer heat is never excessive.
In the massive state it has a colour resembling polished iron, and is malleable and very tough.
It is permanent in dry air, but in the finely divided state it rapidly combines with oxygen, the compact metal requiring a strong heating to bring about this combination.
On heating in hydrogen, ammonia or carbon monoxide, or with carbon or sodium, it is reduced to the metallic state.
Cobalt dioxide, Co02, has not yet been isolated in the pure state; it is probably formed when iodine and caustic soda are added to a solution of a cobaltous salt.
Cobalt chloride, CoC1 2, in the anhydrous state, is formed by burning the metal in chlorine or by heating the sulphide in a current of the same gas.
It is a black amorphous powder soluble in concentrated sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, and when in the moist state readily oxidizes on exposure.
By this time, however, the state of things in the Ukraine was so alarming that the new king had to hasten to the front.
BARWANI, a native state of India, in the Bhopawar agency in central India.
In great state the tribune moved through the streets of Rome, being received at St Peter's with the hymn Veni Creator Spiritus, while in a letter the poet Petrarch urged him to continue his great and noble work, and congratulated him on his past achievements, calling him the new Camillus, Brutus and Romulus.
Early in 1443 the college was opened by Chicheley with four bishops in state.
At Delaware, also, are the state industrial school for girls, a Carnegie library, the Edwards Young Men's Christian Association building and a city hospital.
For his secretary of state he chose James G.
He held that every fermentation consisted of molecular motion which is transmitted from a substance in a state of chemical motion - that is, of decomposition - to other substances, the elements of which are loosely held together.
Hansen set himself the task of studying the properties of the varieties of yeast, and to do this he had to cultivate each variety in a pure state.
Notwithstanding the offices he had filled he died poor, and provision had to be made for his daughter out of the funds of the state.
Christian approved a plan by which a formal state church should be established in Denmark, all appeals to Rome should be abolished, and the king and diet should have final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical causes.
The transition from blue to orange or red at sunset is usually through green, but exceptional conditions may easily disturb the normal state of things.
Some members of this order spend the winter in the adult state, others in the " larval " or " pupal " condition.
Escaping to South America in 1836, he was given letters of marque by the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which had revolted against Brazil.
Rattazzi, frightened at the prospect of an attack upon Rome, proclaimed a state of siege in Sicily, sent the fleet to Messina, and instructed Cialdini to oppose Garibaldi.
displaced by the sphere, and assumes a statical state of conditions and that the conductor itself exerts no disturbing influence.
In the steady state the number, n, of ions of either sign per cc. is given by n=-Vg/a, and so is independent of the pressure or the height.
In New York State, where the population is largely industrial, the annual deaths per million are only three, but of the agricultural population eleven.
Many instances are on record of symptoms of poisoning, and even death, having followed the consumption of plants which have passed as true mushrooms; these cases have probably arisen from the examples consumed being in a state of decay, or from some mistake as to the species eaten.
The principal things to be attended to are to preserve a moderate state of moisture and a proper mild degree of warmth; and the treatment must vary according to the season.
It should then be thrown together in ridges and frequently turned, so as to be kept in an incipient state of fermentation, a little dryish friable loam being mixed with it to retain the ammonia given off by the dung.
This fungus, Marasmius Oreades, is more universally used in France and Italy than in England, although it is well known and frequently used both in a fresh and in a dry state in England.
It is bounded on the north-west by Ohio, from which it is separated by the Ohio river, on the north by Pennsylvania and Maryland, the Potomac river dividing it from the latter state; on the east and south-east by Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, the boundary lines in the first two cases being meridians, in the last case a very irregular line following the crest of mountain ridges in places; and on the south-west by Virginia and Kentucky, the Big Sandy river separating it from the latter state.
The extreme length of the state from north to south is about 240 m., the extreme breadth from east to west about 265 m.
The state is divided into two distinct physiographic provinces; the Alleghany Plateau on the west, comprising perhaps two-thirds of the area of the state, and forming a part of the great Appalachian Plateau Province which extends from New York to Alabama; and the Newer Appalachians or Great Valley Region on the east, being a part of the large province of the same name which extends from Canada to Central Alabama.
Along the flood-plains of the larger rivers are fertile " bottomlands," but the ruggedness of the plateau country as a whole has retarded the development of the state, much of which is still sparsely populated.
The coal beds are of enormous extent, and constitute an important element in the wealth of the state.
Among the most important trees of this area are the white and chestnut oaks, the black walnut, the yellow poplar, and the cherry, the southern portion of the state containing the largest reserve supply.
Other trees common in the state are the persimmon, sassafras, and, in the Ohio Valley region, the sycamore.
Inasmuch as the state has a range of over 4000 ft.
- The state is primarily agricultural.
Tobacco is grown throughout the state; in 1909 on 12,000 acres was grown a crop of 12,000,000 lb, valued at $1,663,200.
Stock-raising is an important industry, especially in the eastern part of the state.
- The state's great mineral wealth is in coals of various kinds, petroleum, and natural gas.
The principal districts are the Fairmont (or Upper Monongahela) and the Elk Garden (or Upper Potomac) in the northern, and the Pocahontas (or Flat Top) and the New and Kanawha rivers districts in the southern part of the state.
Petroleum ranks second to coal among the state's mineral resources.
A successful well in Marion county, near Mannington, far from the region of the earlier wells, was drilled in 1889, and the output of the state increased from 119,448 bbls.
Much of the natural gas is piped out of the state into Ohio (even into the northern parts), Kentucky, Pennsylvania and Maryland; within the state gas has been utilized as a fuel in carbon black and glass factories.
Iron ore is found in the state in the coal hills (especially Laurel Hills and Beaver Lick Mountain), but the deposits have not been worked on a large scale.
Pig iron is manufactured cheaply because of the low price of fuel; in 1907 the value of pig iron manufactured in the state was $6,454,000.
There are deposits of excellent clay, especially for pottery, and in 1907 ($2,159,132) and 1908 ($2,083,821) the state ranked after Ohio and New Jersey in the value of pottery.
Manufacturing is largely localized in the northwestern part of the state along the Ohio river.
Next in importance among the state's manufactures are lumber and timber, and flour and grist mills.
The tanning, currying and finishing of leather, an industry largely dependent on the plentiful supply of oak and hemlock bark for tanning, is centralized in the northern and eastern parts of the state, near the forests.
The glass industry began in Wheeling in 1821, and there a process was discovered by which in 1864 for soda ash bicarbonate of lime was substituted, and a lime glass was made which was as fine as lead glass; other factors contributing to the localization of the manufacture of glass here are the fine glass sand obtained in the state and the plentiful supply of natural gas for fuel Transportation and Commerce.
Railway development in West Virginia has been due largely to the exploitation of the coal and lumber resources of the state.
The Baltimore & Ohio railway leads in trackage: it enters the state with several lines at its northern end; its main line crosses this portion of the state from east to west, striking the Ohio at Parkersburg, and one of its lines (Ohio River railway) extends nearly the length of the state from Wheeling in the north through Parkersburg to Kenova in the south.
Natural facilities for transportation, afforded by the Ohio river and its branches, the Monongahela, at the northern end of the state, and the Little Kanawha and the Great Kanawha, are of special value for the shipment of lumber and coal.
In 1906 there were in the state 301,565 members of religious denominations, of whom 86.2% were Protestants.
The principal cities of the state are Wheeling, Huntington, Parkersburg, Charleston (the capital), Martinsburg, Fairmont and Grafton.
All male citizens above twenty-one years of age have the right of suffrage, subject to a residence of one year in the state and sixty days in the county in which they offer to vote.
a resident of the state by reason of being stationed therein.
A senator must be twenty-five years of age, and must have been a citizen of the state for five years and a resident of the district for one year preceding his election.
No person holding a lucrative office under the state or the United States, no salaried officer of a railroad company, and no officer of any court of record is eligible for membership in either house.
In order to relieve the circuit judges the legislature has established by special acts inferior courts, generally with criminal jurisdiction only, in nine counties of the state.
These are all under the supervision of a state board of control of three members, appointed by the governor, which was created in 1909, and also has control of the finances of the state educational system.
The West Virginia Colored Orphans' Home near Huntington is not under state control, but has received appropriations from the legislature.
The state supervision is vested in a state superintendent, who is elected for a term of four years.
A state board of education, consisting of the state superintendent and five other persons appointed by him, constitutes a state board of examiners (for special primary, high school and professional certificates) and prescribes the course of study.
There is also a state school book commission, consisting of the state superintendent and eight other members appointed by the governor.
They are governed by a board of regents consisting of the state superintendent and six other members appointed by the governor.
The state revenue is derived mainly from a general property tax, licence taxes levied on various businesses and occupations, a collateral inheritance tax and a capitation tax.
Social conditions in western Virginia were entirely unlike those existing in the eastern portion of the state.
The rugged nature of the country made slavery unprofitable, and time only increased the social, political and economic differences between the two sections of the state.
Here it is sufficient to say that only nine of the forty-six delegates from the present state of West Virginia voted to secede.
Some delegates favoured the immediate formation of a new state, but the more far-sighted members argued that as the ordinance had not yet been voted upon by the people, and Virginia was still in the Union, such action would be revolutionary, since the United States Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent.
The legislature, composed of the members from the western counties who had been elected on the 23rd of May and some of the holdover senators who had been elected in 1859, met at Wheeling on the 1st of July, filled the remainder of the state offices, organized a state government and elected two United States senators who were recognized at Washington.
Next the legislature of the " Reorganized " government on the 13th of May gave its consent to the formation of the new state.
Application for admission to the Union was now made to Congress, and on the 31st of December 186 2 an enabling act was approved by President Lincoln admitting the state on the condition that a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery be inserted in the Constitution.
The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner.
Imboden, with s000 Confederates, overran a considerable portion of the state.
The state furnished about 36,000 soldiers to the Federal armies and somewhat less than io,000 to the Confederate.
The absence in the army of the Confederate sympathizers helps to explain the small vote against the formation of the new state.
Though the first constitution provided for the assumption of a part of the Virginia debt, negotiations opened by Virginia in 1870 were fruitless, and in 1871 that state funded two-thirds of the debt and arbitrarily assigned the remainder to West Virginia.
The state rejected decisively the overtures made by Virginia in 1866, looking towards a reunion of the commonwealths.
Summers, The Mountain State (ibid.
in state at the college, where he passed the night, and in July 1483 he received Richard III.
there in even greater state, when Master William Grocyn, "the Grecian," a fellow of New College, "responded," in divinity.
He was chosen first governor of the state of New Jersey in 1776, and was regularly re-elected until his death in 1790.
Loyal to American interests and devoted to General Washington, he was one of the most useful of the state executives during the War of Independence.
He was a member of the New York Assembly in 1759-1769, a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 until his death and as such a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and in1777-1778was a member of the first state senate.
In China at the present day many Taoist gods are (or are given out as) men deified for service to the state.
MATTO GROSSO, an inland state of Brazil, bounded N.
The greater part of the state belongs to the western extension of the Brazilian plateau, across which, between the 14th and 16th parallels, runs the water-shed which separates the drainage basins of the Amazon and La Plata.
The general elevation in the south part of the state is much lower, and large areas bordering the Paraguay are swampy, partially submerged plains which the sluggish rivers are unable to drain.
The lowland elevations in this part of the state range from 300 to 400 ft.
The resources of Matto Grosso are practically undeveloped, owing to the isolated situation of the state, the costs of transportation and the small population.
The forest products of the state include fine woods, rubber, ipecacuanha, sarsaparilla, jaborandi, vanilla and copaiba.
The capital of the state is Cuyaba., and the chief commercial town is Corumbá at the head of navigation for the larger river boats, and 1986 m.
The primary and secondary schools of the town are excellent, and there is a small training college for state teachers.
In 1677 he was appointed interim viceroy of Sicily, counsellor of state and archbishop of Toledo.
The understanding between Hastings and Francis, originating in this state of affairs, was for a short period extended to general policy.
In 1900 the value of the factory products was $4,691,779; in 1905 it was $5,900,129, the city ranking third among the cities of the state in value of factory products.
At the general elections of 1881 after the fall of the Ferry cabinet he was returned to the chamber on a programme which included the separation of Church and State, a policy of decentralization, and the imposition of an income-tax.
In his initial declaration to the chamber the new premier had declared his intention of continuing the policy of the late cabinet, pledging the new ministry to a policy of conciliation, to the consideration of old age pensions, an income-tax, separation of Church and State.
corner of the state, and about 20 m.
part of the Cape and the neighbouring regions of Basutoland and Orange Free State, presents a pleasing appearance.
The river, here the boundary between the Cape province and Orange Free State, is crossed by a stone bridge 860 ft.
Two-fifths of the land belongs to the state, and two-fifths more to the various communes; the remaining fifth is minutely subdivided among a large number of small proprietors, many of whom have been expropriated from inability to pay the taxes, which, considering the low value of the land, are too heavy; while the state is unable to let a large proportion of its lands.
The higher regions produce cork trees, oaks, pines, chestnuts, &c., but the forests have been largely destroyed by speculators, who burned the trees for charcoal and potash, purchasing them on a large scale from the state.
In 1865, however, it was suppressed, and one half of the beni ademprivili was assigned to the state, the other half being given to the communes, with the obligation of compensating those who claimed rights over these lands.
When the island passed to Savoy, in 1720, the mines passed to the state.
In 1840 the freedom of mining was introduced, 2 By the law of 1906 the state has not assumed the responsibility of the construction of reservoirs for irrigation.
the state giving perpetual concessions in return for 3% of the gross production.
The only place where obsidian is known to be found in Sardinia in a natural state is the Punta Trebina, a mountain south-east of Oristano.
A branch from this road ran to Olbia (followed closely by the modern highroad and railway also), and was perhaps the main line of communication, though the itineraries state that the road from Carales to Olbia ran through the centre of the island by Biora, Valentia, Sorabile (near Fonni) and Caput Thyrsi.
In 1717, however, Cardinal Alberoni retook Cagliari for Spain; but this state of things was short-lived, for in 1720, by the treaty of London, Sardinia passed in exchange for Sicily to the dukes of Savoy, to whom it brought the royal title.
He was afterwards appointed the prince's envoy at Paris, where he remained till the decree of Napoleon, forbidding all persons born on the left side of the Rhine to serve any other state than France, compelled him to resign his office (IS'I).
From 1816 to 1818 he was Luxemburg envoy at the German diet, but was recalled, at the instance of Metternich, owing to his too independent advocacy of state constitutions.
In 1830 and 1831 he took part in the Dutch campaign in Belgium, and in 1844, after being promoted to the rank of general, was sent on an important mission to the Dutch East Indies to inquire into the state of their military defences.
On the 15th of December, when Schmerling and the Austrian members had left the cabinet, Gagern became head of the imperial ministry, and on the 18th he introduced a programme (known as the Gagernsche Programm) according to which Austria was to be excluded from the new federal state, but bound to it by a treaty of union.
Up to 1848 he was a government official in Nassau; in that year he became a member of the German national parliament and undersecretary of state for foreign affairs.
No one now questions the profound distinction that exists between the two powers, spiritual and temporal, between the church and the state.
For the purposes of a concordat the state recognizes the official status of the church and of its ministers and tribunals; guarantees it certain privileges; and sometimes binds itself to secure for it subsidies representing compensation for past spoliations.
Whatever the obligations of the state towards the ecclesiastical society may be in pure theory, in practice they become more precise and stable when they assume the nature of a bilateral convention by which the state engages itself with regard to a third party.
The rupture of the concordat at once terminates the obligations which resulted from it on both sides; but it does not break off all relation between the church and the state, since the two societies continue to coexist on the same territory.
In the first place is the official recognition by the state of the Catholic religion 1 These are arranged under thirty-five distinct heads in Nussi's Quinquaginta conventiones de rebus ecclesiasticis (Rome, 1869).
Sometimes the Catholic religion is declared to be the state religion, and at least the free and public exercise of its worship is guaranteed.
It must be observed that the denunciation of a concordat by a nation does not necessarily entail the separation of the church and the state in that country or the rupture of diplomatic relations with Rome.
On the relations between the church and the state in various countries see Vering, Kirchenrecht, §§ 30-53.
It is the seat of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station and of Hobart College (nonsectarian), which was first planned in 1812, was founded in 1822 (the majority of its incorporators being members of the Protestant Episcopal church) as successor to Geneva Academy, received a full charter as Geneva College in 1825, and was renamed Hobart Free College in 1852 and Hobart College in 1860, in honour of Bishop John Henry Hobart.
It contained many and terrible truths as to the royal refusal to sanction the decrees and as to the king's position in the state; but it was inconsistent with a minister's position, disrespectful if not insolent in tone.
On the resignation of this parliament he became a member of the council of state named in the "Instrument."
He was, however, elected on the council of state, and was the only Presbyterian in it; he was at once accused by Scot, along with Whitelocke, of corresponding with Hyde.
Upon the restoration of the parliament on the 26th of December Cooper was one of the commissioners to command the army, and on the 2nd of January was made one of the new council of state.
On the 25th of March he made a striking speech upon the state of the nation, especially upon the dangers to Protestantism and the misgovernment of Scotland and Ireland.
of the state once in dispute between Pennsylvania and Connecticut.
But a few of the settlers under the lead of Colonel John Franklin (1749-1831) attempted to form a separate state government.
Franklin was seized and imprisoned, under a warrant from the State Supreme Court.
He lived in Rome thenceforth in great state.
"The law of the State is binding law," was the principle which Samuel enunciated, here carrying to its logical outcome the admonition of Jeremiah.
The greater part of the district consists of state land, the cultivators being tenants of government, but there is a certain amount of hereditary freehold.
CUMANA, a city and port of Venezuela, capital of the state of Bermudez, situated on the Manzanares river about i m.
Here in 1806 the remains of Nelson lay in state before their burial in St Paul's Cathedral.
It may not be used except when actually ordered in the sentence, and must be of a pattern approved by a secretary of state.
torquata of India is probably based on cats of this type which have reverted to the wild state.
LOHARU, a native state of India, in the south-east corner of the Punjab, between Hissar district and Rajputana.
If the king were a minor, the mayor of the palace supervised his education in the capacity of guardian (nutricius), and often also occupied himself with affairs of state.
When the duke of Orleans became regent (1715) Dubois, who had for some years acted as his secretary, was made councillor of state, and the chief power passed gradually into his hands.
His residence in the Netherlands fell in the most prosperous and brilliant days of the Dutch state, under the stadtholdership of Frederick Henry (1625-1647).
The first law affirms that every body, so far as it is altogether unaffected by extraneous causes, always perseveres in the same state of motion or of rest; and the second law that simple or elementary motion is always in a straight line.'
But the Cartesian theory, like the later speculations of Kant and Laplace, proposes to give a hypothetical explanation of the circumstances and motions which in the normal course of things led to the state of things required by the law of attraction.
In such a state of despair and destitution there is no hope for spiritualism, save in God; and Clauberg, Geulincx and Malebranche all take refuge under the shadow of his wings to escape the tyranny of extended matter.
Thereupon the power of church and state enforced by positive enactments the passive resistance of old institutions to the novel theories.
The Roman emperors recognized it as a free state, and in the middle ages it was called Stampalia, and belonged to the noble Venetian family of Quirini.
part of the state, about 19 m.
From this time onwards his life was one of incessant toil; he was continually engaged in the active service of his order, was frequently travelling upon long and tedious journeys, and was constantly consulted on affairs of state by the reigning pontiff.
In 1271 he was again in Paris, lecturing to the students, managing the affairs of the church and consulted by the king, Louis VIII., his kinsman, on affairs of state.
Ansonia, Derby and Shelton form one of the most important industrial communities in the state.
Nothing could now retard the natural advance of the young Russian state towards the east and the south-east.
Not long after, however, when Ephialtes fell by the dagger, Pericles undoubtedly assumed the leading position in the state.
His chief innovation was the introduction of payment from the public treasury for state service.
His chief enactments relate to the payment of citizens for State service.
Helium alone refuses to be absorbed, and it can be pumped off from the charcoal in a state of absolute purity.
(2) This private connexion developed into a custom according to which a state appointed one of the citizens of a foreign state as its representative (7rpo Evos) to protect any of its citizens travelling or resident in his country.
Prytaneis) is generally applied specially to those who, after the abolition of absolute monarchy, held the chief office in the state.
- On the Prytaneum as the centre of an ancient state see article Fire, and references in a paper (s.v.) by Frazer (Journal of Philology, 1885, xiv.
He wore on occasions of state the Persian dress.
Laristan remained an independent state under a Turkish ruler until 1602, when Shah Ibrahim Khan was deposed and put to death by Shah `Abbas the Great.
(1617); a lunatic asylum; the Van Renswoude orphanage, the theatre, a school of design, the powder magazine and the state arsenal, originally a warehouse of the East India Company, and now used as a manufactory of artillery stores.
Birmingham, situated in an immensely rich iron, coal and limestone region, is the principal manufacturing centre in the state, and the most important centre for the production and manufacture of iron in the southern states.
In 1900 the Birmingham district produced six-sevenths of the total pig iron exported from the United States, and in 1902 nine-tenths of Alabama's coal, coke and pig iron; in 1905 Jefferson county produced 67.5% of the total iron and steel product of the state, and 62.5% of the pig iron produced by the state.
ALLEPPI, or Aulapalay, a seaport of southern India, in the state of Travancore, 33 m.
Though the third town in the state in point of population, Alleppi is the first in commercial importance.
In 1880 Prenk was kidnapped by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Anatolia; another member of the ruling family was appointed kaimakam, but the Mirdites refused to obey him, and their district has ever since been in a state of anarchy.
(6,7) The Malsia-Lezhs, who occupy the Alessio highlands, and the Malsia Krues, who inhabit the region north of Kroia, live in a state of extreme poverty and pay no tribute; the Malsia Krues are much addicted to brigandage.
Alkalis decompose it into picro-podophyllic acid and picro-podophyllin, minute traces of both of which occur in a free state in the rhizome.
BOLIVAR, an inland state of Venezuela, lying S.
Frequent political changes in Venezuela have led to various modifications in the size and outlines of this state, which comprises large areas of uninhabited territory.
In truth the new movement of religious thought and feeling which started from the fall of the Hebrew state took two distinct lines, of which Ezekiel and the anonymous 3 G.
The table given below will be useful in calculating the size of the radiating surface necessary to raise the temperature to the extent required when the external air is at freezing point (32° Fahr.): - At the city of Lockport in New York state, America, an interesting example of the direct app of Lockport.
CAPE COMORIN, a headland in the state of Travancore, forming the extreme southern point of the peninsula of India.
The more one considers the condition of science at the time, and the state of the country in which the discovery took place, the more wonderful does the invention of logarithms appear.
Napier lived, too, not only in a wild country, which was in a lawless and unsettled state during most of his life, but also in a credulous and superstitious age.
As the deed was not destroyed, but is in existence now, it is to be presumed that the terms of it were, riot fulfilled; but the fact that such a contract should have been drawn up by Napier himself affords a singular illustration of the state of society and the kind of events in the midst of which logarithms had their birth.
Finding them in a neglected state, amongst my family papers, I have bound them together, in order to preserve them entire.-Napier, 7th March 1801."
The State Capitol, built of native granite and marble (1887-1895, cost $2,500,000), is an imposing building.
The value of the factory product for 1905, however, was 3.3% less than that for 1900, though it represented 36.6% of the product of the state as a whole.
In 1868 Denver became the capital, but feeling in the southern counties was then so strong against Denver that provision was made for a popular vote on the situation of the capital five years after Colorado should become a state.
The constitution of the state was framed by a convention that sat at Denver from December 1875 to March 1876.
The lawfulness of Church Establishments with due qualifications is perhaps generally recognized in theory, but there is a growing tendency to regard connexion with the state as inexpedient, if not actually contrary to sound Presbyterian principle.
Those who favour state connexion and those who oppose it agree in claiming spiritual independence as a fundamental principle of Presbyterianism.
That principle is Spiritual in- equally opposed to Erastianism and to Papacy, to the civil power dominating the Church, and to the ecclesiastical power dominating the state.
With regard to the relations between the Church and the civil power, Calvin was opposed to the Zwinglian theory whereby all ecclesiastical power was handed over to the state.
They were the bond of union between Church and state.
The state retained control of the ecclesiastical organization, and Calvin secured his much-needed system of discipline.
Over all was the central provincial council consisting of the two senior ministers and fifteen members nominated by the state in the first instance.
In 1574 the first provincial synod of Holland and Zealand was held, but William of Orange would not allow any action to be taken independently of the state.
The Reformed churches had established themselves in independence of the state when that state was Catholic; when the government became Protestant the Church had protection and at the same time became dependent.
It was a state church.
Its main features were strictly Presbyterian, but the minister was greatly superior to the elder, and the state had wide powers especially in the nomination of higher officers.
Since the state endowment ceased the average income of ministers from their congregations has considerably increased.
Presbyterians of different churches in the United States in 1906 numbered 1,830,555; of this total 322,542 were in Pennsylvania, where there were 248,335 members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (the Northern Church), being more than one-fifth of its total membership; 56,587 members of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, being more than two-fifths of its total membership; 2709 members of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, three-tenths of its total membership; the entire membership of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada (440), 3150 members of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, nearly one-fourth of its total membership; and 2065 members of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, general synod, about five-ninths of its total membership. The strength of the Church in Pennsylvania is largely due to the Scotch-Irish settlements in that state.
In New York state there were 199,923 Presbyterians, of whom 186,278 were members of the Northern Church and 10,115 of the United Presbyterian Church of North America.
Two rapid streams, Poesten Kill and Wynants Kill, flowing into the Hudson from the east, through deep ravines, furnish good water-power, which, with that furnished by the state dam across the Hudson here, is utilized for manufacturing purposes.
In 1819 she wrote A Plan for Improving Female Education, submitted to the governor of New York state; and in 1821 she removed to Troy.
EAST ORANGE, a city of Essex county, New Jersey, U.S.A., in the north-eastern part of the state, adjoining the city of Newark, and about 12 m.
Irish State Paper Office) setting forth the grievances which Ireland had suffered in the past, chiefly on account of the exorbitant pensions enjoyed by government officials.
Hayes by a majority of less than 3000 votes; but the Democrats gained a majority in both branches of the state legislature, and Thurman was elected to the United States Senate, where he served from 1869 until 1881 - during the 46th Congress (1879-1881) as president pro tempore.
Its basic idea is that the state had no right to interfere with the religion of its citizens.
Forrest; each state was a Realm under a Grand Dragon; several counties formed a Dominion under a Grand Titan; each county was a Province under a Grand Giant; the smallest division being a Den under a Grand Cyclops.
During the Reconstruction the people of the South were divided thus: nearly all native whites (the most prominent of whom were disfranchised) on one side irrespective of former political faith, and on the other side the ex-slaves organized and led by a few native and Northern whites called respectively scalawags and carpet-baggers, who were supported by the United States government and who controlled the Southern state governments.
The elections were controlled for a few years, and violence was checked, but the Ku Klux movement went on until it accomplished its object by giving protection to the whites, reducing the blacks to order, replacing the whites in control of society and state, expelling the worst of the carpet-baggers and scalawags, and nullifying those laws of Congress which had resulted in placing the Southern whites under the control of a party composed principally of ex-slaves.
The normal schools, maintained by the state on a secular basis, were founded by President Sarmiento, who engaged experienced teachers in the United States to direct them; their work is excellent; notably, their model primary schools.
The Argentine constitution recognizes the Roman Catholic religion as that of the state, but tolerates all others.
The state controls all ecclesiastical appointments, decides on the passing or rejection of all decrees of the Holy See, and provides an annual subsidy for maintenance of the churches and clergy.
Rosas gradually concentrated all power in his own hands, and was hailed by the populace as a saviour of the state.
The province of Buenos Aires was recognized as an independent state, and under the enlightened administration of Doctor Obligado made rapid strides in commercial prosperity.
In 1896 a bill was passed by congress, which authorized the state by the issue of national bonds to assume the provincial external indebtedness.
By the law of 1905 all the churches ceased to be recognized or supported by the state and became entirely separated therefrom, while the adherents of all creeds were permitted to form associations for public worship (associations cultuelles), upon which the expenses of maintenance were from that time to devolve.
The state, the departments, and the communes were thus relieved from the payment of salaries and grants to religious bodies, an item of expenditure which amounted in the last year of the old system to 1,101,000 paid by the state and 302,200 contributed by the departments and communes.
Before these alterations the relations between the state and the Roman Catholic communion, by far the largest and most important in France, were chiefly regulated by the provisions of the Concordat of 1801, concluded between the first consul, Bonaparte, and Pope Pius VII.
The two Protestant bodies used to cost the state about 60,000 a year and the Jewish Church about 6000.
The state controls its cultivation, which is allowed only in a limited number of departments.
Silk-worm rearing, which is encouraged by state grants, is carried on in the valleys mentioned and on the Mediterranean coast east of Marseilles.
Among a variety of premiums awarded by the state are those for the best cultivated estates and for irrigation works, and to the owners of the best stallions and brood-mares.
Other institutions belonging to the state are the national sheep-fold of Rambouillet (Seine-et-Oise) and the cow-house of Vieux-Pin (Orne) for the breeding of Durham cows.
Four different grades of institution for agricultural instruction are under state direction: (I) farm-schools and schools of apprenticeship in dairying, &c., to which the age of admission is from 14 to 16 years; (2) practical schools, to which boys of from 13 to 18 years of age are admitted.
Of the forests of the country approximately one-third belongs to the state, communes and public institutions.
in length, of which canals cover 3031 m., are also classed under la grande voirie; they are the property of the state, and for the most part are free of tolls.
After the rejection in 1838 of the governments proposals for the construction of seven trunk lines to be worked by the state, he obtained a concession for that piece of line on the terms that the French treasury would advance one-third of the capital at 3% if he would raise the remaining two-thirds, half in France and half in England.
Under it the cost of the necessary land was to be found as to one-third by the state and as to the residue locally, but this arrangement proved unworkable and was abandoned in 1845, when it was settled that the state should provide the land and construct the earthworks and stations, the various companies which obtained concessions being left to make the permanent way, provide rolling stock and work the lines for certain periods.
In these circumstances the state agreed to guarantee the interest on the capital, the sums it paid in this way being regarded as advances to be reimbursed in the future with interest at 4%.
The result came to be that many small lines were begun by companies that had not the means to complete them, and again the state had to come to the rescue.
Next year a large programme of railway expansion was adopted, at an estimated cost to the state of 14o,000,000, and from 1880 to 1882 nearly 40,000,000 was expended and some 18cc m.
As before, the sums paid out in respect of guaranteed dividend were to be regarded as advances which were to be paid back to the state out of the profits made, when these permitted, and when the advances were wiped out, the profits, after payment of a certain dividend, were to be divided between the state and the railway, two-thirds going to the former and one-third to the latter.
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